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Referencing in Politics and History Theme: The role of fascism in World War 2


Objectives • Understanding references – why are the needed? – when should we use them? – what are the various styles?

• Understanding the Bibliography • Knowing the different referencing styles in the department • Other formatting tips • Sample scenarios


Why do we need references? • • • • •

Acknowledge knowledge created by others Engage with existing research on your topic Become part of the academic community Demonstrate that you are knowledgeable about your topic Create authority and reliability for your work


When should we use references? • References are generally used as evidence to support a claim. • It will add authority and to your argument • There are two ways we can use evidence – Direct (quoting) – Indirect (paraphrasing)


Know (and vary!) your evidence Indirect quotation (paraphrasing) • Demonstrates broad knowledge and understanding • Distils ideas and conserves word count • Allows for sophisticated synthesis of ideas Eg: Mussolini discussed in his autobiography the need for a dictator to ensure the functioning and well being of a state (1939, 23)

Direct quotation (in speech marks) • Brings ‘punch’ and interest to a point • Demonstrates ability to integrate others’ ideas grammatically • This should only be used if you couldn’t have said it better yourself “Every anarchist is a baffled dictator” Benito Mussolini


Test yourself The Fascist ideology focuses on the increasingly important role of state. This forms the basis of the totalitarian system. Linz states “the history of ideas plays an important role in World War 2 as Hitler imitated Mussolini just like Stalin followed Lenin. (2000, 5).

What do you think? A. The reference is incorporated correctly. B. There should be more quotations to back up the student’s ideas. C. The quote is irrelevant.


Answer The quote is irrelevant to the discussion at hand, and should be cut out or replaced. This is sometimes called a ‘drop’/ ‘floating’ quote. Questions to ask yourself: • Am I putting in this quotation just ‘for the sake of it,’ to show I did ‘research’? • Does the reference add something to what I am arguing? • Is the statement written so well it is worth quoting directly? • Am I just dropping the quote in, or am I responding to and unpacking it?


Test yourself Jared is writing an essay about the political history of World War 2. He reads several books and wants to point out in his assignment that the war took place from 1939 until 1945. Does he need to reference this information? What do you think? A. Jared does have to reference this information, because he learned it from the work of other authors. B. This kind of fact is 'common knowledge', and as such does not need referencing. C. Jared should reference one of the history books he's read.


Answer This kind of fact is 'common knowledge', and as such does not need referencing. Questions to ask yourself: • Would this fact be found in any book on my subject? • Does the fact form a part of another author's ideas or arguments? • Does the statement constitute a perceptibly original expression of the common knowledge? • Do other sources disagree with this statement? Is the information up for debate? • If you are ever in doubt, play it safe and reference it, or see a tutor for advice.


The technical bit‌

Referencing in the Politics and History Department


Harvard method This referencing system is used within the text of your work and is used in Politics.

Books • Author surname, initials, date of publication. Book title. Place of publication: Publication house. – Eg: Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

Journal Articles • Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. – Eg: Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.


Harvard method (cont.) Internet Sources â&#x20AC;˘ Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Eg: NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009 ].


Standard History referencing system This referencing style has footnotes and is used in History assignments

Books • Author’s Last name, First name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication. – Eg: Thelen, Kathleen. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Journal article • Author’s surname, intials. “Article title” in Journal Title (Italic). Vol, Iss, date? – Eg: Grayling A.C., “Bombing civilians is not only immoral, it’s ineffective” in The Guardian, 27 March 2006


Standard History referencing system (cont.) Internet Sources • “Title of webpage." Website name. Last modified date, year. URL. – Eg: “Google Privacy Policy.” Google. Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/


Referencing tips... • Use first author and ‘et al’ only for sources with more than four authors • Alphabetise by author’s surname • Italicise book titles and journal names (NOT article titles) • Include as much information as you can with websites • Be consistent with your references – Choose ONE style and stick to it throughout your work


Avoid.... Over-referencing • It can undermine your authority • Examiners can infer that you don’t have any of your own ideas • It affects your style of writing with sophistication


Bibliography • This should always on separate page • Organise the author’s surname alphabetically – Create subheadings into primary and secondary sources


Other technical issues • 1,5 or double spacing is needed • Word count- exclude bibliography – Check if references are included in the word count • This depends on the lecturers and the referencing system used.


For more help:

Contact: monica.fernandes@brunel.ac.uk or ask@brunel.ac.uk


Referencing in Politics and History