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OER Africa A Rationale for Health OER in Africa

OER in i Health H lth S Symposium i 3rd September, 2008


The Context for Expanding Health OER in Africa ¾ 80 % off iinfectious f ti di diseases ffound d in i SSA. SSA ¾ Of the 36 million people infected worldwide with HIV/AIDS more th HIV/AIDS, than 72 % reside id in i Africa. Af i ¾ Malaria alone kills two million people and reduces the GDP off SSA by b one percentt every year. ¾ Tuberculosis has re-emerged causing havoc throughout th continent. the ti t ¾ SSA infant mortality stands at 103 per 1000 against a d developed l d world ld average off 8 per 1000: 1000 Fifty Fift ffour per cent of this mortality is ascribed to malnutrition.

September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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The Status of Health Education in Africa (1) ¾ Need for African-based training for health professionals in a culturally relevant setting long been recognized. ¾ However, initial strategy was (at least in part) to train graduates aboard and then ask them to apply their new knowledge and skills when they returned home. home ¾ Rate of return resulted in far fewer numbers of health care professionals than required to service SSA SSA’s s health sector. ¾ Subsequent professional and in in-service service training in health education organized by a variety of African and other institutions – universities, ministries of health, i t international ti l and d bil bilateral t l agencies. i September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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The Status of Health Education in Africa (2) ¾ Training based on models not entirely appropriate to the unique context within which practice was taking place. ¾ This training also facilitated movement of health care professionals away from Africa to fill the demand in western countries - the ‘brain brain drain drain’. ¾ Setting up a training program in an African university that duplicated the training undertaken in European or American classrooms still does not guarantee efficacy or appropriateness in the African context. ¾ More recently African health sector has established the need to develop socially relevant and culturally appropriate i t ttraining i i materials t i l and d experiences. i September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Reasons to Collaborate in Health Education Materials Development 他 OER Africa believes that OER can positively support development and capacity of higher education systems and institutions across Africa 他 OER Africa is concerned that if the concept and practice of OER evolves predominantly outside and for Africa Africa, we in SSA will not be able to liberate its potential

September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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How OER Africa can help with this / What is our premise? ¾ Our focus is on enhancing competence through our Vision of networked networked, co-ordinated projects in which we lay emphasis on the following principles: ¾ Investment should be in African faculty y rather than merely y the import of materials; ¾ Support required to Faculty for a CoP to gain traction; ¾ T To move away from f the th notion ti th thatt iin an environment i t off scarce resources, “something is better than nothing” and instead support processes of collaboration around the creation and use of “something” that is sustainable.

September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Health OER Needs identified by African Universities: (1) 他 Need to address the challenge of large class instruction in the face of limited tutorial time and small numbers of qualified lecturers / Find new ways of delivering health education content in a format that will enable students to have increased access to the material, e.g. g 他 by case based studies using video as the main information stream; 他 by recording demonstration by clinical experts of techniques in history taking, physical examination, and clinical p procedures and make this available to students for review and practice in their own time. (Clinical Skills Demonstration)

September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Health OER Needs identified by Af i African Universities: U i iti (2) 他 Need to use appropriate pp p media to enable Health Education students to appreciate better what they are taught in class, e.g. 他C Collaboratively ll b ti l create t and d format f t to t b be shared h d on video, id a comprehensive training module for newcomers to obstetric practice (i.e. all aspects of pregnancy, birth and postnatal care); 他 Need for Clinical Photography where demonstration to students of minute structures is difficult difficult, e e.g. g in ENT (Ear/Nose/Throat) 他 Collaboratively design and develop electronic resources that specifically address fundamentals of general physiology required by entry level students (e.g. a theoretical textual basis alongside a program of interactive quizzes, assignments, tutorials, 3-dimensional/video representations) September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Health OER Needs identified by African Universities: (3) 他 Need to format as OER for use by other African institutions existing content where African (or institutions, other) institution has expertise; 他e e.g. g lecture recordings; lecture slide sets saved as PNGs, PNGs uploaded, tagged, and searchable online; videos, etc.

September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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The Health OER Initiative: ¾ OER Africa & University of Michigan - Health OER ¾ Pilot project to make comprehensive pre-clinical health curricula available worldwide via the Internet made possible by a grant from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation ¾S Subsequent b t project j t development d l t in i conjunction j ti with ith OER Africa addresses the explicit needs of health care education in two distinctly different countries in Africa. ¾ Project partners: UG, UCT, KNUST, UWC. ¾ Key y part p of this initiative will be converting g existing g educational materials into Open Educational Resources, which will be available online to participating institutions and possibly to the rest of the world. September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Other Health OER Initiatives: ¾ The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) ¾R Runs severall ttypes off courses all ll off which hi h require i ffee payment. Materials developed for five of its DE courses exist as OER available on the COL website under the Creative Common Attribution-Share Alike [BY-SA] 3.0 license.

¾ OU(UK) Health Education and Training in Africa (HEAT) ¾ Seeks “...to make a significant contribution to a rapid increase in capacity building in the health workforce” in Africa.

¾ Johns Hopkins - The Leadership Initiative for Public H lth in Health i East E t Af Africa i (LIPHEA) ¾ To establish long term partnerships between academic institutions in the United States and East ast Africa September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Future Possibilities 他 to establish vibrant networks of African OER practitioners by connecting like-minded academics from across the continent and beyond, to develop, share, h and d adapt d t OER to t meett the th hi higher h education d ti needs of African societies. 他 to develop institutional health faculty capacity through OER collaboration; 他 to create a strong base of freely available content that will drastically reduce the need to buy expensive health textbooks; 他 to establish a base of health care material that is explicitly relevant to the needs of African health systems. systems September 3rd, 2008

IOM Symposium, Washington DC

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Thank you Catherine Ngugi Project Director catherine.ngugi@gmail.com


OER Africa Health Presentation