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December 2008, Vol. XVIII, No. 9




Bulletin Boards Update on the NATA/APTA lawsuit … Studies examine caffeine and milk as recovery aids … States address high school steroids testing … Can baking soda enhance performance? Comeback Athlete Jordan Bamberger Wittenberg University


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On the cover: Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Physical Therapist David Hogarth helped pitcher Brok Butcher stay in shape this fall, even though Butcher was partially immobilized. Story begins on page 34. Photo by Rick Scuteri. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM





Lost in Learning If you treat school-age athletes, chances are you work with at least a few who have learning disorders. By understanding their unique challenges, you can adjust your approach to better meet their needs. By Laura Ulrich Nutrition

Questions 22 Consuming Our nutrition expert has helped solve dietary problems of all kinds, and has noticed that many athletes experience the same struggles. Here, she presents solutions to some of the most common sports nutrition dilemmas. By Michelle Rockwell Optimum Performance

Tough Competition

29 Strongman events do more than just give your athletes a break from the weightroom and test functional strength in challenging situations. They can also help turn a group of individuals into a team. By Kyle Garratt Treating the Athlete

Upwardly Immobile

34 When an athlete’s injury requires a cast or brace, their whole body doesn’t have to remain inactive. A smart rehab plan can help them work effectively within their limitations and come back better than ever. By R.J. Anderson Sport Specific


Swinging for the Fences The University of North Carolina’s recent resurgence on the diamond has been fueled by a progressive multi-phase conditioning plan that addresses baseball’s specific speed, power, and agility needs. By Greg Gatz T&C DECEMBER 2008



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Gary Gray, PT, President, CEO, Functional Design Systems

Boyd Epley, MEd, CSCS Director of Coaching Performance, National Strength & Conditioning Association Peter Friesen, ATC, NSCA-CPT, CSCS, CAT, Head Ath. Trainer/ Cond. Coach, Carolina Hurricanes Lance Fujiwara, MEd, ATC, EMT Director of Sports Medicine, Virginia Military Institute Vern Gambetta, MA, President, Gambetta Sports Training Systems P.J. Gardner, MS, ATC, CSCS, PES, Athletic Trainer, Colorado Sports & Spine Centers

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Pat Wertman (607) 257-6970, ext. 21 T&C editorial/business offices: 31 Dutch Mill Road Ithaca, NY 14850 (607) 257-6970 Fax: (607) 257-7328 Training & Conditioning (ISSN 1058-3548) is published monthly except in January and February, May and June, and July and August, which are bimonthly issues, for a total of nine times a year, by MAG, Inc., 31 Dutch Mill Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. T&C is distributed without charge to qualified professionals involved with competitive athletes. The subscription rate is $24 for one year and $48 for two years in the United States, and $30 for one year and $60 for two years in Canada. The single copy price is $7. Copyright© 2008 by MAG, Inc. All rights reserved. Text may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part, without the permission of the publisher. Unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Periodicals postage paid at Ithaca, N.Y. and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Training & Conditioning, P.O. Box 4806, Ithaca, NY 14852-4806. Printed in the U.S.A.

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Board NATA Lawsuit Moving Forward The NATA received good news this fall when its antitrust lawsuit against the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) weathered a few potential roadblocks. The Federal District Court in Dallas overseeing the case denied a motion by the APTA to dismiss the lawsuit, and also turned down a request to have the case transferred to Virginia (where the APTA’s main offices are located). Filing suit in February, the NATA claims the APTA improperly restricts athletic trainers from learning manual therapy techniques by limiting access to education and practice opportunities. The NATA believes the APTA is trying to prevent competition from athletic trainers in providing rehabilitation services. “Through this lawsuit, the NATA is seeking to protect its members’ right to fairly compete in the manual therapy marketplace,” says Paul Genender, Partner at K&L Gates, LLP, the NATA’s legal counsel. “The NATA considers the lawsuit essential to protecting those rights, and believes the athletic training profession will benefit from the association standing up on behalf of its members.” Next in the process is the discovery phase and then a trial, although no date has been set. In the meantime, Genender says the NATA remains willing to discuss possible solutions with the APTA. “Athletic trainers have a long history of working alongside physical therapists in a team-oriented way,” Genender says. “The best thing for athletic trainers to do while the lawsuit moves on is to continue being the valuable healthcare providers they are by practicing the profession at a high-quality level.” For the latest updates on the NATA Fair Practice Initiative, visit:

per kilogram of body weight, then rested for four hours. Researchers took muscle biopsies and blood samples during the athletes’ rest time. The double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment found that one hour post-exercise, all participants’ glycogen stores were replenished to roughly the same levels. But after four hours, those who had ingested the caffeine-carbohydrate drink had 66 percent higher glycogen stores. Since glycogen is muscle’s primary fuel source during exercise, athletes competing in multi-day events may benefit from this finding. However, it’s important to note that the caffeine amounts used in the study translate to about five cups of coffee for someone weighing 150 pounds. The second study, which looked at using milk as a recovery aid, was published in the August issue of Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. Researchers from England studied four groups of six healthy males who consumed either milk, a milk-based carbohydrate-protein supplement, a sports drink, or water after muscle-damaging resistance exercise. Measurements were taken immediately before exercise and again 24 and 48 hours after exercise. After 48 hours, participants who had ingested milk or the milk-based carbohydrate-protein supplement had greater increases in creatine kinase and myoglobin levels. Overall, more muscle was preserved in these participants than in those who ingested the sports drink or water. A related study published in 2006 showed that chocolate milk has recovery benefits as well. Cyclists who ingested chocolate milk between exercise bouts were able to ride 50 percent longer than their counterparts who ingested either an isotonic sports drink or a high-protein sports drink. To view the abstract of the caffeine study, “High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is co-ingested with caffeine,” go to:

New Studies Explore Recovery Aids Two recent studies are spotlighting everyday grocery store products that may aid in workout recovery. The first, published in the July issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology, found that athletes who ingested a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate post-exercise had more glycogen in their muscles four hours after an exhaustive workout than when they consumed carbohydrate only. Australian researchers followed seven endurance cyclists through two cycle-to-exhaustion sessions. After each session, spaced seven to 10 days apart, participants ingested either a drink containing carbohydrate alone or a caffeinecarbohydrate combination with eight milligrams of caffeine TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

To view the abstract of the milk study, “Acute milkbased protein-CHO supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage,” go to: pubs.nrc-cnrc. and click on “Journals,” then “Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism.” Select “Previous issues,” and then “August 2008.”

H.S. Steroids Testing Update Whether or not high school athletes should be tested for steroids continues to be a knotty issue. Over the past year, seven states have addressed the topic, with many different results. T&C DECEMBER 2008



Board The Florida High School Athletic Association began testing athletes for steroid use during the 2007-08 school year, and one test out of 600 came back positive. But when state lawmakers were budgeting this past spring, the $100,000 needed to continue testing this school year landed in the cuts pile. Some legislators said last year’s results proved steroid use is not a big enough issue to warrant continued funding. Others, however, are hoping to get the testing program funded again next year. Texas is taking the opposite course. This past spring, over 10,000 athletes were the first to be tested in the state, and two were found to be using steroids. This year, the University Interscholastic League (UIL, the governing body for high school sports in the state) expects to test between 30,000 and 40,000 athletes, and the state legislature has allocated $6 million for the program. UIL Athletic Director Charles Breithaupt says reactions to the state’s testing program have been mixed. Some administrators are in favor of the increased testing, and others have told him they think the $6 million could be spent in better ways. For the third year in a row, about 500 New Jersey student-athletes competing in state championships will be randomly selected for steroids testing. And testing may soon become law, if a bill that unanimously passed the state sen-

ate continues to gain supporters. It would mandate that steroids testing continue, and also require high school athletic departments to educate student-athletes about the risks of performance-enhancing drug use. The Illinois High School Association is the latest group to implement a steroids testing program. This school year, student-athletes who make the postseason will be randomly tested. If a test turns up positive, the athlete will be ineligible for 365 days, but can apply for reinstatement after 90 days. Meanwhile, state lawmakers in Pennsylvania and Delaware recently discussed creating steroids testing programs, but both have chosen to funnel state funds toward drug education instead. Delaware officials assembled a task force in January to study logistics and prospective costs, and ultimately recommended not implementing a testing program. And the Pennsylvania legislature’s Health and Human Services Committee has said education is the top priority for the state’s student-athletes. Although still in the discussion stages, both states’ plans would encourage head coaches and athletic trainers to educate and advise their athletes about the negative effects of performanceenhancing drugs, and discuss how to properly fuel for optimal performance in their sport. Finally, Washington is one state where steroids testing won’t even be contemplated. The Washington State

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Baking Soda Enhances Performance A spoonful of sugar may make the medicine go down, but does a spoonful of baking soda help an athlete perform better? Evidence is mounting that the answer is yes, as two small studies recently found that ingesting sodium bicarbonate before a race led to performance gains. The International Journal of Sports Medicine published a study in June from researchers at Loughborough University in England that timed nine swimmers under three different race conditions: without taking any sort of supplement; 60 to 90 minutes after ingesting a sodium bicarbonate capsule; and 60 to 90 minutes after taking a placebo. Eight of the nine swimmers were fastest after ingesting the baking soda capsule. In another study, presented at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Annual Meeting in May by Ronald Deitrick, PhD, FACSM, Program Director of the Department of Exercise Science and Sport at the University of Scranton, 800-meter runners who took sodium bicarbonate 90 minutes before a race performed better than their counterparts who ingested a placebo. Both studies reported some side effects,

however—mostly gastrointestinal discomfort and nausea. Based on his study results, Deitrick says the use of sodium bicarbonate as a performance enhancer should be banned. “It comes down to whether or not the athlete has a competitive advantage by taking an aid,” he said in an ACSM press release. “And in the case of sodium bicarbonate, I believe the answer is yes. It violates the spirit of fair play by artificially enhancing performance.” But for now, sodium bicarbonate has not made the banned substances list maintained by the World Anti-Doping Agency, and Jonathan Folland, PhD, lead researcher of the swimming study, doesn’t expect it will. “There are always going to be ethical arguments, but if sports drinks and carbohydrate loading, both of which can enhance performance, are allowed, there should be no issue with sodium bicarbonate,” he told the London Times. “If you are serious about exercise and can stomach it, it may help.”

To view the abstract of the swimming study, “Sodium Bicarbonate Improves Swimming Performance,” go to: and select pages “449-536 (6)” from the “Other issues” pulldown menu.

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Jordan Bamberger Wittenberg University BY KYLE GARRATT

Preseason is a time to work out the kinks in game strategy, get into shape for competition, and make final tweaks to starting lineups. It doesn’t usually make or break a player’s career. But for Wittenberg University goalkeeper Jordan Bamberger, a preseason soccer game in 2006 proved to be a defining moment in her life. On that August day, in the final 10 minutes of an exhibition game, a freak accident damaged Bamberger’s left knee so severely that it surprised even her doctors. “What she suffered is a very rare injury,” says Peter Cha, MD, Attending Surgeon at Beacon Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine in Cincinnati. “All the structures that attach the outside of the knee were torn. We usually only see that type of damage after a traumatic event, like a car accident or a bad fall.” For Bamberger, then a sophomore, the incident started out as a fairly routine play. With the ball loose near the goal, she went to the ground to secure possession, hoping to arrive a split second before an attacking player. But the two converged on the ball at the same time, and the opponent’s cleats crashed into her left knee, hyperextending it with a varus stress. In an instant, that impact triggered excruciating pain and a long list of injuries. Bamberger suffered a torn posterior lateral capsule, torn popliteus muscle, torn lateral collateral ligament, biceps femoris avulsion off the fibular head, partial posterior collateral ligament (PCL) tear, patellofemoral chondromalacia, and medial plica syndrome. “I had worked really hard that summer and felt like I was making saves I wouldn’t have made in my freshman year,” Bamberger recalls. “That made it all the more devastating— especially because the injury came during a scrimmage.” Michaelyn Sebold, MA, LAT, ATC, Assistant Athletic Trainer at Wittenberg University, who oversaw Bamberger’s rehab, says she knew soon after the collision that the goalie had injured her PCL, but was confused when Bamberger said her entire leg hurt. “When I saw her go down, I actually thought she had broken something because she was in such severe pain,” Sebold says. “The next morning she came in and we knew there was something wrong, but we weren’t quite sure what it was.” Bamberger had an MRI the following day and Timothy Kremcheck, MD, Wittenberg Team Physician and an Orthopedic Surgeon at Beacon Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, identified the full extent of the injuries. Kremcheck, who is 8


After recovering from a traumatic knee injury, Wittenberg goalkeeper Jordan Bamberger led the North Coast Athletic Conference in 2008 with nine regular-season shutouts. also team physician for the Cincinnati Reds, referred Bamberger to Cha, who performed a posterolateral corner reconstruction with a lateral meniscus repair. Cha drilled holes in Bamberger’s femur and fibula, and then ran a cadaver allograft made of a donor’s tibialis anterior muscle through the holes to reconstruct her popliteal fibular ligament. The surgery also featured a biceps tendon avulsion repair onto the fibula using two screws, and two arthroscopic procedures. Cha says he performs this operation five to 10 times a year, but very rarely on athletes. “We reconstructed all the ligaments and structures on the outside of her knee,” Cha says. “We had to restore the knee to its natural anatomical position, and since it looked like a bomb had gone off on the side of her knee, that was a major challenge.” The restrictive nature of the injury meant Bamberger was in for a long, tedious, and painful rehab. “I’ve never seen anything like this injury,” says Sebold. “Our head athletic trainer had never seen anything like it either. So we went strictly by Kyle Garratt is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

ComebackAthlete Dr. Cha’s directions for the entire rehab because we didn’t want to do anything to mess up the grafting. We went to the doctors for follow-ups and I would ask them questions I never thought I would have to ask, like whether Jordan could do a straight-leg raise in a different direction.” The need to clear even simple exercises with her doctor was one of many restrictions during Bamberger’s rehab. She wore a brace and wasn’t allowed to perform active flexion for the first six weeks following surgery. She was also locked into full extension for the first four weeks, and had to avoid open-chain exercises for 12 weeks. During the first month post-surgery, she could only perform basic strengthening and contraction of the quadriceps and stretching of the calf. She was able to do some light upper-body lifting, and rode an upper-body bike while the knee was locked in extension. After four weeks, Bamberger’s knee extensions advanced from 60 to 75 degrees. “The whole point of this rehab process is that it’s very restrictive until all the muscles and tendons heal,” Cha says. “If we were too aggressive too soon, we could have torn or reinjured the repaired tissue. We had to constantly monitor the injury, and we were constantly tweaking her rehab depending on how her knee looked. There was no set recipe—everything was based on how she was responding.” And then there was the bending. To regain range of motion, Sebold had to physically hold Bamberger’s thigh down, or have a student assistant do it, while bending her knee manually. Sebold bent Bamberger’s knee five times per session as Bamberger sat on the athletic training table, and says it still haunts her two years later. Ellen Crosbie, MEd, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Wittenberg, couldn’t even bear to be in the athletic training room while Sebold bent Bamberger’s knee. “Usually, if I bend an ACL patient’s knee five times, it takes maybe five or 10 minutes,” Sebold says. “It’s painful for them, but the range of motion gets better every time. For Jordan, it was so painful that it would take up to two hours to complete five knee bends. We had to hold her down, and she would cry or bite a towel. We also had to lock her out again at zero degrees in her brace after we were done. So she started from scratch each time.” It was a process that would make someone with an ordinary ACL tear feel lucky. “It felt like my knee was going to explode every time they bent it,” Bamberger says. “It seemed like my knee couldn’t bend any farther, and then they kept going. The pain was so nauseating they had to put a trash can next to me in case I got sick.” Bamberger never needed the trash can, and she continued to show up five or six days a week for painful, repetitive movements and exercises. After about three months, she was able to begin bending the knee on her own. During this time, she watched a teammate who had torn an ACL several months after her own injury get off crutches and out of a brace before her. But she didn’t complain, and her perseverance in the face of a daunting rehab impressed those around her. “Jordan came back every day and, I hate to say, kind of got tortured,” Sebold says. “There were times when we wonTR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

Jordan Bamberger Wittenberg University Sport: Soccer Injury: Torn posterior lateral capsule, torn popliteus muscle, torn lateral collateral ligament, biceps femoris avulsion off the fibular head, partial posterior collateral ligament tear, patellofemoral chondromalacia, and medial plica syndrome. Result: Returned to the team as a junior, one year after the injury. Was named starting goalkeeper and team captain for her senior year.

dered how she kept coming back, because it was painful to even watch her. But something inside her wanted to fight through it and keep going.” Six months post-surgery, Bamberger was cleared to run after her left quadriceps regained 80 percent of its pre-injury strength. “I was so excited and I remember thinking, ‘I can’t wait to run. I’m going to run every day,’” Bamberger says. “The first time I got on the treadmill, I ran for 10 minutes and was absolutely spent. I needed to accept that it would take a long time to get back into shape.” She started running, lifting, and performing basic soccer exercises the summer after her sophomore year, about nine months after the surgery. By the start of her junior season, the position waiting for her was backup to All-American goalkeeper Meghan O’Rourke. “Jordan understood her role,” Sebold says. “It wasn’t always easy, but she understood it. Meghan was very good with Jordan in terms of encouraging her and saying, ‘This is your place, too, and I need you here every day with me.’ During Jordan’s rehab, Meghan would come in and hold her down while we bent her knee, wipe her tears, and talk her through it.” During the 2007 season, Bamberger worked her way back into shape and patiently watched from the bench as she got used to her new knee brace. She appeared in four games that season as Wittenberg advanced to the round of 16 in T&C DECEMBER 2008


ComebackAthlete land. “It helped her trust me and helped me relate to her,” Sebold says. “I think she appreciated that I knew where she was coming from. If she didn’t trust me and she didn’t feel the confidence that I had, she wouldn’t have gotten through it.” Wittenberg finished the 2008 regular season 10-3-5 and went on to win the North Coast Athletic Conference tournament, with Bamberger allowing no goals in 219 minutes of play. Neither she nor Sebold worry about re-injury, and Bamberger is full of perspective and gratitude. “The athletic trainers pushed me out of my comfort zone, but at the same time, made me feel comfortable,” she says. “They became almost like a second family because I knew all their work was geared toward getting me better. Their selflessness was what helped me get where I am now, and that’s amazing. “I know that not everyone recovers from the type of injury I had, so I feel very fortunate and blessed to have this opportunity,” she continues. “I remind myself of that whenever I hit the little frustrations of the season.” Sebold says she frequently talks about Bamberger’s injury and rehab with other athletic trainers. The process bolstered her confidence and gave her an easy answer when students ask her about the worst injury she has ever seen. “Jordan had by far the worst injury, but she’s also the greatest success story I’ve had,” Sebold says. “It’s always special when an athlete gets to return to their sport. She knows that I beam with pride watching her practice and seeing her back on the field, because it very easily could have turned out differently.” ■


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The Best Mouth Guard You Can Give Your Athletes Is The One They’ll Want To Wear.

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the NCAA Division III tournament for the first time in school history. When the Tigers took the field for the 2008 season as the 15th ranked team in the country, O’Rourke had graduated and Bamberger was the starting goalkeeper. Earning the respect of her teammates, she was also voted a team captain. When Bamberger reflects on her journey back to the pitch, she recalls a moment of solitude that convinced her all the hard work was worthwhile. She was in the athletic training room before a game during the 2006 season and Sebold was trying unsuccessfully to get her through a set of manual knee bends. “I couldn’t relax and I couldn’t get any good bends in,” Bamberger says. “I was crying and extremely frustrated. I had to walk down to the game by myself, and I looked across the field and thought, ‘This is obviously something I want to be part of. So even though it’s really hard, I’m just going to have to find a way to get through it.’” Sebold knows that keeping composure around Bamberger was a key to the rehab’s success. “With this level of injury, it’s important to appear confident in what you’re doing, even if you have to fake it a little,” Sebold says. “You can’t let the athlete see any doubt, because they will lose confidence in themselves, and that can be devastating. I let Jordan feed off my confidence.” Sebold was able to develop a special bond with Bamberger because they were both goaltenders—Sebold played on her high school team and club teams in the U.S. and Eng-

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Circle No. 108


Revolve to Evolve With the Exercises developed by Shari Splane, ACE-CPT

The Airope™ is a unique tool designed to improve cardiovascular conditioning by increasing the intensity of exercises using upper-body movements. Its foam padded handles connect to the weighted rope and ball with a ball-and-socket attachment that creates a smooth centrifugal force when the handles are rotated. In addition to cardio benefits, the Airope™ also increases core awareness and strength. The Airope™ may be used alone, like a traditional jump rope (but without the hindrance of a rope), or combined with other equipment for greater versatility.

Body Position When performing these exercises, keep the chest open and lifted, the shoulders back and down, the abdominals braced, and the pelvis neutral.

Arm Positions Choose any of these arm positions to perform the Airope™ rotations: 1) Traditional – small circle rotations at hip height 2) Full Range – large, controlled circle rotations 3) T-Arms – small circle rotations with arms extended out to sides at shoulder height

Warm-Up Before performing any of these exercises, always warm up the entire body with some dynamic exercises, such as overhead raises combined with squats, transverse rotations and wood chops, calf raises, and one-arm overhead reaches.

1. Traditional Jump Rope Patterns START: Activate the posture as if using a traditional jump rope. ACTION: Rotate the Airope™ while performing small, easy hops or skips. To increase the intensity of the exercise, jump higher and/or change foot patterns and arm positions. For variation, perform one- or two-foot skips, forward or backward skips, or lateral skips.

2. Seated Ball Rotations START: Sit on a stability ball with the feet hip-width apart and knees aligned over feet. Hold the torso orso tall and strong and activate the shoulder muscles, keeping the chest open. ACTION: With a smooth, circular, forward motion, rotate the Airope™, holding the wrists strong. Continue for several rotations and then repeat with backward rotations.


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3. Stability Ball Crunch With Rotations START: Lie back on a stability ball so that it is in the lower back region. Position feet hip-width apart and arms out to the sides.

ACTION: From the supine position on the ball, begin rotating the Airope™ out to the sides. While maintaining the rotations, raise the upper body to about 45˚, leading with the chest. Engage the abdominal muscles, keeping the neck neutral. Return to the start position and repeat.

4. Balance on BOSU® START: Stand on the dome side of the BOSU® with both feet; posture is strong and spine is neutral.


ACTION: Rotate the Airope™ while balancing on the BOSU® (A). For a greater balance challenge, stand on only one foot or rotate both Airope™ handles using only one arm (B).


5. Squats on BOSU® START: Stand on the dome side of the BOSU® with both feet; posture is strong and spine is neutral.

ACTION: Begin rotating the Airope™ in small circles. Then, carefully lower the body into a squat position by bending at the knees, hips, and ankles while keeping the chest upright and maintaining the Airope™ rotations. Slowly stand up, returning to the start position, and repeat.

6. Lateral Hurdle Drill START: Set two hurdles three feet apart. Stand beside the first one and begin rotatating the Airope™. ACTION: While maintaining the Airope™ rotation, step between the hurdles with the inside (lead) leg and then quickly follow with the second (trailing) leg. Next, step over the second hurdle in the same manner. Pause on the lead foot with the trailing foot up in the ready position, then quickly reverse the direction.


Lost in Learning If you treat school-age athletes, chances are you work with at least a few who have learning disorders. By understanding their unique challenges, you can adjust your approach to better meet their needs.


BY LAURA ULRICH t’s Monday morning, and a wrestler comes into your athletic training room nursing a sore knee. You help him onto the treatment table and begin your assessment: “When and how did the injury happen? Does this motion cause pain? How about this one?” The questions seem clear to you, but the athlete’s answers are frustratingly vague. He can’t tell you how long he has been in pain, and when you ask whether he has ever injured the knee before, he doesn’t give you a clear answer. Mostly, he mumbles “yeah” to whatever you say, making a thorough assessment a real challenge. You do the best evaluation you can and move on to creating a treatment plan. You decide to keep him out of practice for a week, assign him some stretches, and have him ice the knee three times a day, 20 minutes on and 20 minutes off. You ask him if he un-




derstands your instructions and get another “yeah” before he quickly heads out the door. Two days later, you check in with the athlete. When you ask how the icing is going, you get a blank stare before he says, “It’s okay.” When you ask him to show you how he’s coming along with the stretches, he can’t recall how to do them, and you soon realize he hasn’t complied with any part of the treatment plan. Your next thought is probably, “How utterly aggravating!” You may also be angry at the student-athlete, since you’ll have to start over from square one with him. But would your thoughts differ if you knew he had a learning disorder? They should, according to Rick Lavoie, MA, MEd, veteran special educator, who is one of the nation’s leading advocates for children with learning disorders and the author of several books and videos on the topic. “Go

back to that initial conversation with him,” Lavoie says. “This time, imagine that while you’re talking to the athlete, you can’t use any words containing the letter ‘N.’ At the same time, imagine that as the athlete talks to you, he has such a strong foreign accent that you can only understand every third word. Now you’re starting to see what the conversation was like for the athlete— and why he wanted to leave as soon as he could.” Studies have found that 10 to 15 percent of school-age children are diagnosed with learning disorders, which means many will visit your athletic training room. Without the right approach, your work with them can result in frustration and miscommunication, as well as disappointing Laura Ulrich is a contributing writer for Training & Conditioning. She can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

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LEADERSHIP treatment outcomes. With the right approach, however, you can help these student-athletes thrive. DEFINING THE DIAGNOSES Learning disorders are usually categorized into two groups: attentional disorders and learning disabilities. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) falls into the first category and is not technically a learning disability. However, it’s estimated that half of all children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability. Until 1994, ADHD was called attention deficit disorder (ADD). That designation is no longer used, and instead, professionals diagnose three subtypes of ADHD. Individuals with “inatten-

tive type” ADHD have trouble with details and focusing. Those with “hyperactive-impulsive type” cannot remain physically still and may talk and interrupt excessively. Those with “combined type” exhibit elements of both. Learning disabilities, meanwhile, relate to problems processing certain kinds of information. “A person with a learning disability has an average or above average IQ, but a specific roadblock exists in their brain,” explains Pat Monroe, MEd, CAGS, School Psychologist and Director of Special Programs at South Allegheny High School in McKeesport, Pa., who also serves as the school’s Head Football Coach. “The roadblock causes certain types of data to get lost or scrambled.”

Most professionals group learning disabilities into three basic categories. Students with a: Reading disability have trouble decoding or recognizing words. They may also have difficulty with reading comprehension and be unable to remember basic facts, main ideas, or themes. Dyslexia is one type of reading disability. Written-language disability have difficulty with handwriting, spelling, sentence structure, word usage, and putting their thoughts into writing. It’s common for a child to have both reading and written-language disabilities, since both are language-based. These individuals may also struggle to absorb information when it’s presented verbally, something known as an auditory

DISCLOSURE DEBATE efore you can help an athlete with a learning disorder, it’s obviously helpful to know that they have one, and what the individual’s diagnosis is. Due to privacy laws, this does not always happen.


“Different school districts have different ideas about what information an athletic trainer is entitled to,” says Chris Snoddy, ATC, Athletic Trainer at Goodpasture Christian High School in Madison, Tenn. “In my setting, each season I get a list of athletes who have medical conditions, and those with learning disabilities or ADHD are on that list. Next to their name, it tells me what their diagnosis is and whether they take any medications. If I need to know more, I can talk with the school nurse or school psychologist.” South Allegheny High School in McKeesport, Pa., takes a different approach. “We don’t believe we have the legal right to identify these kids to an athletic trainer,” says Pat Monroe, MEd, CAGS, a school psychologist who serves as Director of Special Programs and Head Football Coach at the school. “If an athletic trainer has difficulty communicating with a student-athlete, they can come talk to me about the behaviors they’re seeing, but I believe it would violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA] to tell them about a child’s learning disorder unless I had consent from the parents.” With few bright lines drawn in the disclosure debate, the decision is often left to lawyers who are likely to explain that the safest course of action is to limit access to the information. Although that may be the conservative approach, at least one expert in the field says it’s not the right approach.



“Disclosure is a huge issue in our field, and people interpret the laws differently,” says Rick Lavoie, MA, MEd, one of the nation’s leading advocates for children with learning disabilities. “But I believe an athletic trainer working for a public school is entitled to the information, and their ability to give quality care depends on their having it.” If you don’t currently know which of your athletes have learning disorder diagnoses, there are steps you can take to find out. “I would initiate a conversation with school administrators about getting the information,” Snoddy says. “Discuss with them the reasons why it is important for you to know. It may be as simple as asking.” Some sports medicine staffs ask parents directly, by adding a question about learning disorders to the preparticipation physical exam form. “The question should be very clear: ‘Does the child have a history of learning problems, or has he or she been diagnosed with a learning disability or ADHD?’” says Lavoie. “It would also be a good idea to clarify that the information will be kept confidential and only used by the athletic trainer to help him or her treat the child.” Mark Szafnicki, MEd, Athletic Director at the Gow School, a school for boys with learning disabilities in South Wales, N.Y., believes most parents would be happy to provide the information. “I have a child with a learning disability myself, and I absolutely want everyone who is going to work with her to know,” he says. “Parents of learning-disordered children want to make sure their children are understood, and that means knowing about their diagnosis.”


LEADERSHIP processing problem. Math disability have difficulty differentiating numbers, recalling math facts, writing numbers legibly, and relating math facts to meaning. They may also struggle with abstract reasoning. Learning-disabled students who fall into any of these three areas can sometimes have problems with short-term or “working” memory. Another challenge for learning-disabled individuals is metacognition—the ability to think about how they’re thinking. Without this skill, they have trouble devising effective strategies for learning and recalling new information. What do learning disorders look like in the athletic training setting? An athlete with a learning disability may have trouble following directions. They may be unable to process data related to numbers, such as times, sets, or reps. They may also be unable to make sense of written instructions, so the great handout you gave them on back stretches ended up crumpled at the bottom of their locker. Athletes with attentional disorders also can have difficulty absorbing in-



formation—not because they have a processing problem but because they can’t listen or focus long enough to get the entire message. “The individual with ADHD over-attends to everything,” says David Csillan, MS, ATC, Athletic Trainer at Ewing (N.J.) High School. “When you’re showing them a rehab exercise, they’re noticing every-

egies for getting their feedback. Mark Szafnicki, MEd, Athletic Director, Head Tennis Coach, and reading teacher at the Gow School, a school for boys with learning disabilities in South Wales, N.Y., uses a three-pronged approach to communicate with his athletes. “We use the acronym VAK, which stands for visual,

An athlete with a learning disability may be unable to process data related to numbers, such as times, sets, or reps. They may also be unable to make sense of written instructions. thing else in the room—the chart on the wall, other athletes, and the music on the radio.” COMMUNICATION TOOLS Because learning-disordered athletes absorb and process information differently than other athletes, the first step to working with them successfully is to take extra care with communication. You may need to find new ways to relay instructions or use nontraditional strat-

auditory, and kinesthetic,” he says. “If you’re teaching an athlete an exercise, you need to demonstrate it visually and explain it in words. Then you need to make sure they physically carry out the movement correctly while you are there to help—that is what will make it stick in their mind. “Most non-learning-disordered athletes can get by with just the auditory input,” he continues. “You can tell them, ‘Lift the weight further in front

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LEADERSHIP of you,’ or ‘Throw the ball 10 yards further down the field.’ But learning-disordered athletes really need the other two forms of communication, too.” It’s also important to avoid giving learning-disordered athletes a lot of information at once. “When a non-learning-disordered athlete comes in, I might say, ‘Go over to the rack and grab a two-pound weight and do straight-leg

saying, ‘Now say it back to me, Billy,’ try saying, ‘I’m just double-checking that what I said made sense. I know I’m speaking in medical jargon, so I want to make sure you can tell me what you heard.’” In addition, these athletes may not always seek your help, even when it’s needed. “When they’re sick or injured, learning-disordered kids are lousy re-

Eliciting the information you need can be challenging. “They have very sophisticated ways of making it look like they understand when they don’t ... They’re usually not going to tell you when they’re struggling. They’ll nod like, ‘Okay, I’ve got you now,’ and then do the exact opposite of what you said.” raises. When you’re done with that, do one set of 10 hamstring stretches, and then call me,’” Csillan says. “If I say that to a learning-disordered athlete, they’ll probably go over to the rack, grab a seven-pound weight, and stand there and look at me. So I make sure I give one instruction at a time.” Repeating information can also help. “We go through the same set of stretches every day in tennis practice, but every day, I demonstrate how to do them correctly,” Szafnicki says. “Not every athlete needs to hear it again, but I know there are some who do.” When communicating with athletes who have attentional problems, it’s important to consider the setting. “It really helps to treat them in an environment with fewer stimuli,” Csillan says. “That can mean asking them to come in early or setting them up in a quiet corner.” Getting your messages across to the athlete is only half the job. Eliciting the information you need can be equally challenging. Athletes with learning disabilities may not provide any indication they don’t understand what you’ve said or asked. “They have very sophisticated ways of making it look like they understand when they don’t,” Lavoie says. “They’re usually not going to tell you when they’re struggling. They’ll nod like, ‘Okay, I’ve got you now,’ and then do the exact opposite of what you said.” Monroe suggests asking them to repeat what you said or demonstrate it physically. “But be careful how you do this,” he cautions. “Respect their dignity and keep in mind that you’re not dealing with a small child. Instead of 18


porters,” Lavoie says. “They over-react to minor things and under-react to major ones. They’ll walk around for weeks with a stress fracture and never mention it, and then get a splinter and want to go to the emergency room.” For that reason, Lavoie advises maintaining extra vigilance and never assuming that no news is good news. “Don’t wait for them to come to you,” he says. “Check in with them regularly.” INJURY & REHAB While adjusting your communication strategies is key, it is also important to understand some of the extra struggles this population has managing injuries. When it comes to assessment, treatment, and rehab, there are some nuances in their responses and motivation

calm,” he continues. “Statements like, ‘I know you must be feeling really anxious, and that’s natural,’ can also go a long way.” Physical examinations require special care as well. “Some learning-disordered athletes are more sensitive to being touched than non-learning-disordered athletes,” Csillan says. “When I’m examining a learning-disordered athlete, I slow down. Before I touch them at all, I say, ‘I’m going to place my hands on your ankle. It’s not going to hurt. I just need to move it around a little bit.’” When implementing a rehab plan, the first key is to understand that there are differences in how athletes in this population perceive time. “If you tell a learning-disordered athlete they are going to be kept off the field for 30 days, they may have very little sense for how long that is,” Lavoie says. “And if they’ve been rehabbing for 20 days and only have 10 left, they might have no idea they’re almost there. As far as they’re concerned, it could still be weeks away, and it’s hard to stay motivated when you don’t know where you’re at.” One solution is to provide visual representations that allow athletes to track their rehab and see how far they’ve progressed. “Create a chart for the athlete listing their exercises and showing the days or weeks,” Lavoie says. “It’s very motivating because it shows them the light at the end of the tunnel.” Chris Snoddy, ATC, Athletic Trainer at Goodpasture Christian High School in Madison, Tenn., has had success with this concept. “I make sure they have a

“If you tell a learning-disordered athlete they are going to be kept off the field for 30 days, they may have very little sense for how long that is ... If they’ve been rehabbing for 20 days and only have 10 left, they might have no idea they’re almost there.” that can be different than those you see with other athletes. One distinction is the role anxiety can play when an athlete is injured. “For any athlete, being injured and in pain produces immediate anxiety, which makes it hard to process information,” Monroe says. “If you already have a processing problem, you’re really going to struggle to communicate when you’re injured. “An athletic trainer dealing with an injured learning-disordered athlete can help simply by staying very

chart to keep in their locker, and every day as they finish their rehab exercises, they check them off,” he says. In extended rehab situations, shortterm goals and rewards take on extra importance. “Telling a learning-disordered athlete, ‘Do all this work and you’ll be better in about three months’ doesn’t mean much to them,” says Csillan. “But setting a daily goal and giving a small reward does. I’ll tell the athlete, ‘If you get all the way through your program today, I have an ice pop in my freezer with your name on it.’” TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

LEADERSHIP “Stress to them that their job as an athlete on the team is to rehab— that they’re participating by getting healthy again,” Monroe says. “Tell the coach how well the athlete is doing in rehab, and make sure the athlete hears you say it.”

of athletes with learning disorders is a huge first step in helping this population. A second step is being an advocate for these athletes in the sports world. Csillan says he keeps an eye out for athletes with learning disorders at games and practices. “Many times I’ll

It’s even more important than usual to make sure you keep the athlete feeling connected to their team. “Stress to them that their job as an athlete on the team is to rehab— that they’re participating by getting healthy again.” When Snoddy has an injured athlete with a learning disorder, he finds it helpful to pair the player with someone on the team who has overcome a similar injury. “I get them together and try to build a bond,” he says. “I look for caring, mature athletes to use as mentors. This approach is helpful with all injured athletes, but it especially helps the learning-disordered athlete.” THE WHOLE ATHLETE Making your athletic training room sensitive and accommodating to the needs

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see a coach yelling and I’ll see the athlete’s head go down, and I know we have a problem,” he says. “I go over and talk to the athlete and later we’ll talk to the coach together.” Lavoie explains that two big red flags are sarcasm and yelling. “They often take everything literally, so they don’t understand sarcasm. And yelling just makes them shut down,” he says. “So if a coach uses these as part of his or her coaching style, the learning-disordered athlete is going to have real problems.” These athletes sometimes also need

Gebauer’s Spray and Stretch® topical anesthetic skin refrigerant provides a fine stream of spray with a cooling effect equivalent to Gebauer’s Fluori-Methane®, which has been discontinued. Use Gebauer’s Spray and Stretch in conjunction with the spray and stretch technique and trigger-point therapy to help manage Myofascial Pain Syndromes (MPS) in the head (like TMJ/TMD), neck, shoulders, extremities, and low back.

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“I also get the parents involved with this process,” Snoddy adds. “I give them the list of at-home exercises and together we come up with a reward system. The parents tell the athlete, ‘Every day that you finish your at-home rehab exercises, you can watch a television show, download a song on your iPod, or play a video game.’” Lastly, the psychological ramifications of being injured and unable to play may carry a greater impact on those with a learning disorder. “Some learning-disordered athletes struggle with motor skills and are always on the fringes of making the team,” Szafnicki says. “When they’re injured, their first thought is, ‘That’s it—I’m done.’ And that can be devastating. “Or maybe they’re a child who has a really hard time in the classroom but excels at their sport,” he continues. “In that case, it’s probably their lifeline to school, and being held out of practices and games can feel like the end of the world.” Therefore, it’s even more important than usual to make sure you keep the athlete feeling connected to their team.

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800.321.9348 • TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM Untitled-5 1

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LEADERSHIP a social mentor. “As a rule, learningdisordered kids don’t have as many close friends,” Lavoie says. “They don’t always understand the unspoken rules that govern social interaction, and as a result, they spend a lot of time alone. It can be very painful.”

achieve just like you would any other athlete.” And sometimes, the most important step is examining your own view of learning-disordered athletes. “If you had asked me about learningdisordered kids when I started out 20 years ago, I would have said, ‘They’re the worst. They’re not compliant, and I can’t stand to see them come in,’” Csillan says. “Then I had a son, and my son has ADHD. I watched what he went through, and it totally changed my perspective. I realized it was part of my job to get more creative in treating kids with learning problems.” Csillan has since discovered that working with athletes who have learning problems is one of the most rewarding parts of his job. “I look at these special kids who come through my door very differently now,” he says. “I’ve learned that they can be the most motivated, helpful, engaged athletes I work with all year. In fact, they can be leaders. All they need is someone who cares and is willing to learn how to see the world the way they see it.” ■

ject, resulting in the other athletes rebuffing him and telling him to leave them alone. This is the perfect time for a social autopsy. Gently take the athlete aside and say, ‘Let’s see what just happened there and what you could have done differently.’

Advocating for learning-disabled athletes means helping them achieve their goals. “Be careful that you don’t lower your expectations. Find out what their strengths are and push them to achieve just like you would any other athlete.” To help them with social situations, Lavoie has pioneered a unique approach called “social autopsies.” With this system, a caring adult begins to pay attention to a learning-disordered child’s social interactions. When the child makes a gaffe, the adult engages in a postmortem of the event, taking it apart to see what went wrong. “Athletic trainers are in a wonderful position to do this,” Lavoie says. “Let’s say you see the student-athlete breaking into a conversation between his teammates and changing the sub-

“Then explain that people don’t like to be interrupted and rehearse with him some tactful ways to join a conversation,” he continues. “A social autopsy takes the child’s mistake and turns it into a learning opportunity. But it has to be done in an upbeat, supportive, and positive way.” Finally, advocating for learningdisabled athletes means helping them achieve their goals. “Be careful that you don’t lower your expectations,” Monroe says. “Find out what their strengths are and push them to



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Training & Conditioning ? Start your week off right with’s Weekly eekly Blog B series. Every E v Monday, our award-winning authors au and industry leaders post a new article profiling what’s hot in in the fields of athletic training and an strength and conditioning. T&C T& Weekly Blogs provide a valuable resource for tracking va trends and sharing industry tre ideas. It’s information you id d won’t find anywhere else. w

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BY MICHELLE ROCKWELL n athlete comes to you with a quandary: He’s not taking in enough fuel for his intense practice and workout schedule, and he doesn’t know what to do. He is obviously stressing out about food, so much that you worry he might be in the early stages of an eating disorder. But after a long talk, you discover the real problem—he just moved off campus for the first time, and he has no idea how to cook. When it comes to nutrition, what seem like simple, minor obstacles to you can vex even the most conscientious and dedicated athletes. At the high school and college levels, when individuals are adjusting to new personal freedom and responsibility, making wise decisions about food can be a major challenge. Whether it’s eating right on the road, buying groceries on a shoestring budget, or finding ways to stay hydrated all day long, I’ve observed the same problems cropping up again and again when I counsel athletes on their nutrition habits. With the right strat-

egies, you can help athletes overcome their challenges and fuel themselves for success.





Our nutrition expert has helped solve dietary problems of all kinds, and has noticed that many athletes experience the same struggles. Here, she presents solutions to some of the most common sports nutrition dilemmas.

EATING ON A BUDGET For various reasons, many athletes have a limited amount to spend on food. A high school student’s family might be struggling to make ends meet, or a college athlete might be getting by on just a scholarship. Whatever the circumstances, tight budgets are a common reason why athletes short-change their nutritional needs. When I work with budget-conscious Michelle Rockwell, MS, RD, CSSD, is a sports nutrition consultant based in Raleigh-Durham, N.C., who works with athletes and active individuals nationwide, including the varsity athletes at North Carolina State University. She and sports dietitian Susan Kundrat recently launched a new Web site dedicated to educating athletes, students, and health professionals on practical and proven sports nutrition strategies. She can be reached through the site at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

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NUTRITION athletes, my first question is an obvious one: How often do you eat out? It may seem like a no-brainer to adults, but many high school and college students don’t realize how much eating at restaurants (even cheaper ones) can cost them, and how easy it is to spend less. With a smart shopping list, an athlete can buy ingredients for a whole week of healthy sandwiches for about the same price as one deli sandwich with chips and a drink. I have a client who started packing his lunch recently instead of eating out daily, and he saves over $100 per month! Of course, preparing that smart shopping list may require some guidance. When athletes shop for themselves without help, they might end up living on a diet of mac and cheese, spaghetti, and ramen noodles—plenty of simple carbs, but not much else. In my experience, protein is most fre-

quently neglected when cost-conscious athletes do their own shopping, because many popular protein-rich grocery items—such as steak, fresh poultry, and mixed nuts—tend to cost more than other foods. But if an athlete knows what to look for, there are many inexpensive sources of quality protein. During a recent trip to my local grocery store, I found enough protein to meet the needs of a 175-pound athlete for a full week for less than $25. Check out “More Protein, Less Price” below to see how I did it. Another common (and very pricey) grocery mistake is purchasing fresh produce out of season. A pint of blueberries, for example, costs around $1.99 in July, but $4.50 during winter. Produce tastes better and costs much less when it’s in season, so a quick handout for athletes on what’s best at each time of year can be very helpful. (See

MORE PROTEIN, LESS PRICE Athletes shopping on a budget sometimes have difficulty finding affordable protein-rich foods. During a recent trip to the supermarket, I put together a shopping list containing 900 grams of protein—about enough for a 175-pound athlete to eat for a week*—for under $25. Food Item

Protein Content


1 pound of ground beef

130 grams


3 cans of tuna or chicken

90 grams


2 dozen eggs

120 grams


1 gallon of milk

130 grams


18-ounce jar of peanut butter

130 grams


1 pound of cheese

160 grams


1 can of black beans

30 grams


1 can of kidney beans

30 grams


1 can of low-fat refried beans

30 grams


8 ounces of sunflower seeds

50 grams



900 grams


* Based on 130 grams of protein per day for seven days.



the “Resources” box on page 27 for a downloadable one.) You can also recommend staple fruits and vegetables that remain fairly price-consistent all year long, such as avocados, bananas, lemons, limes, cabbage, carrots, celery, lettuce, onions, and peppers. Some athletes spend an exorbitant amount on organic foods and beverages, thinking it’s a major investment in their health. There’s even a newly recognized eating disorder involving an unhealthy obsession with health foods: orthorexia nervosa. To be clear, I won’t knock organics. The term refers to food and ingredients grown and processed in an environmentally friendly way with minimal use of chemicals, hormones, and preservatives, and those are certainly good ideas. But organic foods are typically more expensive, and the truth is, they’re not always worth it if money is tight. For budget-conscious athletes who want to buy organic, I recommend focusing their organic purchases on the items most likely affected by chemicals during processing, such as apples, pears, potatoes, fresh meats, and milk. Packaged foods, such as organic breads, cereals, snack foods, and desserts should be a much lower priority. I have a client in recovery from orthorexia nervosa, and when I asked her to keep a food log that included all her organic purchases, we both chuckled at the inclusion of organic Oreos. Can anything in an Oreo be truly natural? Here’s another suggestion that’s a big money-saver: Buy for quantity. Many athletes I know love the convenience of “100 calorie packs” and other easy-to-transport snacks. These are great for a between-meal carb and protein dose, but they are priced for their convenience factor and can be very expensive. Instead, tell your athletes to buy a large bag of granola, nuts, or crackers and put snack-size portions into small plastic bags. For example, a 16-ounce bag of almonds costs about $4, but 16 individually packed oneounce bags total over $9. Same snack, lower price! QUICK EATS Many young athletes enjoy the convenience and low prices of fast food restaurants, and while they’re not traditionally thought of as places to eat healthy, it is possible to get decent, balanced meals if you know what to buy. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NUTRITION There are several pieces of advice I always give athletes who tell me they eat fast food. For one thing, price shouldn’t be the main factor when choosing a meal. Those value menu fries aren’t a smart choice just because they’re a cheap way to fill up. Instead of paying a higher nutritional cost in exchange for a lower financial one, an athlete should pass up the fries and spend an extra $2.50 on a second sandwich. It might cost more, but where would that money be better spent than on improving the nutritional content of a meal? Fast food offerings are much more diverse than they used to be. Chili and a baked potato from the dollar menu at Wendy’s, grilled snack wraps from McDonald’s, and chicken soft tacos from Taco Bell are a few examples of inexpensive and relatively healthy options. Nutrition information is easy to find online at restaurant Web sites and other sites (see the “Resources” box for some examples). Another easy way to save both money and calories at restaurants (fast food or otherwise) is by ordering water to drink. If an athlete eats out three times a week

for a month and skips the soft drink each time, they can save over $25. That easily makes up for the extra spending on healthier “premium” salads or extra sandwiches in lieu of fries. LOST IN THE KITCHEN It’s amazing how many athletes go through high school and even college without knowing the basics of cooking. Maybe mom always prepared the family’s food, and then dining halls took over. One of my colleagues who works with athletes at all levels describes these individuals as “culinarily challenged.” Providing athletes, teams, or whole athletic departments with a very basic cooking course taught by a registered dietitian can go far in solving this problem. In less than two hours, athletes can learn to prepare and cook three different meat entrees, three different starches, and three vegetable sides. Once an athlete has the basics down, he or she can be inventive and build on them. Encourage teammates and roommates to work together on simple recipes, which can be found in cookbooks and literally hundreds of places online. Even if a

30-minute meal takes 45 minutes the first time, it’s great practice, and will increase the cooks’ understanding of what really goes into the food they’re eating. Athletes also need to know that “cooking” doesn’t mean spending hours in the kitchen. Some consider microwaving a bowl of soup and putting together a sandwich to be cooking, and if the meal is healthy and the athlete enjoys it, that’s great. There are more healthy “heat and eat” options today than ever, from basic one-minute brown rice and instant oatmeal to veggie-rich frozen skillet dinners. You can even find “just add chicken” or “just add beef” pre-packaged meals that don’t require any real cooking skills. As long as athletes read the labels to keep an eye on fat and sodium content, these can be great options for building a diverse and satisfying menu of home-prep meals. VIVA VARIETY It’s very common for athletes to eat the same foods every single day. This may occur as a result of over-simplified grocery shopping, limited dining hall preferences, or simply falling into a routine that tastes good.

has been an “ NASM unparalleled education


Aaron Nelson Head Athletic Trainer Phoenix Suns

Barry Gossage / Phoenix Suns

provider to myself and my staff. The OPT™ model has helped us provide our athletes with the best possible training and corrective strategies to keep them on the court.

Circle No. 116 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM Untitled-22 1

T&C DECEMBER 2008 7/9/08 10:29:27 AM


NUTRITION You can probably guess why food monotony poses real nutrition problems. For instance, when athletes eat the same protein source every day— chicken, or eggs, or beef—to the exclusion of others, they most likely aren’t getting the full spectrum of amino acids that are critical for tissue building and repair. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can also result from limiting food selections. I recommend that athletes always choose a different type of meat or other

like any vegetables except green beans. As it turns out, his mother didn’t eat pork for religious reasons, and though he didn’t share her beliefs, he had just never tried pork products. Likewise, the only vegetable she had ever cooked for him was green beans. Once he branched out a bit, he found that he really enjoyed pork loin, and he ended up loving carrots, asparagus, and cauliflower. Other times, picky eaters just need to make a few adjustments. Maybe an athlete thinks she hates broccoli,

Athletes who place fat off-limits will end up craving their favorite fatty foods. As a result, they’re much more likely to overeat or even binge on those foods when they let their guard down. Also, having some fat in a meal increases satiety, which will curb the desire for unhealthy between-meal snacking. protein with at least two meals each day. If they made chicken last night, today’s lunch could be a fish sandwich, and today’s dinner might be ground beef or a veggie burger. If they had eggs for breakfast, lunch might be something with a healthy serving of peanut butter, cheese, or yogurt. Fruit and vegetable variety is critical for obtaining a good vitamin and mineral balance. Athletes who get in a rut of eating the same fruit every day for lunch and the same vegetable at dinner can miss out on important micronutrients. Encourage your athletes to rotate among at least three different fruits and three different vegetables at all times. It might be fresh banana, frozen strawberries, and raisins, plus steamed broccoli, spinach salad, and stir-fry mixed veggies (a great way to add extra variety). With this simple strategy, intake of nutrients and antioxidants will make a big leap. Another great way to increase variety is to share meal duties with teammates. Once athletes have received that cooking instruction discussed earlier, everyone can develop a specialty, and team members can take turns making dinner for one another. Or two roommates can get in the habit of exchanging foods— half your bag of apples for half my pound of grapes—to add a little more diversity to the menu. What about “picky eaters,” who don’t like a lot of variety in their diet? Oftentimes those barriers can be overcome with a little prodding. An athlete recently told me he didn’t eat pork and didn’t 26


but when it’s prepared with cheese sauce or cooked into a casserole, she finds it quite tolerable and even enjoyable. And while we all remember that ketchup is not a vegetable, an athlete who doesn’t like tomatoes on sandwiches or salads might still enjoy pasta sauce or fresh salsa if it’s made with lots of spices and other flavors. CONQUERING FAT PHOBIA The term “fat phobia” became popular in the early ’90s when severely restricting fat intake was a common trend among athletes. I’ve noticed this trend resurfacing in many sports, and it’s a serious problem for some people. Very low dietary fat consumption can lead to poor immune response, slowed recovery, vitamin deficiencies, and menstrual issues in females. The American Dietetics Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that athletes consume 20 to 25 percent of their calories from fat, and never less than 15 percent. Fat helps food taste good, and athletes who place it off-limits will end up craving their favorite fatty foods. As a result, they’re much more likely to overeat or even binge on those foods when they let their guard down. Also, having some fat in a meal increases satiety (the feeling of fullness), which will curb the desire for unhealthy between-meal snacking. You should stress to athletes that moderation is the best approach. More and more research points to the health benefits of eating plenty of un-

saturated fats. Fish, oils, oily salad dressings, olives, avocados, hummus, nuts, seeds, flax, and peanut butter help the heart and improve inflammatory response. These natural sources of monoand poly-unsaturated fats are more easily digested than the saturated and trans fats found in cookies, “junk food,” and other processed items. Many healthy fat sources are also rich in protein. Omega-3 fats, found in a lot of those same foods, have been shown to positively affect mood, memory, and even joint health. Some new cheeses, eggs, yogurts, and fruit juices on the market are specially fortified with omega-3 fats, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, the most beneficial omega-3 commonly found in food products). The best way to help a fat-phobic athlete is simply to educate them on the many health benefits of eating the right fats. You can tear down the notion that the term “fat” on a nutrition label translates into body fat by discussing the other key functions fat serves in an athlete’s diet. For example, vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble, which means they’ll only be absorbed by the body if accompanied by sufficient fat intake. So while an athlete may think they’re helping themselves by eliminating as many fat sources as possible, in fact they could be creating a serious vitamin deficiency. Vitamin A is important to eyesight and healthy skin and bones, vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and promotes hardening of bones and teeth, vitamin E is an antioxidant that prevents cell membrane damage, and vitamin K helps with blood clotting. Recent research into vitamin D has also shown that a deficiency increases risk for stress fractures, which are a constant concern for athletes in many sports. In addition, a lack of vitamin D has been linked to chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. By shifting the focus away from preoccupations with body weight and toward the biological functions of fat, athletes can be convinced to take a healthier approach to dietary fat intake. OFF-COURSE HYDRATION Hydration has been a major buzzword in athletics lately (and for good reason), so most conscientious athletes have developed good hydration habits when in their normal training environment. But hydration problems can still plague TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NUTRITION them, and I’ve noticed it usually happens when their training location changes. For example, a swim team might have regular access to fluids at the pool, but they don’t have an easy, portable solution for when they do stadium runs or other dry-land drills outdoors. One simple solution is for teams to assign the job of hydration coordinator to one person: an assistant coach, athletic trainer, team manager, or even a team member. Whenever the team will be practicing or working out away from their normal setting, this person is responsible for making sure there will be plenty of water or other beverages available at the site. Smaller teams might need just a cooler on wheels, while larger teams may require a hydration cart or other system. Cross country athletes often have trouble staying hydrated during long runs, since they don’t want to carry a large water bottle with them. Teams and individual runners can benefit from mapping out their course ahead of time and having someone drop off a cooler, arrange for a water hose, or find another way to provide fluid at certain points throughout the course.

When athletes are running alone, they can plan a loop that will allow them to stop and drink at several places along the way. Bringing along a couple dollars is always a good idea if they’ll be running by a convenience store that sells bottled water. Athletes who have trouble staying hydrated often say they drink plenty at meals, but don’t have time to seek out beverages with their busy class schedule and all their other activities. Try recommending that they throw a refillable water bottle into their backpack in the morning, and refill it a few times throughout the day at a drinking fountain. Once they get in the habit, they’ll find themselves taking swigs all day long. They will likely feel better and may even see a performance boost as a result.

RESOURCES These Web sites contain information on the nutrition content of many foods found in restaurants and supermarkets:

COMMON THREADS Most of the nutrition problems faced by today’s high school and college athletes aren’t complicated. They can often be addressed with a little planning and preparation. Your guidance in these matters doesn’t require advanced nutrition expertise, and the benefits of putting forth a

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little extra effort can be incredible. Whether it’s creating a shopping list, assisting with prudent food budgeting, or just figuring out where water fountains are stationed along a running route, simple steps can provide a major boost to an athlete’s nutritional profile and overall health. And once an athlete has overcome their own hurdles and learned how to better prioritize nutrition, they’re usually amazed at how easy it is—and what a difference it makes. ■ • 1.877.GLYCNGO Circle No. 117 To download a handout for your athletes showing when various fruits and vegetables are in season, go to: ProduceGuide.pdf.

Circle No. 118


TOUGH COMPETITION Football players at East Carolina University perform strongman exercises, such as tractor tire flipping, every Friday during their summer training cycle.

Strongman events do more than just give your athletes a break from the weightroom and test functional strength in challenging situations. They can also help turn a group of individuals into a team.



or some people, strongman competition conjures up images of bulging-veined Europeans on late-night cable TV, lifting giant rocks onto pedestals or using a body harness to pull a car across a field. Amazing feats of strength to be sure, but not very practical for training athletes. In the college and high school settings, however, strongman competitions can take on a much different flavor. They’re a way to break the monotony of the weightroom, build and measure strength, promote teamwork, and keep athletes motivated. Football teams use strongman training more frequently than other sports because the benefits transfer is so obvious, but a wider variety of teams are jumping on the bandwagon. Some programs have even used strongman events to raise money for charity and help their local communities. Whether it’s old-fashioned tire flipping and keg tossing or some creative new activity using whatever happens to be handy and heavy, strongman work can add a new dimension to your strength program. “It’s like game day every time we do it,” says Ken Mannie, MS, MSCC, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Michigan State Univer-

Kyle Garratt is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM




OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE sity. “It puts pressure on the players and forces them into truly competitive situations—more than weightroom sessions and scripted workouts ever could.” STRONG INCENTIVES Coaches who use strongman competitions swear by their many benefits, both physical and psychological. “Our kids will tell you flat out, that even though it’s the hardest day, it’s also the most fun day,” says Mike Golden, CSCS, SCCC, Director of Strength and Conditioning at East Carolina University. “The athletes plan for it, work together, and strategize once we assign them to their teams. “And the physical benefits are beyond reason,” continues Golden. “To me, it’s the best way to train for football. It’s irregular lifting, which makes it closer to football movement than ordinary weight training. It makes the body perform when it’s not in a perfect line, so tendons and joints get stronger. And just like in football, a player is forced to use his whole body.” Ben Tonon, Strength and Conditioning Coach for wrestling and football at Bergen Catholic High School in Oradell, N.J., agrees that strongman work

provides some unique football-specific benefits that are hard to achieve in the weightroom. “I think it helps linemen the most, because when a tire is moving every which way, they have to adapt their body to it like they would to an opponent, and it is extremely heavy,” he says. “With the sled pull, their bodies are at a 45-degree angle and that teaches the number one lesson in football: Stay low. If you don’t stay low in the sled pull, the sled isn’t going to move. “The key is making sure every strongman exercise transfers to the game in some way,” Tonon continues. “For example, the sled events help develop speed. The keg toss builds explosive strength. And the tire flip strengthens a player’s back and keeps him low.” In addition to developing strength and speed, there are other small developments that can make a major difference. “It’s a great way to incorporate functional exercise, and that’s a big buzz term these days,” Mannie says. “Carrying awkward and hard-to-handle implements helps with strength training, energy systems, balance, and proprioception.” Beyond all the physical benefits, anyone who has seen a group of athletes compete in strongman events can attest

to their team-building and motivational value. “You get a chance to develop leadership and all the intangibles you need on a team,” says Paul Longo, CSCS, CSCCa, Head Football Strength and Conditioning Coach at the University of Cincinnati. “Players have to suck it up and perform when they’re tired. You get a good idea of how your players compete. We don’t want to wait until game day to learn whether they’re true competitors or not.” In fact, building mental toughness, competitive desire, and team chemistry are top priorities for most strength coaches who run strongman competitions. “I care more about improving those qualities, because we can do other things for the physical side of training,” says Mickey Marotti, MS, MA, CSCS, MSCC, Director of Strength and Conditioning at the University of Florida. “I value the chemistry and camaraderie that we build doing these events as a team, because it’s rare to have that opportunity during traditional weightroom training.” Mannie has noticed that the results can be surprising. “With some kids you think, ‘He’s just so introverted, I don’t know if he’s ever going to come out of his

STRONGMAN SAFETY No strength coach wants to tell a head coach that the team’s star player is out for the season because he dropped a keg or large stone on his foot. Some front-end research and common-sense planning can help protect your athletes from injury in strongman competitions. “In the five years we have held strongman events, we’ve never had a kid get hurt, but I think a lot of coaches are afraid of that,” says Ben Tonon, Strength and Conditioning Coach for wrestling and football at Bergen Catholic High School in Oradell, N.J. “If a kid gets hurt doing strongman events, that strength coach might be looking for a new job. “We always start with the lightest weight, and we go over proper technique before each event,” Tonon continues. “When we’re doing the strongman events, we’re correcting the guys’ form each week. A lot of younger athletes are immature and don’t always pay attention, so it’s smart to choose events where one wrong move won’t jeopardize their safety.” The Atlas Stones—a classic strongman event in which competitors lift a series of heavy, round stones and place



them on pedestals—is usually avoided by strength coaches, though some simply alter it by using safer objects such as sandbags in place of actual stones. Common sense typically eliminates anything else that involves obvious danger. Many coaches count on increased reps to ensure athletes are challenged without the need for extremely heavy weight. “We’re not giving a kid a 900-pound tire and saying, ‘Go flip it.’” says Mike Golden, CSCS, SCCC, Director of Strength and Conditioning at East Carolina University. “We might give him a 300-pound tire that we know he can move and say, ‘You have to flip this for five minutes.’ We want maximum effort, not maximum weight.” But nothing can replace a watchful eye. “Each one of our strongman stations is coached and supervised,” says Rick Court, MS, SCCC, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Bowling Green State University. “We go over strict guidelines as a staff and then as a team. Coaches always have the ability to end a set. If I see a guy struggling with an exercise and I deem it unsafe, I’ll stop it right away.”


OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE shell,’” Mannie says. “Then all of a sudden, he’s the leader on his particular squad. He still might not say much, but he leads by example to get other guys going.” Golden says one of his favorite parts of strongman training is seeing players improve over time, as a team and individually. “In my first year we did a wooden sled push across the width of the field, and our times now for 100 yards are better than those original times going sideline to sideline,” he says. “Just this past season, one of our defensive ends ran our farmer’s walk the whole length of the field to win it. I remembered that when he was a freshman, he had been horrible at it—the bars kept falling out of his hands and he couldn’t finish. I went up to him after he won and asked, ‘Do you remember when you started this? Man, you’ve come a long way.’” STRONG STRUCTURE Unlike many traditional strength and conditioning regimens, a strongman competition is a blank canvas for strength coaches. While there is the standard strongman fare used almost everywhere, there’s also plenty of room for creativity when designing events and structuring contests. The most common formula is an off-season program in

“With some kids you think, ‘He’s just so introverted, I don’t know if he’s ever going to come out of his shell.’ Then all of a sudden, he’s the leader on his particular squad. He still might not say much, but he leads by example to get other guys going.” which athletes perform strongman events as weekly training, and then end the training cycle with a one-day competition. Some programs make the strongman activities an ongoing competition, while others use just one competitive session as a fun way to end their off-season lifting program. Still other programs use the events only as a training modality and scrap the competition aspect altogether. Football is still the dominant sport on the strongman scene, but other sports enjoy the cardiovascular, proprioception, and monotony-breaking benefits as well. At Michigan State, football, basketball, hockey, and some Olympic sport teams compete regularly in the Spartan Challenge, a 10-week strongman competition with activities held every Friday during the offseason. Mannie says every team at MSU has used strongman training to some extent. Golden puts his football team through strongman events every Friday as part of the summer training cycle. The events include military presses with steel logs, sled pulls, farmer’s walks, keg tosses, and several others, including a stacking event in which athletes lift sand bags onto pedestals. At the end of the summer, he splits the players into 10 teams of 10 and each person participates in one event for points. Blackbeard’s Challenge is the final event of the day’s competition, in which one player from each squad performs a series of running and carrying exercises including a crab walk, tire flip, sled push, and agility cones course. When Mannie assigns players to teams for the Spartan Challenge, he mixes the groups up to increase team cohesion and build camaraderie. “Everything in football pits the offense TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

Circle No. 119

OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE against the defense,” he says. “This is a great way to bring offensive and defensive players together, so I make sure each group has a nice mixture of players from different positions who normally wouldn’t work together in competitive situations. I think the players gain a lot of respect for each other when they train in this fashion. “For example, defensive linemen are usually butting heads with the offensive linemen—now they’re working on the same side,” Mannie continues. “They’re encouraging each other, and they start

to develop a bond. That unity factor— that oneness—permeates throughout the entire program.” Mannie uses relay events to keep the competitions fresh and challenging. He runs something called the “Junkyard Relay,” in which he builds huge end zone piles of barbells, weight plates, tackling dummies, tires, and anything else he can get his hands on. The athletes run from the opposite end zone to pick up the implements, then run them back. As the weeks pass, the piles get larger and Mannie adds extra lengths of the field to the relay.

Other coaches have found their own ways to get creative with strongman work. At Bowling Green State University, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach Rick Court, MS, SCCC, searches for unique tools and objects to keep things interesting. One of his creations is a barbell with car tires that his teams use for military presses. Tonon, meanwhile, has an attachment that allows his players to push his Chevy Tahoe up an incline. “Even strongman competitions can be boring if you make them boring,” says Tonon. “That’s why we’re always looking to try new events.” A constant challenge with strongman work is making it progressive from one session to the next. This can be achieved

A constant challenge with strongman work is making it progressive from one session to the next. “As time goes on, you might start using heavier and more awkward implements, or having athletes run farther on relays. We also piggyback the activities so the sequences get more and more difficult.” by adding a few twists to basic activities. “As time goes on, you might start using heavier and more awkward implements, or having athletes run farther on relays,” says Mannie. “We also piggyback the activities so the sequences get more and more difficult. We might start out with a heavy farmer’s walk the length of the field, and then a tire flip on the return. Then the athlete has to jump through the tire and sprint to the goal line.” When choosing which strongman events to use, remember the ultimate purpose is to improve athletic performance. “Every year we have a new group of athletes, so we have to be flexible and alter our competition accordingly,” Golden says. “For example, if a team needs more speed, we’ll do more events that focus on quick movements.” Circle No. 120




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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE STRONG SHOWINGS Strongman competitions are often the most anticipated strength events on the calendar for athletes, and their impact can extend far beyond the teams involved. Some programs partner with charities or open their competitions to all comers to capitalize on the popularity of these events. At the end of last summer’s training period, the University of Florida football team worked with six charities to make its annual strongman competition into a campus rally. Each charity had a booth for donations set up in the stadium, and about 1,800 fans watched players compete under the lights at “The Swamp.” The effort raised $6,000. “We’ve always held strongman competitions as part of our training, but this year the players wanted to do something unique,” Marotti says. “They’ve done a lot of small group things to give back to the community, but we had never done a charity event with the entire team before. That made it special.” The Gators split into six teams, each representing a charity, and donned shirts to show off their affiliation. The

charities represented were the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, the American Heart Association, the Children’s Miracle Network, and the March of Dimes. Players competed in a tire flip, sled push, and various obstacle courses. “Our players went a lot harder with

ny, AthElite. He says about 50 athletes competed last year. “Once summer hits, all these guys think about is the competition,” Tonon says. “When a player is on stage, flipping a tire in front of 40 other kids, you’d be surprised how much he steps up.” With so many potential positives,

“We’ve always held strongman competitions as part of our training, but this year the players wanted to do something unique ... We had never done a charity event with the entire team before. That made it special.” all the people in the stands and knowing they were representing charities,” Marotti says. “We had great feedback from the fans and the groups we helped. This was the best strongman competition we’ve had, and we look forward to making it bigger and better next year.” For the past two years, Tonon has been holding a National High School Strongman Competition, open to high school athletes across the country, through his strength training compa-

strength coaches find it’s worth the extra effort and planning that go into a strongman competition. “Our profession is 50 percent science and 50 percent art,” says Longo. “Strongman training falls into the art part of it, but it’s really just another means to an end. We’re all trying to get our guys bigger, faster, stronger, and more resistant to injury, and to have them become better at their position every year.” ■

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Brok Butcher, a pitcher in the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim system, is observed by David Hogarth, PT, PES, CES. With Butcher’s knee immobilized by an injury this fall, Hogarth designed workouts that focused on maintaining his upperbody conditioning level.



Upwardly Immobile When an athlete’s injury requires a cast or brace, their whole body doesn’t have to remain inactive. A smart rehab plan can help them work effectively within their limitations and come back better than ever.



sk any athlete who has had an arm or leg out of commission about the hardest part of rehab, and most will say it was the beginning—the time when they were partially immobilized and couldn’t do anything with the injured body part. For a person who thrives on being active, nothing is more discouraging than being forced to shut it down completely because an arm or leg has failed them. For an athletic trainer overseeing these rehabs, there are many hurdles to clear. Although your most important task will be providing a psychological boost to a struggling athlete during those first few weeks, you’ll also need to maintain conditioning, and you’ll want to devise a rehab plan that utilizes the latest techniques. Fortunately, there are a lot of new ideas about working with partially immobilized athletes that any athletic trainer can tap into. By focusing on the healthy body parts and addressing deficiencies in the kinetic chain, this rehab period can even be a blessing in disguise. A partial immobilization can provide athletes an opportunity to correct imbalances and develop more efficient movement patterns that transTR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

late into improved performance and decreased odds of future injury. FILLING THEIR GLASS Whether they’re healing from surgery or wearing a new cast, when partially immobilized athletes are crouched in the starting blocks of a rehab, the biggest roadblock is usually fear of the unknown. That’s why a critical first step is showing them exactly where the finish line is, and how you’ll help them reach it. Sharing a detailed rehab plan with the athlete will foster buy-in and provide specific goals to work toward. “Right away, you have to talk to the athlete about your plan—let them know what’s going to happen and when,” says Aaron Nelson, ATC, PES, CSCS, Head Athletic Trainer for the Phoenix Suns. “You can show them what you want to do day to day, week to week, and month to month.” “Keeping the finish line in perspective makes the athlete more willing to comply and allows them to stay on the same page as you,” says David Hogarth, PT, PES, CES, Minor League Physical Therapist for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. “Then, as you proceed along the rehab path, keep restating those goals and plans and reassuring the athlete that he or she is

making progress toward each one.” When presenting a rehab plan, it’s not enough to simply explain what it entails. You have to sell it. And you have to sell yourself to the athlete. “The first time you see a patient in rehab, you have to convince them you know what you’re talking about and give them specific reasons why they need to follow your program,” says Chuck Thigpen, PhD, PT, ATC, Assistant Professor at the University of North Florida’s Brooks College of Health. “Tell them about the benefits—how it’s critical to work on unaffected deficiencies and maintain their conditioning. “Also explain the risks of not complying during this period,” he continues. “Talk about how athletes who shut everything down during those six or so weeks of immobilization can become deconditioned. I’ll tell them that instead of facing six to eight weeks of training after the injury, if they lose their conditioning, they’ll be looking at three to six months to get everything back.” Hogarth also sells his athletes by stressing the silver lining of their rehab. “You have to paint a positive picture,” R.J. Anderson is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2008


TREATING THE ATHLETE he says. “Your attitude should be that the glass is half full, not half empty. I’ll tell them, ‘It’s unfortunate you can’t use your arm right now, but we’re going to do as much as we can to improve

their joints when they begin more intense rehab. For athletes with an upper-body immobilization, there are plenty of traditional methods for maintaining

The less aerobic conditioning athletes lose during their immobilized period, the less they have to regain later on. It also helps athletes maintain or lower their body weight, which reduces stress on their joints when they begin more intense rehab. all these other areas. Our goal is to build you back up and make you better than before you got hurt.’” KEEP ’EM MOVING Most athletic trainers agree that the primary goal during partial immobilization is to promote as much cardiovascular conditioning as possible. The less aerobic conditioning athletes lose during their immobilized period, the less they have to regain later on. It also helps athletes maintain or lower their body weight, which reduces stress on

aerobic conditioning, including stationary bike and treadmill work. The most important thing is to make sure the injury site is protected and not at risk of re-injury should the athlete stumble or fall. For athletes with lower-body immobilization, the options are a bit more limited, but many use an upper-body ergometer or a hand bike. If they’re in a boot, you can sometimes use a stationary bike by carefully fixing the boot to a pedal with a strap or some tape.

Thigpen says this is a good time to get creative. “If the athlete is weight bearing, I’ll have them stand on an elliptical machine and push the pedals with their arms so they still get balanced cardiovascular training,” he says. Jim Thornton, MS, ATC, PES, Head Athletic Trainer at Clarion University, believes in the power of the pool— provided the injured athlete’s incisions have properly healed and they aren’t wearing a cast. “We use exercises that provide cardiovascular benefits and offer some resistance,” he says. “For example, they’ll do agility exercises in chest-deep water or tread water in the diving well. “You don’t have to do it every day,” he continues. “It can even be a reward for hard work in the athletic training facility.” If an athlete is hesitant about hydrotherapy, you may have to carefully explain its benefits. “A lot of athletes don’t like to change the way they train. Someone with a leg injury who is used to running all the time may not want to work out in the pool because that’s not who they are,” Thigpen says. “You

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TREATING THE ATHLETE have to explain that they need this type of training to maintain their cardiovascular fitness. Stress that if they want to regain what they’ve lost in the injured area and return in a reasonable amount of time, this is what they have to do.” OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS Along with getting the athlete’s heart pumping, you can use this initial rehab time to uncover and fix deficiencies. More and more athletic trainers view this downtime as a window of opportunity to remedy inefficiencies, imbalances, and kinks in an athlete’s kinetic chain. “We begin by looking at every injured athlete as a kinetic chain and examining the efficiency of their movement patterns,” Hogarth says. “For example, if someone is coming off shoulder surgery, we go through their ankles, knees, hips, and low back with a fine-tooth comb from a flexibility and strength point of view. They may have underlying movement inefficiencies in those areas that exacerbated their shoulder problem.

“Then, while protecting the shoulder, we’ll devise exercises that clean up those other deficiencies,” Hogarth continues. “When the athlete completes their immobilization, they’ll have a better foundation for the later stages of rehab and reconditioning.” For Nelson, identifying weak links begins before the athlete is even in-

leg immobilized for six weeks, Nelson used that time to improve his known weaknesses, which included flexibility, core strength, and the strength of his upper gluteus maximus muscles. To do so, Nelson had Stoudemire perform foam roller exercises, stretching, isolated and non-weight bearing corrective exercises, and core strengthening

For Nelson, identifying weak links begins before the athlete is even injured. “We do a kinetic chain assessment in the preseason,” he says. “Then, if an immobilization period is required, we already know what the athlete’s deficiencies are, and we can focus on correcting them.” jured. “We do a kinetic chain assessment in the preseason,” he says. “Then, if an immobilization period is required, we already know what the athlete’s deficiencies are, and we can focus on correcting them.” Nelson says that was the case when all-star forward Amare Stoudemire underwent microfracture surgery on his left knee in 2005. With Stoudemire’s

work, including plenty of hydrotherapy work once his incisions healed. “Correcting an athlete’s imbalances puts them in a position for faster recovery and a shortened rehab time because their movement patterns are more efficient,” Nelson says. “In some cases, those imbalances actually contributed to the injury that led to the immobilization. So if we correct them,

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TREATING THE ATHLETE we can decrease re-injury risk and help prevent new injuries.” If no preseason assessment is conducted, an exam of an athlete’s noninjured side can provide key information. “When problems exist on one

riod. Then, when the athlete regains mobility, the program can be repeated on the injured side. FEELING IT When an athlete has an arm or leg

“Recently, we had a player coming off right shoulder surgery so we had him do pull-ups with his left arm on an assisted pull-up machine. You could actually see his right arm going into a neurological flexion pattern to mimic the movement on his left side.” side, there’s a good chance they are also present on the other side and may have contributed to the injury,” says Thornton. “When we do a post-injury assessment, I look very closely at the non-injured side. For example, if I have a kid with a left ACL injury, I’ll have him do things like a single-leg squat test with his right side. I’ll also evaluate his posture and look to see if his foot pronates or supinates, or if he has flat feet. In addition, I’ll ask about knee, hip, and sciatic pain.” With that knowledge, Thornton designs a program the athlete can perform using their non-injured side during the injury immobilization pe-

immobilized to facilitate healing, you can’t do much to train that injured part itself. Or can you? Although its effects haven’t been confirmed by research, the concept of bilateral transfer is picking up steam in the injury rehabilitation community. The theory is that when exercising the non-injured limb, the brain also sends impulses to the injured limb, providing residual benefits. “By strengthening the opposite side, you get a neurological crossover of activation,” Hogarth says. “Basically, by doing strength work with your left biceps, you’ll get some activation going to your right biceps.”

Anecdotally, Hogarth has seen evidence of bilateral transfer with his injured baseball players. “Recently, we had a player coming off right shoulder surgery so we had him do pull-ups with his left arm on an assisted pull-up machine,” he says. “You could actually see his right arm going into a neurological flexion pattern to mimic the movement on his left side.” When appropriate, Hogarth has applied the bilateral transfer theory to functional work. For example, when a baseball player has an immobilized arm, Hogarth has him do hitting drills one-handed with the non-injured arm. “You do have to be careful that bilateral transfer isn’t your only focus, though” he says. “Someone on crutches who is using their unaffected side to get around is already working that uninjured limb a lot, and you don’t want to overtrain it. “I suggest staying within traditional strength parameters as far as sets and reps—you don’t have to go high velocity to trigger the nervous system,” Hogarth continues. “In a rehab environment, just using a traditional 2x12 or 3x8 set and rep range with a controlled cadence will help you achieve neurological impulse transfer.” Another potentially negative by-

FOOD FOR THOUGHT Another way to help an immobilized athlete optimize downtime is by promoting proper nutrition. Learning to eat right will boost the healing process and help avoid unwanted weight gain due to decreased activity. “One good thing about rehabilitation is that you get a lot of one-on-one time with the athlete,” says Aaron Nelson, ATC, PES, CSCS, Head Athletic Trainer for the Phoenix Suns. “You have a chance to talk about many things, and for us, nutrition is always a big point of conversation.” Nelson says those discussions cover a lot of ground. “The athlete basically becomes a student, and we teach them what we know about nutrition,” he says. “We explain things like caloric intake, the benefits of getting more proteins versus fat, and the role of carbohydrates. We warn them about late-night eating, cover good and bad snacks, and encourage them to ask questions.”



David Hogarth, PT, PES, CES, Minor League Physical Therapist for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, uses the downtime to challenge injured athletes to improve their nutrition with the goal of enhancing performance. “We stress to our immobilized athletes that they should make the most of this time,” Hogarth says. “So when they ask, ‘What can I do better?’ we tell them they can improve their nutritional intake. We say, ‘Let’s take the next six weeks and learn to eat better—that’s your goal.’ “We explain that if they come out of an arm rehab with better movement efficiency throughout the kinetic chain and improved conditioning because they dropped 10 pounds and have a lower body fat percentage, then all of a sudden they’re putting a better product on the field,” Hogarth adds. “In addition to having an injuryfree shoulder, the athlete is leaner, runs faster, and moves better. If you can get someone to buy into that, you’ll have a very productive rehab process.”


TREATING THE ATHLETE product of working the non-injured limb while not working the injured limb is increased strength imbalance between the two. However, Thornton says with all the focus placed on the injured body part as an athlete progresses through their rehab, any strength gaps are quickly erased. “We purposely work hard to make the uninjured leg as strong as we can,” he says. “That way, when we eventually build the injured leg up to meet the healthy leg’s level, it has to get that much stronger, which is a positive thing.” As long as proper precautions are followed, the area around an immobilized joint can also be addressed. For example, when treating an immobilized elbow, the athletic trainer can sometimes access the patient’s shoulder, wrist, and hand. “You look at what you can and can’t do around the injury itself, then you analyze what you can do near it,” Hogarth says. “For example, if somebody is protecting an elbow and we don’t want them contracting their forearm, we can put a light cuff weight around

their upper arm and they can do early shoulder raise exercises. “If their wrist is immobilized, we can put a cuff weight on their splint and do exercises to work the elbow and shoulder,” Hogarth continues. “Or if you need to protect a shoulder joint and you understand the range-of-motion limitations, you can activate the scapula while still protecting the joint position.” ON THE SAME PAGE Sometimes it’s hard for an injured athlete to stay motivated during an immobilization period. That’s why it is important for the athletic trainer to make sure they always remain on the same page as these athletes. Communication and trust are the keys to making this happen. “There’s a lot of psychology involved during a period of extended rehab,” Nelson says. “You need to communicate the long-term goal, the benefits of doing everything correctly, and what can happen if they don’t do what you ask of them.” Hogarth says it’s extremely important to encourage immobilized athletes to take

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ownership of their rehab. “I tell them it’s their injury, not mine,” he says. But he also tries to understand everything they’re going through. “It’s all about figuring out the extent of their restrictions and communicating that to the athlete,” Hogarth says. “Then put yourself in their place and imagine what they’re feeling. That gives you a better chance to help them battle the demons of immobilization.” ■ FURTHER READING To find other articles related to this topic, use the search window at: For an article about how bilateral transfer affects lateral dominance, type “A Tale of Two Sides” into the search window. To read about Aaron Nelson’s use of corrective exercise during knee microfracture rehab, search “Micro Holes, Macro Results.” For more on nutrition’s role during rehab, search “The Better to Heal You With.”

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University of North Carolina second baseman Kyle Seager makes contact at the 2008 NCAA Division I College World Series.


Swinging for the Fences The University of North Carolina’s recent resurgence on the diamond has been fueled by a progressive multi-phase conditioning plan that addresses baseball’s specific speed, power, and agility needs. BY GREG GATZ here was a time when strength and conditioning for the University of North Carolina baseball team could be described as somewhere between haphazard and non-existent. Players weren’t required to strength train or complete conditioning workouts under any organized program, so most trained on their own with little guidance. The few team conditioning sessions that were held consisted of long-distance running that disregarded the specific needs of baseball. And most years, the team’s on-field performance was good but not great. Ten years ago, however, that all



changed. New Head Coach Mike Fox brought a serious emphasis on strength and conditioning, and my staff and I designed a sport-specific program that would address all the key areas of development for optimum baseball performance. Today, our team trains with a purpose throughout the entire academic year. Coach Fox is adamant about players completing workouts and making consistent progress in their conditioning, and the players accept that being in great shape is part of being a Tar Heel. And it’s no coincidence that we have ended two of the last three seasons playing in the NCAA Division I College

World Series championship games. I believe in breaking down the training calendar into several distinct phases. We begin with general conditioning and strength building, and as we get closer to opening day, our focus shifts to the specific skills and types of power needed to excel on the diamond. PHILOSOPHY & BASICS Our training philosophy isn’t compliGreg Gatz, CSCS, is the Director of Strength and Conditioning for Olympic Sports at the University of North Carolina. He can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2008


SPORT SPECIFIC cated: We want to develop all the athletic qualities important to baseball success, and create players who are fully prepared for every situation that might occur in a game. That simple approach guides every decision we make in our strength and conditioning program. Baseball is primarily a power sport. Each pitch is an exercise in acceleration and strength. Each swing of the bat combines generated power with skill in an attempt to put the ball in play, and most swings attempt to generate maximum force. The infield and outfield players anticipate and react explosively in order to field hits, make throws, and prevent runners from advancing. Everything involves short bursts of intense effort, as the ball is rarely in play for more than a few seconds at one time. Taking these specific needs into account, our program focuses on improving strength and power, speed and agility, and flexibility. While doing so, we need to beware of overtraining, since the NCAA Division I baseball season typically exceeds 60 games, and most players follow that up with summer league play for another two months. Although the game has a slow pace with frequent “downtime,” this grueling com-

petition schedule takes its toll on players both physically and mentally. For that reason, we always strive for maximum efficiency in our workouts. Most players enter our program with some general knowledge of foundational exercises—they might have played high school baseball for a coach who prioritized conditioning, or played a second sport that required strength training. But we leave nothing to chance and always assume we’re working with a blank slate when we welcome a player to our program. Every responsible strength coach knows that improper technique in the weightroom is an easy way for an athlete to end up injured, so we begin each year with an emphasis on evaluation and teaching good form. When we perform initial evaluations, we look for any movement flaws or functional weaknesses, then work with athletes individually to correct them before increasing resistance or load. For example, the majority of our incoming players suffer from tight hamstrings and back muscles and overdeveloped front-side muscles in the chest, anterior shoulders, and biceps. We test for totalbody mobility by having them perform an overhead squat using a wooden stick. As

the athlete moves through a full range of motion, we can observe movement flaws in all major joints, and this helps us pinpoint specific areas to address through individualized training protocols. EARLY FALL Our program follows the basic principles of overload, progression, and specificity. We rely heavily on multi-joint, multi-directional, and ground-based exercises along with core training, because we know these activities transfer to the field and help us accomplish several training goals at once. The structure of the college baseball calendar makes steady improvement a challenge, so we have to plan our schedule very deliberately. In the fall we have 12 weeks, but must work around the fall baseball practice season (five to six weeks), fall break, and Thanksgiving break. To promote reliable progress despite these interruptions, we break our fall training into specific cycles, each with its own primary goal. The first three weeks consist of general physical preparation. Whether they’re freshmen who took the summer off from baseball, or returning players who spent June and July in a summer

STRENGTH SESSION This is a sample workout that we use in the fall to develop the types of strength and power most essential to baseball success.

Dumbbell hang clean and split jerk combination: 4 x 5 each Back squat: 4 x 5 Dumbbell lunge forward step: 2 x 8 each leg

Warmup: Jump rope (3-4 sets of 50 jumps): two feet, one foot, shuffle, high knee, or crossover steps. Hurdle walks (five hurdles set at 30 inches high, three feet apart): two sets each forward, backward, and sideways. Medicine ball rotations (3-4 kg. ball, 10 reps each):

Dumbbell lunge side step: 1 x 8 each leg Dumbbell single-leg RDL: 2 x 8 each leg Squat jump: 3 x 10, 1 min. rest between sets Dumbbell bench press: 3 x 8 Lat pull-down: 3 x 8

Standing twist

Shoulder combination: Dumbbell side raise, cross in front, upper cut, and front raise, 2 x 6 each way

Vertical chop

Dumbbell row: 3 x 8

Diagonal chop

Bar reverse curl: 3 x 10

Figure-8 pattern

Stretch band standing rotation: 2 x 10 each side

Full circle swing

Hanging knee raise: 2 x 15 Medicine ball (3 kg.) pull-over sit-up: 2 x 20




SPORT SPECIFIC league, we assume that most players arrive for the fall semester needing to make a gradual transition back to serious conditioning. Each workout at this time of year begins with a dynamic warmup that includes some form of flexibility work, such as hurdle walks using adjustable hurdles. This allows players to perform various step-over and step-under maneuvers at different heights, putting the legs and hips through a full range of motion. We also use medicine balls for rotations, swings, chops, and throwing movements to develop flexibility from top to bottom. We like medicine ball work because it develops the linkage between the upper body, core, and lower body. Coordinated strength in these areas is essential for many baseballspecific movements that we’ll be developing later on. Workouts during this phase combine basic movement patterns to challenge total-body parameters. For instance, we might combine a light-weight squat with a lunge and a squat jump—typically in two to three sets of 10 to 12 repetitions each. Combinations like these

increase the body’s overall conditioning level, which will help the athletes perform more intense work later on. Rest intervals are kept short to further enhance the conditioning benefit, and weight loads remain fairly light (50 to 70 percent of one rep max). In addition, at this time we begin to introduce acceleration training and starting mechanics, since short bursts of speed are important to successful fielding and base running. We emphasize maintaining proper body position to apply force to the ground quickly and explosively, using hill running, ramps, stair climbing, 50-yard sprints, and shuttle sprints. We pay little attention to prolonged top-speed running, since baseball players don’t run long distances at a single stretch. Our typical distance for intervals does not exceed 60 yards. (See “Acceleration/Speed Session” on page 44 for a sample workout.) LATE FALL Once fall practice begins, we reduce training volume to accommodate daily practices and scrimmages, and our focus shifts from general condition-

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ing to developing strength and power. For instance, to build leg strength that translates into swinging power, running acceleration, and throwing force, we use squatting, stepping, and lunging exercises. We also use jumping as a training mechanism for functional leg development, performing exercises such as single-leg and double-leg jumps and hops with various bounding challenges to mimic the demands of explosive starting speed. (See “Strength Session” on page 42 for a complete sample workout.) For the upper body, we take a somewhat unique approach—each pressing movement is matched with two pulling movements. As mentioned earlier, many baseball players tend to be front-side dominant, because most of their upper-body strength training experience has involved pressing movements, such as push-ups and bench presses. The underdeveloped posterior musculature, particularly in the back and shoulders (posterior deltoids and rhomboids), results in increased injury risk because the accelerating muscles of the front side produce throwing forces that are

SPORT SPECIFIC difficult for the back-side muscles to absorb during arm deceleration. We correct this imbalance with exercises for the posterior musculature using dumbbells, barbells, and medicine balls, augmenting them with pulling movements using cables and stretch bands. We want all of our players— pitchers and fielders alike—to exhibit a proper throwing motion with support from primary muscle groups and stabilizers, all the way from acceleration to follow-through. The core muscles are also a focus during this strengthening phase. We use a combination of crunches, rotations, and twists with exercise bands, cables, and medicine balls to create overload. A typical core workout segment might include standing rotations, multiple sets of hanging knee raises, and medicine ball pull-over sit-ups. As fall practice winds down, we take the last three weeks of the semester— roughly between Thanksgiving break and winter break—to optimize “specialized” strength, or the types of pow-

er most important for baseball. At this time, the main goal for the lower body is to generate speed strength with the hips and legs in a way that will transfer to game-like movements. Acceleration training continues during this phase with a focus on base stealing starts, infield/outfield runs that mimic field play, and high-speed curve running around the bases. Running a curve at full speed places different stresses on the hamstrings and foot muscles than straight-ahead running, so we want players to train for speed under sport-specific conditions. One of our favorite drills involves repetitive sets of rounding one, two, or three bases at sprinting speed to develop muscle memory and maximum efficiency. For the upper body, we build specialized strength using dumbbells. Dumbbell exercises allow for greater freedom of movement, rather than locking athletes into a single plane of motion. This in turn forces the hands, wrists, and forearms to stabilize the weight while also developing grip strength, something

AGILITY & ACCELERATION Agility and acceleration are two major focuses of our fall workouts, as we train athletes in the key sport-specific skills needed for both fielding and base running. Below are sample workouts for these two areas of emphasis. Agility Session Dynamic warmup Speed ladder drills: 6 footwork patterns x 2 repetitions each Lateral starts: 5 x each side Base stealing starts: 8 x each side Pro agility shuttle: 6 x 20 yards Ball reaction drill (right or left): x 2 Cooldown Acceleration/Speed Session Dynamic warmup Active speed drills: skipping, speed bounding, fast-leg drills (25 yards each) Forward, lateral, and base stealing position: 10-yard starts x 6 Hill runs (walk down for recovery): 6 x 30 yards Sprints (walk back for recovery): 3 x 60 yards @ 85 percent of max effort Cooldown



all baseball players love to work on. We combine the specialized strength work during this phase with more speed and agility training, consisting of hill sprints, starting drills, footwork drills, and reactive agility drills, along with interval training and shuttle runs. (See “Agility Session” below for a sample workout.) These exercises challenge the athletic qualities needed for key baseball-specific movements. Over winter break, we put the onus on our players to continue training on their own. I prescribe workouts for each player as an extension of the specialized strength phase, focusing on any areas where they need improvement. We also ask all players to condition themselves through interval sprints, shuttle runs, and hill running, using whatever facilities are available to them during the holidays. SPRING & THE SEASON In mid-January, when our athletes return to campus for the spring semester, we immediately transition into a preseason phase aimed at building game readiness. This lasts until the season begins in February. Preseason is an ideal time to perform baseball-specific drills that don’t heavily tax the body, so we implement things like coach- or partner-assisted reactive drills using tennis balls to develop hand-eye coordination in a fast-paced environment. Our movement drills at this time of year deal largely with lateral and angular movements, so players can fine-tune the agility patterns developed in the fall and prepare to implement them in game situations. Agility sessions consist of drills incorporating agility ladders and mini-hurdles, rope jumping, and footwork drills on a mat. These are short in duration, with an emphasis on quality and intensity. During preseason, we continue to strength train three times a week, but the sessions are reduced to 45 minutes because field practice is now the top priority. Each workout contains some form of conditioning, acceleration, or agility movements. After warmup, a typical workout involves 10- to 15-yard starting drills and fast-footwork drills, followed by strength and power exercises. We finish up with shuttle sprints, hill or stadium stair intervals, or threeminute runs. The strength and power work during these sessions focuses on explosive movements like dumbbell hang cleans TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

SPORT SPECIFIC into split jerks, which use the hips and legs in a combined effort. We also use dumbbell squats combined with jumps (squat jump, tuck jump, ice skater, or split jump), along with resisted multidirectional lunges and step-ups using dumbbells or weighted vests. The players also continue to perform upper-body exercises that support anterior and posterior shoulder stability, mainly using dumbbells, exercise bands, and cables. Pressing, pulling, reaching, and rotating movements keep the upper body and core muscles conditioned for the rapid movements required on the diamond. Once the season begins, we shift into maintenance mode, typically using just two short training sessions per week. Workout planning is largely dictated by our game schedule and travel. During a stretch of home games, Monday is our heavier training day. This session has a strength theme, and typically includes a squat movement (DB squat, leg press, or weighted vest squat) combined with a lunge series in three directions (front, side, and rotational), pressing and pulling exercises, and two or three core exercises. The second session, usually

held on Thursday, is more explosive in nature with a power theme, using speed ladder drills, total-body power throws, plyometrics, and core training. If we are traveling for a weekend series, we’ll still do our typical Monday workout, but the second session will be combined with a team practice—we’ll usually conduct it on the field immediately beforehand. At these sessions, the players perform power exercises and core work with weighted vests, bands, and medicine balls. YEAR-ROUND PRIORITIES Even with specialized phases of the year, there are certain areas in which we’re trying to improve all year long. Total-body fitness is the best example—even though baseball players rarely run long distances, we know that a conditioned athlete has a better chance of avoiding overuse injuries caused by a breakdown in mechanics due to muscle fatigue. General fitness work also trains our players to be mentally ready, disciplined, and tough enough to push through any difficult situation. A full conditioning workout for our


team, which we’ll implement throughout the year as needed, typically consists of sprint intervals from 20 to 60 yards, 100and 300-yard shuttles, and three-minute intervals that alternate 30 seconds of running at 80 percent of max effort with 30 seconds of jogging at 50 percent effort. We use a modified version of this conditioning workout to test the players in the fall when they arrive on campus, and again at the start of the spring semester to see how hard they worked during winter break. It’s our way of validating each athlete’s commitment to fitness, and showing that we expect them to take that commitment seriously all year long. At North Carolina, our baseball team has recently ascended to a level of consistent performance that’s allowing us to build a tradition of success. Our players realize that maintaining this level takes dedication and lots of hard work. Putting the necessary effort into training for strength, skill, and fitness prepares our team to perform at its best, and hopefully, with a little luck, to realize our dream of winning an NCAA championship. ■




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THERAPY TECHNOLOGIES Chattanooga Group 800-592-7329

Amrex® 800-221-9069

Dynatronics Corp. 800-874-6251

Intelect TranSport Combo

MS324C Low Volt AC Muscle Stimulator

Dynatron Solaris 709

The Intelect TranSport Combo conveniently combines both ultrasound and electrotherapy into one easy-to-use, versatile unit.

• 12.9” x 11.3” x 10.1”; 5 pounds • Power Supply: 120-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz • Portable for clinic or mobile use • Ten user-defined memory positions for user protocols • Designed for tabletop, wall mount, therapy cart, or mobile use • Four interchangeable sound head applicators with electronic signature • Stimulation modes: continuous and pulsed • Two channels of electrical stimulation • Output voltage (peak to peak): 120240 VAC • Timer included • Hands-free operation • Combination units available • Two-year warranty Circle No. 500

Vectra Genisys Laser The Vectra Genisys Laser system from Chattanooga Group is a sophisticated yet easy-to-use dedicated laser device that features logical operating software, on-board rationale, clinical protocols, and user protocols.

The MS324C is a dual-channel, fourpad, low-voltage electrical muscle stimulator that produces pulse, tetanize, surge, and reciprocal output.

• 10” x 11.5” x 4.5”; 4.25 pounds • Power supply: 115/230 VAC, 50/60Hz • Microprocessor for precise treatment settings • Digital displays for selectable treatment setting • Patient treatment stop switch • Dual-channel four-pad stimulator • Dual intensity controls • Asymmetrical alternating current (no load) • Output voltage (peak to peak): 110 V into 1,000-ohm load, 36 V peak into 100-ohm load • Combination therapy capability • Two-year warranty on the generator, parts, and labor Circle No. 502

Amrex Z-Stim IF250 The Amrex Z-Stim IF250 microprocessor-controlled stimulator provides three widely used modalities: Quad-Polar interferential, Bi-Polar interferential, and Russian stimulation.

• • • • • Laser class: IIIB • FDA-cleared for pain relief, muscle relaxation, muscle spasm relief, and increased local blood circulation • Portable • Eight interchangeable applicators offer laser, LED, and SLD • Multiple energy levels and wavelengths • Pulsing capability • Two-year warranty Circle No. 501 46


• • • • • •

14” x 11.75” x 6”; 9 pounds Line voltage: 120 VAC, 60 Hz Microprocessor controlled Quad-Polar, Bi-Polar, and Russian modalities Frequency, time, and milliamp digital displays Output voltage (peak to peak): 62 V with no load, 56 V peak into 560ohm load Multi-channel frequencies Time adjustment from one to 99 minutes Solid state circuitry Two-year warranty on the parts and labor Circle No. 503

The Dynatron Solaris 709 offers ultrasound, seven stim waveforms, and the option of adding light therapy.

• 14.32” x 4.6” x 12.7”; 13 pounds • 100-240 volt power supply/optional battery pack • Five channels (four, plus a dedicated high-voltage channel) • Modes: interferential/premodulated; biphasic/Russian; high-voltage; microcurrent; direct current; ultrasound; light; combination and stimulation treatments • Output voltage (peak to peak): 1-130 volts (interferential); 0-300 volts (high-voltage); 0-12 (other stim modalities) • Timer included • Hands-free and hands-on operation • Nationwide representatives available for training needs Circle No. 504

Dynatron X5™ The X5 from Dynatronics offers softtissue oscillation therapy—an exciting new modality. The X5 is lightweight and affordable, with an optional battery pack.

• • • • • • • • •

13.25” x 4.75” x 10.25”; 5.1 pounds Power supply: 100-240 volts Portable, with optional battery pack Two channels Six customizable treatment modes and conductance meter Four frequency sweeps plus single frequency settings Output voltage (peak to peak): 0-420 volts Timer included Two-year warranty Circle No. 505


THERAPY TECHNOLOGIES Multi Radiance Medical 800-373-0955

TQ Solo Laser TQ Solo Laser is an FDA-cleared compact, portable pain-relieving device with the power to relieve both chronic and acute pain in the field in just minutes. The TQ Solo Laser is the only handheld portable device with exclusive Multi Radiance Technology™. • Laser class 1M (IEC 60825-1) • Peak super-pulsed laser power: 15 watts (15,000 mW) • Up to 18 hours of battery power • Used by pro athletes worldwide • Two-year warranty Circle No. 506

LaserStim Emitter Multi Radiance Medical announces a breakthrough with the introduction of its new FDA-cleared LaserStim emitter for the TerraQuant laser device, to speed relief to chronic and acute pain sufferers.

• Laser class 1M (IEC 60825-1) • Patented hybrid emitter combines laser therapy and e-stim • Clinicians can now receive insurance reimbursement for this attended combination modality • Peak super-pulsed laser power: 25 watts (25,000 mW) • Two-year warranty Circle No. 507

VQ OrthoCare 800-266-6969

OrthoStim3® The OrthoStim3® is a portable noninvasive neuromodulation device for pain control, muscle re-education, increased local blood circulation, and improved range of motion. With proprietary T.E.A.R. Technology® (Targeted Electronic Analgesic Rehabilitation), the device uses multiple wave forms seamlessly through a treatment continuum to promote positive outcomes following injury. • • • • • •

5.7” x 3” x 1.5”; 13.2 ounces Battery pack or AC power IF, NM, and HVPC stimulation modes Supplies up to 300 volts Two channel; timer included Programs – preset and customizable, ideal for athletes • Online and DVD demo for proper use • Three-year warranty Circle No. 508

knocking knocking

LIDO-GEL Topical Anesthetic Hydrogel FINALLY An Effective Topical Anesthetic LIDO-GEL provides a convenient, safe and effective method for topical delivery of the anesthetic drug LIDOCAINE into areas of inflammation, chronic or acute pain. LIDO-GEL is a non-toxic, local anesthetic available as a gel in a non-staining transdermal base readily absorbed through tissue. Contains 4% Lidocaine and 0.18% Menthol for use in the relief of itching, pain, soreness, and discomfort.

Fast Acting Non-Toxic No Odor & Non-Staining No Oily or Sticky Residue


you you

down? down?

The OrthoStim3® is a portable, lightweight non-invasive neuromodulation device combining three different types of stimulation to provide: • • • •

Non-pharmacological, non-addictive pain control Muscle re-education Increased local blood circulation Improved range of motion

For more information contact us at 800.266.6969 or

Call For More Information

Kustomer Kinetics, Inc. (800) 959-1145

VQ OrthoCare provides non-invasive medical solutions focused on bone, joint, and soft tissue conditions.

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PLYOMETRICS Shuttle Systems 800-334-5633

Perform Better 800-556-7464

Used by 26 NFL teams, 20 NBA teams, 14 MLB teams—and counting—the Shuttle MVP helps you develop explosive functional power while reducing impact on the ankle, knee, hip joints, and spine. The patented Horizontal Rebounding Technology, PowerGlide, and padded jump plate give you a smooth, controlled training experience. Use sport-specific protocols with the MVP to increase functional power and muscle memory. Increase your athletes’ performance and prolong their athletic careers with the MVP. Circle No. 510

Combining durability, stability, and safety is the design goal of Perform Better’s new lineup of Plyo-Safe G2 Boxes. Constructed of a 100-percent foam core, they will not break down or soften over time. Each Plyo-Safe box is fitted with three two-inch strips of Velcro™ to prevent the boxes from slipping apart after stacking. Handles on the larger boxes allow for easy repositioning. There are five sizes: three, six, 12, 18, and 24 inches. Order a set of three, a set of five, or individual sizes. Custom colors and logos are available. See them in the Perform Better catalog or online. Circle No. 513

Exertools 800-235-1559 Since the introduction of Exertools’ original medicine ball rebounder, The PlyoBack, more than 15 years ago, the company has established itself as a premier innovator in medicine ball plyometric equipment. For the new PlyoBack Elite, Exertools applied the strongest, most reliable design features of its last three models and integrated them into one strong, durable, versatile, and easy-to-use system. It’s a fully integrated training station featuring a balance station, an angled plyometric jump station, a jog station, and a medicine ball rebounder. Circle No. 511 The Swivel Tree from Exertools was designed to replace all existing medicine ball trees and racks with a unit that has just a 3’ x 3’ footprint. The pods swivel seamlessly for easy access to all items on the racks, even if the Swivel Tree is kept in a corner or a closet. It can also be used to store and organize running shoes, golf shoes, soccer balls, basketballs, footballs, cones, tennis rackets, and much more. The Swivel Tree is made of 12-gauge powder-coated steel, and the base slides smoothly over carpeting for easy placement. Circle No. 512 48


A new idea: Slastix all-purpose bands are featured in the 2008 Perform Better catalog. They offer protection from wear, nicks, and cuts, and also protect the tubing from being over-stretched. You can now enjoy a positive solution to problems often arising with traditional tubing. The new miracle Slastix covering allows four-inch bands to stretch up to three times their length. They’re available online and in the Perform Better catalog in the following models: extra-light, light, medium, heavy, extra-heavy and super-heavy. Call today to request your catalog. Circle No. 514 NZ Mfg., Inc. 800-886-6621 The TurfCordz Jump Belt is increasingly gaining interest and acceptance by high-level strength and conditioning professionals as a training tool for obtaining advanced levels of vertical leap and agility in athletes. The unique design of the Jump Belt provides anchoring straps to mount to a stationary object, or the product can be used with a fitness professional’s assistance. With five resistance levels of tubing to choose from, even the most advanced athlete will see benefit from this training tool. The adjustable

waist belt can accommodate up to a 38-inch waist. Order item S130 and specify resistance level silver, yellow, green, red, or blue. Circle No. 515 OPTP 800-367-7393 The Exercise Ideas book set is perfect for health and fitness professionals who are trying to vary workout routines or enhance their knowledge of exercise possibilities. The set of four books includes: Exercise Ideas for Core Strengthening, Exercise Ideas for Conditioning on the Ball, Exercise Ideas for Upper Body Strengthening, and Exercise Ideas for Lower Body Strengthening. The books are also sold separately. For more information or a free OPTP catalog, call the company or go online. Circle No. 516 Power Systems 800-321-6975 Save time and space without sacrificing quality with an Adjustable Power-Plyo Box from Power Systems. This new 30-inch plyo box adjusts from 18 to 30 inches in two-inch increments. It features a 30” x 26” non-slip landing area and longer sides for improved safety. The Adjustable Power-Plyo Box is made of square tubular steel with a fully welded frame, and it comes with wheels and a handle for easy transport. Circle No. 517 SPRI Products 800-222-7774 The StrengthCord Plus is the perfect training partner. The braided, rope-like construction makes this one of the toughest tubing products on the market. Not only can it be wrapped around, under, or over any stable surface for all types of dynamic integrated movement patterns, but you can use the StrengthCord Plus during partner drills and add resistance to your plyometric workouts. Circle No. 518 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NEW Product Launch Thera-Band® Tubing with Handles Unique features: • Recognized Thera-Band system of progression and familiar colors with soft, cushioned foam handles • Each natural rubber tube in yellow, red, green, and blue is 48 inches long, while the black and silver tubes are 50 inches long Benefits for the user: • Foam handles provide a more controlled and comfortable grip • The progression system provides consistent increases in resistance levels as a measurable means of tracking progress

Performance Health 800-321-2135

Glyc’N Go Unique features: • The only chewable form of GlycoCarn®, Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GPLC), on the market today • Registered with Informed Choice, this product is regularly tested to be free of banned contaminants Benefits for the user: • Clinical studies have shown Glyc’N Go may positively affect the body’s ability to produce energy and increase levels of nitric oxide • Contributes to muscle function, supporting peripheral arterial blood flow • Reduces lactic acid buildup

Glyc’N Go 866-GLYCNGO

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Custom Wobble Board Unique features: • Four individually controllable ranges of motion allow for customized movement in one, two, three, or all four directions • Provides varying amount of tilt, from 0 to 20 degrees • Easy-twist knobs allow for quick tilt and rangeof-motion customization Benefits for the user: • Delivers customized therapy ranging from remedial movement to full range-of-motion balance training and strengthening • Eliminates the need for multiple boards

Medi-Dyne Healthcare Products, LLC 800-810-1740 Circle No. 521


Circle No. 520

Ice/Cold Therapy Wrap Unique features: • Two wide straps apply even compression for deep, penetrating cold therapy relief • Form-fitting wrap remains flexible, conforming to the body Benefits for the user: • Can be filled anywhere ice is available • Ice therapy expedites recovery from muscle tightness and soft-tissue injuries • Available in two sizes

Pro-Tec Athletics 800-779-3372 Circle No. 522



CallingHere Cards is what these companies are most known for...


Equipment for training without straining.

There’s no substitute for firstquality products from Adams USA.

Celebrating 25 years of being the professionals’ choice for fitness.

Winning taste... Championship results.

Supplying the professional market since 1991.

Get injured athletes back up to top speed quickly and safely.

Highly respected strength and conditioning and personal training certifications.

Manufacturer and distributor of advanced-technology medical and rehabilitation equipment, supplies, and treatment tables

Supplier of functional exercise equipment for rehabilitation and athletic training.

Created for the extreme demands of high-level athletic training.

World-class manufacturer of adjustable, portable taping and treatment tables.

A leader in sports and industrial hydration.

Supplier of quality tools and resources for more than 30 years.

Uniquely designed products with unparalleled comfort and effectiveness.

For safety, durability, and exceptional value, choose WerkSan.

Quality, functional, and durable products for the healthcare industry.

Custom weight training equipment built for strength since 1976.

Customized taping stations and treatment furniture for athletic trainers, built PROTEAM tough.



TOPICAL ANALGESICS Ari-Med Pharmaceuticals 800-527-4923 Depend on Flexall 454® topical painrelieving gels for clinical and athletic training room settings. Flexall gels are used by leading athletic trainers to treat the world’s top athletes. Enhance ultrasound, cryotherapy, TENS, and massage therapy. Flexall gels feature unique vitamin E-enriched aloe vera gel formulas with menthol as the active ingredient. They’re absorbed quickly and are greaseless, non-staining, and gentle on the skin. Professional sizes are available. Circle No. 523 China-Gel, Inc. 800-898-4-GEL China-Gel® is an herbal topical pain-relieving gel that incorporates modern technology with ancient painrelieving concepts of Chinese medicine. Resembling a fine hand cream, China-Gel is greaseless and stainless. It has a pleasant and soothing lavender/ menthol fragrance on application but ultimately becomes odorless as the gel is absorbed. Massaging it into the area of pain will help stimulate circulation and initiate the body’s natural methods of pain relief. Circle No. 524 Gebauer Co. 800-321-9348 Gebauer’s Instant Ice® non-prescription skin refrigerant can be used like ice for minor pain and swelling from sprains, strains, bruising, contusions, and minor sports injuries. Gebauer’s Instant Ice is ideal for facilities that restrict the use of TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

flammable components. It is available in a mist spray or stream spray aerosol can, and can be purchased directly from Gebauer by calling the company or visiting its Web site. Circle No. 525 Gebauer’s Spray and Stretch® topical anesthetic skin refrigerant replaces Gebauer’s Fluori-Methane, which has been discontinued. Use Gebauer’s Spray and Stretch fine stream spray in conjunction with the spray and stretch technique to effectively manage myofascial pain, restricted motion, trigger points, muscle spasms, and minor sports injuries. The product is non-flammable and available only by prescription. It can be purchased through your medical supplier or wholesaler, or directly from Gebauer. Circle No. 526 Performance Health 800-246-3733 Applied generously, Biofreeze® painrelieving gel and roll-on effectively relieve pain from heel injuries, sore arches, muscle spasms, strains, sprains, and tendonitis, and will help minimize next-day aches and pains. Use it up to four times a day. It’s available in a 16-ounce spray bottle and 16-ounce, 32-ounce, and gallon gel pump bottles. Also available is a gravity dispenser box with 100 fivegram single-use application packets for clinical settings. Circle No. 527 Kustomer Kinetics 800-959-1145 Dr. B’s Blue Gel Formula provides fast-acting, long-lasting, penetrating pain relief. It’s easy to apply and gently soothes away and relaxes the pain associated with sore muscles and joints from arthritis, backaches, sprains, and strains. Apply it twice

daily, in the morning and evening, for maximum benefit while increasing blood flow and reducing muscle spasms. It’s greaseless and non-staining, and contains menthol for a cooling sensation and aloe vera for skin moisturizing and healing benefits. Circle No. 528 Watkins, Inc. 507-457-3300 For 140 years, Watkins has been America’s pioneer in natural living, utilizing the finest natural ingredients in its products such as topical analgesics. To this day, Watkins adheres strictly to the same quality standards set forth by company founder J.R. Watkins. Through its topical analgesics, first aid, and natural personal care offerings, Watkins continues to provide products that are good for the earth, good for others, and good for you. Circle No. 529 Boiron 888-264-7668 Boiron offers the natural healing benefit of homeopathic Arnica montana in a topical gel formula. Unlike other topical pain relievers, Arnicare Gel not only treats muscle aches and stiffness but also relieves swelling and bruising caused by trauma, overexertion, or surgery. The odorless gel absorbs quickly and does not leave a greasy residue. Arnicare Gel is available at select drug store chains and independent pharmacies nationwide. Go online for more information. Circle No. 530



MORE PRODUCTS California University of Pennsylvania 866-595-6348 California University of Pennsylvania has helped build the character and careers of its students for more than 150 years. Cal U’s dedication to providing highquality, in-demand programs to its students continues through the University’s Global Online 100-percent online programs of study. Through an asynchronous format, Global Online allows students the opportunity to complete coursework anytime, anywhere. All that’s required is a computer with Internet access. Go online for more information. Circle No. 531 Cho-Pat 800-221-1601 Cho-Pat’s newest product, the Bicep/ Triceps Cuff, affords protection from overuse injuries for individuals performing repetitive lifting in activities such as weight training. This patent-pending device applies dynamic circumference pressure to the upper and lower portions of the biceps and triceps muscles, particularly at the tendon attachments. This action spreads out the stress and direct pull on the muscle attachments, which helps reduce the likelihood of developing bicipital and tricipital tendonitis or tendonosis. Circle No. 532 Concentra 800-232-3550 Concentra is currently seeking certified athletic trainers for positions in its on-site occupational health clin-

ics and medical centers. As a leading provider of healthcare to the American workforce, the company operates more than 260 on-site facilities in 39 states 52


and more than 320 medical centers in 41 states. You can earn a competitive salary and enjoy access to a complete benefits package. Visit Concentra online for more details on available positions and to submit your resume. Circle No. 533 Shuttle Systems 800-334-5633 The Shuttle Balance provides a safe platform for the recovering athlete to re-establish dynamic stability in the lower extremity. The suspended platform produces an unstable surface, invoking use of stabilizers throughout the athlete’s body. You can fully adjust platform height, degree of stability, and tilt sensitivity. Travel Control Tethers allow you to control the range of perturbation and lateral movement. The elastic resistance bands enable progressive resistance, including abduction and adduction. Protocols can be progressed according to treatment goals. Circle No. 534 Creative Health Products 800-742-4478 Creative Health Products offers a variety of rehabilitation products at discounted prices. Items include resistance bands, hand and finger exercisers, vinylcoated dumbbells, thermophore heating pads, step benches, medicine balls, physioballs, goniometers, flexibility testers, strength testers, heart rate monitors, spirometers, anthropometers, and posture and alignment grids. Circle No. 535

Egg Whites International 877-EGG-WHITES Egg Whites International’s 100-percent pure liquid egg whites are heatpasteurized and tested for salmonella, making them “liquid” but not “raw.” They are double-filtered to achieve the smooth consistency of milk, and they’re completely tasteless and odorless for making the perfect protein drink. An eight-ounce serving supplies 26 grams of protein with no fat, no cholesterol, two grams of carbs, 120 calories, and all the essential amino acids. Circle No. 536 Medi-Dyne Healthcare Products 800-810-1740 StrengthRite™ provides an innovative, proactive solution for the prevention and rehabilitation of ankle, shin, calf, and Achilles tendon injuries. StrengthRite’s patent-pending design enables you to adjust the tension for varying levels of resistance and focus. No other product on the market allows you to strengthen the muscles controlling all four planes of ankle motion this easily. StrengthRite provides one of the most cost-effective, complete ankle strengthening solutions on the market. Circle No. 537 Sport Guard International 877-848-2737 The Gladiator is a custom-fitted, dentist-quality mouthguard made in the U.S.A. by trained dental technicians. It is precisely fitted to the athlete’s mouth, offering better protection against oral injury and even concussion. The Gladiator is TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

MORE PRODUCTS changing athletes’ awareness of oral protection and concussion risk. The streamlined design offers maximum protection and allows easier breathing to enhance athletes’ performance and minimize fatigue. A Gladiator can be personalized with a team logo and identification for free. Circle No. 538 CytoSport, Inc. 888-298-6629 Cytomax Collegiate Performance Drink is a blend of complex carbohydrates and electrolytes that optimizes hydration during exercise and keeps energy at peak levels longer to help improve stamina. Alpha L-polylactate acts to prevent acid buildup and minimizes post-exercise muscle soreness. Cytomax is avail-

able in convenient ready-to-drink or powder formulas. Circle No. 539

Kneebourne Therapeutic 866-756-3706

Muscle Milk Collegiate RTD (readyto-drink) formula from CytoSport provides a high-quality protein blend that helps promote recovery from exercise and is permissible under collegiate bylaw for nutritional supplements. Due to its unique multi-source protein, maltodextrin carbohydrate, and healthy fat structure, this product is second to none for collegiate athletic programs. It is available in convenient ready-to-drink chocolate and vanilla flavors, and strawberry is coming soon. Visit CytoSport online to learn more. Circle No. 540

The Elite Seat by Kneebourne Therapeutic is a portable knee-extension device designed for the nonoperative treatment of degenerative knee conditions. By evenly distributing force across the leg, the Elite Seat provides effective full-knee hyperextension and reduces pain in bent knees caused by any of these conditions: acute ACL injury; inadequate post-operative rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction; total-knee arthroplasty; arthrofibrosis; deconditioned knee with a flexion contracture; and arthritis. Circle No. 541

Isokinetic Exercisers

Isokinetic accommodating exercisers for more power training and safe rehab. Our exercisers have LCD diagnostic measuring.

Mini-Gym Co. Toll Free 877-656-5496 Circle No. 132 1 TRUntitled-10 AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

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New Technology Earns High-Level Endorsements

Accomplished Sports Medicine Professional Praises Equipment Supplier

Stay Up To Date on MRSA Risk at AthletiClean’s Site

Multi Radiance Medical has announced a breakthrough with the introduction of its new FDA-cleared LaserStim emitter for the TerraQuant laser device, to speed relief to chronic and acute pain sufferers. TerraQuant’s specially designed LaserStim emitter can provide simultaneous or independent light and electrical stimulation applications for superior clinical outcomes.

“I am honored to work with the SPRI team to further develop the sports conditioning category. I love working with a great company that is always striving to bring its customers more.

Designed with help from leading clinicians, the MR4 Super Pulsed laser system expands clinical applications by using the new 25-watt Super Pulsed LaserStim, a unique probe designed to synergistically deliver laser, light, and neurostimulation therapies. “I find the Multi Radiance Medical laser to be a very valuable tool in decreasing inflammation before or after a workout, practice, or game. Maintaining healthy joints is critical for enduring a long season.” Allan Houston New York Knicks “The TerraQuant has been a Godsend for both me and my athletes. For chronic knee ligament injury, after two days and six sessions on the TerraQuant, the scar tissue was reduced by 50 percent and pain was reduced by 90 percent. Also, five young athletes have recovered from various twists, bruises, and growing pains after one to three days on the TerraQuant, and a parent is finally feeling relief from spinal fusion surgery after using the TeraQuant for half a cycle. The TerraQuant is even becoming important to us in our post-training water workouts.” Tom Barbeau Alpine Director Waterville Valley Ski Academy

Multi Radiance Medical 6565 Cochran Rd. Solon, OH 44139 800-373-0955 Fax: 440-542-0765 54


Those who take care of today’s athletes face new challenges in both protecting their health and keeping their facilities, uniforms, and equipment clean. At AthletiClean’s Web site, you can learn about the company’s advanced sanitizing products, which can play a pivotal role in preventing your athletes from being sidelined by staph and MRSA. The site also contains links to timely and important news articles covering MRSA outbreaks and prevention strategies. AthletiClean products are easy to use, affordable, and highly effective. Visit the site today to learn more. Products, Information, and More on Pro-Tec’s Site

“As a professional personal trainer, athlete performance coach, and owner of Fitness Quest 10 in San Diego, I work with professional athletes like LaDanian Tomlinson, Drew Brees, Donnie Edwards, and dozens of others. I rely on SPRI products to challenge my clients and push them to their limits.” Todd Durkin 2005 ACE Personal Trainer of the Year 2004 IDEA Personal Trainer of the Year Owner, Fitness Quest 10 and Todd Durkin Enterprises

SPRI Products 1600 N. Wind Blvd. Libertyville, IL 60048 800-222-7774 Fax: 303-648-5418

Pro-Tec Athletics, a leading sports medicine company specializing in athletic training products, hot/cold therapy, and massage products, offers the most detailed, up-to-date injury and product information online. Visit the company’s site to view its complete line of braces, supports, hot/cold therapy offerings, and massage products available for ligament, tendon, and muscle injuries. Get comprehensive information on identifying specific injuries, finding the correct treatments, and selecting the appropriate products. You’ll also find links to the best medical distributors and get the most current information on new products for 2009. OPTP Web Site Is Better Than Ever After New Updates OPTP’s Web site has a new look. The company’s new and improved site makes it easier than ever to find and purchase OPTP products. Additional images and product information have been added to assist you in making purchasing decisions. Utilize the “My Wish List” feature to plan upcoming purchases, or save frequent orders in your account to access and easily reorder at your convenience. The new site also allows you to rate products and comment on your experience with them. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM


Industry Trend: In keeping with the worldwide trend toward wellness, Cleveland Chiropractic College’s Kansas City campus is currently developing a master’s degree in Health Promotion. The proposed 36-hour degree emphasizes helping patients, groups, communities, and society at large to develop behaviors that will be conducive to better health. This degree program will center on the areas of responsibility for Certified Health Education Specialists, a nationally recognized certification from the National Commission on Health Education Credentialing. Completion of the program will allow an individual to sit for the examination for Certified Health Education Specialist.

New Technology: MRSA continues to be the focus in athletic training facilities across the country, and research has proliferated in an effort to stop this virulent form of staphylococcus. In a book published in 2008, Proceedings of Light-Activated Tissue Regeneration and Therapy Conference, Waynant/ Tata (editors), a research team stated: “Blue light produced a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on MRSA (p<0.001), achieving a kill rate of 96.7 percent, 90.8 percent, and 83.8 percent respectively during each of the three trials.” The study concluded that “blue light emitted by the SLD source destroys MRSA in vitro” and suggested that a similar bactericidal effect may be achieved outside the laboratory.

Benefits: This degree program will allow graduates to help athletes and all people in a variety of areas, including worksite health, sports health, exercise, nutrition, and diet.

Benefits: The Dynatron 405 infrared/blue light probe produces the same wavelengths used in this groundbreaking research. It is safe, fast, and an inexpensive way to apply blue light.

Cleveland Chiropractic College 800-467-2252 Circle No. 550

Dynatronics Corp. 800-874-6251 Circle No. 551

Industry Trend: In today’s practice, the “ideal” method of treating patients via custom orthoses is often time- and costprohibitive due to declining reimbursements. In contrast, off-theshelf arch supports usually lack adequate biomechanical support. The Rx Quadrastep system bridges the gap between custom and non-custom orthoses. A clinical algorithm categorizes an athlete’s foot into 24 unique foot types. The 24 foot types are sub-divided into six groupings of four, known as quads. The six quads are severe pes cavus, mild pes planus, neutral, moderate pes planus, abductovarus forefoot, and severe planovalgus feet. The six quadspecific functional orthoses are biomechanically tailored to simulate a true custom prescription. Benefits: The Rx Quadrastep system is easy to learn and can be quickly applied in a clinical setting. It eliminates the need for costly and messy foot impressions that are prone to error. The Rx Quadrastep devices can be stocked in-house, ready for immediate fitting. For the first time, athletic trainers can classify a patient’s foot type and dispense affordable, ready-towear orthoses with custom results in minutes. Nolaro24, LLC 877-782-4669 Circle No. 552 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

New Technology: A new clinical study published in the September edition of the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research concludes that Thera-Band elastic bands can offer significant physiological benefits comparable to those obtained from weight machines in the early phase of strength training among sedentary middle-aged women over a 10-week period. Benefits: Both weight machines and elastic bands produced reduction of fat mass, increase of fat-free mass, and improvement in muscular strength, power, and endurance, with no statistically significant difference. Subjects were able to increase their intensity with significant results based on their perception of how hard they were working against resistance. This study confirmed that elastic resistance is a much more cost-effective, portable, and intuitive way to exercise. Thera-Band latex resistance bands are available in individually wrapped five-foot bands, bulk rolls, and loops.

Performance Health 800-321-2135 Circle No. 553 T&C DECEMBER 2008







126 . . . Amrex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

107 . . . Gladiator Mouthguards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

103 . . . Biofreeze®/Performance Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

117 . . . Glyc’N Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

120 . . . Boiron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

125 . . . Kneebourne Therapeutic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

112 . . . California University of Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

130 . . . Kustomer Kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

109 . . . Chattanooga Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

132 . . . Mini-Gym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

118 . . . China-Gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

116 . . . NASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

101 . . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

121 . . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

122 . . . Cleveland Chiropractic College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

110 . . . Perform Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

123 . . . Concentra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

119 . . . PRO Orthopedic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

128 . . . Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

102 . . . PROTEAM by Hausmann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

134 . . . CytoSport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC

127 . . . Samson Weight Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

133 . . . Dynatronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBC

105 . . . TerraQuant (Multi Radiance Medical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

115 . . . Egg Whites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

106 . . . The PolarPool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

104 . . . Exertools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

108 . . . Thera-Band®/Performance Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

113 . . . Flexall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

129 . . . TurfCordz/NZ Mfg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

124 . . . G&W Heel Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

131 . . . VQ OrthoCare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

111 . . . Gebauer Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

100 . . . Watkins, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC







502 . . . Amrex (MS324C Muscle Stimulator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

513 . . . Perform Better (Plyo-Safe G2 Boxes). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

503 . . . Amrex (Z-Stim IF250). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

514 . . . Perform Better (Slastix) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

523 . . . Ari-Med . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

527 . . . Performance Health (Biofreeze®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

530 . . . Boiron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

519 . . . Performance Health (Thera-Band®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

531 . . . California University of Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

517 . . . Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

500 . . . Chattanooga (Intelect TranSport Combo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

522 . . . Pro-Tec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

501 . . . Chattanooga (Vectra Genisys Laser) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

534 . . . Shuttle Systems (Balance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

524 . . . China-Gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

510 . . . Shuttle Systems (MVP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

532 . . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

518 . . . SPRI Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

533 . . . Concentra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

515 . . . TurfCordz/NZ Mfg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

535 . . . Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

508 . . . VQ OrthoCare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

539 . . . CytoSport (Collegiate Performance Drink). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

529 . . . Watkins, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

540 . . . CytoSport (Muscle Milk Collegiate RTD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

State of the Industry

504 . . . Dynatronics (Dynatron Solaris 709) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

563 . . . Boiron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

505 . . . Dynatronics (Dynatron X5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

565 . . . California University of Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

536 . . . Egg Whites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

550 . . . Cleveland Chiropractic College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

511 . . . Exertools (PlyoBack Elite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

551 . . . Dynatronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

512 . . . Exertools (Swivel Tree) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

564 . . . Glyc’N Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

525 . . . Gebauer (Instant Ice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

562 . . . Multi Radiance Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

526 . . . Gebauer (Spray and Stretch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

554 . . . NASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

538 . . . Gladiator Mouthguards (Sport Guard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

552 . . . Nolaro24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

520 . . . Glyc’N Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

555 . . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

541 . . . Kneebourne Therapeutics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

553 . . . Performance Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

528 . . . Kustomer Kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

556 . . . Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

521 . . . Medi-Dyne (product launch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

558 . . . PRO Orthopedic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

537 . . . Medi-Dyne (StrengthRite). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

557 . . . PROTEAM by Hausmann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

507 . . . Multi Radiance Medical (LaserStim Emitter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

559 . . . Samson Weight Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

506 . . . Multi Radiance Medical (TQ Solo Laser) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

560 . . . Sport Guard International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

516 . . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

561 . . . The PolarPool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58




Industry Trend: Virtually all athletic trainers in the NBA hold the NASM Corrective Exercise Specialist (CES) or Performance Enhancement Specialist (PES) advanced specialization. Benefits: Whatever the sport or competitive level, NASM can help your athletes stay in the game and perform like champions. The NASM offers two programs: CES—Learn revolutionary techniques to correct muscle imbalances and establish proper movement patterns; and PES—Learn cutting-edge performance assessment techniques and sport-specific program design. Take your game to the next level and advance your career with the NASM CES and PES.

National Academy of Sports Medicine 800-460-6276 Circle No. 554

Industry Trend: Because it is one of the most versatile tools for all-around athletic development, the kettlebell’s popularity continues to grow. Competitive athletes at all levels are incorporating kettlebell training into their programs as an alternative method for developing strength. Power Systems recently introduced the Ultra Kettlebell to its product line. This cast iron bell features a smooth, solid steel handle for a comfortable one- or two-handed grip, plus a rubber-plated bottom to prevent damage to floors and other surfaces. Benefits: Like traditional kettlebells, the Ultra Kettlebell offers athletes several training benefits, including increased power production using wholebody engagement, increased strength and endurance, and noticeable gains in sport performance due to strong hip extension training. Some kettlebell advantages are similar to those found with Olympic lifting. Power Systems 800-321-6975 Circle No. 556 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

Industry Trend: Kinesio tape use is becoming more popular in athletics. Kinesio taping is a great modality for a number of clinical conditions, including carpal tunnel syndrome, plantar fasciitis, and even chronic swelling and lymphoedema. Because of how the adhesive is applied to the back of the tape, it can help with swelling by microscopically lifting the skin so that excess fluid can be removed from the area. In the OPTP catalog, you will find Kinesio tape and a variety of Kinesio taping books. Benefits: The Kinesio taping method works with the body and does not restrict movement like a lot of other taping techniques. Kinesio tape gives support, but also rehabilitates the affected condition in the athlete or patient. OPTP 800-367-7393 Circle No. 555

New Technology: PROTEAM by Hausmann now has the ability to upgrade your athletic training room by adding your team logo to your taping station back rests, seats, wall pads, or tabletops. Your team logo can be embossed in all its glory in multiple colors that will really make your training room pop. Talk about team pride. For a subtler look, you can deboss a monochrome logo into your tables’ upholstery. Go to to see examples of PROTEAM by Hausmann’s recent work. Benefits: These enhancements to your athletic training room are an attractive way to increase team pride and impress alumni and new recruits. In addition, the vinyl is easy to clean and disinfect. PROTEAM by Hausmann 888-428-7626 Circle No. 557 T&C DECEMBER 2008



New Technology: The Pro 611 ankle brace is a new (patent pending) brace design that effectively duplicates current taping techniques. Using a specially designed calf cuff, the brace anchors its lateral support at the calf, providing significantly more support than traditional ankle braces made from low-profile nylon. The brace fits in a shoe and is easy to adjust. It is machine washable and very durable.


Industry Trend: There is a recent trend to incorporate basic movements that have been implemented the same way for decades, but in new and unique ways. The athletic strength and conditioning community is constantly coming up with methods for implementing movements and exercises in new ways, whether by necessity or as part of the training program itself. Likewise, weight equipment manufacturers are constantly coming up with new machines that take basic exercises and implement them in new ways. Samson’s Belt Squat is just such a piece. Now, athletes can perform a squat movement from an upright position, and still overload themselves while taking pressure off the lower back.

Benefits: The Pro 611 duplicates expensive taping techniques, but can be applied without an athletic trainer. It’s a cost-effective and reusable solution.

Benefits: The Belt Squat provides new options for training the lower body. Athletes can still train heavy on squats, even if they are injured in the upper body. The unique design is compact, adjustable, and also allows for band training.

PRO Orthopedic 800-523-5611 Circle No. 558

Samson Equipment 800-472-6766 Circle No. 559

New Technology: Advancements in technology and design have given today’s athletes a competitive edge in many areas. Shoes, equipment, and even undergarments have all been redesigned with better performance in mind. Meanwhile, mouthguards have remained unchanged. That’s why Sport Guard International (SGI) has created the Gladiator. Gladiator mouthguards are designed for superior protection and performance. Gladiator’s newest revolutionary design, the Extreme, affords the ultimate in comfort while still providing the ultimate in protection.

New Technology: The PolarPool™ is the new state-of-the-art, multifunctional cryotherapy spa. Your athletes can receive cold, hot, and salt water therapy in the convenience of one portable unit. There’s no more filling and draining, no chemicals, and it’s spacious enough for six people. With water temperatures ranging from 40 to 104 degrees, the PolarPool™ offers a simple, high-tech solution for professional sports teams, athletic trainers, and colleges. The 110-volt unit is completely portable and fits through standard doorways. The interior is built with Microban acrylic to ensure sanitization with a digital ORP monitor. Exterior panels can be customized with colors and logos. Financing is available.

Benefits: Maximum comfort means better compliance. Excellent protection means fewer injuries. Maximum air flow enhances performance. Improved speech capability promotes communication with teammates.

Benefits: The spacious interior is designed for functionality and comfort. No additional plumbing is required. The unit uses a salt water sanitization system with automated filtration, offering clean, safe water in a compact, custom, branded, portable enclosure.

Sport Guard International 877-8-GUARDS Circle No. 560

The PolarPool™ 617-480-7683 Circle No. 561




New Technology: TerraQuant laser therapy is one of the newest modalities introduced to treat athletic injuries. The pressure of returning athletes to play as quickly as possible is incredible, and the use of laser therapy can enhance and accelerate treatment. Benefits: TerraQuant laser therapy accelerates the healing of athletic injuries and decreases the amount of downtime necessary before return to play. It also decreases soreness associated with intense exercise and training. It’s safe and effective, with minimal side effects and maximal results.

Multi Radiance Medical 800-373-0955 Circle No. 562

Industry Trend: The fitness and health industry has recognized the many benefits that nitric oxide production creates for exercise performance. Nitric oxide plays a powerful role in oxygen delivery, blood flow, glucose uptake, energy and power output, nutrient delivery, and muscle growth. Researchers believe that quality glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC), such as Glyc’N Go, enhances the production of nitric oxide in the body, and this increase can improve endurance, muscle hypertrophy (through the increase of intramuscular blood flow), ATP production, recovery, and nutrient delivery.

Industry Trend: Homeopathic medicines are growing in popularity among athletes and athletic trainers as one of the safest options to care for injuries or overexertion. Topicals like Boiron’s Arnicare provide a natural alternative to typical over-the-counter pain relievers that may contain methyl salicylate or camphor, which can be toxic in large doses. The active ingredient in Arnicare is homeopathic Arnica montana, also known as mountain daisy. Since Arnica does not have known side effects or cause drug interactions, it is a big draw for athletes who need to avoid substances that hinder their performance or cause doping effects. Benefits: Homeopathic medicines like Arnicare topicals and oral pellets are safe and have no known side effects. They don’t interfere with medications, vitamins, or herbs, are non-doping and non-addictive, and don’t adversely affect concentration or alertness. Boiron 888-264-7668 Circle No. 563

Industry Trend: The desire of busy professionals to continue their education and grow in their careers has provided a fertile ground for discovering new ways to provide quality educational programs. This desire had led to the development of Internet-based programs of study. California University of Pennsylvania is a leader in the creation of high-quality, in-demand programs of study based on the need for busy professionals to fit career-expanding education into an already busy schedule.

Benefits: Glyc’N Go offers the finest quality GPLC ingredient, GlycoCarn, in chewable tablets, making it a highly effective and convenient delivery system of this sports nutrient. Using Glyc’N Go may increase nitric oxide production, enhance thresholds of strength, endurance, and stamina in athletes, increase energy during activity, and reduce recovery time.

Benefits: For more than 150 years, California University of Pennsylvania has prepared students for success, both in their careers and in their lives. Cal U’s dedication to providing top-quality programs to its students continues through Global Online. Global Online, through its asynchronous class format, allows students the opportunity to complete coursework anytime, anywhere. All that’s required is a computer with an Internet connection.

Glyc’N Go 877-GLYCNGO Circle No. 564

California University of Pennsylvania Global Online 866-595-6348 Circle No. 565




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T&C December 2008 Volume XVIII, No. 9

Training & Conditioning is pleased to provide NATA and NSCA members with the

icke You c a and g n now tak r & E a et yo e our ur C CEU q sier! uizze Click EU results s on www o a .train n “CEUs & C nd credit in line... s ourse ing-c s” at: tantly. ondi tio ning

opportunity to earn continuing education units through reading issues of the magazine. The following quiz is based on articles that appear in this issue of Training & Conditioning. By satisfactorily completing the quiz, readers can earn 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) continuing education units.


Instructions: Go to and click on “CEUs & Courses” to take the quiz online. You may also mail your quiz to us: Fill in the circle on the answer form (on page 63) that represents the best answer for each of the questions below. Complete the form at the bottom of page 63, include a $25 payment to MAG, Inc., and mail it to the following address: MAG, Inc., ATTN: T&C 18.9 Quiz, 31 Dutch Mill Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will be notified of their earned credit by mail within 30 days. Bulletin Board (pages 5-7) Objective: Read summaries of the latest sports medicine news, research, and published studies. 1. In one study, athletes with higher glycogen stores four hours post-exercise had ingested a caffeine amount equivalent to: a) Five cups of coffee for a 150-pound person. b) 10 cups of coffee for a 150-pound person. c) 300 grams of caffeine for a 170-pound person. d) 1,000 grams of caffeine for a 170-pound person. 2. In another study, those who consumed _____ had more muscle preserved after muscle-damaging resistance exercise. a) A sports drink. b) Water. c) A milk-based drink. d) Vitamin water. 3. What state’s supreme court ruled that random drug testing violates its state constitution? a) Washington. b) Florida. c) Delaware. d) Pennsylvania.

Lost in Learning (pages 14-20) Objective: Learn about the unique challenges of treating learning-disabled athletes, and get advice on how to provide effective care to this population. 4. Studies reveal that _____ percent of school-age children are diagnosed with a learning disorder. a) five to nine. b) 10 to 15. c) 14 to 19. d) 25. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered: a) An attentional disorder. b) A learning disability. c) Dyslexia. d) A chemical disorder. 6. It is estimated that _____ percent of all children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability. a) 20. b) 40. c) 50. d) 60.

7. Those with “inattentive type” ADHD have trouble with: a) Processing certain kinds of information. b) Remaining physically still. c) Details and focusing. d) Math work. 8. Those with “hyperactive-impulsive type” ADHD have trouble with: a) Processing certain kinds of information. b) Remaining physically still. c) Details and focusing. d) Math work. 9. Dyslexia is one kind of: a) Auditory processing problem. b) ADHD. c) Math disability. d) Reading disability. 10. Metacognition is: a) The ability to interpret and comprehend written material. b) The ability to put thoughts into words. c) Long- and short-term memory ability. d) The ability to think about how you’re thinking. 11. Mark Szafnicki uses the acronym VAK when working with students who have learning disabilities. What does VAK stand for? a) Visually Allow Kinesthetic input. b) Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic. c) Visual, Accurate, Keep it simple. d) Visual, Allow time, and Kindness. 12. What is one way to support learning-disabled athletes? a) Single them out from other athletes. b) Have your staff train themselves in how to deal with this population. c) Treat them exactly the same as every other athlete. d) Make the athletic training room sensitive and accommodating to their needs. 13. Advocating for learning-disabled athletes means: a) Helping them achieve their goals. b) Helping them lower their expectations. c) Providing special athletic training room services for them. d) Ignoring their social missteps. Answer sheet is on page 63...

Or take this quiz online and get instant results: click on CEUs & Courses TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM




Consuming Questions (pages 22-27) Objective: Learn about some of the most common nutrition problems today’s student-athletes face, and how you can help solve them.

20. Paul Longo describes the strength training profession as _____, and says strongman training falls into the _____ part of it. a) 40 percent science and 60 percent art; art. b) 40 percent art and 60 percent science; science. c) 50 percent science and 50 percent art; art. d) 50 percent science and 50 percent art; science.

14. An unhealthy obsession with health food is called: a) Exorbitant nervosa. b) Orthorexia nervosa. c) Anorexia nervosa. d) Bulimia organica.

Upwardly Immobile (pages 34-39)

15. The author recommends _____ as a healthier option when eating at a fast food restaurant. a) Purchasing value meals. b) “Supersizing.” c) Ordering diet soda instead of regular soda. d) Purchasing a second sandwich instead of fries.

21. An immobilized period during rehabilitation is a great opportunity to: a) Allow the athlete to rest completely. b) Initiate a strengthening program. c) Practice mental focusing. d) Correct imbalances and deficiencies.

16. The American Dietetics Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that athletes consume _____ percent of their calories from fat. a) 10 to 20. b) 20 to 25. c) 20 to 30. d) 25 to 35.

22. The theory that exercising a non-injured limb creates neurological crossover to the injured limb is called: a) Crossover activation. b) Unilateral transformation. c) Bilateral transfer. d) Neurological transfer activation.

Tough Competition (pages 29-33) Objective: Understand how to plan a strongman competition and hear from strength coaches about the many benefits of strongman work. 17. Mike Golden describes strongman training as: a) A replacement for traditional weight training. b) Irregular lifting, which more closely simulates football than ordinary weight training. c) A fun day with minimal benefit. d) One of the hardest, most monotonous days of his training cycle. 18. Strength coaches use strongman competitions to: a) Make specific strength gains. b) Warm up athletes before a weightroom session. c) Build mental toughness, competitiveness, and team chemistry. d) Maximize workouts and minimize time. 19. One challenge in strongman training is: a) Providing variety and keeping athletes motivated. b) Documenting training. c) Assessing benefit. d) Making it progressive from one session to the next.

Objective: Learn how to overcome the obstacles associated with rehabbing a partially immobilized athlete.

Swinging for the Fences (pages 41-45) Objective: Get a glimpse inside the University of North Carolina baseball team’s year-round conditioning program and an understanding of why it is effective. 23. According to the author, baseball is primarily a(n) _____ sport. a) Endurance. b) Speed. c) Power. d) Agility. 24. The author has observed that many baseball players are: a) Left-side dominant. b) Front-side dominant. c) Lower-extremity dominant. d) Back-side dominant. 25. The typical distance for baseball players’ interval training at UNC _____. a) Does not exceed 60 yards. b) Does not exceed 30 yards. c) Is 120 yards. d) Is 400 yards.

Answer sheet is on page 63... Or take this quiz online and get instant results: ➔ click on CEUs & Courses




CEU QUIZ ANSWER FORM Instructions: Go to and click on “CEUs & Courses” to take the quiz online. You may also mail your quiz to us: Fill in the circle on the answer form below that represents your selection of the best answer for each question. Complete the form at the bottom of this page, include a $25 payment to MAG, Inc., and mail it to the following address: MAG, Inc., ATTN: T&C 18.9 Quiz, 31 Dutch Mill Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will receive 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) CEU’s, and will be notified of their earned credit by mail within 30 days. Questions? Problems? E-mail:





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❏ $25 check or money order (U.S. Funds only) payable to: MAG, Inc. (please note “T&C 18.9 Quiz” on check) ❏ Visa ❏ Mastercard ❏ Discover ❏ American Express (Please note: the charge will appear as “MomentumMedia” on your credit card statement)

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Next Stop: Web Site Our editorial continues on Here is a sampling of what’s posted right now: AP/MICHAEL CONROY

MONTHLY FEATURES Prepping for the Pros With the end of the college football season squarely in our sights, many of college football’s elite upperclassmen are looking ahead to their next challenge: preparing for the NFL Scouting Combine. In this feature, Steven Plisk, MS, CSCS, Director of Excelsior Sports, a coaching and consulting service specializing in professional development and athlete preparation, provides an inside look at the nuts and bolts of this all-important job interview.

H.S. Athlete Death Rate Rises reports on the increased number of catastrophic injuries in high school sports this fall. So far, 2008-09 has been one of the worst years on record, with more prep sports-related deaths than in the past several years combined. At the 2008 NFL Scouting Combine, Chris Johnson, now a running back for the Tennessee Titans, had the top 40-yard dash time. Our December Monthly Feature takes an inside look at the combine.

WEEKLY BLOGS New in Nutrition

A Twist on Rotational Training

In November, the 2008 American Dietetic Association’s Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo was held in Chicago. Susan Kundrat, MS, RD, CSSD, LDN, a sports dietitian for athletes at the University of Illinois and Bradley University, was there, and she shares with us what she learned.

Core training is one of the most important aspects of conditioning, and strength coaches are always looking for new workout solutions. In this blog, Peter Twist, MS, BPE, CSCS, President of Twist Conditioning, describes his approach to core development and provides sample workout progressions.


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Circle No. 134

Training & Conditioning 18.9