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December 2005 Vol. XV, No. 9, $5.00

Riding the Wave Examining light therapy in rehab Lacrosse Workouts Talking about Ethics



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December 2005, Vol. XV, No. 9





Comeback Athlete Candace Parker University of Tennessee Bulletin Board ACSM advises preseason football changes … Diets and stress fractures … NATA to continue fight with CMS. Sideline The Science Behind Sports Drinks

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Product Pages State of the Industry Laser & Light Therapy Electrotherapy Plyometrics Topical Analgesics


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27 Sport Specific

Ground 15 Gaining At Towson University, off-season training for men’s lacrosse emphasizes speed, conditioning, and being ready for the game’s quick shifts in momentum. By John Poitras Leadership

Right Route? 21 The Being a healthcare professional in the world of competitive athletics can lead to some ethical quandaries. This article examines how to make tough decisions in complex situations. By David Hill Optimum Performance

in the Hips 27 All In just about any sport, hip strength is critical to performance. Consider these simple exercises to give your athletes the upper hand. By Jim Kielbaso Treating the Athlete

the Wave 32 Riding Ready to put your athletes on a new wavelength in their rehab? Then it might be time to give light therapy a ride. By R.J. Anderson Management

On the cover: Lance Armstrong and Team Discovery used light therapy on its way to winning the 2005 Tour de France. Story begins on page 32. Photo by Joel Saget, © Getty Images.


the Road Again 39 On Traveling to away games can be a test of your organizational skills. The keys are planning ahead, communicating, and being prepared for every bend in the road. By Abigail Funk



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Editorial Board Marjorie Albohm, MS, ATC/L Director of Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Research, Orthopaedics Indianapolis Jon Almquist, ATC Specialist, Fairfax County (Va.) Pub. Schools Athletic Training Program Brian Awbrey, MD Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Instructor in Orthopaedics, Harvard Medical School Jim Berry, MEd, ATC, SCAT/EMT-B Director of Sports Medicine and Head Athletic Trainer, Myrtle Beach (S.C.) High School

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Gary Gray, PT, President, CEO, Functional Design Systems Maria Hutsick, MS, ATC/L, CSCS Head Athletic Trainer, Boston University Christopher Ingersoll, PhD, ATC, FACSM Director, Graduate Programs in Sports Medicine/Athletic Training University of Virginia Jeff Konin, PhD, ATC, PT Assistant Athletic Director for Sports Medicine, James Madison University Tim McClellan, MS, CSCS Director of Perf. Enhancement, Center for Human Performance

December 2005 Vol. XV, No. 9 Publisher Mark Goldberg Editorial Staff Eleanor Frankel, Director R.J. Anderson, Kenny Berkowitz, Abigail Funk, David Hill, Dennis Read, Greg Scholand, Laura Smith Circulation Staff David Dubin, Director John Callaghan

Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD Director, Sports Medicine Nutrition Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Ctr. Health System

Michael Merk, MEd, CSCS Director of Health & Fitness, YMCA of Greater Cleveland

Art Direction tuesdaythursday Brand Advertising

Christine Bonci, MS, ATC Asst. A.D. for Sports Medicine, Women’s Athletics, University of Texas

Jenny Moshak, MS, ATC, CSCS Asst. A.D. for Sports Medicine, University of Tennessee

Production Staff Kristin Ayers, Director Adam Berenstain, Jonni Campbell, Jim Harper

Cynthia “Sam” Booth, ATC, PhD Manager, Outpatient Therapy and Sportsmedicine, MeritCare Health System

Steve Myrland, CSCS Owner, Manager, Perf. Coach, Myrland Sports Training, LLC Instructor and Consultant, University of Wisconsin Sports Medicine

Debra Brooks, CNMT, LMT, PhD CEO, Iowa NeuroMuscular Therapy Center Cindy Chang, MD Head Team Physician, University of California-Berkeley Dan Cipriani, PhD, PT Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State Univ. Gray Cook, MSPT, OCS, CSCS Clinic Director, Orthopedic & Sports Phys. Ther., Dunn, Cook, and Assoc. Bernie DePalma, MEd, PT, ATC Head Athl. Trainer/Phys. Therapist, Cornell University Lori Dewald, EdD, ATC, CHES Athletic Training Program Director and Associate Professor of Health Education, University of Minnesota-Duluth Jeff Dilts, Director, Business Development & Marketing, National Academy of Sports Medicine David Ellis, RD, LMNT, CSCS Sports Alliance, Inc. Boyd Epley, MEd, CSCS Asst. A.D. & Dir. of Athletic Perf., University of Nebraska Peter Friesen, ATC, NSCA-CPT, CSCS, CAT, Head Ath. Trainer/ Cond. Coach, Carolina Hurricanes Lance Fujiwara, MEd, ATC, EMT Director of Sports Medicine, Virginia Military Institute Vern Gambetta, MA, President, Gambetta Sports Training Systems Joe Gieck, EdD, ATC, PT Director of Sports Medicine and Prof., Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia Brian Goodstein, MS, ATC, CSCS, Head Athletic Trainer, DC United

Mike Nitka, MS, CSCS Director of Human Performance, Muskego (Wisc.) High School Bruno Pauletto, MS, CSCS President, Power Systems, Inc. Stephen Perle, DC, CCSP Associate Prof. of Clin. Sciences, University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Brian Roberts, MS, ATC, Director, Sport Performance & Rehab. Ctr. Ellyn Robinson, DPE, CSCS, CPT Assistant Professor, Exercise Science Program, Bridgewater State College Kent Scriber, EdD, ATC, PT Professor/Supervisor of Athletic Training, Ithaca College Chip Sigmon, CSCS Strength and Conditioning Coach, Carolina Medical Center Bonnie J. Siple, MS, ATC Coordinator, Athletic Training Education Program & Services, Slippery Rock University Chad Starkey, PhD, ATC Visiting Professor Athletic Training Education Program Ohio University Ralph Stephens, LMT, NCTMB Sports Massage Therapist, Ralph Stephens Seminars Fred Tedeschi, ATC Head Athletic Trainer, Chicago Bulls Terrence Todd, PhD, Co-Director, Todd-McLean Physical Culture Collection, Dept. of Kinesiology & Health Ed., University of Texas-Austin

IT Manager Mark Nye Business Manager Pennie Small Special Projects Dave Wohlhueter Administrative Assistant Sharon Barbell Advertising Materials Coordinator Mike Townsend Marketing Director Sheryl Shaffer Marketing/Sales Assistant Danielle Catalano Advertising Sales Associates Diedra Harkenrider (607) 257-6970, ext. 24 Rob Schoffel (607) 257-6970, ext. 21 T&C editorial/business offices: 2488 N. Triphammer Road Ithaca, NY 14850 (607) 257-6970 Fax: (607) 257-7328 Training & Conditioning (ISSN 1058-3548) is published monthly except in January and February, May and June, and July and August, which are bimonthly issues, for a total of nine times a year, by MAG, Inc., 2488 N. Triphammer Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. T&C is distributed without charge to qualified professionals involved with competitive athletes. The subscription rate is $24 for one year and $48 for two years in the United States, and $30 for one year and $60 for two years in Canada. The single copy price is $5. Copyright© 2005 by MAG, Inc. All rights reserved. Text may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part, without the permission of the publisher. Unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by a selfaddressed, stamped envelope. Application to mail at periodicals rate pending in Ithaca, N.Y., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Training & Conditioning, P.O. Box 4806, Ithaca, NY 14852-4806. Printed in the U.S.A.

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Candace Parker University of Tennessee

Fresh off a summer spent leading the U.S. Women’s Junior World Championship qualifying team to a gold medal in Puerto Rico—where she led the squad in scoring, rebounding, assists, blocks, and steals—Parker arrived in Knoxville with limitless potential and championship expectations. But when the 6’3” freshman stepped on campus for the start of the fall semester, she did so with a very swollen left knee, one she had played on all summer. While Parker thought nothing of it, the swelling concerned Tennessee Head Athletic Trainer and Assistant Athletic Director for Sports Medicine Jenny Moshak, ATC, MS, CSCS, and she had Parker undergo an MRI on Aug. 20. Moshak was troubled by the results, which revealed some degenerative changes and possible meniscus damage. Amid concerns that Parker may have also aggravated an ACL injury she sustained in high school, an arthroscopy was performed four days later. Those results were even more discouraging. “I remember waking up from my scope and asking what happened three or four times,” says Parker. “Everybody was looking so sad. Then Jenny came over and said it didn’t go too well and that I was out for the season. At that point, I started bawling.” Parker’s knee had 10 to 15 mm of surface damage to the lateral articular cartilage, and her lateral meniscus was no longer completely attached. However, there was a sliver of good news: Her ACL was fine. Still, after surgery, she would be looking at a six- to 12-month rehab. On Sept. 8, Tennessee Team Orthopedist William Youmans, MD, successfully performed surgery to repair the meniscus and cartilage damage, and Parker was fitted for a hinged fullleg brace. She would be non-weight bearing for six weeks and partial-weight bearing for two weeks after that. Despite these 4



When Larry and Sara Parker dropped off their daughter Candace at the University of Tennessee in August of 2004, they were delivering one of high school basketball’s most decorated female players to the Lady Vols. A two-time national high school player of the year, Parker also garnered national attention after winning the slam dunk contest at the McDonald’s High School Boys’ All-Star game.

A year of rehab behind her, Candace Parker is ready to make her debut for the Lady Vols. limitations, Parker immediately began her rehab and set a goal to return sometime in the middle of the season. “When they told me six to 12 months, I told myself that I would try to come back in December, around winter break,” ATHLETICBID.COM

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says Parker. “Whether that was a smart goal or not, it made me work hard every day in rehab to get my leg as strong as I possibly could.” Parker was limited in the first few weeks because the brace was initially set to allow only restricted flexion and extension. As a result, despite the work she put in—mostly straight-leg raises, three-way leg raises, and other open-chain exercises—her leg muscles suffered significant atrophy. Nearly a month post-surgery, the brace was released to accommodate full range of motion, though Parker remained non-weight bearing for two more weeks. Moshak continued the open-chain exercises, which by this time Parker was completing with 20-pound ankle weights attached to the brace. She was also doing limited ankle, hip, core, and upper-body work in the weightroom to maintain her overall strength. One of the main challenges for Parker during this early stage was simply getting around campus. However, Parker persevered, made it to class, and her schoolwork never suffered. In addition to beefing up her triceps muscles while commuting on crutches, Parker used this time to bolster her academic average, eventually landing on the Southeastern Conference All-Academic Freshman Team. Parker also utilized a number of Lady Vols support services, including an injury support group and a sports psychologist to help her deal with the mental challenges of rehab. “We realize that it’s a pretty big bummer when you’re on top

of your game one day, expecting to come in all-world, then we say, ‘You can’t play,’” says Moshak. “That had to be addressed, and our counseling services helped us take a very holistic approach to her rehab.” Having successfully rehabbed from an ACL tear during her senior year of high school, Parker was frustrated at the beginning of her newest challenge. “Candace thought, ‘I did the ACL rehab, that chapter should be over, why is it being re-opened?’” says Moshak. “I think that was a big obstacle she had to overcome at first.” “Sometimes Jenny had to kick me in the behind to get me to go to the counseling group,” Parker admits, “but once I got there, I realized those meetings were beneficial.” The brace was removed on Oct. 14, and though she would still be partial-weight bearing for two more weeks, Parker began more functional rehabilitation. Working with Moshak for three to four hours each day, Parker attacked her rehab, improving the knee’s range of motion and strength as well as her overall conditioning. One aspect of the rehab that Parker enjoyed was hydrotherapy. “We did a lot of work in chest-high water where she would run, jump, slide, cut, and so on,” says Moshak. “We did that once or twice a week, and she really liked it because she was doing basketball-type moves.” On Nov. 11, Parker was cleared to return to the court for light walk-through basketball drills, which consisted mostly of

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Comeback shooting. She wasn’t allowed to jump, but she could rise up on her toes. At this point, still focused on returning after winter break, Parker ratcheted up the intensity of her workouts, spending four to five hours a day with Moshak. “The whole time the team was on the practice floor, we were doing stuff on the side of the court and in the weightroom, and sometimes she would come see me after practice and after dinner,” says Moshak. “We got to know each other very well.” During November and into December, Parker began to notice dramatic improvements and her goal seemed more and more reachable. “Fortunately, she has a physique that responds to intense training,” says Moshak. “As she saw that response, it motivated her even more.” It also helped that Parker had a partner she could share the rehab experience with. During preseason, fellow freshman Alex Fuller tore her ACL and meniscus and was beginning her own long road back. Fuller, herself a highly touted prospect in high school, had surgery a month after Parker and had already been redshirted for the 2004-05 season. Because of their similar situations, Parker says she and Fuller share a special bond. “I would never wish an injury on anybody, but if we both had to be injured, it was better that we were injured at the same time,” says Parker. “We worked side by side and really pushed each other. Because of that we will forever have a button we can push on each other to light a fire

or pump the other one up.” “It was a good combination,” says Moshak, who routinely matched Parker and Fuller up in weightroom contests to keep things lively. “They were doing the same exercises, but because Alex had her surgery later, she was a little behind Candace in the amount of weight she could lift. “Having them together was also really good for me because I didn’t over-analyze what one of them was doing,” Moshak continues. “I could give them some autonomy and stand back and cheerlead instead of sitting there counting every rep.” Eventually those reps paid off and Parker worked up to controlled drills, like mini-tramp jumping and box jumping. “It was all about landing soft,” says Moshak. “We also did a lot of sidewinder exercises with a resistive band on the ankles, working on defensive stance, strengthening, and explosive speed work in controlled settings.” Gaining proficiency in those drills, Parker quickly built strength and confidence in her left leg. After a physical examination and an MRI on Dec. 20, Youmans cleared Parker to practice with her teammates upon their return from a short winter break on Dec. 26. “I viewed Dec. 26 as my Christmas,” says Parker. “That was the day I had been awaiting for four months—I was going to start playing college basketball.” Restless with anticipation, Parker hardly slept the night before her first practice. “I was a little tired coming into practice, but everything went well,” she says. “I didn’t favor my knee at

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all, and I even dunked. Then we did our weight workout and my knee started feeling a little stiff. I couldn’t get the amount of flexion and extension that I wanted. “That night I iced it,” Parker continues, “and when I woke up the next day, my knee was huge.” The swelling remained the following day, and Parker was restricted to participating in halfcourt drills with no running. Even after backing off, the knee continued to swell, so Youmans and Moshak decided that Parker should shut it down for a while.

Even though Parker was probably strong enough to run and play, Moshak asked her to not play any basketball until the fall. “Candace understood what wouldn’t allow her to play: swelling, sharp pain, and lack of range of motion. And when her knee swelled, she knew we had to pull her from playing,” says Moshak. “So we regrouped, and she began shooting for another goal: returning for the postseason.” After three more weeks of rehab, Parker realized it was probably in her best interests to call it a season and redshirt. “I told her we gave it the old college try, but we needed to pay attention to what the knee was telling us,” says Moshak. “I said, ‘We’re only doing this once—we’re not going back six

months from now and revisiting the surgery.’ “Sometimes elite athletes think they’re invincible, but Candace is a very mature athlete and she understood,” continues Moshak. “Looking back, she’s very pleased with the decisions we helped her make and that we cared enough about her to not let her play on a swollen knee.” Parker says that big-picture approach didn’t come easy, but nonetheless she’s glad she didn’t push the knee’s limits. “What if I had come back and played the remaining 10 games and the NCAA tournament, then found out in the offseason that I had to have another knee surgery?” she asks. “That kind of stress on my knee could have taken years off my career.” Still, sitting on the bench watching her teammates battle night after night was no easy chore for Parker. She attended every game and made every road trip, while continuing her rehab. The toughest part was watching her teammates struggle. “She would get very frustrated when we’d lose to Duke by two points or have an awful road trip,” says Moshak. “She’d say, ‘I can help this team, I know I could have made a difference.’” Parker wasn’t the only one anxious for her return. Head Coach Pat Summitt admits that the season could have ended much differently had Parker been in the lineup. Instead of losing to Baylor in the national title game, Summitt wonders if Parker could have been the missing piece to a seventh national championship banner hanging at Thompson-Boling Arena.

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Comeback ■ Candace Parker

Injury: Detached lateral meniscus and 10 to 15 mm of surface damage to the lateral articular cartilage of left knee. Rehab Hurdle: Overcoming multiple setbacks to begin highly anticipated first season for the Tennessee women’s basketball team. Result: Redshirted her freshman season, ready to lead the team in 2005-06. Quote: “I’m so thankful [Jenny Moshak] recognized the problem and turned a potentially career-ending injury into just a season-ender.”

“Obviously Coach Summitt would have been thrilled to have her at any point in the season, but she has never questioned a medical decision I’ve made,” says Moshak. “And she did a wonderful job in keeping Candace and Alex in the system—having them watch film and making sure they felt like they were part of the team.” Knowing that she would have a full year of recovery under her belt before returning to competition, Parker worked even harder throughout the spring and stayed in Knoxville for two summer sessions. And even though Parker was probably strong enough to run and play, Moshak asked her to adhere to a non-pounding approach and not play any basketball until the fall. “Why beat it up when you don’t have to?” Moshak told Parker. Instead, the remainder of the rehab was focused on controlled speed, agility, and quickness drills. Parker returned home to Naperville, Ill., about a month before school started. Wary that she would be tempted to join a pickup game during that time, Moshak had a heart-to-heart talk with her star patient. “It would be unfair for you to try and play basketball without me being the first to see you play,” Moshak told Parker. “Given the amount of time and energy I’ve put into you, this is what you owe me. You’ll have plenty of opportunities to play.” As she had been throughout her rehab, Parker was compliant with Moshak’s request, and she returned to campus in August feeling stronger than ever. “I’m not rehabbing anymore, I’m strengthening,” Parker said after a preseason practice. Adding 10 pounds of muscle to her frame, Parker also tacked another two inches onto her already impressive vertical leap. From a standing start, she can now reach 10 feet, seven and a half inches. Moshak says that the Lady Vols opened preseason practices with Parker back as her old dominating self, dunking virtually at will. Wearing orthotics but no knee brace, Parker has only one limitation imposed by Moshak and Summitt: No dunking in traffic during practice—yet. ATHLETICBID.COM

Moshak credits Parker’s tireless work ethic and desire to be the best as the biggest reason for her improvement. “She did the things outside of our rehab time that it took to win this battle, and she was always asking, ‘What else can I do at home?’” says Moshak. “From extra icing, using a stretch band and tubing on her own, to spending extra time with me after the rest of the team left, she really put in the extra effort.” Parker in turn gives Moshak much of the credit for her return. “She’s definitely a great motivator and was there for me every day, pushing me through rehab. And she was there as a shoulder to lean on when I needed somebody to talk to,” says Parker. “Jenny and I are really, really close.” Parker also appreciates how Moshak continually looked out for her future. “I’m so thankful she recognized the problem and turned a potentially career-ending injury into just a season-ender.” Having basketball taken away for a year has also given Parker a new perspective on the sport, which she says will keep her from taking her talent and opportunity for granted. You won’t find Tennessee’s newest star complaining about an early-morning practice, even if she has to stay up late studying the night before. “I remember those times I was sitting on the sideline praying that I could just do a shooting drill with the team,” says Parker. “I do a lot of writing. Sometimes I look back on my journal entries from when I was injured, and they motivate me to bring it every day in practice and be thankful that I’m able to play basketball again.” ■

Send Us Your Success Stories! To nominate an athlete to be featured in this Comeback Athlete section, please send your name, the athlete’s name, his or her rehab story, and contact information to: 2488 N. Triphammer Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850; email:; fax: 607-257-7328; or call us at: 607-257-6970, ext. 18. T&C DECEMBER 2005


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Board ACSM Recommends Preseason Football Changes With hopes of reducing heat-related illness and death among football players, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recently released guidelines for youth and high school preseason practices. The most prominent recommendation is to prohibit two-a-day practices during the first week of preseason. According to the ACSM, “the overwhelming majority of serious heat illnesses occur in the first four days of preseason football practice (especially on the first and second days), when players are not acclimatized to the heat, the intensity/duration of practice, or the uniform.” Similar to those adopted by the NCAA two seasons ago, the guidelines also: • Restrict multiple workouts on consecutive days. • Limit single practices to no more than three hours, including conditioning drills. • Limit practice time for multiple sessions to no more than five hours a day. • Require a minimum of three hours between sessions. • Prohibit wearing full uniforms and pads, which can increase heat risk, until day six. • Prohibit full contact until week two. Jerry Diehl, Assistant Director of the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) and liaison to the organization’s Sports Medicine Advisory Committee, says that heat illness is a point of concern for his group. Along with re-evaluating its current guidelines on this topic, which do not include any language pertaining to two-a-day practices or session length, Diehl says the NFHS will examine the ACSM’s recommendations. ■ The ACSM guidelines are from an ACSM roundtable series called Youth Football: Heat Stress and Injury Risk. Copies of the report can be obtained by e-mailing the ACSM Communications and Public Information department at:

NATA Fights CMS Decision Despite protests from the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented rules that limit athletic trainers’ ability to be reimbursed by Medicare for their services. The NATA, however, continues its legal battle to have the decision overruled. The new CMS rules allow only physical therapists, occupational therapists, and speech and language pathologists to receive Medicare reimbursement for service provided incident to a physician’s office visit. Previously there had been no 10


restriction on who could provide “incident to” therapy services. Certified athletic trainers were sometimes used by physicians to provide those services and received reimbursement. The NATA filed a lawsuit challenging the CMS decision, but a Federal District Court ruled it did not have jurisdiction to decide the case because administrative remedies available to physicians to challenge the rule had not been exhausted. The court, which did not rule on the merits of the case, also declined the NATA’s request for an injunction, citing its lack of jurisdiction. The NATA has filed an appeal with the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, located in New Orleans, but Hurricane Katrina has slowed the appeals process. “The NATA continues to maintain that what the CMS has done is illegal and will continue to seek a ruling on the merits of CMS’s actions,” says Paul Genender, the NATA outside legal counsel handling the case. “Until an injunction is granted by the court of appeals or the district court, the new rule is in effect. Athletic trainers should check with their billing coordinators regarding the effects of the new rule on their practices.” While relatively few athletic trainers are directly affected by the CMS rules, they are still a major concern to the NATA. “This isn’t just about ATCs who are practicing as physician extenders,” Marjorie Albohm, MS, LAT, ATC, Director of Business Development and Orthopaedic Research at OrthoIndy and The Indiana Orthopaedic Hospital, said in the NATA’s Convention Daily News. “This is about every athletic trainer, because the rule incorrectly implies that athletic trainers are not trained to provide rehabilitation services. That will affect every ATC in every practice setting, and if that’s not overturned, it will be used against us as we go forward.”

Can Diet Stress Cause Fractures? Cutting out the stress over eating might help reduce stress fractures in women runners. Or so a group of sports-nutrition researchers hypothesize after studying the eating attitudes and behaviors of 79 Canadian women with and without stress fractures in their legs. Researchers at the University of British Columbia asked the runners, whose average age was 29 and most of whom were recreational distance runners, to record what they ate for three days and answer a questionnaire assessing physical activity, age, height, weight, their menstrual cycle history, and their perceived stress. Their diets were analyzed and found to be basically sound and similar, with calcium intakes about average and even slightly higher than that of American or Canadian women as a whole, according to Susan Barr, PhD, RDN, FACSM, FDC, Professor of Nutrition, who worked with lead researcher Nanci Guest, MS, CSCS, then a graduate student at UBC. ATHLETICBID.COM

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Circle No. 107



The only difference between those with stress fractures and those without was their focus on limiting what they ate, called cognitive dietary restraint (CDR). “Restraint reflects the perception that one is constantly monitoring and attempting to limit food intake,” Barr says, “but actual intakes were similar between groups.” To explain the results, Guest and Barr note that high levels of CDR have been associated with irregularities in the menstrual cycle and increased levels of cortisol. Elevated in the “fight or flight” stress response, cortisol is a hormone that can retard muscle and bone growth and recovery from exercise. “We hypothesize that if women could avoid stressing about what they eat (and what they weigh), it might help reduce the cortisol levels that seem to be implicated in the risk for bone,” Barr says. ■ The study, “Cognitive Dietary Restraint Is Associated with Stress Fractures in Women Runners,” is in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15.2, April 2005, published by Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

Led by Erik Swartz, PhD, ATC, Assistant Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of New Hampshire, the researchers reported that a screwdriver removed a variety of face masks in less time and with less movement than specialized cutting tools. Swartz’s study had 19 certified athletic trainers remove masks from a variety of helmets using cutters and screwdrivers. Trials were timed and taped with a six-camera motion analysis system, which allowed measurement of helmet movement during the removal process. The athletic trainers were also asked to report their perceived exertion in removing the face mask. Regardless of the helmet, mask, and loop strap combination, the screwdriver was the quickest tool, working as much as three times quicker than the two cutting tools. It also produced the smallest amount of helmet movement and was the easiest to use. However, Swartz recommended that athletic trainers have a backup cutting device available. In the study, loop straps and helmet hardware (screws, T-nuts, and washers) were replaced after each removal. In the real world, screws may fail after being exposed to use and weathering, in which case cutters must be used to remove the face mask. ■

Simple Tool, Important Job When it comes to removing face masks from injured football players, a cordless power screwdriver is usually the best option, according to a group of New Hampshire researchers.

■ The study was published in the August edition of the American Journal of Sports Medicine, which can be accessed at:

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Gaining Ground As more schools add women’s rowing to their athletic offerings, strength coaches must learn how to address the power and endurance needs of this At Towson University, unique sport. off-season training for men’s lacrosse emphasizes speed, conditioning, and being ready for the game’s quick shifts in momentum. BY JOHN POITRAS


hen you think of Baltimore, two things come to mind: delicious Maryland crabs and lacrosse (not necessarily in that order). Lacrosse has a longstanding tradition here in Baltimore, stretching back to the early inhabitants of the Chesapeake Bay area. Many kids growing up in and around Baltimore have never played America’s favorite pastime, but have had a lacrosse stick in their hands since before they could even walk. It is a way of life here and people take it seriously. Thus, at Towson University we take our lacrosse team very seriously. Over the past five years, Towson’s men’s lacrosse team has recorded four conference championships and four NCAA Division I playoff berths, with one Final Four and two quarterfinal appearances. Over the same time period, the men’s lacrosse strength and conditioning program has evolved to meet the needs and demands of the current team. One part of the team philosophy is: “If you can’t catch us, you can’t beat us.” Thus we focus a lot on speed and conditioning for the game. We also train to overcome obstacles. Lacrosse is a game of sudden shifts of


John Poitras, MA, CSCCa, CSCS, is the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Towson University. He can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2005


SPORT SPECIFIC momentum, sometimes coming faster than you can comprehend. During any game, you could be up by eight goals and within the next few minutes find yourself in a dogfight to keep the lead. Therefore, we train our athletes to be ready for anything. Finally, we take care not to miss any details. Preparing a men’s lacrosse athlete is like preparing a five-course meal. If the cook fails to plan the meal, forgets to include some important ingredients, and skips right to dessert, the whole meal is ruined. Think of it in terms of any athlete: If you fail to mentally prepare the athlete for what is to come, skip some vital exercises to properly build the total athlete, and head into the season out of shape, the conference championship will go to someone else. DYNAMIC WARMUP The day is long over when athletes could just show up and dive right into

their strength training or conditioning workouts. I strongly believe in starting with some type of dynamic warmup to stimulate the ranges of motion of the upcoming workout and start a positive blood flow. To keep the athlete’s interest, I will stick with one dynamic warmup for only a two- to three-week period before I switch the exercises. Below is a list of the dynamic warmup exercises we have used: • Lunge opposite elbow to opposite knee • Backward lunge with hands on head • Hamstring lunge • Diagonal (45-degree) lunge • Knee hug • Tin soldiers • Quad stretch to a lunge • Butt kickers • Backwards butt kickers • Inchworm • Stationary lateral lunge • Scorpions • Spidermans

OFF-SEASON STRENGTH The following are sample workouts from our first phase of off-season strength training, which lasts about three weeks. Both workouts begin with warmup and flexibility drills and end with an abdominal circuit, footwork drills, stability training, and a team challenge.

Workout One High pulls Bench press Alt. DB incline Single arm DB shoulder press Palms up DB front raises MedBall pushups DB skull crushers

3x6 4x10 3x10 3x10 3x12 2x12 3x10

Workout Two Barbell push press Front squats Back squats Leg curls Hammer wide pulldown Hammer low row Alt. DB biceps

3x6 3x6 4x10 3x10 3x10 3x10 3x10

In our second phase (strength phase) of off-season training, the core and assisting exercises will increase to 4 sets and drop to 6 reps, while Olympic lifts are at 4 sets of 4 reps. In our third phase (power phase), the core exercises will continue at 4 sets, but the rep scheme drops to 4, 3, 2, and 2. Assisting exercises remain at 3 to 4 sets of 6 reps (with changing speeds) and Olympic lifts stay at 4 sets but drop to 2 reps each. 16


I also strongly believe some attention should be given to static stretches. I have found it is worth the time to walk athletes through some extra hamstring, groin, and quadriceps stretches. I don’t like to take the chance of an athlete being sidelined with an injury due to a lack of stretching. STRENGTH TRAINING I can easily highlight our off-season strength program in one simple word: speed. I use variations of speed every chance I get. For example, I will utilize slow training, fast training, or manipulate different lifting speeds throughout concentric and eccentric contractions. During any game, the intensities can change as quickly and as often as changes of possession. One moment we can be utilizing an offensive tempo that is designed to wear down an opponent’s defense. Then, in the blink of an eye, there is a change of possession and our defense is now controlling the field, trying to shut down an opponent’s offensive attack. I try to incorporate what an athlete might see in a game into our strength training program. Therefore, during our heavy back squat day, I may add a few more squat sets with varying speeds. For example, in one exercise, athletes push themselves with maximum weight, then slow down, and then, in an instant, explode with maximum force. This has been instrumental in teaching our athletes to expect the unexpected, and it also makes our workouts more dynamic. During the fall semester, our off-season, the men’s lacrosse team will train three times per week in the weightroom. Even though there are 40 to 50 athletes on the team, I still bring them in all at one time to build camaraderie. Working in a 5,000 square foot weightroom, I divide the squad into two different groups: (1) attack, defense, goalies, and (2) the midfield. This ensures that not everyone is waiting to use the same pieces of equipment. Over the course of the week, I will develop three different workouts: one for the upper body, one for the lower body, and a circuit. During Monday’s workout, for example, Group 1 will train chest, shoulders, and triceps, and Group 2 will train legs, back, and biceps. For Wednesday’s workout, the second workout of the week, the groups simply switch their workouts to ensure ATHLETICBID.COM

SPORT SPECIFIC that all the major muscle groups have been hit. The entire team performs the circuit together on Thursday. With our Monday/Wednesday workouts, we use two main core exercises (bench and squat) and one to two Olympic lifts. (See “Off-Season Strength” on page 16 for a look at the first phase of this past year’s off-season workout.) These are complemented by multiple secondary or assistive exercises such as wrist curls, dorsiflexion, shoulder stability exercises, hand-eye coordination, and neck exercises. In designing the workouts, I will frequently manipulate many variables. For example, with a dumbbell incline, I have used a regular dumbbell incline, a single arm dumbbell incline, alternating dumbbell inclines, and a faster “firing” dumbbell incline. Core training and fast footwork training brings up the rear of our workouts. I believe it’s important to save the athletes’ energy for their strength workout and leave abs/core and fast footwork training for the end. I want the athletes to be able to lift with perfect form and technique. But even if their legs are tired, they can still perform abdominal

training and footwork drills. Just as important as structuring the workouts correctly is teaching the athletes the hows and whys. It is absolutely crucial for every athlete to understand why he is performing certain exercises in the weightroom and how those exercises translate to the playing field. I

at their own rate depending upon their skill level in the weightroom. Another reason I do not use exact percentages is that I have found them to be an imperfect fit for all athletes on all teams. Sometimes you are faced with a large number of freshmen who have very little background in strength train-

I feel that providing competition is an important part of an off-season strength program. But it must be done in a way that promotes team-building and unity. have found that if you can accomplish this task well, your athletes will feel ownership of the program and work with you to reach new goals. After determining their 1RM through a strength test, I allow the athletes to choose their own weights within a range of their results. I explain the importance of increasing their weights (to a degree) as long as they achieve their desired reps from the week before. Working this way allows athletes to progress

ing and can’t handle as much as a more seasoned athlete. As long as the athlete understands the rationale behind the desired progress, I feel they can choose the correct weight for their particular needs. CIRCUIT TRAINING The third workout, on Thursday, differs from the previous ones. I utilize circuit training to “max out” their intensity for the week. I have found utilizing circuit

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SPORT SPECIFIC training to be advantageous because it offers a different level of intensity as compared to traditional strength training. This also affords me the ability to alter the work-to-rest ratio on a weekly basis. Since we have just finished heavy lifting for the major muscle groups, I incorporate some “off the wall” exercises during circuit training. This challenges the athletes to push hard, which mirrors the intensity late in the game. I in-

corporate exercises for fast footwork training, hand grip strength, developing power and explosiveness, and strengthening the core. Circuit training, when done properly, will challenge athletes to push themselves against all odds, the same way we play. The following is a sample of our offseason circuit training. Like our other strength workouts, it is preceded by a warmup and flexibility drills. • 45 lb. plate farmer’s carry



n the sport of men’s lacrosse, athletes must have the ability to cover the length of the field multiple times throughout the course of the game. And the game rarely slows down during transitions—even substitutions are on the fly. To simulate game-like situations, I have implemented a conditioning test that consists of 15x100-yard sprints, all timed. This test is administered three times throughout the year, with the first time being at the start of the school semester in September. It’s our first team bonding opportunity of the year. Here’s how it works: Beginning on the whistle, the team will sprint down the length of the field and must cross the 100-yard mark in under 15 seconds. Once completed, the athletes jog back to the starting line at their own pace. They have a total of 75 seconds from the beginning of one sprint to the start of the next. If the athlete jogs back faster, then he can have more rest standing up as opposed to jogging back slower and getting less time to rest before the sound of the next whistle. Missing the 15-second goal in just one of the 15 sprints is an automatic failure and lands the athlete in Dawn Patrol. What is unique about how I run this test is that if an athlete fails a sprint, he must still complete all 15 sprints. Quitting is never an option. The purpose of the test is to ensure that our athletes stay in shape over the summer. There is absolutely no way for athletes to successfully pass this test if they did not train with the proper intensity before they come back to school. And if they do not pass the test, Dawn Patrol means they are up at the crack of dawn to perform extra conditioning and sprints. I re-administer this test just prior to our winter break and again at the beginning of the spring semester (preseason). Just knowing that this test is awaiting them, the athletes train year round with full intensity.



• Plyo box quick feet • Wall sits w/horizontal medball hold • Decline stab disks push-ups • Parallel grip pull-ups • Mountain climbers • DB deadlifts + DB bicep curls • Abs: partner leg throw downs • 45 lb. plate sky crunches TEAM CHALLENGES At the end of each strength-training workout, I separate the team into their classes and pit each group against others in the “challenge for the day.” Each member of the freshman class will pick someone from the sophomore class to compete against, those in the sophomore class will pick someone from the junior class, and so on. Each day, the challenge is different. It could be pull-ups, push-ups, jump rope, stationary wall squats with a heavy medicine ball for time, or something unusual. The losing three classes will perform some extra sprints at the end of conditioning while the winning team will perform an extra abdominal circuit. I like the winning class to also perform some type of exercise because whether we win or we lose, we are all still a team. I feel that providing competition is an important part of an off-season strength program. But it must be done in a way that promotes team-building and unity. CONDITIONING The challenging part of off-season conditioning is to balance my workouts for the team with what the athletes go through during fall sport practice. Since it is a long wait to the beginning of preseason practice (mid- to late-January), and we don’t want to overtrain the athletes, I only condition the team two times per week during the fall semester. I firmly believe men’s lacrosse to be a sport of speed, but we consider closely the type of speed needed for the game. I would never ask the team to go out and run a timed mile because they will never run like that during a game. Rather, lacrosse athletes will experience sudden changes in speed and direction during the course of a game. Therefore, I incorporate short-distance sprints (five yards to 30 yards), mediumrange sprints (30 yards to 60 yards) and longer-distance sprints (60 yards to 100 yards) throughout the course of their workout. To break up the monotony of performing straight-ahead sprints, I use ATHLETICBID.COM

SPORT SPECIFIC a whistle to unexpectedly change the athletesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; direction. This will force them to slow down immediately, change direction, and accelerate. If they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know when the whistle will come, it will simulate changes of possession in games. I also utilize foot speed exercises and plyometrics each workout day, carefully keeping an eye on the number of foot contacts the athletes experience. I begin with entry-level exercises and gradually progress into higher-intensity exercises as the athletes develop a base. I like to begin with exercises such as cone hops and bounding. Cone hops work on lateral explosiveness and bounding works in the linear direction. One way to increase the intensity of cone hops is to introduce one to two more cones and incorporate a 20-yard sprint at the end of the exercise. I also use stationary vertical knee-ups, which progress to traveling vertical knee-ups. I tend not to use a separate day for plyometrics for one simple reason: If athletes could experience anything at any given moment during the course of a game, they should train that way each conditioning day. I like to alter what

athletes see during each conditioning session. It is my goal to build the total athlete each day. To put some competition into our conditioning, I pit athletes against each other while performing various agility cone exercises. Whether they mirror each other or run against the clock, athletes push themselves to their limits and beyond. As I do with strength training, I take the time to explain why we perform certain agility drills. I believe itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s critical for athletes to understand what they are doing, why they are doing it, and how it translates to lacrosse. Many strength coaches feel that it is beneficial to condition athletes on the same day as strength training and many strength coaches feel otherwise. For me, the best day for conditioning in the offseason is when the right circumstances present themselves. First of all, what is the weather like? If itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cold and raining outside, we might not work out. It is important to remember that this is the off-season, not preseason, and taking a chance to condition athletes on a cold and rainy day is risking possible injury. Secondly, do any of the athletes

have a class schedule that would conflict with conditioning? Our athletes know that their education comes first, and I would rather postpone conditioning until the following day if it means that the weather will have improved or I will have 100-percent attendance. INCREASING THE INTENSITY Here at Towson University, lacrosse is a fierce and ultra-fast competitive sport. Playing teams twice a week that are almost all ranked within the top 20 in NCAA Division I is a challenge in itself. But for me, the real challenge starts in the off-season, when I can get the athletesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bodies into great shape and their competitive spirits in sync. With all the drills we choose and sets and reps we chart out, the off-season program is designed to continually challenge each student-athlete, both physically and mentally. On the field, athletes need to be able to perfect their techniques in all they do. The same goes for the weightroom and on the conditioning field. I always say, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Increase your intensity in all that you do, and great things will follow.â&#x20AC;? â&#x2013;

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Right Route?

Being a healthcare professional in the world of competitive athletics can lead to some ethical quandaries. Here, we provide a compass and a paddle. BY DAVID HILL


ho should have priority, the Olympicsports athlete who came into the athletic training room first, or the starting quarterback who’s needed for Saturday’s sold-out football game? First-come, first-served, right? What if the field hockey player showed up, unannounced, a minute before the football player’s scheduled appointment? What if she’s hurt after working out in direct contradiction to rehab instructions, while the quarterback has followed every order to the letter? Here’s another scenario: Your new team physician gives a piece of questionable advice. It’s not necessarily harmful, but based on your years of experience, you believe it’s not the best recommendation. Do you speak up and risk poisoning relations between you and the doctor, or do you let it pass and keep a closer eye on things in the unlikely event something goes wrong? Let’s say you learn that a colleague with a stellar reputation has let her certification lapse. Do you report her? Rules are rules, yet you know she is conscientious, puts athletes’ interests David Hill is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: BRIAN JENSEN ATHLETICBID.COM






thletic trainers in academia are beginning to study how practitioners confront and resolve ethical problems and what the field’s collective core values are. Their discussions may seem far removed from people in the workday trenches, but their approach can help athletic trainers think through their ethical standards and behaviors to better represent the profession. There are two main theories or moral philosophies that scholars have identified to help examine ethics, says Shane Caswell, PhD, ATC, Assistant Professor of Athletic Training at George Mason University, who has researched how athletic training students make ethical decisions. In one, the objective is to pick the option that will do the greatest good—or avoid the most harm—for the greatest number of people. It’s an ends-justify-the-means approach. In an athletic training example, it could mean that while letting the quarterback return to play might expose him to pain much later in his life, it might also mean the team will achieve victory, creating happiness for all 100 members. The other approach is a justice-based theory. A person judges an act on what duties one has in society. Questions come down to what’s right, not the outcome. When it comes to deciding what’s right, many ethicists say there are several levels of sophistication among individuals. The first is based only on punishment and obedience, such as what young children learn: A particular act is wrong because a parent or teacher says so, and you’ll be punished if you get caught. Then there’s ethics based on the desire to be perceived as good and meeting societal norms. Finally, the most advanced ethical thinkers use certain moral principles, such as human rights or social justice, and even universal ethical principles, says Caswell. Gretchen Schlabach, PhD, ATC, Athletic Training Program Director at Northern Illinois University, is researching what athletic trainers believe are the profession’s core values—those virtues that, when taken together, make the essence of a universal athletic training ethic. “Everything else is wrapped around those professional values, and that core is our professional ethics,” she says. “Some are easy, such as confidentiality and excellence in providing the best care. But other values might be more implicit, like honesty.” Articulating core professional values, as some other allied healthcare professions have done, could be another step in deepening athletic training’s professionalization, Schlabach says. She is concerned that the profession sometimes lets outsiders dictate athletic training ethics at its practitioners’ expense. “If we’re going to be strong and have some sense of our professional identity and distinctness, we can’t allow the setting to dictate who and what we are,” she says.



first, and could have her career ruined if this gets out. What do you do? The thing about ethical dilemmas is that all the easy ones have already been settled. If the right choice were clear, it wouldn’t be a dilemma. As allied healthcare professionals, athletic trainers are expected to put the well-being of their athletes first. Yet you are also part of a team and a culture that prioritizes winning. This alone can create conflicts that are different from those faced by any other profession. But this position also gives athletic trainers a valuable platform from which to influence others. As healthcare professionals with a responsibility to advocate for their patients, it may be easier to speak up for the right but unpopular thing to do. “Nearly every decision an athletic trainer makes has an ethical component to it,” says Shane Caswell, PhD, ATC, Assistant Professor of Athletic Training at George Mason University. “It may be subtle. But if your work involves caring for someone, then it has an ethical component to it. And nearly every decision that an athletic trainer makes has something to do with the care of people whom they’re responsible for.” PROFESSIONAL ETHICS The National Athletic Trainers’ Association has established a Code of Ethics that sets some general standards for behavior. The code deals with matters such as avoiding conflicts of interest, not using information gained from practicing as an athletic trainer to influence a contest or to gamble, and making only necessary referrals. It also focuses on providing sound care and specifies that members must comply with state laws, remain current in the field, respect confidentiality, not exploit patients in any way, and never place financial gain ahead of the patient’s welfare. Bill Prentice, PhD, ATC, PT, Coordinator of the Sports Medicine Program at the University of North Carolina, says he approaches ethical problems by remembering that his primary allegiance is to the athlete. “The decisions that we make regarding appropriate healthcare should be based almost entirely on what is best for the athlete without regard to pressures that may come from coaches or administrators, or in some cases alumni,” he says. Tim Laurent, EdD, ATC, Athletic Training Program Coordinator at Lynchburg College, starts his decision-making ATHLETICBID.COM

LEADERSHIP the same way. He keeps in mind that he works for the athlete, his patient. Then he takes it a step further, looking at the athleteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best long-term interests. â&#x20AC;&#x153;For example, we just talked in class about an athlete who injured his ACL and discussed whether he should play,â&#x20AC;? Laurent says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I said the way to look at it is not whether he can play now, but how is he going to feel five or 10 years down the road? No matter what the injury is, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s how I look at it.â&#x20AC;? What if a physician gave advice that is less than ideal, though not blatantly wrong or dangerous? Laurent says heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d ask the physician to reconsider. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I have a higher obligation to the athlete than I do to the physician,â&#x20AC;? he says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Of course, I need to approach that conversation in a professional way, but I would put protecting the patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health above not bruising the physicianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ego.â&#x20AC;? Gretchen Schlabach, PhD, ATC, Athletic Training Program Director at Northern Illinois University, is researching a book on professional ethics. She believes the setting of competitive athletics should not dictate athletic trainingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ethics at all. â&#x20AC;&#x153;An athletic trainer

his greatest pleasures in life was archery, and he begged to be allowed to continue. Konin and others in the athletic department were torn. They wanted to allow the young man the pleasure of his sport in his last few weeks, but they also had to consider the safety of others should he have a seizure on the range. Ultimately, it came down to analyzing the risks and benefits to the athlete and others. Administrators decided that

in the intercollegiate setting should have the same standards as an athletic trainer working in a hospital setting,â&#x20AC;? Schlabach says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We expect nurses to behave the same in an intercollegiate setting as they do in a hospital setting. Why should athletic trainers be different?â&#x20AC;? PRIORITIZING VALUES But sometimes, the ethical questions can be a lot more complicated. Jeff Ko-

Konin and others in the athletic department were torn. They wanted to allow the young man the pleasure of his sport in his last few weeks, but they also had to consider the safety of others. the archerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s presence would be an unusual circumstance posing risks beyond those anyone would normally be willing to take by entering the range. That, coupled with the potential severity of injuries caused by an errant arrow, convinced them the best decision was to not let the athlete take part. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t risk that he might have a seizure out

nin, PhD, ATC, PT, Assistant Athletic Director for Sports Medicine and Associate Professor of Health Sciences at James Madison University, faced a difficult situation a couple years ago when a male archery student-athlete began having seizures. He was diagnosed with a rapidly progressing brain tumor, leaving him with only weeks to live. One of







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professional organization that asks its members to work ethically can’t assume everyone involved agrees on what that means, especially when definitions of “ethical” shift over time. This was the thinking of the Ohio Athletic Trainers’ Association (OATA) when it began requiring members to complete an hour of ethics training every two years for relicensing. The main reason for the mandate, OATA President Bill Kulju, MS, LAT, ATC, says, was that many new members of the growing association were not familiar with the OATA constitution, bylaws, and code of ethics they’re obligated to follow. The move was also seen as a way to reduce the number of ethics-related complaints filed against athletic trainers. But the leadership also recognized that not everyone agrees on what is and isn’t ethical. “Our society has changed so much,” says Kulju. “What an older generation perceives as unethical may be considered ethical to a younger generation. We have to discuss what’s ethical and what’s unethical on a regular basis, and make sure we’re all on the same page.” The hour of ethics training can take many forms, such as a session pertaining to ethics at OATA, NATA, or Great Lakes Athletic Trainers’ Association symposiums. A session, for example, might cover how to handle parents’ requests to not disclose anything about their son’s or daughter’s injury when other people in the school should have the facts, and the ethics of telling a coach the results of an in-game evaluation within earshot of other people. “In the broadest sense, we’re trying to get our members to understand what is and is not ethical behavior based on a wide range of examples, whether it’s interaction with athletes, coaches, parents or the media,” Kulju says. “It’s important to our members to be sure that we are promoting the profession in a positive light.”

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LEADERSHIP there while holding a bow and arrow in his hand,” Konin says. When it comes to making these bigger decisions, Caswell says it’s necessary to follow a plan. He explains that many ethicists see four components in moral decision-making: First, a person must recognize that there is a moral dilemma. Second, he or she must make a moral judgment. Third, a person has to be able to prioritize what they value. And fourth is the persistence and courage to implement a moral choice. The third component on that list— being able to prioritize what you value—is the area of ethics that can be trickiest. Most of us have a values system, but it takes some thought to know how your individual values relate to decision-making within your profession. “When I was a graduate student I had an ethical dilemma that I took to one of my mentors,” Caswell says. “This individual said to me, ‘Shane, decisions are easy when your values are clear.’” That wasn’t a way of saying that things should be made black and white, but simply that decisions are easier when a person has sorted out and prioritized what’s important. Caswell then had to step back and prioritize those values in play. Schlabach suggests that among athletic trainers, values might include caring, honesty, accountability, promise keeping, excellence, loyalty, fairness, integrity, respect, and responsible citizenship. She suggests that athletic trainers think about how their values relate to their work and how one might trump another in a specific situation. “We’ve been teaching our kids right from wrong since day one. When you get into ethics, it’s a gray area,” Schlabach says. “You might honor loyalty in one circumstance, but then honor honesty in the next circumstance and give loyalty a back seat.”

job as athletic trainers is to get athletes ready as quickly and safely as possible. Don’t make it a power thing by saying, ‘He can’t play because I said so.’” Of course, the injured athlete must also be included in the discussion. For example, if there is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to play for a championship, couldn’t the athlete choose to risk acceptable long-term harm for a chance to take part? Is it really the athletic trainer’s place to make that decision alone? “I think that adults should be able to make some decisions for and about

‘I need you to tell me what I need to do regarding injured players because that is not my area of expertise. You need to keep me straight during a game because I won’t do it by myself.’ That doesn’t mean they’re unethical. It’s only saying their focus is on athletic success.” Joe Gieck, EdD, ATC, PT, retired Head Athletic Trainer and Professor Emeritus in Sports Medicine at the University of Virginia, agrees. “Coaches will push—and they should—and you should really try to see their side,” he says. “We should remember that our


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BRINGING IN OTHERS Another critical aspect of making ethical decisions is to include others in the process. To start, make sure you understand where your coaches are coming from. And don’t assume your standards are more important than theirs. “Coaches have a mission to perform well athletically, and they should be allowed to have that,” Laurent says. “Athletic trainers have a mission to make sure that the athletes are safe. When you talk to coaches at a time they can be reasonable, they will say, ATHLETICBID.COM

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Circle No. 116 T&C DECEMBER 2005


LEADERSHIP themselves,” says Laurent. “So with college athletes, if the situation allows it, I will explain things to them so they can make an informed decision. If I am working with high school athletes, who typically are minors, I give them less say, but if time allows it, their parents are involved before a decision is made.” It can also help immensely to talk to a peer who has no connection to the situation. “Probably one of the best things about working as an athletic trainer is that everybody has a mentor at some phase in his or her professional development,” Prentice says. “Part of mentoring means being able to go to that person and seek their advice. It doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll take their advice, but it always helps to bounce ideas off other individuals.” MAKING IT CLEAR Being ethical also means setting up policies and procedures that let everyone know what your values are. This will make it easier to talk with others about decisions that need to be made, and it will relieve you from having to make tough decisions every day.

One of the clearest examples involves which athletes get treated first. Laurent says he follows a rule that gives priority to in-season athletes, then it’s firstcome, first-served. The idea is to let everybody know how you prioritize and what you deem fair. This is particularly important for athletic trainers with multiple teams and many athletes to take care of. “If you remain consistent with what you’ve said you would do,” Laurent says, “even if people do not like it, at least they’ve heard it ahead of time.” Prentice tries to be flexible when unusual circumstances arise, but by publicizing his rules, it is very clear which things are not up for discussion. “I don’t make an issue of it,” Prentice says. “But you have to send out a message that says, ‘This is the way it is. If you don’t like it, you’d better find somebody else.’” Gieck suggests posting a simple statement or set of goals that touches on ethics as a way of projecting what is important to you. “It might say, ‘Our aim is to provide the best care for athletes without discrimination,’” he says. That lays

the groundwork for equal treatment of athletes from both high-profile revenue teams and low-profile Olympic sports. Speaking up when something unethical is going on will also let others know your stance. Gieck says it’s especially important to act immediately in circumstances of hazing, sexual abuse, and substance abuse. In situations of lesser urgency, Gieck recommends non-confrontational, tactful questioning to make sure others are considering the ethics of a decision, while making it clear you want no part of condoning questionable behavior. “Ask them to think about whether what they’re doing is right,” Gieck says. “If you stand up and say you won’t be compromised on these issues, when something comes up, you can say it’s something you won’t involve yourself in.” Ultimately, being ethical may come down to sheer will. The ethical choice may be the hard choice, and the right stance the unpopular stance. In those cases, think about the effect on the profession and the athlete. With so much at stake, the choice may not be so hard after all. ■

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Circle No. 117


All in the Hips



In just about any sport, hip strength is critical to performance. Consider these simple exercises to give your athletes the upper hand.



ore training is obviously a buzz word in our industry. Every strength and conditioning professional knows the value of a strong core, and over the past few years we have seen hundreds of new exercises and routines to train the abdominals and low back musculature. But, at the same time, I see a major void in many core-training routines. That void is in an area a little south of the core: the hips. Without powerful and flexible hips, core strength will not be functional for most sports. With that in mind, I’d like to share some ideas on how to improve the function of this important area by incorporating a few simple exercises into a training program. Many of you may think, “That’s


great, but I don’t have time to add any more exercises into my program.” There are so many great strength-training ideas and drills available today that it sometimes becomes difficult to decide how to integrate everything into a safe and time-efficient program. For a long time, I felt the exact same way, and I chose not to do certain exercises because I simply didn’t have time. Time-efficient training is a priority for me, and I already felt like I had enough exercises in my head to create four-hour workouts, seven days a week. Eventually, I realized that my athletes were missing out and I had to rethink my approach. I didn’t want to add more exercises to their strength routine, so I came up with a way to incorporate some very functional hip exercises into their warm-up activities.

AMAZING JOINTS The hips are the largest weight bearing joints in the body, supported through an incredibly complicated network of ligaments and muscles. Over 20 muscles directly influence hip movement, including: adductors magnus, longus and brevis, gluteus maximus, medius and minimus, piriformis, rectus femoris, illiacus, psoas major, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, tensor fascia latae, superior and inferior gemelli, obturators internus and externus, quadratus femoris, sartorius, pectineus, and gracilis. That’s a huge list, Jim Kielbaso, MS, CSCS, is the author of Speed & Agility Revolution and the Director of the Total Performance Training Center in Wixom, Mich. He can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2005



Figure One: Single-Leg Hip Twister and it doesn’t even include the abs, low back, or leg musculature that influence hip movement through the pelvis. These muscles make the hip flex, extend, abduct, and adduct, but a detailed look at the kinesiology reveals that most of these muscles are also at least partially responsible for controlling femoral rotation in the transverse plane. This is especially interesting since most hip exercises are done in the frontal or sagittal planes, and they typically isolate specific muscles rather than working through motions similar to those seen in sport movements. The

celerating the body, there is an even greater amount of femoral rotation in the socket. Internal and external rotation need to be controlled at the same time hip extension and abduction are performed. That’s a lot of movement, and with so many muscles involved, it’s a wonder we even move at all. Unfortunately, many athletes have rotational deficiencies, either in strength or mobility, yet they are rarely addressed. In the weight room, we typically focus on strengthening the major muscle groups, and during conditioning sessions we usually spend our time

Think about the way the femoral head rotates inside the acetabulum during a primarily sagittal plane motion like running. During the support phase of each step, the pelvis actually rotates, resulting in femoral rotation that must be controlled in three planes of motion. hip musculature is often responsible for accelerating and decelerating transverse plane motion, but how often do we actually train this rotation? Think about the way the femoral head rotates inside the acetabulum during a primarily sagittal plane motion like running. During the support phase of each step, the pelvis actually rotates, resulting in femoral rotation that must be controlled in three planes of motion. In more complex movements such as planting and cutting, where the hips are involved in decelerating and re-ac28


training the appropriate energy systems. There is only so much time available, so how can we effectively and efficiently work all of these little muscles? I suggest adding some of the following exercises to a warm-up routine to enhance multi-planar hip function. The great thing about these exercises is that they are helpful for just about anyone, yet can have dramatically positive effects on those with deficiencies. The overall benefits of these exercises are that they: • Help prevent injuries, especially at the knee. Controlling femoral rota-

tion helps stabilize and align the knee, which can help maintain joint integrity during rapid movements. • Can be used to teach proper movement mechanics. The cutting drills are a great way to teach athletes how to properly transfer weight during a change of direction. • Take less than 30 seconds each. And it is certainly not necessary to perform all of these exercises in every session. Just adding one or two variations to the end of a warm-up routine will address some much needed strength or mobility issues that may be limiting performance. • Require no equipment. Wherever a team is warming up, these exercises can be performed. • Have numerous variations so athletes won’t get bored. I’ll explain some of the variations, but you can make them more difficult or more complex as needed. • Incorporate many other muscles that help assist in the proper function of the hips. The abdominals, quads, hamstrings, and lower back are synergistically engaged during the movements, which can improve overall body control during sport movements. Each exercise should be performed for 10 to 20 repetitions, or for 10 to 20 seconds. Athletes may perform multiple sets of an exercise or one set of each. You can choose the best way to implement them for your situation. SINGLE-LEG HIP TWISTER This simple exercise will improve rotational strength and mobility, especially if there is a deficiency. Rotational strength will increase through the deceleration and acceleration work during the movement. And mobility will improve by rotating to the ends of both internal and external rotation. Instructions: To start, stand on one foot with a slight bend in the knee (about 15 degrees). Hold a dowel behind the back. Internally rotate the hips are far as possible, then do the same thing externally. (See Figure One, above.) The movement should be controlled, but not slow. Encourage athletes to gradually and very gently increase their range of motion. You can change the movement slightly with a forward or backward trunk lean, or by placing the arms in different positions. Increase the intensity by holding a weighted object or moving faster. ATHLETICBID.COM


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Circle No. 118

OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE hand overhead and across your body to maximize the stretch through the entire side of the body. Rock the hips side to side or attempt to twist them in the transverse plane for maximum stretch in all three planes. (See Figure Three, at left.)


LEG SWINGS This movement simply gets the legs swinging in different planes. It will help mobility on the swing leg, yet also help strengthen the support leg as it decelerates rotation and controls motion during each swing. Instructions: Stand on one leg. Swing the other leg forward and backward with both feet in neutral. Vary the movement by swinging the leg in different directions. (See Figure Four, below.) Other variations include internally or externally rotating one or both of the hips.

Figure Two: Single-Leg Lean Back

Figure Three: Hip Flexor Stretch

SINGLE-LEG LEAN BACK This exercise creates an excellent â&#x20AC;&#x153;stretch-and-strengthenâ&#x20AC;? motion in the hip flexors and abdominals. At the same time the muscles are being stretched, they must also work to support the body. Instructions: Stand on one leg. Position your hands overhead and lean back as far as possible. Bend the knee slightly as you reach back, and return to normal posture. (See Figure Two, above.) The movement should be controlled, but not too slow. As the athletes get comfortable with this

motion, have them lean backward at different angles. HIP FLEXOR STRETCH Hip flexors are often very tight, causing problems elsewhere in the body. This exercise not only works to stretch the hip flexors, but will help save wear and tear in other areas. Instructions: Starting from a squatting position, push the hips forward and lean the body backward. Internally rotate the hip to focus on the ilio-psoas. Externally rotate the hips for a greater stretch of the adductors. Reach your

TWISTING LUNGE Another simple exercise, adding a twisting action to a lunge, engages the gluteals more than just a sagittal plane lunge, and more than just a twist with the torso upright. Engaging the gluteals is vital to controlling femoral movement and maintaining knee alignment. Decreased activation of the gluteals may be a contributing factor in ACL injuries. Instructions: Lunge forward and reach across the body with the opposite arm. (See Figure Five, below.) Change the height of the lunge for variety.

Figure Four: Leg Swings

Figure Five: Twisting Lunge

Figure Six: Cutting in Place



OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE CUTTING IN PLACE This is a great agility drill to do when space is limited because it teaches planting and cutting mechanics without having to move around. A lot of athletes are not comfortable transferring weight onto one foot during a change of direction. When performed properly, this drill can help improve this important skill. Instructions: Leave one foot on the ground and perform a “jab-step” action with the other foot, bouncing that foot off the ground and bringing it back to neutral. Emphasize keeping both feet parallel and bending your knee during the plant. (See Figure Six on page 30). Put as much power into the ground as possible, working on quick deceleration and re-acceleration. Many athletes will not put their weight into it, so try having them pick up the support leg briefly to get the feel of transferring their weight. As a variation, perform several bounces, then take off for a short sprint. You can also cross over after the push off, or bounce at different angles.

forward into a 90-degree turn, then jump back to the starting position, keeping the body low and quick. (See Figure Seven, below.) There are endless possibilities, so use your imagination to come up with variations that address the needs of your athletes. For example, athletes can jump forward and backward, side-to-side, on diagonals, and incorporate twisting. All of the above exercises take a minimal amount of time, but can be a huge boost to your athletes’ performance. Be sure to make the drills interesting by

only spending a short time on the exercises and using plenty of variation. You’ll quickly notice your athletes’ hip mobility improve, and they will thank you for helping them stay healthy. ■ ■ The author would like to thank: Gary Gray for developing the concepts this training is based upon, and for his support and encouragement; Anne Yoches for helping him explore these ideas; and soccer coach Peter Langens for helping him introduce the ideas to athletes.

JUMPS IN PLACE Instead of always emphasizing jump height during plyometrics, I like drills that keep the athletes low and emphasize quickness off the ground. This kind of movement has also been shown to enhance the synchronous co-contraction of the quadriceps and hamstrings, which may protect against knee injuries. Instructions: For this exercise, jump Figure Seven: Jumps in Place

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Lance Armstrong and Team Discovery used light therapy on its way to winning the 2005 Tour de France. ATHLETICBID.COM




Ready to put your athletes on a new wavelength in their rehab? Then it might be time to give light therapy a ride. BY R.J. ANDERSON



ant to know a secret to seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong’s cycling success? In addition to an out-of-this-world VO2 max and unparalleled will to win, Armstrong had a little something else on his side: light therapy. From the 2000 Tour until his retirement following his 2005 victory, Armstrong and his Team Discovery teammates received laser treatments before and after most of the event’s 21 stages. Whether using it to unlock tight quadriceps before the start of a stage or applying it to stimulate tissue repair after a high-speed spill, Jeff Spencer, DC, chiropractor for Armstrong and his teammates, considers his 635-nm laser an integral part of his tool kit. “Other than my hands, it’s the most important modality I use,” says Spencer, a former Olympic cyclist who boasts a star-studded client list that also includes Tiger Woods and Troy Glaus, MVP of the 2002 World Series. “The laser does some things to promote healing and integrate processes that little else compares to.” While light therapy has been a popular modality in Europe since the 1960s, it has only recently found its way into the hands of sports-medicine practitioners in the United States. In fact, it wasn’t until 2002 that low-level lasers, the most powerful form of light therapy, received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive use in pain therapy. Currently, sports-medicine professionals are using the technology to treat damaged tissue resulting from sprains, strains, and contusions. In this article we’ll discuss the science behind


the technology and talk to sports-medicine experts who use light therapy for a variety of applications. SEEING THE LIGHT Light therapy, also called phototherapy, is an umbrella term defined by the North American Association for Laser Therapy (NAALT) as “a therapeutic physical modality that uses photons (light energy) from the visible and infrared spectrum for tissue healing and pain reduction.” No one is 100-percent certain exactly how light therapy works. Most researchers theorize that the waves of light passing through living tissue rejuvenate injured cells. Experts claim light boosts the cells’ ability to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is largely responsible for supplying cells with energy. “Light has a way of creating a physiological change within the cell, which leads to positive changes and promotion of healing, anti-inflammatory effects, improved blood circulation, increased lymphatic flow, and edema reduction,” says Donald Chu, PhD, PT, ATC, CSCS, a private practitioner and former Director of Rehabilitation and Athletic Training at Stanford University, who frequently lectures on the topic. Modalities of light therapy can be categorized in several different ways. To start, they are usually defined by their light source, of which there are three variations: • Light emitting diodes (LEDs) • Super bright LEDs or superluminous diodes (SLDs) • Low-level laser diodes. SLDs are more powerful versions of LEDs, and both are usually used to treat more superficial wounds than lasers.

The LEDs and SLDs are also less expensive than lasers. Laser diodes differ from LEDs/SLDs in that they generate monochromatic light that is confined to a specific wavelength, collimated (non-divergent), and coherent (speckled). This means that the light beams generated by laser diodes are narrower than those from LEDs/SLDs. Being coherent, they produce small pockets of higher energy levels that are deposited throughout penetrated tissue. In contrast, LED-based light is neither collimated nor coherent, and it consists of multiple wavelengths. LEDs/ SLDs are frequently arranged in multiple-diode clusters, which are especially helpful in treating skin wounds. Technically, laser therapy is one category of light therapy, and LEDs/SLDs are not laser therapy. However, many companies manufacture products that offer both laser and LED/SLD therapy, and the terms “laser therapy” and “light therapy” are sometimes used interchangeably. Low-level lasers are also sometimes called cold lasers to differentiate from surgical (or hot) lasers, which are used to cut through tissue for surgical procedures. Another way therapeutic light devices are categorized is by the wavelength of light they emit, which usually falls between 600 and 900 nanometers (nm). One nanometer is a millionth of a meter (.000001 m). Wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm fall within the red visible light spectrum. Wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1,000 nm are classified as infrared. Wavelength determines depth R.J. Anderson is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2005


TREATING THE ATHLETE of penetration, and in general, infrared light penetrates deeper than visible lightâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;up to five centimeters for highpowered laser diode-based products. These modalities also have differing amounts of power. The greater the wavelength and deeper the beam, the more energy (measured in joules) is needed to ensure that sufficient light is delivered to initiate a therapeutic out-

data on the effects of light therapy may have a hard time finding adequate research from sources they know and trust. â&#x20AC;&#x153;In order to get FDA approval, the light therapy companies had to initially do their own research,â&#x20AC;? says Chu. â&#x20AC;&#x153;And usually that research was done in another country by scientists we hope are reputable, but we just donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know that much about them.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I treated the hamstring once a day for three weeks with the laser and started seeing much faster improvement. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d been doing other stuff for a while and only treading water. Once we added the laser, the healing sped up significantly.â&#x20AC;? come. Joules are the dosage for any given treatment and represent the sum of power (watts) multiplied by the exposure time in seconds. Light therapy units can generate energy levels between one and six joules/cm 2 . DO THEY WORK? Despite 40 years of use, light therapy is still relatively unknown in this country. And athletic trainers looking for hard

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s kind of a wild, wild west situation,â&#x20AC;? continues Chu. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is a lot of unexplored territory and the medical community really needs to devote more time to this area to substantiate whether this really is an effective modality.â&#x20AC;? However, anecdotal information on light therapyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effectiveness is starting to pile up. Ellen Spicuzza, RN, an advanced practice nurse with a degree in exercise physiology, uses an 830-nm laser to treat

contusions, sprains, strains, plantar fasciitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, and muscle spasms. As Spicuzzaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use of the laser has grown, so has her clientele, which includes a number of college and professional athletes from the Boston area, including members of the New England Patriots. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The laser is basically good for anything thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inflamed because it expedites the healing process,â&#x20AC;? says Spicuzza. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I know how long these injuries usually take to heal without the laser, and how much faster they heal with it.â&#x20AC;? Charlie Ridgeway, PT, Physical Therapist for Georgia Tech athletics, is also using light therapy more and more. Ridgeway once used light therapy to treat a hamstring injury that a female athlete battled for nearly a year. For most of that time he had treated the injury with a handful of traditional modalities and had little success. About 11 months into the injury, Ridgeway added a laser to his tool kit and introduced the new modality to the injured hamstring. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I treated it once a day for three weeks with the laser and started seeing much faster improvement,â&#x20AC;? says Ridgeway,

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TREATING THE ATHLETE noting that after three weeks of treatments the patient was symptom-free. “I’d been doing other stuff for a while and only treading water. Once we added the laser, the healing sped up significantly.” Aaron Nelson, ATC, NASM-PES, CSCS, Head Athletic Trainer for the Phoenix Suns, has also had success with light therapy. “To me it’s a lot like ultrasound in that there is some evidence that it works, even though we aren’t sure exactly how well it works,” he says. “I haven’t seen any negatives from using the laser, and we have definitely had some positive experiences with it.” A JUMP START Spencer has enough confidence in his laser that he’ll use it anytime, anywhere, and on almost anybody (contraindications for lasers are patients with pacemakers, pregnancy, labile epilepsy, and cancer). His laser device is the size of a shoebox, and he carries it wherever he goes. He has even been known to provide on-the-spot treatment during Team Discovery’s bus rides to and from race venues.

If there’s an acute traumatic injury that involves some type of significant tissue damage, Spencer turns to his laser before doing anything else, typically spending five to 20 minutes applying treatment. “After that, I may come back with some other treatments or modalities, but everything pyramids down from my use of the laser,” he says. “I want to make sure I reset the healing mecha-

different way than you would for most other modalities,” says Spencer. “An important aspect of healing is making sure all the switches in the body that regulate healing are turned on. If they’re not, then all the processes that you use to support healing aren’t functioning as fast as they should be.” Spencer also uses the laser just as frequently to help head off potential injuries.

To get the most out of clinical observations, Chu recommends having a specific evaluation protocol that includes recording baseline measurements, such as pain indicators, before any treatment takes place. nisms and jump start the recovery process, which is what the laser does.” Spencer compares the laser’s therapeutic systemic effects to those provided by acupuncture—both are typically used not to treat an injury locally, but to open up the body’s natural healing mechanisms along with local effect application. “When you talk about the laser, you have to talk about using the technology for healing in an entirely

“If Lance Armstrong goes out and rides a stage of the tour with an inhibited muscle, his body is going to have to recruit other muscles to get the job of pedaling done,” he says. “That puts more stress on his system and can lead to something like tendinitis. If I can use a laser before the race to turn that muscle back on in a matter of seconds, his pedaling action can return to normal and the chances of further injury are reduced.”

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TREATING THE ATHLETE SHARING THE HEALTH While laser treatments are often the first step Spencer takes with his patients, most others are still experimenting and using it alongside other modalities. “It’s a good adjunctive tool, but it’s not a stand-alone technique,” says Spicuzza. “You can’t just put the laser on somebody and ‘Bam!’ they’re healed.” Chu agrees. “Some people think that it’s a magic wand, and if they wave it something miraculous will happen— and that’s not the case,” he says. “You have to be careful about what you’re

doing and how you’re approaching patients to ensure that you’re enacting a positive change.” At Georgia Tech, physical therapists use a modality that features attachments for both a direct laser probe and an SLD cluster probe, offering a choice of 690 or 830 nm wavelengths. This versatility allows Ridgeway to address tissue damage at varying depths of penetration, which he finds helpful when treating the variety of injuries he sees. In addition to chronic quad and hamstring strains, Ridgeway has found the

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Proving Light Therapy Works! Circle No. 123



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modality effective for treating tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, and muscle strains. In one case of plantar fasciitis, Ridgeway says the patient had significant improvement after four or five laser treatments. Using a cluster probe, Ridgeway applied three joules/cm 2 of energy for 30 seconds on three sites—one at the heel, which was the origin of the injury, and then two more at attachment sites at the metatarsals. “It cleared up very nicely,” says Ridgeway, who complemented the laser treatments with ice, manual massage, and stretching. “Compared to the traditional modalities I use to treat plantar fasciitis, the laser accelerated recovery by a week or two.” One of Nelson’s best light therapy experiences involved a player with an acute ankle sprain. The 10-minute treatments began with Nelson placing the head of his 830-nm laser on three different areas of the ankle in order to increase lymphatic flow around the injury. Nelson then positioned the laser on the tenderest area of the ankle to address the local tissue damage. “Normally we had him back from a Grade-I ankle sprain after two to three weeks,” says Nelson. “This time we had him back in a week.” To get the most out of clinical observations, Chu recommends having a specific evaluation protocol that includes recording baseline measurements, such as pain indicators, before any treatment takes place. And after therapy is administered, new measurements and observations should be documented and compared to the baseline readings. “I think people sometimes get kind of lax in the way they apply a modality—whether it be ultrasound, laser, or anything—and they tend to generalize,” says Chu. “Everything becomes treatable with that particular modality, and as a result you have less thought going into the process and people not understanding why they’re using it.” PURCHASING ONE As light therapy technology gains a better foothold in American sports medicine, Chu is sure that U.S. practitioners will develop a better understanding of it. In the meantime, he suggests those interested in buying a laser do their homework before they make a purchase. “If all lasers produced the same wavelength and power, and had the same light ATHLETICBID.COM


BUYERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GUIDE The following companies manufacture or sell laser and light therapy equipment. Accelerated Care Plus Neuroprobe 500 (800) 350-1100

National Medical Alliance DuoLight Light Therapy (800) 662-7283

Anodyne Therapy, LLC Professional System Model 480 Home System Model 120 (800) 521-6664

Professional Growth Technologies Q-Series Cold Laser (800) 604-9006

Dynatronics Dynatron Solaris Series (801) 568-7000

Quantum Devices, Inc. Warp 10 (698) 924-3000

Erchonia Erchonia 3LT Lasers (888) 242-0571

RevitaMed RevitaMed Therapeutic Systems, professional and home units (800) 279-1479

Isokinetics, Inc. TerraQuant LaserHealth Technology, Inc. LaserHealth D68 Cold Laser (800) 988-9840 Laser NeuroTherapy Development Labs, Inc. Neurolase 150 (719) 266-1161 Laser Therapeutic Technology, Inc. ML830 Laser (732) 776-9600 Laser Therapeutics, Inc. MediCam Maestro, Omega Laser Systems, CTL low-level lasers, Softlaser Series (800) 956-5550 Medical Quant USA, Inc. TerraQuant (440) 542-0761 MedX Health Corp. MedX console, portable, home, and handheld units (905) 826-0766

Rich-Mar Corporation AutoPrism Light Therapy (918) 543-2222 SportLaser ML830 Laser (877) 535-2737 Sports Medicine & Rehab Technologies Distributor for RevitaMed Therapeutic Systems (607) 971-4353 Tetra Medical Supply Corp. Thermotex Infrared Therapy System (800) 621-4041 THOR Laser THOR Lasers, control units, and probes (540) 942-4099 21st Century Healing Q-Series Cold Laser, Q-1000 (617) 969-5937




TREATING THE ATHLETE source, then we could compare apples to apples,” says Chu. “But, what we’re doing right now is comparing apples to oranges. Every machine is different.” First, he advises potential buyers to make sure the manufacturer-provided research lines up with what the laser actually does. “If you read their study, you may find that its parameters do not comply with the parameters of the ma-

accommodates what you are doing in your particular practice,” he says. “I would also evaluate the capacity of the laser and find out whether it is suitable for pre-competition preparation, assisting in the recovery process, and injury management.” Spencer also acknowledges that buyers should not consider maximum power and wavelength as the sole reason for

“It can be overwhelming, but you need to exercise due diligence, look at the research, and ask a lot of questions. You need to pin that company down and say, ‘Show me exactly what is being accomplished here.’” chine they’re selling,” he says. “It can be overwhelming, but you need to exercise due diligence, look at the research, and ask a lot of questions. You need to pin that company down and say, ‘Show me exactly what is being accomplished here.’” Spencer’s advice is to gather as much insight as possible from practitioners who have used a variety of products. “That can help you decide which laser

selecting one light therapy device over another. “Power should not be the only criterion by which you judge a laser,” he says. “The body responds to very low power and too much power can inhibit the healing and upregulation response. Certain wavelengths support certain physical processes required for rapid healing, and different frequencies can be used to initiate different therapeutic processes.”

Of course, investigating and defining personal need should be the key factors when selecting a light therapy device. When Ridgeway began shopping for his unit, he also made a list of other modalities he planned to use. Those needs helped guide his decision to purchase a combination unit that not only featured light therapy, but also ultrasound and electric stimulation. “It really didn’t make much sense to buy multiple units when I could get an all-in-one model,” says Ridgeway. “I ended up paying much less for all the technologies by purchasing the all-inone model.” Much like how X-rays and arthroscopes have gained acceptance from skeptics over time, most experts feel light therapy will eventually become more mainstream within sports medicine. “There are a lot of things out there that people don’t believe in, but that doesn’t mean they don’t work,” says Spencer. “A lot of sport cultures are so steeped in tradition that some innovations can’t make their way in. Hopefully, laser therapy will not fall into that category.” ■

Circle No. 125





On the Road Again © GETTY IMAGES

Traveling to away games can be a test of your organizational skills. The keys are planning ahead, communicating, and being prepared for every bend in the road. BY ABIGAIL FUNK


hen Jack Baynes, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Santa Rita (Ariz.) High School, got off the bus with his football team for a game against a local rival this fall, he followed his usual routine. He unloaded his equipment and went to find coolers, water, and ice. Because the game was at a neutral site, a local community college, Baynes didn’t know where the coolers might be or who would be available to help him. ATHLETICBID.COM

After not too long, he found out the answer: There were no coolers, water, ice, or anything else he expected the host site to provide. After asking around campus, someone found a six-gallon cooler—for both teams to share. That day, Baynes learned a hard lesson: Planning ahead for even the most routine travel is critical for athletic trainers. “I think it’s fair to expect the host school to provide coolers, water, and ice,” Baynes says. “And if they can’t, it should be the responsibility of the host

school to call and say we’re responsible for bringing our own. But this was a neutral site and not a normal situation. To make a long story short, communication is a very important thing when traveling.” COMMUNICATION If communication is a key to hassle-free travel, who should you communicate Abigail Funk is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. She can be reached at: T&C DECEMBER 2005





ric Okasaki, MEd, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at the University of Hawai’i, boarded a plane with his football team in Honolulu on Thursday evening, Oct. 6, at 6:30 p.m. The plane landed in Houston, Texas, at 7:30 a.m. on Friday. That afternoon the team took a charter flight to Monroe, La., and on Saturday, they took a bus 45 minutes to Louisiana Tech, arriving at 4 p.m. for a 6 p.m. kickoff. After the game, the team boarded another bus and another charter flight back to Houston, then departed for home at 12:30 p.m. on Sunday, touching down in Honolulu at 3:30 p.m. “The biggest problem for us when we travel is that we always lose time,” Okasaki says. “We usually lose anywhere from two to three hours, and when we went to Louisiana Tech, it was five hours. When teams come here, they gain time before they have to play us.” Besides being exhausted and trying to fight jet lag, the student-athletes can easily become dehydrated, Okasaki explains. “Hydration is very important for us when we travel,” he says. “We push water on our athletes, and when we board the plane in Honolulu, I have my assistants walk around and distribute Vaseline and cotton swabs. Coating their nostrils helps keep them moisturized and makes the players less prone to becoming ill.” Okasaki doesn’t see traveling with his team as a burden, though, and uses the time to rejuvenate. “Travel does allow me to recharge a little bit because I’m out of the office and the athletic training room and only have one team to concentrate on,” he says. “I really look forward to the changes of scenery and different weather.”

with? As a first step, consider talking to athletic trainers in your league or conference about how to get everyone working together. “In the league we play in I’d say I’m pretty lucky,” says TJ Morgan, MS, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Archbishop Spalding High School in Severn, Md. “All the athletic trainers meet as a group three times a year—once before each season. We talk about what we need when we travel and what we can provide as the host school. We also designate responsibilities for neutralsite playoff venues. We communicate well and everybody’s on the same page as far as knowing what’s available.” At the collegiate level, it’s common practice for each school to have neces40


sary travel information available, either online as a “Visiting Team Information” Web page or distributed in letter form before each season. But that doesn’t mean there shouldn’t be contact with the host school before hitting the road. “Visiting team information should be researched by the athletic trainer before traveling anywhere,” says Gigi Garcia, MS, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Florida International University. “And if I’m going to a school I haven’t received information from, then I call them myself. “I’ll also call ahead if my team has any special needs, like when I need an athletic training room for treatment,” Garcia continues. “For example, if my basketball team is going to practice the

night before and again the morning of game day, and I need an athletic training room at both those times, I’d better make sure somebody will be there. A lot of those practices are after hours, and their athletic training room may not be open unless I call ahead to make arrangements.” Shannon Courtney, MA, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer and Athletic Training Program Director at the University of Northern Colorado, also makes sure to communicate with the host school when sending an athletic training student with a team instead of a certified athletic trainer. “We always call ahead to make sure the host school is okay with also hosting an athletic training student,” she says. “We also ask if it’s okay for the student to observe if there’s an injury on the field or the court.” Garcia sends a written document with any athletic training students who travel with a team, explaining exactly what they can and cannot do. “If I were to send a student with a team and he or she needed to use the athletic training room to conduct treatment, I would send a letter stating exactly what needs to be done with the athlete so the certified athletic trainer is apprised of the situation,” she says. In these circumstances, communication after the event can also be a good idea. “I always follow up with the host institution to make sure the student followed our guidelines and acted professionally,” Courtney says. “I ask if there were any concerns. It is a learning process for the student, so they need feedback.” READY FOR EMERGENCIES Another part of being prepared at an away game is knowing what to do in an emergency situation. Courtney suggests finding out the host school’s emergency protocol information prior to arrival. If that’s not possible, it’s important to find out the procedure from the host athletic trainer as soon as you get there. “Ask whether there is a physician onsite or on-call and what the process is for contacting him or her,” Courtney says. “You might exchange cell phone numbers in case you need to contact that athletic trainer during the game because you have an athlete who needs to see the team doctor. If it’s a contact sport like football, where is the ambulance going to be located and what is the signal for bringing EMS onto the field?” ATHLETICBID.COM

MANAGEMENT also depends on the host school doing its part. At Northern Colorado, Courtney will communicate with visiting athletic trainers as far in advance as possible. For example, before hosting eight schools for a volleyball tournament in November, she sent out letters with information and questions each school needed to answer prior to its arrival.

On football gamedays at Holyoke (Mass.) High School, Melanie Martin, MS, LAT, ATC, becomes more than just the Head Athletic Trainer. She makes sure there is a police officer on duty, has the gates open so an ambulance can get to the field, and double checks that the site supervisors are ready to help with crowd control in case an emergency does arise. “We just want everybody on the same page in case of an emergency,” she says. “The most basic thing to know, whether you’re home or away, is how to get to and then transport an athlete in the most efficient way.” Just as important is to have all student-athletes’ emergency contact information with you. “Anytime you travel, especially if you’re going out of the state or the country, you want to have that information,” Morgan says. “If you have to take a kid to the hospital, you don’t want to be unable to get a hold of their parents or be without their health insurance information. It’s a number-one priority.”

the locker room, and answers their questions,” he says. “In case there are any problems, they have a radio to contact our athletic director or whoever the onsite administrator is that day.” Whether there’s a student host to greet the visiting team or not, when you’re the home team athletic trainer, introduce yourself and make sure the

“When you’re the host athletic trainer in a situation with a visiting student, I feel that you are there to assist them … Establish a relationship when they get there. Explain your procedures and help them learn from the experience.” “I asked, ‘Are you sending an athletic trainer? And if not, what items and services are you going to need?’” Courtney says. “I also assign athletic training student hosts to the visiting teams.” At Santa Rita High School, Baynes makes sure someone is there to greet the athletic trainer as soon as he or she arrives. “We have a senior student who tells them where to park, shows them

PLAYING HOST Of course, making a trip go smoothly

other team has what it needs. “Teams usually come here taped and ready to play, but we’ll be in the athletic training room right up until game time in case they need anything,” says Martin. “We get them water and ice, and they have access to our team doctor, too.” If the school is only sending an athletic training student, be sure to check in with him or her. “When you’re the host

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Circle No. 127 T&C DECEMBER 2005





key factor in making travel go smoothly is having the right bag or travel case. When deciding what type is best for you, there are several factors to think about. How much space do I need? How long do I need it to last? Will it fit on the plane? Which is better: a soft bag or hard case? Do I want wheels or over-the-shoulder straps? “It’s very easy to work out of a case when properly organized,” says Joe Calzone, President of Calzone Case Co. “You can have multiple bins, compartments, trays, drawers, even a detachable table on one side. An organized case can make an athletic trainer more efficient and quicker to respond. You don’t want to be fumbling for a pair of scissors or roll of tape when you’re trying to get an athlete back in the game.” Ari-Med Pharmaceuticals, which sells Bushwalker athletic training bags, can customize a travel bag for you. “It’s not unusual for us to go beyond our normal stock line and do something custom if an athletic trainer has specific needs,” says Jim Bilas, Director of Marketing and Operations at Ari-Med. “The number of athletes an athletic trainer is working with and the typical length of travel time can both affect what features he or she wants.” “I’ve learned that athletic trainers work under many different conditions, depending on the number of athletes on the team, the sport, and whether they’re home or away,” says Jay Wistrom, President of Sports Medic, Inc. “You may think the ideal scenario would be one kit to carry everything, but having two kits may be best for covering multiple sports.” Another consideration is the amount of space available when traveling. “If you’re a high school athletic trainer traveling on a school bus, there’s a lot less room than if you’re a collegiate athletic trainer flying or riding on a charter bus with a team,” Bilas says. Calzone agrees that size should be an athletic trainer’s first thought. “Figure out how much space you’ll have available when traveling and work from there,” he says. “You need a manageable sized case—we’ve re-worked cases for athletic trainers that have figured out they over-estimated the amount of available space.” There are advantages to both soft-sided bags and hard cases. Hard cases typically stand up to wear and tear and last for years. Kim Watson, Marketing Manager at Wilson Case, Inc., has had clients relay stories of hard-cased trunks flying off the roof of a team van on the interstate and later being opened to find everything in its place and undamaged. Soft-sided bags, meanwhile, offer more flexibility and take up less space when not all of your equipment needs to come along. “For a good percentage of athletic trainers, their travel kit is a part of their identity,” Wistrom says. “It’s almost an extension of them and what they do as professionals.”

Circle No. 128




athletic trainer in a situation with a visiting student, I feel that you are there to assist them,â&#x20AC;? Garcia says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Establish a relationship when they get there. Explain your procedures and help them learn from the experience.â&#x20AC;? And if no one from the athletic training department is traveling with the visiting team, make sure the coach knows who you are. â&#x20AC;&#x153;When Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m the only athletic trainer for both teams, as soon as the team arrives, I introduce myself to their coach,â&#x20AC;? says Justin Eggleston, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Lincoln (Neb.) North Star High School. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I let him or her know Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m there in case they need anything, and that Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m more than happy to help. I always ask the coach, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;If one of your players goes down, do you want me to meet you on the field or just take charge of things?â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Most coaches say to just go ahead, but they know their kids better than I do, and I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to step on any toes. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I also check in with the visiting team at halftime and then follow up with them after the game,â&#x20AC;? Eggleston adds. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Even if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a quick, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;You need anything, Coach?â&#x20AC;&#x2122; they appreciate a couple of extra bags of ice or me taking the time to check on a kid who had a rough game.â&#x20AC;? ENJOYING IT Some athletic trainers find traveling to be a burden. You have to pack up all your bags and coolers, make sure you have all the student emergency contact forms, set up when you get there, sit through a whole game, and then pack it all up again to go back home. But itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all in the way you look at it. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The best part about traveling is that you can enjoy the game,â&#x20AC;? Eggleston says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;You may be busy, but you can still be a fan. And traveling is the best time for me to catch up on reading articles and keeping up on whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new.â&#x20AC;? Courtney uses any downtime before a game to chat with the host athletic trainer about the profession they share. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an opportunity to meet different athletic trainers, network with them, and compare and contrast your programs,â&#x20AC;? she Untitled-1 1 says. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Look at different facilities and see how they have their athletic training room set up. You might get a few ideas for your own program.â&#x20AC;? Martin brings paperwork or a book for the longer trips. â&#x20AC;&#x153;But sometimes itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s just nice to sit back and relax a bit, because you know youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re going to work hard once you get there.â&#x20AC;? â&#x2013;





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STATE OF THE INDUSTRY New Technology: The Omnistim FX2 Pro is among the most sophisticated portable electrotherapy devices available for pain management, tissuehealing, and treatment of muscle dysfunction and sports-related injuries. It’s easy to use, battery-operated, and designed to meet the needs of athletic trainers. Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS) uses the body’s normal pattern of electrical firing in muscles identified by EMG studies for functional electrical stimulation protocols. The FX2 Pro uses biphasic asymmetrical pulsed currents to induce contractions in agonist and antagonist muscles, simulating the “live-firing” pattern of muscles during normal activities.

New Technology: The new Aircast A60™ Ankle Support, “The Next Degree in Ankle Support™”, is engineered with the athlete in mind to provide a winning combination of effective ankle support and protection, comfort, and simplified application. The A60 is available in small, medium, and large sizes, and in left- and right-leg models.

Benefits: PENS provides afferent input that assists in the re-training of the CNS and spinal motor loops to promote normal muscle function. This system has all the basic protocols, as well as sport-specific protocols such as walk/run, jump, skate/ski, throw, kick, and cycle.

Benefits: The A60 design incorporates a stabilizer molded at a 60-degree angle. This sleek stabilizer is located on both sides of the ankle to guard against inversion, helping to prevent rollover. Manufactured from breathable material, the A60 ensures that the wearer stays comfortably cool and dry, while the lightweight anatomic design easily fits in athletic footwear without creating additional bulk. The A60 is applied and adjusted with a single strap—replacing time-consuming lacing and costly repetitive taping.

Accelerated Care Plus 800-350-1100 Circle No. 500

Aircast, LLC 800-526-8785 Circle No. 501

New Technology: The BodyGuard™ is a line of patented compression sportswear that revolutionizes how muscle injury is treated and prevented. Utilizing stored elastic energy transfer, the BodyGuard provides performance enhancement and protection against injury. Benefits: Made of a state-of-the-art, highly-compressive neoprene polymer that literally attaches to the skin, the BodyGuard transfers elastic energy to the muscle, offering a unique combination of muscle support and performance enhancement. A study at Ball State University’s Human Performance Lab (Journal of Sports Sciences, 2003, v21, 601-610) found that the BodyGuard increases vertical jump and stride rate and assists muscles in generating torque. It also reduces muscle vibration, minimizes tissue damage, delays the onset of muscle fatigue, raises muscle temperature, and absorbs direct impact. The result is superior muscle support and enhanced performance. Antibody, Inc. 301-782-3700 Circle No. 502 44

Leading companies discuss trends, new product technologies, and more.


Industry Trend: The current trend among portable electrotherapy devices is to include multiple modalities in one portable device. This has encouraged the engineers at BioMedical Life Systems to take things a step further and develop a device with four modalities—Interferential, TENS, NMS, and High–Voltage— all in one unit. Benefits: A portable, multi-modality device benefits the athletic trainer because he or she is no longer forced to choose between carrying multiple electrotherapy devices and leaving devices back in the training facility. The QuadStar® Elite by BioMedical Life Systems has everything needed to ensure that the athletic trainer is fully-prepared to treat athletic injuries right on the sidelines with one unique device. BioMedical Life Systems, Inc. 800-726-8367 Circle No. 503 ATHLETICBID.COM


New Technology: Being on the road is tough so let the Calzone Case Company ease some of your burden with its proprietary CAD system, PRO/E. The company can customdesign the toughest case available—the case that you have always wanted—regardless of the application, whether it be packing helmets and pads, or moving wireless communications equipment. Prior to production, you receive a 3-D plan and a virtual picture of your case, so you know that you’re getting exactly what you want. Whether you’re a college team on the road or a high school team going from locker room to the field, let Calzone Case keep your gear safe.

New Technology: Working with physicians at Johns Hopkins University, Cera Products has created a unique technology for sports drinks. Clinical tests have demonstrated that long-chain carbohydrates—like those found in CeraSport—promote faster fluid absorption than the glucose used in many of today’s top sports drinks, which only partially compensate for the loss of fluid and electrolytes. Due to its advanced formula of carbohydrates and electrolytes, CeraSport’s rice-based oral hydration formula out-performs traditional sports drinks.

Benefits: With over 25 years of custom case-building experience, three facilities nationwide, and a reputation that only comes from years of building some of the finest custom cases in the world, the Calzone Case Company is a great option to ensure that your gear gets to the game in the same shape in which it left.

Benefits: CeraSport’s blend of complex rice carbohydrates and low osmolality speeds gastric emptying and maximizes absorption of fluids, salts, and energy for optimal hydration and peak performance. This fast absorption eliminates bloating, cramping, and other side effects that typically occur with sports drinks. As a result, CeraSport can provide athletes with a higher rate of fluid replacement and extended energy release.

Calzone Case Company 800-243-5152 Circle No. 504

CeraSport 888-CERALYTE Circle No. 505

New Technology: Cho-Pat’s unique ITB Strap gives medical professionals, athletic trainers, and physical therapists another tool to help reduce and relieve the discomfort caused by Iliotibial Band Syndrome. The strap applies compression at the area of discomfort, usually above the knee joint or the upper thigh, to help prevent the snapping or friction of the Iliotibial Band, reducing pain and helping with the healing process.

New Technology: Dynatronics, innovator in light and laser therapy since 1979, introduces the Dynatron® Xp Light Therapy Pad. The Dynatron Xp’s proprietary design allows the practitioner to quickly deliver large doses of therapeutic light to an 8”x10” area. It is designed for use with the Solaris 700 Series, the new X3 Stand-Alone Light Therapy device, and the Dynatron DX2 Traction Unit.

Benefits: Medical professionals, athletic trainers, and therapists now recognize Cho-Pat’s ITB Strap as an effective addition to the treatment procedures for Iliotibial Band Syndrome.

Benefits: The Dynatron Xp is big, powerful, fast, flexible, and best of all unattended. The Xp is 100 times larger than competitive light probes and delivers 7,500mW of power per pad. Its flexibility allows it to easily wrap around any part of the body. Treatments of large areas such as the low back and thigh, which are time-intensive with light probes, can now be treated in four to eight minutes.

Cho-Pat, Inc. 800-221-1601 Circle No. 506

Dynatronics 801-568-7000 Circle No. 507





New Technology: The current trend in treating musculoskeletal injuries and recovery from surgery is to go beyond the traditional therapies of ice and elastic bandages by administering controllable cold and intermittent compression therapy. Benefits: Game Ready is portable and easy to use, allowing you to administer state-of-the-art therapy anytime, anywhere. Through its advanced application of cold and compression, Game Ready reduces pain, swelling, muscle spasms, and tissue damage, accelerating the body’s natural healing process—which can result in reduced recovery time. And because it is such an advanced treatment, Game Ready helps athletes return to action earlier and potentially be more resilient, giving them the confidence that they’re getting the best possible care. Game Ready 888-GAMEREADY Circle No. 508

New Technology: MET-Rx AMPED ECN takes sports nutrition supplementation to a whole new dimension. The AMPED ECN Pumped Blend supports muscle size, strength, power, and recovery from high-intensity exercise. This product has a muscle-nitro blend that contains amino acids which support the muscles’ nitrogen levels, a neuro-muscle blend that increases energy levels, and the AMPED ECN NOS blend that supports nitric oxide synthesis. This combination of proprietary ingredients was formulated so athletes can hit the gym and take care of business.

Benefits: Proper use of the Elite Seat helps patients significantly increase knee extension equal to the opposite knee, decrease pain level, and improve the overall function of the affected knee. This device’s lightweight design allows patients to recline comfortably, eliminating difficulties with hamstring tightness or spasms. In some cases it can even prevent patients from having to undergo further surgery. Kneebourne Therapeutic 866-756-3706 Circle No. 509

New Technology: The National Academy of Sports Medicine is changing the shape of health and fitness by providing the industry’s most comprehensive certifications for personal exercise and athletic training.

***Results may vary, when used in conjunction with an intense daily exercise program and a balanced diet including an adequate caloric intake. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Benefits: NASM certification courses not only offer an in-depth study of the basic science of human movement, exercise, and nutrition, they also teach a scientific system of training called Optimum Performance Training (OPT) ™, designed and proven to help anyone reach a designated fitness goal. Created by NASM President and CEO Mike Clark, OPT provides the tools that trainers need to transform NASM’s movement science into customized fitness programs, guaranteed to produce results. NASM’s training facility, headquartered in Calabasas, Calif., also serves as a training base for professional and Olympic athletes, including baseball’s Cy Young Award winner Barry Zito, and NBA all-stars Penny Hardaway and Stephon Marbury.

MET-Rx Engineered Nutrition 800-55 METRX Circle No. 510

National Academy of Sports Medicine 800-460-6276 Circle No. 511

Benefits: AMPED ECN provides greater energy levels and support for serious workouts by combining proprietary formulations for extreme energy and nutrient circulation to the cell. MET-Rx AMPED ECN offers the multi-action pre- and post-workout benefits that performance athletes deserve.


New Technology: The Elite Seat is a portable knee-extension device designed for non-operative treatments of degenerative knee conditions. By evenly distributing force across the leg, the Elite Seat is the most effective way of achieving full-knee hyperextension and reducing pain in bent knees caused by acute ACL injury, inadequate postoperative rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, or total-knee arthoplasty, Arthrofibrosis, deconditioned knee with a Flexion Contracture, and arthritis.




New Technology: The IontoPatch offers an effective, state-of-the-art, long-duration, low-intensity iontophoresis treatment that is more comfortable. The innovative self-contained battery provides sub-sensory stimulation, eliminating the problems of a noxious, uninterrupted DC current. Traditional iontophoresis works against anti-inflammatory medications by causing vasodilation, whereas the IontoPatch works below sensation, allowing the medication to remain at the delivery site longer. Benefits: Using no external power supply, IontoPatch benefits both clinicians and patients. Its portability allows athletic trainers to administer effective treatments in less time and in non-clinical settings. Athletes resume daily activities while receiving timereleased iontophoresis. IontoPatch can be wrapped, braced, and walked on, which is advantageous when treating active athletes. Its flexible, breathable, latexfree material conforms to anatomical sites, ensuring complete contact and comfort. National Medical Alliance 800-662-7283 Circle No. 512

New Technology: New and improved methods for manufacturing foam rollers have come to light and are making a significant impact. The OPTP Axis™ Roller, is an exciting new molded foam roller that OPTP developed because of the inconsistency and quality issues with the standard white foam rollers. Benefits: Geared for athletic training professionals, the exclusive OPTP Axis Roller provides all the benefits of traditional rollers without breaking down. The Axis Roller is made up of solid foam “beads” that get compressed during the molding process— eliminating any possibility of collapsible air pockets. The Axis’ black molded-foam technology is firm in density, has a smooth surface, and will not lose its shape after several months of moderate to heavy use. OPTP 800-367-7393 Circle No. 514 ATHLETICBID.COM

New Technology: This Heavy-Duty Treatment Table from Oakworks® is a guaranteed workhorse—dependable, strong, and durable. It will easily handle a 500-pound dynamic load and has table extenders that bring the total table length to either 78 or 84 inches. It’s constructed of completely-lacquered, 100-percent solid hardwood—no laminates or particle board—eliminating concerns about swelling or flaking in wet or humid environments. Benefits: The heavy-duty vinyl upholstery resists punctures and tears, and covers two inches of firm resilient foam. If damaged, repair is as simple as removing four bolts and replacing the top, instead of buying a whole new table. There are a variety of options available, too: a high-capacity shelf to hold any articles necessary on the job, a patented QuickLock™ Face Rest, and a paper towel holder. Oakworks® 800-916-4603 Circle No. 513

New Technology: Prossage™ Heat is a unique, all-natural, area-specific warming ointment that’s non-slip. It’s formulated specifically for deep-tissue work, myofascial release, and trigger-point therapy. Prossage™ Heat is unique because it only takes a small amount to effectively work an area of the body. Put a drop or two of Prossage™ Heat in your hand, rub your hands together vigorously, and then begin working the area in need of treatment. Benefits: Prossage™ Heat makes it easier to “hook” the deep fascia, allowing you to work faster and more efficiently. Heating tissue with Prossage™ Heat reduces muscle spasms and helps ligaments and joint capsules. The non-slip controllable glide and unique properties of Prossage™ Heat make deep-tissue work easier and less painful. Performance Health, Inc. 866-4-PROSSAGE Circle No. 515 T&C DECEMBER 2005



New Technology: The kettlebell trend continues to increase as this ancient strengthening art becomes more mainstream. Not only does it promote total-body conditioning, it also increases power, flexibility, and range of motion. In response to this trend, Power Systems has increased its selection of kettlebells and kettlebell-training programs. Power Systems’ traditional cast iron bells have 1-1/2-inch thick handles and range from 20 to 80 pounds in five-pound increments. Its Premium Kettlebells are cast iron bells with a protective color-coded vinyl coating. They range from 10 to 30 pounds in staggered increments and have a one-inch thick handle. Benefits: Kettlebells can be incorporated into fullbody workouts, explosive sports-specific movements, and core-training programs that help athletes develop strength, power, muscle endurance, flexibility, and balance. Specific functional movements that can be utilized include squats, pulls, overhead throws, and rotational training.

Benefits: InjuryZone seamlessly connects medical personnel and training support staff with instant Web-based access to an athlete’s comprehensive health information history in order to facilitate effective athlete-health management. This centralized HIPAAbased database improves workflow efficiencies and reduces redundant data entry while simultaneously supporting in-depth trend analyses for the development and implementation of proactive training strategies to promote, maintain, and enhance athlete health.

Power Systems 800-321-6975 Circle No. 516

Presagia Corp. 866-696-7198 Circle No. 517

New Technology: Athletic trainers and strength coaches have long recognized the importance of accurately measuring the body fat of their athletes, including monitoring their hydration levels during training. The most successful of them know how body fat analysis and monitoring hydration levels can help their athletes reach their optimal potential.


New Technology: Among the present trends in athlete-health management is to use the Internet to access an athlete’s complete health data anywhere at anytime instantly. Responding to this demand, Presagia partnered with leading sports organizations to expand upon the powerful InjuryTracker System. The result— InjuryZone—is the world’s first Web-based athletehealth management system.

New Technology: Tanita’s newest technology is Segmental Body Composition Analysis BC-418. This analyzer breaks down the initial body composition analysis even further, providing individual composition results for five body segments: trunk, left arm, right arm, left leg, and right leg. An accurate segmental body composition profile is then printed in seconds for weight, BMI, body fat percentage, body water percentage, fat-free mass, estimated muscle mass, and BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate)

Benefits: The FDA-approved Futrex body composition analyzer enables athletic trainers to perform accurate analysis anywhere, any time. In addition, athletic trainers can easily monitor athletes’ hydration levels, ensuring that they are properly hydrated while training. This portable unit is lightweight and easy to use. Best of all, there are no pre-test protocols to follow.

Benefits: The Segmental Body Composition Analysis BC-418 provides information previously never available for athletes and athletic trainers. By providing body fat percentage, body water percentage, muscle mass, and BMR, athletes can better understand how their workouts are affecting their bodies, helping them improve overall performance. It also assists athletic trainers in deciding on programs and regimens for their athletes.

Spencer Medical, Inc. 877-348-6692 Circle No. 518

Tanita Corporation of America, Inc. 847-640-9241 Circle No. 519




New Technology: The body’s natural response to thermal energy is to maintain a condition of homeostasis, a balanced environment or state of equilibrium throughout the body. In order to maintain this balance, the body rapidly increases blood flow to an affected area. Tetra Medical Supply’s Infrared Thermal Energy is a patented carbon-black fiberglass element that transmits infrared thermal energy to the affected area, providing non-invasive, non-addictive pain relief and therapy— with no side effects.

New Technology: Among today’s biggest trends is the continuation of functional body-weight training in the rehabilitation environment. Treatment is more effective with the Total Gym because the ability of the athletic trainer and therapist to manage and calibrate the body-weight resistance is completely controllable.

Benefits: This therapy helps relieve stiffness and inflammation, increases blood flow to the affected area, and releases built-up lactic acid and other toxins affecting body tissues. Heating pads and hot towels penetrate two to three millimeters into the skin, while Thermal Energy penetrates up to 2.36 inches, a significant impact on the effectiveness of this therapy.

Benefits: The most significant benefit to the athlete is the ability to start rehabilitation earlier with partial weight-bearing, close-chain exercises. This enhances their range of motion and allows the athlete to stay flexible. The variety of exercises and the ability to adjust the body-weight resistance provides the rehab/ conditioning professional with a safe, versatile mode of exercise.

Tetra Medical Supply Corp. 800-621-4041 Circle No. 520

Total Gym/efi Sports Medicine 800-541-4900 Circle No. 521

New Technology: With a growing trend toward drug-free, non-invasive alternatives, athletic trainers are using cold lasers to accelerate healing and reduce pain and inflammation. Typically, cold lasers have one to four diodes that are applied to specific spots. The Q-Series Cold Laser has a two-inch diameter exposure area, 14 lasers, eight LEDs, seven operating modes, 63 frequencies, and a “no memory” battery. Benefits: With its 63 frequencies, the Q-Series Cold Laser can be used effectively for a wide range of acute and chronic health issues. It is portable, lightweight, and battery-operated, with constant energy output for the life of the battery. It is registered with the FDA as a Class I device (non-significant risk), and can be easily applied on or off the field by the athletic trainer or the athlete. 21st Century Healing 800-715-5937 Circle No. 522 ATHLETICBID.COM

New Technology: While teams and schools are consistently looking for the biggest bang for the buck, they are mostly working with tight budgets and rarely have the adequate space necessary to train. Xvest is determined to meet much of this need. The Xvest is a complete weight room—plus a whole lot more when you consider every type of training, exercise, and drill that can be accomplished in the Xvest. Benefits: Because of its freedom of movement and exercise adaptability, the Xvest delivers more for less. It greatly improves athletic performance, endurance, speed, and explosiveness in the smallest amount of space. Xvest 281-693-4034 Circle No. 523 T&C DECEMBER 2005


LASER & LIGHT THERAPY 21st Century Healing 800-715-5937 Cold Laser Q-1000 The Cold Laser Q-1000 is among the most versatile lasers on the market. It’s programmable and has a “no memory” battery. The laser is deep-penetrating with very low energy output, yet is highlyeffective and is extremely safe. It works at the cellular level to reduce inflammation and pain, and accelerates healing. • FDA-approved Class I laser treatment • 10 years on the market • A 2004 study found the Q-1000 had a positive effect on the autonomic nervous system • Lightweight and portable

• 12 laser diodes, eight LEDs, and two single-point probes • Pulses at multiple energy levels at multiple frequencies producing multiple wavelengths • May be purchased either directly from the company or through its distributors; leasing options are available • Two-year warranty; extended warranty option available Circle No. 524 Accelerated Care Plus 800-350-1100 NeuroProbe 500-100NP500 Accelerated Care Plus’ NeuroProbe 500 is a pain-management system that offers light therapy and electrical stimulation, which can be used in combination with each other.

• FDA-approved Class II device • Approved to provide pain relief and muscle relaxation and to increase blood flow • Two years on the market • Portable and battery-operated • 39 SLDs for smaller unit • Pulses at multiple energy levels to produce multiple wavelengths • May be purchased directly through Accelerated Care Plus; leasing options and billing reimbursement are available • Additional training is required to operate unit Circle No. 525 Anodyne Therapy 877-832-8527 Anodyne Therapy 480 Pro Anodyne Therapy is an FDA-cleared, photo-energy therapy that is clinicallyproven to increase micro-circulation and reduce pain in many conditions. • FDA-approved in 1994 to increase circulation and reduce pain

Advance Your Career. Earn a Master of Science degree or post-graduate certificate in 12 months, 100 percent online in: • Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention • Fitness and Wellness • Rehabilitation Science Graduates are prepared to take a National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) certification exam as Performance Enhancement Specialist (PES), Certified Personal Trainer (CPT), or Corrective Exercise Specialist (CES). Don’t have a degree? Inquire about our 100% online bachelor’s degree in Fitness & Wellness that can be completed in less than three years. Transfer credits accepted. Visit our web site at for information or call 724-938-5958. California University is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. A proud member of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education.

Circle No. 131




LASER & LIGHT THERAPY â&#x20AC;˘ 11 years on the market â&#x20AC;˘ Anodyne Therapy has been published in 13 peer-reviewed studies that demonstrated this therapy has restored nerve function, reduced pain, and increased wound healing â&#x20AC;˘ ISO-, OSHA-, and CE-certified â&#x20AC;˘ Extremely portable â&#x20AC;˘ 480 SLDs â&#x20AC;˘ Pulses at multiple energy levels â&#x20AC;˘ Direct purchasing available with leasing options and billing reimbursement â&#x20AC;˘ Two-year warranty Circle No. 526

Dynatronics Corp. 801-568-7000 Dynatron Xp Light Pad The Dynatron Xp Light Pad has been cleared by the FDA to provide topical heating for: temporary increase in blood circulation; temporary relief of minor muscle and joint aches, pain, and stiffness; relaxation of muscles, muscle spasms; and reducing minor pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

FDA-approved Class-II device Light Pad is unattended 200 infrared diodes Wavelengths pulse at 880nm Maximum treatment time is 18.3 minutes â&#x20AC;˘ May be purchased through Dynatronicsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; distributors Circle No. 527

The Light Probes D880 Plus Dynatronicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Light Probes D880 Plus has been cleared by the FDA to provide topical heating for: temporary increase in blood circulation; temporary relief of minor muscle and joint aches, pain and stiffness; relaxation of muscles, muscle spasms; and reducing minor pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. â&#x20AC;˘ FDA-approved Class-II device â&#x20AC;˘ Light Probes are hand-held â&#x20AC;˘ 32 infrared diodes; eight red diodes â&#x20AC;˘ Infrared wavelengths pulse at 878nm; red wavelengths pulse at 660nm â&#x20AC;˘ Maximum treatment time is five minutes â&#x20AC;˘ May be purchased through Dynatronicsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; distributors Circle No. 528

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College, High School and Professional Trainers & Teams Are Using Cold Lasers to Help Relieve: â&#x20AC;˘ Sprained Ankles â&#x20AC;˘ Hamstring Injuries â&#x20AC;˘ Pulled Muscles â&#x20AC;˘ Back Pain and much more...

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(800) 715-5937 Circle No. 133 ATHLETICBID.COM


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Circle No. 134 T&C DECEMBER 2005



National Medical Alliance 800-662-7283 Duolight Portable MX3LCS100 NMA’s Duolight Portable is among the most powerful battery-operated, triple-diode, 100megawatt, infrared lasers on the market. • Laser Class-IIIB • FDA-approved to increase blood circulation and muscle relaxation and to provide temporary relief of muscle/joint aches, spasms, pain, stiffness, and arthritis • May also be used for carpal tunnel syndrome and pain management • Three years on the market • Portable, lightweight, and batteryoperated

• Three diodes • May be purchased through distributors • One-year warranty on parts and labor • Billing reimbursement is available, as are leasing options • Additional training is required to operate unit Circle No. 529 Duolight Portable MX2-210 The Duolight console is a two-port combination unit that uses red and infrared light through cold lasers and super-luminous diodes (SLD). Accessories can be used simultaneously.

• • • • • • • • • •

of muscle/joint aches, spasms, pain, stiffness, and arthritis May also be used for carpal tunnel syndrome and pain management Three years on the market Unattended, hands-free SLD therapy Three laser diodes 49 SLDs Multiple energy levels produce multiple wavelengths May be purchased through distributors One-year warranty on parts and labor Billing reimbursement is available, as are leasing options Additional training is required to operate unit Circle No. 530

• Laser Class-IIIB • FDA-approved to increase blood circulation and muscle relaxation and to provide temporary relief

Get It Straight

15299 Stony Creek Way Noblesville, Indiana 46060 • WWW.KNEEBOURNE.COM Circle No. 135




ELECTROTHERAPY Accelerated Care Plus 800-350-1100

BioMedical Life Systems, Inc. 800-726-8367

Omnistim 500B-100500B The Omnistim 500B by Accelerated Care Plus is a multi-modality electrotherapy system. • 6.5” x 12” x 3.5”; 4.5 pounds • Power Supply: D battery or an AC adapter • Easy-to-use menu adjusts to selected “indications for use” options and protocol type; precise patient care and set-up speed; timer included • NMS, High-Voltage, Interferential; MFAC, LVPC, NMES • Two channels; four stimulation modes • Output voltage: 250v • One-year warranty • May be purchased directly through Accelerated Care Plus; billing reimbursement and leasing options are available • Additional training is required to operate unit Circle No. 531

QuadStar Elite KQSE The QuadStar Elite is a portable combination electrotherapy device that offers four modalities: INF, TENS, HighVoltage, and muscle stimulation. • 5.55” x 5.25” x 1.65”; 18.5 ounces • Internal rechargeable battery • Hand-held • Sequence of two or more modalities for total treatment; offers programmed and self-programmable regimens; timer included • Eight-electrode capability • Four channels; four stimulation modes • Output voltage: 98mA (INF, TENS, NMS); 350v (High-Voltage) • TENS, NMS, High-Voltage, Interferential • Accessories available and included • Three-year warranty • May be purchased through either BioMedical Life Systems or its distributors; billing reimbursement available for both Circle No. 533

BioMedical Life Systems, Inc. 800-726-8367 QuadStar II (KQST) The QuadStar II is a portable combination electrotherapy device that offers three modalities: INF, TENS, and muscle stimulation (NMS). • 6.3” x 2.75” x 1.25”; 11.4 ounces • Power Supply: 4 AA alkaline batteries or an AC adapter • Hand-held • Sequence of two or more modalities provides total treatment; offers programmed and self-programmable regimens; timer included • Eight-electrode capability • TENS, NMS, Interferential • Four channels; three stimulation modes • Accessories available and included • Three-year warranty • May be purchased through either BioMedical Life Systems or its distributors; billing reimbursement available Circle No. 532 ATHLETICBID.COM

Tetra Medical Supply Corp. 800-621-4041 Ultima Eleven TENS Unit TS1100 The Ultima Eleven TENS Unit Offers 11 modes of operation and three waveform adjustments to enhance patient results. • 14 ounces • Power Supply: Two AA alkaline batteries • Hand-held • Large LCD screen; automatic record of treatment time; timer included • Five-year warranty • TENS • 11 Channels • Output voltage: Max 130mA over 500 ohms • May be purchased through either Tetra or its distributors Circle No. 534


Certification Program Is Like No Other “The NATA/CSCS combination is like no other when it comes to assistance in prevention, care, and treatment of exercise for the active population. This combination knows the body and how to care for it in many perspectives that are not found in any other combination.” Patricia J. Hubel, ATC, CSCS Academic Projects and Research Coordinator Minot State University, N.D. “As an athletic trainer and strength and conditioning professional, two of my main objectives are to prevent injury and improve performance. The CSCS credential indicates that the individuals I hire possess this expertise, regardless of the sport or needs of the athlete.” Mr. Dan Wathen, ATC, CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D Head Athletic Trainer Youngstown State University, Ohio “Earning the CSCS credential signifies those self-motivated individuals who have taken it upon themselves to improve their knowledge and practical skills beyond undergraduate entrylevel educational requirements in the strength and conditioning/physical rehabilitation domain.” James E. Campbell, MS, ATC, CSCS Head Athletic Trainer Overland High School Aurora, Colo.

NSCA Certification Commission 3333 Landmark Circle Lincoln, NE 68504 888-746-2378 T&C DECEMBER 2005


PLYOMETRICS Exertools 800-235-1559 Exertools, the originator of medicine ball rebounding systems, offers the Plyoback™ Rebounder. Time-tested and clinically-proven, this unit comes with an improved double-clamping unit with hardened bolts and tightened angles, heavy-duty multiple zigzag stitching on its doubled-tramp material, and a hefty vinyl-spring cover that protects the ball and the user from errant throws. Recognized by many as the most durable rebounder, the Plyoback is protected by a two-year warranty and can be shipped just days after an order is placed. Circle No. 535 Perform Better 800-556-7464 Perform Better has added 18- and 24inch sizes to its popular line of Banana Steps for intermediate and advanced plyometric exercises. These portable, lightweight units are perfect for hopping, stepping, jumping, bounding, and lateral speed and agility drills. They can also be used in rehabilitation to improve gait. For more information or to request a copy of the 2006 Perform Better catalog, call toll-free or check out Perform Better’s Web site. Circle No. 536 Perform Better now offers the SPS Plyo-Safe Plyo Box Set, which can be used as three individual boxes to create heights of 12-50 inches. Deluxe features include steel-reinforced oak construction covered with1 and 3/8-inch crosslinked foam panels for ultimate safety and stability. A set includes a 10-, 16-, and 22-inch box for easy stacking. Ask 54


about custom colors and logos. For more information on the SPS Plyo-Safe Plyo Box Set or to request a copy of the 2006 Perform Better catalog, call toll-free or visit online. Circle No. 537

staff to apply medicine ball training into their current training programs for maximized results. For more information and a free catalog, call OPTP tollfree, or visit online. Circle No. 540

NZ Mfg., LLC 800-886-6621

Power Systems 800-321-6975

TurfCordz Jump Belt S130 was specifically-designed to enhance one’s vertical leap by developing strength and quickness in the legs. It is available in five resistance levels. All TurfCordz resistance-training products offer the safety, security, and reliability professional athletes demand. To learn more about the entire innovative TurfCordz line, call toll-free, or visit online. Circle No. 538

The VersaFit Bag by Power Systems evenly distributes and centers weighted resistance across the shoulders to add intensity and faster results to functional and plyometric training. This sand-filled bag contours to the body, and the easyto-hold handles keep the bag in place during drills. The VersaFit Bag has an integrated, leakresistant design with one bag (sand-filled) inside an outer casement bag. Use for individuals or multilevel group training. Bags are available from five to 30 pounds in five-pound increments. Circle No. 541

OPTP 800-367-7393 Plyometric Exercises with the Medicine Ball by Dr. Donald Chu is in its second edition with 48 new exercises. Plyometrics uses the stretch reflex to enhance strength and performance. Over 150 plyometric exercises in this book offer you the mechanisms needed to blend strength and speed training. By using the medicine ball to create necessary resistance, participants experience the entire range of motion for the muscle groups being treated. Contact OPTP toll-free for more information. Circle No. 539 The Essence of Medicine Ball Training by Juan Carlos Santana, CSCS, demonstrates over 100 medicine ball exercise progressions. This DVD will inform and inspire athletic trainers, coaches, and rehab

Get an explosive edge over the competition by improving lateral agility, speed, and stamina with the Power Systems’ Adjustable Lateral Plyo Box. The inclining-side platforms can quickly be set at 25, 35, or 45 degrees to maximally-target all the muscles of the ankle, legs, and hips, as well as to increase change of direction speed. Made of durable 14gauge, one-inch welded steel with a reinforced non-slip platform, this plyo box can withstand even the most powerful athletes. An instructional manual and DVD are also available. Circle No. 542 Total Gym/efi Sports Medicine 800-525-6901 efi Sports Medicine’s electric PowerTower™ delivers level changes at the touch of a button. The PowerTower features a dynamic pulley ATHLETICBID.COM

PLYOMETRICS system that adjusts to an athlete’s girth and height to allow optimum force angles specific to each exercise. Other features include a wide base, a telescoping squat stand with three adjustable heights, builtin pull-up bars, and a fold-away foot holder for hamstring and abdominal work. This unit accepts all of efi’s Total Gym’s Pilates accessories and comes with an exercise manual categorized by muscle group and Pilates repertoire. Circle No. 543 efi Sports Medicine’s Plyometric Rebounder with Medicine Balls provides a fun and highly-effective workout that improves coordination and core stabilization. The Rebounder’s sturdy materials and

design make it a safe yet challenging jogger and balance-training device as its circular trampoline adjusts to any incline. This training unit promotes core stabilization in safe and functional positions for the spine, trunk, and extremities, and improves dynamic rhythmic stabilization of the involved joints. Circle No. 544 Xvest 800-697-5658 Xvest has a new weight configuration, and it’s heavy: 84 pounds of heavy. The new Xvest, known as the Fire Fighter model, was developed especially for fire fighters and their rigorous training. It has the same basic design as the original Xvest, but internally it has a new weight configuration that allows for 84 pounds of weight. Because of its ability to adjust weight like the original Xvest, everyone from

body builders to military personnel is buying them. For more information on all the Xvest models, call the company or visit its Web site. Circle No. 545 “I have found the Xvest to be an excellent tool for providing overloads in plyometrics, strength training, conditioning, and rehabilitation programs. The fit and adaptability are excellent. The Xvest allows freedom of movement and doesn’t interfere with any of the agility, bounding, or running programs that I write for a wide variety of athletes, both collegiate and professional. The Xvest has proven itself in my programs. Thank you for all your efforts and help in improving my capability as a strength and conditioning specialist.” —Donald A. Chu, Ph.D., PT, ATC, CSCS, Author of Jumping Into Plyometrics Circle No. 546

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133 . . 21st Century Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 108 . . Accelerated Care Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 116 . . Aircast (A2 Wrist Brace) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 109 . . Aircast (A60 Ankle Support) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 123 . . Anodyne Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 115 . . Antibody (BodyGuards) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 137 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC 107 . . Biofreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 113 . . BioMedical Life Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 131 . . California University of Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 127 . . Calzone Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 134 . . CeraSport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 101 . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 102 . . Dynatronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 103 . . efi Sports Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 117 . . Exertools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 126 . . Flexall (Ari-Med) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 124 . . Game Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 132 . . Injury Zone (Presagia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 135 . . Kneebourne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52




128 . . MedPac (SportsMedic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 100 . . MET-Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC 111 . . NASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 122 . . National Medical Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 106 . . NSCA Trainersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 138 . . Oakworks (Heavy Duty Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC 110 . . Oakworks (Sideline Tables) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 114 . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 105 . . Perform Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 136 . . Perform Better (seminars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 119 . . Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 118 . . Prossage Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 104 . . Seton Hall University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 129 . . Spencer Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 120 . . Tetra Medical Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 121 . . THOR Laser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 130 . . TurfCordz/NZ Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 125 . . Wilson Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 112 . . Xvest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19



524 . . 21st Century Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 525 . . Accelerated Care (NeuroProbe). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 531 . . Accelerated Care (Omnistim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 526 . . Anodyne Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 547 . . Ari-Med Pharmaceuticals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 548 . . Biofreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 533 . . BioMedical Life (QuadStar Elite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 532 . . BioMedical Life (QuadStar II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 549 . . Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 527 . . Dynatronics (Dynatron Xp Light Pad) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 528 . . Dynatronics (Light Probes D880 Plus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 543 . . efi Sports Medicine (Power Tower) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 544 . . efi Sports Medicine (Rebounder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 535 . . Exertools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 530 . . National Medical Alliance (MX2-210) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 529 . . National Medical Alliance (MX3LCS100) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 538 . . NZ Mfg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 539 . . OPTP (Don Chu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 540 . . OPTP (Juan Carlos Santana) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 536 . . Perform Better (Banana Steps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 537 . . Perform Better (Plyo Box Set) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 542 . . Power Systems (Plyo Box) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 541 . . Power Systems (VersaFit Bag) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 550 . . Prossage Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 551 . . Seton Hall University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 552 . . SportsMedic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 534 . . Tetra Medical Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 553 . . Wilson Case (CheckMate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 554 . . Wilson Case (Mini SplitTop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 56





546 . . Xvest (Don Chu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 545 . . Xvest (Fire Fighter model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

State of the Industry 522 . . 21st Century Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 500 . . Accelerated Care Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 501 . . Aircast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 502 . . Antibody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 503 . . BioMedical Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 504 . . Calzone Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 505 . . CeraSport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 506 . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 507 . . Dynatronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 521 . . efi Sports Medicine/Total Gym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 508 . . Game Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 509 . . Kneebourne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 510 . . MET-Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 511 . . NASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 512 . . National Medical Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 513 . . Oakworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 514 . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 515 . . Performance Health (Prossage Heat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 516 . . Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 517 . . Presagia (Injury Zone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 518 . . Spencer Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 519 . . Tanita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 520 . . Tetra Medical Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 523 . . Xvest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ATHLETICBID.COM


TOPICAL ANALGESICS Ari-Med Pharmaceuticals 800-527-4923

Biofreeze 800-246-3733

Creative Health Products, Inc. 800-742-4478

Depend on Flexall 454® topical pain-relieving gels from Ari-Med Pharmaceuticals for clinical and athletic training room settings. Flexall gels are used by many of the leading athletic trainers to treat the world’s top athletes. These gels enhance ultrasound, cryotherapy, TENS, and massage therapy, and feature unique vitamin E-enriched aloe vera formulas, with menthol as the active ingredient. They absorb quickly and are greaseless, non-staining, and gentle on the skin. Professional sizes are available. Circle No. 547

The Biofreeze® family of pain-relieving products includes a soothing gel, a convenient roll-on, and the new natural Cryospray™. Biofreeze effectively relieves pain from athletic injuries, muscle injuries, strains, sprains, and stiff joints. Apply before, during, and after workouts to reduce swelling and stiffness, and enable greater range of motion and flexibility. Biofreeze gel is available in 16-oz., 32-oz., and one gallon professional pump bottles; 16-oz. spray bottles; and gravity dispenser boxes with 100 five-gram doses. The 4-oz. gel tubes, 4-oz. spray bottles, and 3-oz. roll-ons are designed for patient self-care at home. Biofreeze is endorsed by the World Olympians Association of the Americas and the United States Taekwondo Union. Circle No. 548

Creative Health Products has been in business since 1976 as a leading discount supplier of rehabilitation, fitness, exercise, and athletic equipment, as well as health, medical, and DISCOUNT CATALOG fitness testing and measuring products, all available at reduced prices. The products offered include: heart rate monitors; blood pressure testers; pulse oximeters; bodyfat calipers; scales; strength testers; flexibility testers; stethoscopes; pedometers; exercise bikes; ergometers; stopwatches; fitness books and software; exercise bands; step benches; hand and finger exercisers; heating pads; and more. Circle No. 549 C R E AT I V E H E A LT H P R O D U C T S

2005 CATALOG #100 PRICE $2.00


Plymouth, Michigan





Health, Fitness, Exercise, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Sports Medicine Products.


Leaders since 1976













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5148 Saddle Ridge Road • Plymouth, Michigan 48170

800-742-4478 Overseas orders 734-996-5900


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Scientific Basis of Sports Drink Efficacy

Robert Murray, Ph.D., FACSM, Director of Gatorade Sports Science Institute Since 1985, the Gatorade Sports Science Institute has been conducting research, helping fund research at major universities, creating educational materials, and sponsoring scientific meetings all designed to help athletes optimize their performance and safeguard their health. In addition, GSSI research leads to the development of nutrition products to provide athletes with the fluids and fuels they need to train and compete, and establishes and maintains the scientific standard for the Gatorade business. The purpose of this brief overview is to highlight the scientific thinking that underlies the Gatorade formula.



The value of adding protein to a sports drink is another issue where the existing science is inconclusive. “Inconclusive” means that there is not enough consistency among the high-quality published research studies to confidently conclude that protein ingested during exercise provides a benefit. There are always scientific studies on both sides of any issue, so it is important to keep in mind that an accurate scientific conclusion is not developed simply by counting the number of studies on either side of the fence. Arriving at an accurate conclusion requires careful examination of the quality and the quantity of research in a particular area. In the case of protein, the vast majority of the best-quality studies show no performance benefit when protein is ingested during exercise.

Research has consistently shown that there are many exercise occasions when a sports drink provides benefits superior to water but no athletic occasion when water is superior to a properly formulated sports drink. The primary benefit of a sports drink when compared with water is better exercise performance. Performance is improved with a sports drink like Gatorade compared with water for two central reasons: properly formulated sports drinks help maintain hydration and provide extra energy. The amount and types of carbohydrates used in a sports drink are critical in optimizing the drink’s ability to improve performance. Research shows that a blend of simple carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose) is most effective in stimulating rapid absorption and enhancing carbohydrate oxidation, two important considerations whenever athletes are training and competing. In the small intestine, multiple types of carbohydrate stimulate the fastest fluid absorption and that helps sustain important cardiovascular functions and helps reduce the risk of gastrointestinal distress during vigorous exercise. Whenever muscles work hard, they rely predominantly on carbohydrate as fuel. The same blend of carbohydrates that stimulates rapid absorption also maximizes carbohydrate oxidation, and that’s a good thing for sustaining high-intensity exercise. But it is possible to have too much – or too little – of a good thing. Too much carbohydrate overwhelms the intestine’s ability to absorb it and the muscle’s ability to oxidize (burn) it. Too little carbohydrate (too few calories) doesn’t provide enough extra energy to benefit performance. Gatorade has a carbohydrate concentration of 6% (60 grams per liter or about 14 grams per 8 ounces) because research has indicated that level appears to provide the optimal amount of carbohydrate needed for palatability, rapid gastric emptying and intestinal absorption, as well as for the enhanced carbohydrate oxidation required for improved performance. Research also verifies the need for sodium and other electrolytes in a properly formulated sports drink. Replacing the electrolytes lost in sweat aids overall hydration because of the osmotic properties of the electrolytes (in this case, “osmotic properties” refers to the ability of electrolytes to hold on to fluid in the blood and muscles). Sodium is most critical in this regard because of the singular role it plays in maintaining fluid balance. Ingesting sodium in a sports drink helps maintain the osmotic drive to drink, stimulating greater voluntary fluid intake than is achieved when only plain water is ingested. Once in the bloodstream, sodium helps maintain blood volume at higher levels than can be achieved when only plain water is consumed. A higher blood volume translates into a lower heart rate and greater blood flow to muscle and skin, all of which are essential in helping sustain performance. Ingesting sodium in a sports drink also reduces fluid loss via the kidneys, an additional benefit to hydration. It is recommended that a sports drink deliver at least 70 mg of sodium per 8-oz serving (18 mmol/L) to provide sufficient osmotic impact to benefit hydration. Gatorade Thirst Quencher provides 110 mg of sodium per 8-oz serving, while the Gatorade Endurance Formula provides 200 mg.

Athletes are always searching for a performance edge, so the appeal of new ingredients is understandable. But what does science say about other ingredients that some sports drinks offer? The answer to that question is that science shows that there either is no benefit associated with a particular ingredient or that the results of research are inconclusive.

Some athletes use caffeine to try to gain a performance edge. Research has shown that fairly large doses of caffeine (e.g., 200 mg; by comparison, there is about 50 mg of caffeine in a 12-oz cola and 125 mg in 12 ounces of coffee ) taken before endurance exercise improves the performance of most subjects. However, at caffeine doses lower than 200 mg, the effects on performance are inconsistent. In other words, there isn’t a clear scientific consensus about the effects of ingesting low doses of caffeine and there won’t be until more research is completed. It is important to keep in mind that the responses to caffeine ingestion vary widely among people. Some people tolerate caffeine without incident, while others can experience increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, heart rate abnormalities, diuresis (increased urine loss), anxiety, and jitters. Large doses of caffeine are accompanied by a greater risk of these side effects. For those reasons, any athlete who wants to experiment with large-dose caffeine intake is advised to consult a physician beforehand.

SCIENCE THAT MATTERS Gatorade is formulated to provide everything that we know an athlete’s body needs during exercise – and nothing more. That said, The Gatorade Company is always looking for ways to help athletes perform at their peak and relies on research conducted by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute and at leading universities to help identify new approaches to sports nutrition. GSSI scientists constantly study potential new ingredients that might provide benefits to athletes, and GSSI continues to depend on top-notch science to assess the effectiveness and the safety of the functional ingredients that go into Gatorade products.

For more information, please visit REFERENCES


Jeukendrup, AE. Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Nutrition 20:669-677, 2004. Sports Drinks: Basic Science and Practical Aspects. Maughan, RJ and R Murray, eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. 3 Cheuvront et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and human performance when hypohydrated in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 97:1275-1282, 2004. 4 Wemple RD, Lamb DR, McKeever KH. Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: Effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. Int. J. Sports Med 18:40-6, 1997. 5 Casa et. al. National Athletic Trainer’s Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(2):212-224, 2000. 2

MORE PRODUCTS Prossage Heat 866-4-Prossage Prossage™ Heat is a uniquelyblended, area-specific, non-slip, controllable-glide warming ointment that’s 100-percent natural. It’s formulated specifically for deep-tissue work, myofascial release, and trigger point therapy. Prossage™ Heat makes it easier to “hook” the deep fascia, allowing you to work faster and more efficiently, with less pain for the athlete. Heating the tissues with Prossage™ Heat reduces spasms in muscles, ligaments, and joint capsules. Prossage Heat is available in 3-oz., 8-oz., and 16-oz. bottles. Call Prossage today for a free sample. Circle No. 550 Seton Hall University 973-275-2826 The Athletic Training Program at Seton Hall University prepares individuals to become competent and independent clinicians who will enhance the quality of healthcare for athletes and physically-active individuals. The program provides clinical experiences that enable graduates to assume leadership roles both within the field and within the community. For information about the Master of Science in Athletic Training Program, contact Carolyn Goeckel MA, ATC, at: or call toll-free. Circle No. 551 SportsMedic 800-414-9031 MedPac athletic training bags by SportsMedic are designed to keep your equipment and supplies highly organized and easily accesATHLETICBID.COM

sible. Constructed of tough ballistic nylon, these MedPacs are built to last. For 2006, SportsMedic has added an additional pocket to the main lid of its MedPac 4800, 3800, 2800, and 1800 bags, and its MedTrunk model. Please call toll-free or visit online to request a free MedPac catalog. Circle No. 552 Wilson Case 800-322-5493 The new Wilson Case CheckMate Athletic Trainer’s Trunk is ready to fly, sized just right for checked baggage on most major airlines. It is a tough, compact athletic case filled with Wilson Case’s most popular organizing options. The CheckMate features tilt-bins, adjustable dividers, removable trays, and an open area in the base. With all this, your gear will be in position for game time. The handy pull-out handle and recessed wheels offer quick and easy handling. Check it out online. Circle No. 553 The New Wilson Case Mini SplitTop is compact, yet complete. The Mini SplitTop is a smaller version of Wilson Case’s most popular SplitTop Athletic Trainer’s Case. It is sized just right to be checked as baggage on most major airlines. The Mini SplitTop includes two inner locking doors with tape spindles in one section and adjustable dividers in the other. The base of the case provides a large open area for bulkier gear and containers. Put everything in place for gametime in this great athletic trainer’s case. Check it out online. Circle No. 554


Pro-Tec Athletics Offers Leading Edge Orthopedic Supports and Cryotherapy “With the Pro-Tec Ice-Up portable ice massager, the benefits of ice massage are ready for me anytime, anywhere.” Scott Jurek Physical Therapist Ultra Marathon champion “It is my opinion that the Knee Pro-Tec is the best patellar tendon strap on the market today. It outsells the competition three to one.” Joe Shipman Owner The Brace Center Stephenville, Texas “I have found the Pro-Tec IT Band compression wrap to offer unmatched effectiveness in alleviating conditions of Iliotibial Band Syndrome. We are recommending it to our patients.” Dr. Shintaro Ohtake Aim Treatment Center Manhattan Beach, Calif. “Pro-Tec Athletics offers the most effective and comfortable orthopedic braces and supports. More specifically, we have found the Shin Splints compression wrap to be very efficient in alleviating conditions of medial and anterior shin splints. Our athletes are asking for them by name.” Sharon Allanson, ATC (20 years experience) Hamilton College, N.Y.

Pro-Tec Athletics 2743 152nd Ave., N.E. Redmond, WA 98052 800-779-3372 T&C DECEMBER 2005



T&C December 2005 Volume XV, No. 9

Training & Conditioning is pleased to provide NATA and NSCA members with the opportunity to earn continuing education units through reading issues of the magazine. The following quiz is based on articles that appear in this issue of Training & Conditioning. By satisfactorily completing the quiz and mailing it back to T&C, readers can earn 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) continuing education units.

Instructions: Fill in the circle on the answer form (on page 62) that represents the best answer for each of the questions below. Complete the form at the bottom of page 62, include a $20 payment to Training & Conditioning, and mail it by January 15, 2006 to the following address: Training & Conditioning, ATTN: 15.9 Quiz, 2488 N. Triphammer Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will be notified of their earned credit by mail no later than March 1, 2006. Comeback Athlete (pages 4-9) Objective: To learn how Tennessee Athletic Trainer Jenny Moshak worked with a star basketball player on her year-long rehab from a knee injury. 1. Support services for an injured athlete on campus may include: a) Allowed absence from team meetings, classes, and rehabilitation sessions. b) An injury support group or sports psychologist. c) Rehabilitation during team practice time, since the athlete can’t participate. d) Dietetic services to be sure nutritional concerns are met. 2. Occasionally the athletic trainer and athlete will have to _________ if progress is not as expected. a) Increase rehabilitation time b) Reset goals c) Increase intensity d) Participate with some pain or swelling

The Right Route? (pages 21-26) Objective: To take a look at ethics and athletic training and gain an understanding of how to make the right decision when faced with difficult ethical situations. 3. According to this article, those interviewed indicate _________ take(s) priority in health care decisions. a) Coaches’ requests b) Athletes’ wishes c) Athletes’ well-being d) Athletes’ influence on the team 4. This article indicates that ethical questions in complicated cases may require: a) Contacting an attorney. b) Allowing the athlete the final choice. c) Analyzing the risks and benefits to the athlete and others. d) A conference with the coach. 5. Which is one of the four components for moral behavior? a) A person can see there is an opportunity for learning. b) A person recognizes there is a moral dilemma. c) A person recognizes what is important to the team. d) A person implements their personal values. 60


6. The article suggests some common values among athletic trainers including: a) A devotion to winning. b) Honoring coaches’ requests. c) Keeping promises and prioritizing athletes. d) Respect, fairness, and excellence. 7. A critical aspect in making ethical decisions is to: a) Make the decision quickly. b) Inform the parents first. c) Include others in the process. d) Take responsibility for your decision. 8. Setting up _________ lets everyone know your values. a) Policies and procedures b) Hours of operation for each team c) A schedule for in-season athletes d) Goals of the training room

All in the Hips (pages 27-31) Objective: To understand that the hips are an often ignored, but important, part of the core and to learn some exercises to help strengthen them. 9. The hips are the ________ joints in the body. a) Largest weight bearing b) Smallest weight bearing c) Strongest d) Weakest 10. The hip has over ____ muscles directly influencing hip movement. a) 10 b) 15 c) 20 d) 25 11. According to this article, many athletes have _______ _ deficiencies that go untreated. a) Rotational b) Extension c) Adduction d) Abduction


12. This article indicates that hip exercises are beneficial as the exercises help: a) Prevent injuries, especially at the knee. b) Increase endurance. c) Improve posture. d) Decrease laxity in the joint

19. Wavelengths between _________ fall within the red visible light spectrum. a) 100-200 nm b) 200-300 nm c) 300-700 nm d) 400-800 nm

Riding the Wave (pages 32-38)

20. Wavelengths ranging from _________ are classified as infrared. a) 200-400 nm b) 400-800 nm c) 800-1000 nm d) 1000-1200 nm

Objective: To learn what light therapy is and find out if light therapy treatment could be right for any of your rehab situations. 13. Light therapy is also called: a) Phototherapy. b) Photontherapy. c) Sonar therapy. d) Proton therapy. 14. _________ are more powerful versions of _________ and are usually used to treat wounds that are more superficial. a) Low-level lasers; superluminous diodes b) Superluminous diodes; light emitting diodes c) Light emitting diodes; low-level lasers d) Super bright LED’s; low level laser diodes

21. Light therapy units can generate energy levels between _________ joules/cm2. a) One and three b) One and four c) One and six d) Three and six

On the Road Again (pages 39-43) Objective: To learn some of the nuances of making travel with an athletic team an organized and successful endeavor.

15. _________ generate a coherent beam that produces small pockets of higher energy that are deposited throughout penetrated tissue. a) LED b) Laser diodes c) SLD d) Super bright LED

22. _________ is a key to limiting problems for athletic trainers on road trips. a) Traveling with an additional staff member b) Communication c) Packing extra supplies d) Providing the athletic director with a list of necessities one day prior to departure

16. High powered laser diode-based products penetrate up to: a) Two cm. b) Three cm. c) Four cm. d) Five cm.

23. The article suggests devising a visiting team information page and: a) Placing it on a bulletin board in the visiting team locker room. b) Placing it online as a Web page. c) Sending it to the visiting team’s head coach. d) Placing it by the visiting team’s dugout or bench.

17. The USDA approved low-level lasers for adjunctive use in pain therapy in the year: a) 2001. b) 2002. c) 2003. d) 2004. 18. Researchers theorize that: a) Waves of light passing through living tissue rejuvenate injured cells. b) Light decreases the cell’s ability to produce adenosine triphosphate. c) Waves decrease lymphatic flow thus decreasing edema. d) Waves increase melanin presence in the skin to promote healing.

24. An important question to ask a host school is: a) How much ice and water will be provided. b) If they provide any supplies. c) Directions to the field. d) What the host school’s emergency protocol is. 25. When traveling with a team, it is important to have: a) A key to the training room. b) All student-athletes’ emergency contact information. c) Your athletic director’s phone number in case of an emergency. d) A plan for replenishing supplies.

Answer sheet is on page 62 ATHLETICBID.COM





Instructions: Fill in the circle on the answer form below that represents your selection of the best answer for each of the previous questions. Complete the form at the bottom of this page, include a $20 payment to Training & Conditioning, and mail it to the following address: Training & Conditioning, ATTN: 15.9 Quiz, 2488 N. Triphammer Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, no later than January 15, 2006. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will receive 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) CEU’s, and will be notified of their earned credit by mail no later than March 1, 2006.





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Circle No. 138

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Training & Conditioning 15.9  

December 2005

Training & Conditioning 15.9  

December 2005