Issuu on Google+

Pilot Proje c t Re port

August 2005

The intervention a nd p revention of c hild sexua l exploitation in Atlantis and surrounding areas


Molo Songololo

C o nte nts Acknowledgements 1

Executive Summary

6

2

Introduction

17

3

Contexual framework

19

3.1

Broad overview on the situation of children protection

3.2

About the service provider

3.3

About the community

4

Child sexual exploitation

26

5

The pilot project

30

5.1

Main goal

5.2

Specific objectives

5.3

Beneficiaries

5.4

Values and principles

5.5

Initial pilot project implementation plan

5.6

Implementation strategies

5.7

Pilot project management and human resources

5.8

Partnerships and networking

5.9

Project overview of activities

child rights, development and

Molo Songololo

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsands

5.10 Challenges

6

The case study

6.1

The motivation

6.2

Main goal

6.3

Specific objectives of the case study

6.4

Initial case study implementation plan

6.5

Overview of case study participants

6.6

Profile of case study participants

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

46

2


Molo Songololo

6.7

Case study strategies

6.8

Case Study overview of activities

6.9

Challenges

7

Sustainability

61

8

Evaluation

63

9

Recommendations

74

Appendices Appendix 1 - Project evaluation report Appendix 2

Partnerships

78 103

Appendix 3 - Child sexual exploitation in Atlantis

116

Appendix 4

121

Reflections on the Case Study Intervention by a participant

Appendix 5 - Story of a sexually exploited girl

126

Appendix 6 - Full model for exiting children from sexual exploitation

131

Appendix 7 - Financial statement

143

Appendix 8

Atlantis pilot project team

145

Appendix 9

References

146

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

3


Molo Songololo

Acknowledgements We are grateful to all who have contributed to the success of the Atlantis Pilot Project and hereby extend our thanks to all who have worked with us. It is nec e ssa ry to tha nk so m e p e o p le w ho m a d e a sp ec ia l a nd no tew o rthy c o ntrib utio n to the p ro jec t b y sup p o rting a nd g uid ing the p rojec t thro ug h c ha lleng ing tim es. The p ilot p ro jec t fa c ed m a ny c ha lleng e s a nd a c hieved m a ny suc c esse s. Their c o m m itm ent to ensuring the sa fety, p ro tec tio n a nd d e velo p m ent o f the c hild ren o f Atla ntis a nd surrounding a rea s a nd their w illing ness to c o m b a t the sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren resulted in the pilot achieving greater success. We tha nk: The Child ren a nd Youth o f Atla ntis w itho ut yo u the p ro jec t w o uld no t ha ve suc c ee d e d , Sup erintend ent Jo sep hs fo r unfa iling sup p o rt a nd a lw a ys w o rking w ith the p ro jec t tea m ; Pietie Co o kso n fo r useful c o nta c ts a nd fo r help in the resea rc h p ro c ess; Gha siena va n d er Sc ha ff fo r he r insig hts a nd info rm a tio n d uring the resea rc h p ro c e ss; Chrissie Clo ete w ho ha s, in m a ny w a ys, w o rke d tog e ther w ith the p ro jec t to ensure the sa fety o f the c hild re n o f Atla ntis, Ale c Am eric a fo r sup p o rting the p ro jec t throug ho ut o ffering a d vic e , insig hts a nd a ssista nc e w ith c a ses a s w ell a s ha ving the visio n a nd c o m m itm e nt to b uild a stro ng ACNF, Russe l va n d er Berg a nd Fra nk Briell o f Ra d io Atla ntis fo r yo ur o ng o ing c o m m itm ent to b ro a d c a sting the issues a ffe c ting c hild ren, Desire e Pa ssenz fo r energ y a nd c o m m itm ent in b uild ing the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum (ACNF) and taking the work of the pilot to the Mamre community, Pastor Steven Albert for end uring sup p o rt o f the w o rk, Pa sto r Ma ureen Cloete fo r unfa iling sup p o rt a nd a lw a ys b e ing a va ila b le to a ssist w ha tever the need , Ma g rieta Rurters fo r fa c ilita ting the p a rtic ip a tio n o f yo uth in the p ilo t, Ab d ul Ta jo od ien fo r sup p o rt a nd vision in ensuring the sa fety a nd p ro tec tio n o f the c hild ren o f Atla ntis, the ACNF exe c utive: Shuniq ue Bla nkenb erg , Cha rl Da mo n, Da vid Wilhe m se , Fa ustine Snym a n, Insp e c to r Hend ric ks fo r sup p o rting the w o rk of the p ilo t a nd b uild ing a stro ng ACNF, Mrs Ra ja p fo r enthusia sm , sup p o rt a nd help ing w herever need ed , a nd Sister va n Wyk fo r o ng o ing sup p o rt o f the project. A sp ec ia l tha nk yo u to the la y c o unsello rs, the eyes a nd e a rs of the p ilo t p ro jec t, fo r their energ y, re so urc efulness, g enero sity, c a ring a nd sha ring , a nd fo r the sterling w o rk in building the schools counselling service. It s Yo ur Mo ve Atla ntis m e m b ers fo r the energ y a nd enthusia sm yo u ha ve d isp la ye d in promoting the rights of children and fighting child sexual exploitation. Tha nk yo u to the Ca se Stud y Pa rtic ip a nts fo r yo ur lo ya lty, c o m m itm ent a nd enthusia sm in sharing of yourselves with us in the interests of all children in South Africa. Tha nk yo u to Pa tric So lo m o ns, Ka rin Ko en, Rub y Ma rks, Va ne ssa Antho ny, Abraham Nic ho la s, So neke Me nso n, Prisc illa Sieg ela a r, Lo rna Gertse , Nikelo Ma ka e , De b o ra h Mo b ilyn a nd Lind a Sig w a b e fo r yo ur inva lua b le c o ntrib utio ns in the d ra fting o f this re p o rt. A he a rtfelt tha nks to the tw o b ra ve a nd b e a utiful p eo p le w ho sha re their sto ries w ith us in the appendices of this report. Thanks to Lorna Houston for writing the report. Fina lly, tha nk yo u to tho se w ho m a d e the visio n o f this p ro jec t a re a lity - a ll the Pilot Projec t Sta ff a nd the sta ff o f the Mo lo Song olo lo Kenilw o rth o ffic e fo r yo ur sup p o rt thro ug hout the p ro jec t. A he a rtfelt tha nks to o ur p a rtners in So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tio n Sha ro n Vo llentein, Na zeem a Sm ith a nd No m fund o Na b ela fo r sup p o rting the pilot and believing in us. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

4


Molo Songololo

Abbreviations ACNF - Atlantis Cihld ren s Netw o rk Forum CSE - Child Sexual Exploitation CSEC - Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children SAPS - South African Police Service NGO - Non-government Organisation

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

5


Molo Songololo

1. Executive Summary In Se p tem b er 2002, the Dep a rtm ent of So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tion, Western Ca p e entered into p a rtnership w ith Mo lo So ng o lo lo to im p le m e nt a p ilo t p ro jec t fo r the intervention a nd p reventio n o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren in the c o m m unity o f Atla ntis and surrounding areas. The p ilo t p ro jec t w a s initia ted in d ire c t resp o nse to inc re a se d rep o rts fro m c o m m unity g ro up s, m ed ia a nd servic e p rovid ers o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in the ta rg ete d c o m m unity. The o utc o m es of the p ilo t a re intend ed to info rm the ro ll-out of a stra teg y and programme to combat child sexual exploitation in the province. The p ilot p ro jec t sp ec ific a lly ta rg eted a nd b ene fited sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren, tho se a t risk a nd c hild ren in g e nera l, a s w ell a s c o m m unity a nd p ub lic institutio ns / struc tures, a nd the community at large. The p ilo t p ro jec t a g reem ent b etw een the De p a rtm ent o f So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tio n, Western Ca p e a nd Mo lo So ng o lo lo set sp ec ific o utc o m es to b e a c hieved w ithin sp e c ific tim efra m es, inc lud ing p ro g ress re p o rts a nd the eva lua tio n o f the p ilot project. The initia l o p era tio na l b a se o f the p ilo t p ro jec t w a s lo c a ted in the Mo lo So ng o lo lo o ffic es in Ob serva to ry a nd la ter Kenilw o rth fro m w hic h the first p ha se w a s m a na g ed a nd im p le m ented ; i.e . situa tio na l a nd need s a na lysis, c o m m unity c o nsulta tive p ro c ess, rep o rt b a c k o n the find ing s o f the c o m m unity a ssessm ent a nd initia l exp lo ra tive w o rksho p s w ith key role-players and stakeholders. Ho w ever, it b ec a m e a p p a rent a nd c ruc ia l tha t a lo c a l o p era tio na l b a se w a s need ed within the pilot project site for the effective implementation of the remaining objectives. In Fe b rua ry 2004, Mo lo So ng o lolo o p ened a n o ffic e in Atla ntis a nd a p ro jec t tea m w a s appointed. The p ilo t p ro jec t exp erienc ed va rio us c ha lleng es of w hic h the Dep a rtm e nt o f Soc ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tio n w a s ke p t info rm ed w hen nec essa ry a nd via p ro g ress rep o rts. These c ha lleng es inc lud ed , d ela y in the sta rt o f the p ro jec t, the d e a th o f Mo lo Songololo s c o -d ire c tor w ho m a na g ed the p ro jec t, a nd unfo reseen d ela ys c a use d b y seasonal and personnel issues. To this end , Mo lo So ng o lo lo req uested a n extensio n o f the p ro jec t d e a d line , until June 2005, sp e c ific a lly to a c hieve o ne o f the p ilo t p ro jec t s ke y exp e c ted o utc o m es na m ely, the d evelop m ent o f a n exit, sup p o rt a nd rec o very stra teg y using a c a se stud y a p p ro a c h invo lving sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren, tho se w ho ha ve exited sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd tho se at high risk of sexual exploitation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

6


Molo Songololo

1.1. Objectives, strategies and achievements The pilot project had six d istinc t o b jec tives to b e a c hieved thro ug h the im p le m enta tio n o f a m ultifa c eted stra teg y a nd a d herenc e to ke y o rg a nisa tio na l va lues o f c hild p a rtic ip a tio n, d e m o c ra c y, ethic a l p ra c tic es, integ rity, tra nsp a renc y, c o lla b o ra tio n a nd inc lusivity. An o vervie w o f the o b jec tives, im p le m enta tio n stra teg ie s a nd a c hievem e nts follow below. 1) Develop situa tiona l a nd needs a na lysis for the intervention a nd prevention of sexua l exploitation of children Strategies Conduct desk research and data collection Consult with key role-players and stakeholders support and buy-in Field research interviews / questionnaires Focus groups feedback service providers and children (high school learners) Analyse, write up, print and distribute report Achievements Situational and needs analysis report available Report distributed and feedback received Support and buy-in of key role-players and stakeholders established Co m m unity fo c us o n c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n inc re a sed , c hild p a rtic ip a tio n p ro c e ss initiated 2) Develop a n intervention stra tegy a ga inst sexua l exploita tion of children a nd young people Strategies Consult with and present research findings to key role-players and stakeholders Exp lo ra to ry w orksho p s w ith ta rg eted g ro up s servic e p ro vid ers, c hild ren a nd young people, and community police forum Co m m unity sta keho ld er w orksho p exp lo ring stra teg ies for interventio n (Atla ntis, Malmesbury, Vredendal and Vredenberg) Educational seminar exploring good practice model Achievements Key role-players and stakeholders informed, motivated and mobilised Wo rking rela tio nship a nd p a rtnership s a m ong st va rio us ro le-p la ye rs a nd sta keho ld ers strengthened Child ren a nd yo ung p eo p le p a rtic ip a te in p ro c e ss a nd id entifie d need fo r skillsdevelopment and empowerment Stra teg ies, p ro to c o ls a nd g uid elines id entifie d fo r c hild p ro tec tio n a nd sexua l exploitation of children; including need for coordinated response

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

7


Molo Songololo

3) Crea te public a wa reness a nd tra ining for the protection of children from sexua l a buse and exploitation Strategies Strategic planning workshop with key role-players and stakeholders Consult with key role-players and stakeholders Develop, produce and distribute awareness raising and educational materials Organise community awareness and educational drives Child rights workshop for community service providers Media campaigns Atlantis radio and community newspapers Ed uc a tio na l p resenta tio ns a t sc ho o ls, c o m m unity func tio ns, fo rum s a nd organisations

to

Achievements Gre a ter a w a reness a nd kno w led g e o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n of c hild ren w ithin the general community and amongst targeted groups Child sexua l exp lo ita tio n o n the a g end a o f servic e p ro vid ers a nd g rea ter level o f commitment and response Inc re a sed levels o f c hild a b use a nd c hild se xua l exp lo ita tio n c a se s re p o rted to Mo lo Songololo Increased a w a reness a nd ed uc a tio na l b ro a d c a sting o n c hild c a re , d evelo p m ent a nd protection on Atlantis Radio Increased awareness amongst children and positive behavioural change reported Increased assistance and support to children in need 4) Establish community child safety forum for the protection of children against sexual abuse and exploitation community Strategies Community consultation key role-players and stakeholders Esta b lish c o m m unity c hild sa fety fo rum s in ta rg eted c o m m unity a nd surround ing areas Police child protection strategy rescue of children from sexual exploitation Community police forum Atlantis Achievements Co m m unity Child Sa fety Fo rum s esta b lishe d a nd func tio ning - Atla ntis, Vred enb erg , Vredendal and Malmesbury Increased cooperation amongst service providers, role-players and stakeholders Increased coordination of services for children and joint activities Pro jec t Pro tea esta b lished So uth Afric a n Polic e Servic e intervention stra teg y fo r the rescue of victims of sexual exploitation 5) Tra ining for the enha ncement of knowledge, skills a nd support for services for socia l welfare support, health, education, shelter and healing for sexually exploited children. Strategies Pro vid e tra ining fo r la y c o unselo rs in the m a na g e ment o f c hild a b use , sup p o rt a nd assistance to children in need and referral protocols; including the rights of the child Pro vid e tra ining to the p o lic e to inc rea se c a p a c ity to d etec t, resc ue a nd p ro vid e appropriate assistance to victims of sexual exploitation Ed uc a tio n a nd tra ining to servic e p ro vid ers c o nc erning sup p ort a nd a ssista nc e to victims of sexual exploitation Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

8


Molo Songololo

Life-skills e d uc a tio n fo r c hild re n a nd yo uth fo r the p reventio n o f c hild sexua l exploitation Achievements La y c o unsello rs tra ine d , d e p lo ye d a nd p ro vid ing c o unselling , sup p o rt a nd a ssista nc e to children in need and referral protocols Po lic e sensitized a nd ha ve inc re a sed kno w le d g e a b o ut c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n, leg a l framework, case handling, and victim support and referral protocols Servic e p ro vid ers ha ve impro ved und ersta nd ing a b o ut c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n, ho w to detect, respond, and intervene and referral protocols Atla ntis It s Your Mo ve c ha p ter esta b lished p ro a c tive yo ung p eo p le advocating against child sexual exploitation 6) Identify children at risk and provide exit and recovery support for children who experience sexual exploitation Strategies Co nd uc t field visits to p la c es w here c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n oc c ur (sheb eens, suikerhuisies, on the street, and referrals by parents, etc.) Identify and make contact with children at risk and victims of child sexual exploitation Esta b lish referra l p ro to c o l w ith SAPS a nd De p a rtm ent o f So c ia l Servic es w here necessary Pro vid e d irec t a ssista nc e a nd sup p ort fo r c hild ren a t risk a nd tho se exp erienc ing sexual exploitation; including counselling, shelter and recovery Facilitate for motivation, life-skills and empowerment education for girls at risk of sexual exploitation and sexual exploited children Achievements Made contact with children at risk and sexually exploited children. Pro vid ed d irec t a ssista nc e a nd sup p o rt to c hild ren a t risk a nd sexua lly exp lo ite d children referre d to shelters a nd De p t. So c ia l Servic e s, p ro vid e d c o unselling , motivation and built trust Hosted life-skills and motivational workshop for 49 girls at risk Co nd uc ted a c a se stud y invo lving 16 p a rtic ip a nts w ith the exp re ss a im to p rovid e stra teg ies a nd p ro c e ss fo r exit, sup p o rt a nd rec o very of tho se a t hig h risk a nd vic tim s of sexual exploitation Young people exited sexual exploitation 6.1) Case Study exploitation

exit, support and recover children at risk and victims of sexual

Va rio us c ha lleng es w ere exp erienc ed c o nc erning c hild ren a t risk a nd vic tim s o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n inc lud ing : unrea listic e xp e c ta tio ns c o nc erning the tim e it to ok to id entify the c hild ren, m a ke c o nta c t, b uild trust a nd d evelo p a w o rking rela tio nship w ith them , d o fo llo w up visits a nd c o nd uc t ho m e visits . Drug a d d ic tion, la c k o f se c ure shelter, d a ily surviva l o f self, p ressure fro m sib ling s, p im p s, a nd g a ng s a nd d a ng ers to sta ff further ha m p e red c o nta c t w ith c hild ren a t risk a nd vic tim s of sexua l exp lo ita tio n. These elem ents ea sily ero d ed w ha tever c o nta c t a nd progress was made and then one had to start all over again. It w a s d ec id ed to c ond uc t a c a se stud y w ith a lim ited num b e r o f p a rtic ip a nts w ith w ho m the p ro jec t ha d a lre a d y m a d e c o nta c t a nd b uilt a fa ir a mo unt o f trust. Initia lly, 20 g irls Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

9


Molo Songololo

w ere id entifie d to p a rtic ip a te in the c a se stud y w ith the exp ress o b jec tive to p revent a nd exit p a rtic ip a nts fro m sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd p ro vid e sup p o rt a nd fa c ilita te fo r their recovery and empowerment. Only 16 participants took part. Strategies Consult with all participants individually and as a group to achieve their buy-in Establish a contract of agreement and commitment with each participant Support and provide direct assistance to participants where needed Conduct an individual needs assessment with participants Conduct individual and group motivation and counselling Conduct home visits and meet family members encourage family support Fa c ilita te fo r p syc ho so c ia l sup p ort, counseling, m e d ic a l exa m ina tio ns, re p ro d uc tive health care, childcare and shelter where necessary Build self-esteem, confidence and facilitate for healing and recovery therapy Establish Individual Development Plans Conduct life-skills and empowerment education Achievements All p a rtic ip a nts d erived b ene fit fro m the c a se stud y im p ro ved self im a g e , selfesteem, confidence and now express feelings of hope and achievement Only 12 participants were involved until the end of the pilot project Pa rtic ip a nts c o nfid e d in c o unsellors a nd e xp ressed their c o nc e rns, to ld their stories, c ried a nd fo c use d o n them selves, mo tiva ted , sup p o rted a nd enc oura g ed b y counsellors Participants better understood by relatives and received more support from them Participants gained skills which they can use to generate an income Pa rtic ip a nts sha re d their exp erie nc es w ith ea c h o ther, the y now use m o re c o nfid ent language, and display a more positive posture and body language Partic ip a nts ha ve inc re a sed a w a reness a nd und ersta nd ing o f: self, o w n b eha vio ur patterns, change, healing, substance abuse, new ways to deal with stress Attitudes and behaviours changed, views on the world and their future adjusted Pa rtic ip a nts le a rned to let g o o f p a st tra um a s a nd to op en up to m o re p o sitive experiences, and gained knowledge of their social history and humanity Pa rtic ip a nts rec e ived releva nt m e d ic a l e xa m ina tio ns, tests a nd trea tm ent to keep them in g o o d he a lth; re p ro d uc tive he a lth and informatio n on STIs, STDs, HIV/AIDS received Moved to a safer environment or back home (where this was a safer option)

Status in relation to sexual exploitation At start of case study Sexually exploited 5 High risk 8 Exited sexual exploitation 3 Not at risk 0 Total 16

At end of case study 3 5 5 3 16

Note: 2 participants have exited sexual exploitation with the assistance of the case study. 1 p a rtic ip a nt w a s re sc ued and e xited sexua l exp lo ita tio n w ith the help o f the p ro jec t p rio r to the case study. 1 p a rtic ip a nt id entifie d a s a t risk w a s resc ue d b y the SAPS fro m a situa tio n w hic h ha d the potential to lead to her being sexually exploited. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

10


Molo Songololo

Status in relation to substance abuse At start of case study Substance Abuse 9 Recreational use of 3 substances Stopped use / abuse of substances Reduced intake No use of substances 1 Unknown 3 Total 16

At end of case study 4 2 4 1 1 4 16

1.2. Child participation and empowerment The p ro jec t id entifie d c hild p a rtic ip a tio n a s a ke y o ver-a rc hing o b je c tive fo r the prevention and intervention of child sexual exploitation. The situational and needs analysis hig hlig hted the la c k o f m o tiva tio n a m o ng st c hild ren, their la c k o f trust in p a rents a nd c o m m unity, a nd the sense of ho p elessness exp erienc e d a nd exp ressed b y c hild respondents. Thus, the project identified children as the primary target group. Strategies Co nsult w ith c hild ren a nd yo ung p eo p le fo r the p reve ntio n a nd interventio n a g a inst child sexual exploitation Cre a te a w a reness a nd ed uc a tio n a m o ng st c hild ren a b o ut c hild sexua l a b use a nd child sexual exploitation; including c hild ren s rig hts a nd resp o nsib ilities Facilitate for direct support and assistance to children in need, including peer support Fa c ilita te c hild p a rtic ip a tion in p e er e d uc a tio n a nd c o m m unity a w a reness a nd education Em p o w er c hild ren w ith life-skills a nd d evelo p lea d ership a nd ro le m o d els a m o ng st them Achievements Ed uc a tio na l w o rksho p s a nd p resenta tio ns a t a ll p rim a ry sc ho o ls - lea rners info rm e d about their rights and responsibilities and know what to do when they need help Ed uc a tio na l w o rksho p s a t a ll hig h sc ho o ls lea rners a w a re o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion, w here to g o to fo r help , to rep o rt a nd id entify stra teg ies fo r p eer sup p o rt a nd intervention Life Skills Wo rksho p s and Ca m p s - c hild ren m o tiva ted a nd c a p a c ita ted w ith life skills a nd kno w led g e o n to p ic s suc h a s: Sex a nd sexua lity, Sub sta nc e a b use , Gend er, Interp ersona l c o m m unic a tio n, Co nflic t Reso lution, HIV/ AIDS, Child sexua l exp lo ita tion, Child trafficking, Children s rig hts a nd resp onsib ilities Le a d ership tra ining a nd em p o w erm ent p eer fa c ilita tio n tra ining , p ub lic a w a reness d rives, p a rtic ip a tio n in la w refo rm p ro c ess a nd p a rtic ip a tio n in va rio us lo c a l, na tio na l and international public forums and conferences It s Yo ur Mo ve pro-active forum for school-going and out-of-school youth

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

11


Molo Songololo

1.3. Atlantis office The o p ening o f the offic e in Atla ntis b ro ug ht a b o ut va rio us c ha lleng es fo r the p ro jec t a nd the p rojec t sta ff. The se inc lud e the va rio us w a lk-in c a ses b e ing rep o rted b y c hild ren, p a rents, servic e p ro vid ers a nd m e m b ers o f the p ub lic . This c le a rly d e m o nstra tes the g rea t need fo r e ffe c tive servic e d elivery to c hild ren. These c a ses invo lved c hild ren a s vic tim s and perpetrators and included the following, Trauma as a result of sexual abuse (51) Child Neglect (by Caregivers and Parents) (8) Learning difficulties (37) Substance Abuse (Drugs and alcohol) (27) Absenteeism (14) Behavioural problems (38) Fighting in class (14) Inappropriate sexual activity or behaviour (9) Physical abuse (51) Runaways from home (3) Truancy (3) Witness Sup p o rt (Co urt info rm s o ffic e w hen they ha ve c hild ren w ho need c o urt preparation) (10) These c a ses w ere d ea lt w ith b y b o th the p ro jec t o ffic e a nd the sc ho o ls c o unselling servic e. The p ro jec t resp o nd ed a nd refe rred c a ses to SAPS, So c ia l Se rvic es a nd o ther service providers in the area, as appropriate.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

12


Molo Songololo

1.4. Challenges The p ilo t p ro jec t exp erienc ed three ke y c ha lleng es tha t w ere no t initia lly a ntic ip a te d . Firstly, there w ere a num b er o f unexp ec ted d ela ys, op era tio na l a nd p ro c ess-related, w hic h a ffe c ted d elivery. Sec o nd ly, w e rec o g nized tha t c o m munity invo lvement w a s c entra l to the suc c ess o f the p rojec t, unfortuna tely g a ining the sup p o rt o f the c o m m unity w a s a m uc h m o re sensitive a nd tim e c o nsum ing p ro c ess tha n o rig ina lly a ntic ip a te d . Fina lly, w e d id no t d e velo p a n e xit stra teg y fo r the c om p letio n o f the p ilo t, w hic h le d to a m e a sure o f c o nfusio n a nd stress in the c om m unity reg a rd ing the sta tus o f the p ilo t a nd the o rg a nisa tio n s c o m m itm ent to the w o rk. The p ro jec t w a s fa c ed w ith a d d itio na l challenges. Ga ining a ccess to children who a re sexua lly exploited especia lly within the Atla ntis community, without undermining existing initiatives The lack of support from families Creating interventions in the demand factors Ba la nc ing the need to m a inta in c o nfid entia lity o f c hild , resp ec t their p riva c y, a nd legal reporting obligations A co-ordinated strategic response for the prevention of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and the rescue, healing and recovery of sexually exploited children Mobilising the Atlantis community and service providers to work together to rescue, recover and support the children Limited resources, competencies, capacities and expertise within organisations and community groups Working with the Social Services and Poverty Alleviation Atlantis District office given the tremendous demands on their exceptionally limited human resources Facilitating for support, care, shelter, recovery and protection services for sexually exploited children as well as children, youth and their families in general Operational Ma inta in the p ro jec t fo c us a nd b a la nc e b etw een p reventio n a nd a w a reness ra ising activities and direct intervention in the lives of sexually exploited children Unrealistic time frame of the project, it was very ambitious Initially, lack of an operational base in the community and the distance between Cape Town and Atlantis; and limited office space Finding the right people to join the team within the targeted community Security of project staff concerning pimps, gangs and others Debriefing, training, support and management of the lay counsellors Reassuring the participants as the case study / pilot project concluded (Note: the organisation continues to work with participants) The absence of an exit strategy for the project In providing support and assistance directly to the children through the case study: Keeping case study participants motivated. Keeping team motivated and optimistic Locating, making contact and building trust with the participants Finding services dedicated to the needs of sexually exploited children Lack of appropriate shelters / accommodation Lack of child protection services and legal remedies to protect children Psychological effects of sexual exploitation continue to traumatize participants Parents of victims display helplessness and hopelessness Lack of economic, family and community support systems Gains are easily eroded lack of support, drugs and economic pressure

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

13


Molo Songololo

1.5. Sustainability plan The eva lua tio n find ing o n the susta ina b ility o f the p ro jec t is rela tively low , g iven the o ng o ing p reva iling c o m m unity a ttitud es, a nd the la c k o f c a p a c ity a nd sp ec ia list skills tha t exists c urre ntly w ith servic e p ro vid ers in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. It is the o p inio n o f the eva lua to r tha t the exc ellent found a tio n tha t Mo lo So ng o lo lo la id w ith the p ro jec t thus fa r w ill b e serio usly ero d ed if the p ro jec t w e re to w ithd ra w fro m Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a rea s. In the c urrent c lim a te o f lo w into lera nc e a g a inst c hild se xua l a b use , it w o uld b e p o litic a lly a nd m ora lly irresp o nsib le fo r Molo So ng o lo lo no t to c o ntinue w ith the p ro jec t, albeit with a tighter focus that draws from current lessons learned. Ho w ever, it is c lea r fro m the eva lua tio n a nd a sse ssment of c urrent skills levels o f o rg a nisa tio ns in Atla ntis tha t they d o no t ha ve the c a p a c ity, skills o r reso urc e s to ta ke o n the sp ec ia list w o rk tha t Mo lo c urrently p erform s. In this reg a rd , the p ro jec t w o rk w ith the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts is o f p a rtic ula r c o nc ern. One o f the key ind ic a to rs o f o w nership w o uld ha ve b een if lo c a l org a nisa tio ns ha d exp resse d w illing ness to run w ith the issues without Molo. None interviewed was willing or felt able to do so. At a so c ieta l level, there rem a ins a n una c c e p ta b ly hig h level of stig m a tiza tio n o n the topic. This stigmatization exists uncomfortably alongside a fair degree of awareness of pull and push factors surrounding child sexual exploitation. There a re a num b er o f existing c ha lleng es tha t w ill influenc e the susta ina b ility of the w ork w ith the case study participants. These include: Behavioural change in the community is slow, despite encouraging improvements The c urrent d ep end enc e o f the p a rtic ip a nts in the c a se stud y o n Mo lo is w o rrying . This d e p end enc y is c o m p letely norm a l g iven the c urrent p ro jec t c yc le , b ut it is extrem ely d o ub tful tha t the c o m m itm ent o f the p a rtic ip a nts to a b sta in fro m c o m m erc ia l sexua l exploitation will continue beyond active Molo involvement The p syc ho log ic a l hea ling nee d s o f the p a rtic ip a nts a re im m ense. The intervention stra teg ies they exp e rienc ed served to o p en up the b eg inning o f a d isc ussio n w ith themselves and others about their past (and in some cases, their present). The a p a thy o f so m e p a rents w a s extrem ely w o rrying . In this reg a rd , no stra teg y c a n o r should b e d ivo rc ed fro m w o rking w ith the struc tura l rea so ns tha t c a uses this a p a thy from parents. In only a few cases were participants linked up with training opportunities - in this case, c o m p uter tra ining . Unless this typ e o f o p p o rtunity is enc o ura g e d a nd fa c ilita ted b y Molo , it is d o ub tful tha t the p a rtic ip a nts w ill turn their p syc ho lo g ic a l c o m m itm ent to change into a more concrete, tangible action. The following has been put in place for the continuation of the project beyond the pilot: Schools Counselling Service Its Your Move Atlantis group The p ro jec t o ffic e c o ntinues to b e sta ffe d b y 2 c ounsellors, p syc ho -so c ia l sup p o rt coordinator and the project manager Work with those case study participants who still require assistance continues Pa rtnership s w hic h ha ve b een fo rg ed w ith va rio us servic e p ro vid e rs a nd o rg a nisa tio ns rem a in in p la c e (De p t. So c ia l Servic e s, He a lth, SAPS, Justic e , Ed uc a tio n, Co m m unity Safety & Labour; including community organisations and projects) Place for healing project in partnership with Development Action Group

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

14


Molo Songololo

1.6. Recommendations For National and Provincial action Policy development The Offic e o n the Rig hts o f the Child in the Presid enc y, sho uld ta ke the lea d in d evelo p ing a m ulti-sec to ra l p olic y re q uiring the va rio us sp heres o f g o vernm ent a nd the m a ny g o vernm ent d ep a rtm ents to c o m m it reso urc es to end the sexua l exploitation of children A m ulti-sec to ra l b o d y sho uld b e set up b ring ing to g ether sta te d ep a rtm ents a nd c ivil so c iety o rg a nisa tio ns to ensure c o o rd ina ted a c tio n, this sho uld b e re p lic a ted fro m a national level down to ward level SAPS p o lic y o n d e a ling w ith c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n m ust b e d evelo p e d a nd implemented including how SAPS interacts with families and NGO s working in the field A policy and implementation plan must be drafted for the rehabilitation of offenders Research into the following is required: The extent o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n; the c a usa l fa c to rs: w hy d o m en sexua lly exp lo it children Guidelines need to be developed profiling victims of child sexual exploitation Strategies for interventions good practice models Information must be made available to the public on: Existing policies, available services for rescued children and reporting Existing protocols and intervention processes Who the actual offenders are they need to be identified and exposed Training and public awareness Extensive p ub lic a w a reness sho uld g o b eyo nd ta rg eted c o m m unities a nd servic e p ro vid ers to ta rg et interest g roup s w ithin c o m m unities e.g. p a re nts, sp o rt c lub s, ta xis, churches, trade unions, truck drivers etc. Policy implementation A c o hesive stra teg y w ith a m ulti-sec to ra l a p p ro a c h m ust b e d eve lo p e d a nd implemented to ensure the rescue, recovery and healing of victims Residential recovery programmes must be established for sexually exploited children Services and support must be easily accessible Intervention projects need to include: Exp o sure o f c hild ren a nd yo uth to a lterna tive a c tivities a nd fa c ilities e.g. a rts and culture Assisting the c hild in d evelo p ing a sense o f id entity inc lud ing : self a w a reness exerc ise s and awareness of cultural history Co m m unity m o b ilisa tio n to fo rm c o m m unity netw o rks The De p a rtm ent of Co m m unity Sa fety throug h SAPS a nd Co m m unity Po lic e Fo rum s need to p la y a le a d ing ro le in the rescue of children from sexually exploitative situations The Department of Social Services and Poverty Alleviation needs to prioritise the sexual a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren a nd d e velo p p o lic y tha t w ill c la rify the ro le the y can play in combating this violation o f c hild ren s d ig nity m o re effectively.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

15


Molo Songololo

Monitoring A d a ta b a se sho uld b e set up to m a inta in a re c ord o f a rrests, m a d e b y SAPS o f b o th offenders and children being sexually exploited The la c k o f resp o nsiveness, a b use o f p o w er a nd c o rrup tio n, in resp e c t o f c hild sexua l exploitation, within SAPS must be investigated. Monito ring o f sex exp lo iters, p im p s, synd ic a tes, g a ng s a nd o thers w ho sexua lly exp lo it children

For the Atlantis project Information gathering Molo needs to document, in detail, all cases of child sexual exploitation it encounters. Molo sho uld w o rk to g ether w ith o ther o rg a nisa tio ns in sha ring the info rm a tio n in a n effort to develop a clearer picture of the nature and extent of child sexual exploitation Community mobilisation, awareness and education The Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum ta kes resp o nsib ility fo r ra ising a w a reness o f c hild ren s rig hts and child sexual exploitation Prevention Molo should continue working with and providing support to the lay counsellors Support and build capacity of the ACNF Conduct ongoing awareness and education in schools and with service providers Rescue and recovery Wo rk w ith c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts p a rents a nd fa m ilies Work with those case study participants who still require support Molo should also work with a younger group of children, under 16 years of age Molo refine the rescue and recovery intervention strategies further Molo set up a residential recovery centre for sexually exploited children Molo lobby for the recommendations to be taken up at the macro level The p ilo t hig hlig hts the c o m p lex na ture o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n, the need to ta c kle the c a usa l fa c to rs o f d e m a nd a nd sup p ly, - inc lud ing the sexua lisa tio n o f c hild ren fo r p urp o ses o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n - the inc re a sed d e m a nd for sex w ith c hild ren, the la c k o f servic es a nd , a t tim es, unw illing ness o f servic e p ro vid e rs to d efend c hild ren s rig hts. The re is a need fo r a ll to sp ea k o ut, d efend c hild ren a nd a c t to c o m b a t the sexua l exp lo ita tion of children. This re p o rt inc lud es a c o ntextua l fra m e w o rk o utlining the releva nt interna tio na l instrum ents, So uth Afric a n leg isla tive fra me w o rk a nd the situa tio n c hild ren find themselves in to d a y; o b se rva tio ns o f the na ture o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis w here , w hen a nd how it ha p p ens, a nd w ho is invo lved ; a n o vervie w o f the w o rk o f the entire p ro je c t its b enefic ia ries, p la nning , sta ffing , a c tivities, stra teg ies a nd c ha lleng es; a m o re d eta ile d d esc rip tio n o f the c a se stud y interventio n g e a re d a t the exit a nd rec o very o f sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren inc lud ing a n o verview o f p a rtic ip a nts histo ries a nd b a c kg ro und a nd the intervention stra teg ies used ; reflec tio n o n the susta ina b ility of the p ro jec t; eva lua tio n o f the va rio us c o m p o nents o f the p ro jec t a nd their im p a c t o n re c ip ients a nd the p ro jec t as well as recommendations for continued project work and national action.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

16


Molo Songololo

2. Introduction In Se p tem b er 2002, the Dep a rtm ent of So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tion, Western Ca p e entered into p a rtnership w ith Mo lo So ng o lo lo to im p le m e nt a p ilo t p ro jec t fo r the intervention a nd p reventio n o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren in the c o m m unity o f Atla ntis and surrounding areas namely, Mamre, Pella and Witsands. The p ilo t p ro jec t w a s initia ted in d ire c t resp o nse to inc re a se d rep o rts fro m c o m m unity g ro up s, m ed ia a nd servic e p rovid ers o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in the ta rg ete d c o m m unity. The o utc o m es of the p ilo t a re intend ed to info rm the ro ll-out of a stra teg y and programme to combat child sexual exploitation in the province. Atla ntis is a p eri-urb a n c o m m unity w ithin the Ca p e To w n Unic ity munic ip a lity a nd serves a s the hub fo r the m a rked ly sm a ller surro und ing a rea s. The c o m m unity o f Atla ntis ha s a fa irly w ell d evelo p e d infra struc ture c onsisting o f va rio us p ub lic a nd p riva te a m enities. However, the a b senc e o f c o nstruc tive a c tivity fo r c hild ren a nd yo uth a nd w id esp re a d p o verty le a ves them w ith lim ited c ho ic es to m eet their need fo r a sense o f b e lo ng ing a nd self d isc overy, w hic h is c ha ra c te ristic o f a d o lesc enc e . This results in m a ny turning to the gangs and drugs and shebeens for a sense of belonging and to escape the harsh realities of daily living. The p ilot p ro jec t sp ec ific a lly ta rg eted a nd b ene fited sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren, tho se a t risk a nd c hild ren in g enera l, a s w ell a s c o m m unity a nd p ub lic institutions a nd struc tures, and the community at large. The p ro jec t a im e d to a c hieve its o b jec tives thro ug h the im p le m enta tio n o f c lea r stra teg ies, w hic h inc lud ed w o rking in p a rtnership w ith the c o m munity a nd ke y ro le p la ye rs, c o m m unity m o b ilisa tio n, ed uc a tio n a nd a w a reness ra ising , ed uc a tio n a nd tra ining to b uild o rg a nisa tio na l c a p a c ity a nd servic e d elivery to c hild ren, c hild p a rtic ip a tio n, p ro vid ing ed uc a tio na l w o rksho p s a nd a c tivities fo r c hild ren a nd yo uth a s b o th a p reventa tive a nd le a d ership d evelo p m e nt a p p ro a c h, a s w ell a s d irec t intervention a nd p re ventio n fo r c hild ren a t hig h risk o f sexua l e xp lo ita tion a nd sexua lly exploited children . One o f the p ilo t p ro jec t s ke y exp e c ted o utc o m es w a s, the d evelo p m e nt o f a n e xit, sup p o rt a nd re c o very stra teg y using a c a se stud y a p p ro a c h invo lving sexua lly exp lo ite d c hild ren, tho se w ho ha ve exited sexua l exp lo ita tion a nd tho se a t hig h risk o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n. The c a se stud y w a s und erta ken in the fina l p ha se o f the p ilo t a nd g iven the complex needs of the children Molo continues to work with them. The report has 8 appendices these are as follows. Appendix 1: Project Evaluation Report This is the rep o rt o f the ind e p end ent eva lua to r o n the p ro jec t o utlining the suc c esses a nd c ha lleng es o f the p ro jec t in Atla ntis a nd surround ing a re a s. It further hig hlig hts key issues o f o rg a nisa tio na l le a rning , future susta ina b ility a nd rec o m m end a tio ns fo r a n enha nc e d roll-out strategy to build on the project. Appendix 2: Partnerships This appendix lists the 24 main partners for the implementation, management, completion a nd eva lua tio n o f the p ro jec t a s w ell a s the o b jec tives, na ture , b enefic ia ries a nd outcomes of such partnerships.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

17


Molo Songololo

Appendix 3: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis This a p p end ix d e fines c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n; c o nsid ers w ho a re c hild ren a t risk; w ho intro d uc es c hild ren to sexua l exp lo ita tio n; w ho a re the exp loiters; w here , w hen a nd ho w the c hild re n o f Atla ntis a re b e ing sexua lly e xp lo ited ; the p hysic a l d a ng ers they fa c e a nd finally, the community response to this atrocity. Appendix 4: Reflections on the Case Study Intervention by a participant 18 years old One o f the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts reflec ts o n her exp erienc e o f the d ire c t interventio n w o rk of the p ilo t. This sto ry is c o m p le m ented b y a c o m m ent fro m the c o unsello r w ho worked with her. Appendix 5: Story of a sexually exploited girl A young girl tells her story of how she was manipulated into sexual exploitation, held captive and eventually rescued and assisted with her recovery. Appendix 6: Model for Exiting Children from Child Sexual Exploitation This d oc um ent, w hic h is b a sed on the m o d el used b y Mo lo So ng olo lo in Atla ntis, o ffe rs Mo lo s p ersp ec tive o n exiting c hild ren fro m sexua l exp lo ita tio n. This m o d el is useful a s a sta rting p o int, it reflec ts w ha t Mo lo ha s d o ne a nd p ro vid e s c o m m enta ry o n w ha t c a n b e done if this project were to be replicated elsewhere. Appendix 7: Financial Statement Appendix 8: Pilot Project Team Appendix 9: References The eva lua tio n o f the p ilo t p ro jec t w a s c o nd uc ted b y a n ind e p end ent eva lua to r w ho interview e d the va rio us ro le p la ye rs in c o m m unity o rg a nisa tio ns a nd p ub lic institutio ns a s well as the case study participants. Tw o ke y re c o m m end a tio ns e m a na te fro m this re p o rt. Firstly, tha t the p ro jec t in Atla ntis c o ntinue the w o rk it ha s sta rted , und er the a usp ic es o f Mo lo So ng o lo lo , esp ec ia lly the w o rk w ith sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren. Se c o nd ly, tha t the De p a rtment o f So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tio n, ro ll o ut sim ila r p ro je c ts in o ther c o m m unities. It is im p era tive tha t this ro ll-o ut b e m ulti-sec to ra l a nd c olla b o ra tive in a p p ro a c h, everyo ne m ust ta ke responsibility for all children!

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

18


Molo Songololo

3 Contextual framework 3.1. Broad overview on the situation of children child rights, development and protection Fo r m o st c hild ren in So uth Afric a , d a ily surviva l is their b ig g est p ro b le m . SA c ensus 2001 rep o rts tha t there a re 19 m illio n c hild ren in So uth Afric a . Bla c k c hild ren m a ke up 83%, fo llo w ed b y Colo ure d c hild ren a t 7%, White 6% a nd Indian 4%. Kw a Zulu Na ta l ha s 4.5 million children and the Western Cape just over 1.5 million. There ha ve b een sig nific a nt c ha ng es sinc e 1994 c o nc erning the d evelo p m ent o f rig hts a nd p ro te c tio n fo r c hild ren. Sp ec ia l p ro visio ns for the c a re , tre a tment a nd p ro tec tio n o f child ren ha ve b e en m a d e in the new So uth Afric a n c o nstitutio n. Sim ila rly, there a re va rio us initia tives, p roc esses a nd c o m m itm ents w ithin g o vernm ent a nd c ivil soc iety concerning children, their rights, protection and development. Sta tistic s So uth Afric a 2005 rep o rts tha t there a re 27 d ea ths und er the a g e o f 5 p er 1000 live b irths in So uth Afric a , w hilst the infa nt m orta lity ra te is a t 54 d e a ths p er 1000 live b irths. Injuries, tra um a a nd vio lenc e a re a m a jo r c a use o f d e a th a m o ng st c hild ren. Po verty is children s b ig g est threa t, inc lud ing HIV/ AIDS a nd c rim e. Rec ent na tio na l a nd p ro vinc ia l sta tistic s relea sed b y the Minister fo r Sa fety a nd Se c urity ind ic a tes a sig nific a nt a nd c o nsistent inc re a se in the num b er o f c hild a b use c a ses rep o rted d uring the p erio d 2002 to 2004. Mo re tha n 72 000 c rim es a g a inst c hild ren w ere reported by SAPS in 2003. Ac c o rd ing to SAPS the num b er o f re p o rted c hild a b use c a se s in the Western Ca p e ha s inc re a sed , in m a ny re g io ns c a se s ha ve a lm o st d o ub led sinc e 2001/ 2002. Child a b use is defined a s neg lec t or ill trea tm ent. The sta tistic s d o es no t p ro vid e the a g es o f the vic tim s nor the perpetrator in cases of child abuse. Child ra p e a c c o unts fo r 17% o f the tota l fig ure o f c hild a b use c a ses in the Western Ca p e Provinc e. Fro m Ap ril 2002 to Ma rc h 2003 there w a s a tota l o f 6502 c a ses re p o rted a nd a tota l o f 3597 c a ses p lo tted . During the 2004 p erio d , there w ere 4402 c a ses o f c hild a b use and 19705 cases of rape. The inc rea se in c rim es a g a inst c hild ren in the We stern C a p e Pro vinc e , a nd in p a rtic ula r the nine p riority a re a s na m ely, Bishop La vis, Elsies River, Ma nenb erg , Mitc hell s Pla in, Philip i, Khayelitsha, Kuils River, Nyanga and Worcester can largely be attributed to the following: Increased reporting due to increased awareness and intervention Increased vulnerability of children due to poverty and lack of social security Substance abuse, delinquency, violence and crime Demand and supply factors increase demand for sex with children Poor law enforcement poor policing, investigations low conviction rates There a re inc re a se d rep o rts o f the exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren fo r va rio us p urp o se s. No o ffic ia l sta tistic s exist c o nc erning c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n inc lud ing c hild p ro stitutio n a nd c hild p o rno g ra p hy, o r c hild tra ffic king , exists. La c k o f leg isla tio n a nd p o lic e c o d e a re m a jo r challenges.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

19


Molo Songololo

International policy agreements The new millennium saw a renewed commitment by governments of the world to children w o rld w id e. The United Na tio ns (UN) Genera l Asse m b ly set the 8 Millennium Develo p m ent Goals, c le a r ta rg ets to b e re a c he d b y 2015 w ere set, a ll o f these p ertinent to the sta tus o f c hild ren a nd c hild ren s rig hts. 189 UN Me m b er Sta tes p led g e d to 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development In 2002, the UN Genera l Assem b ly held a Sp ec ia l Se ssio n o n Child ren w here g overnme nts further c o m m itted them selves to the them e A Wo rld Fit fo r Child ren. The se ssion c o m m itted itself to a num b e r o f g o a ls a nd ta rg ets fo r 2010 to a c c elera te c hild d evelop m ent a nd p rotec tio n initia tives a s w ell a s to sup p o rt the Millennium Development Go a ls. Put c hild ren first is one o f the ke y p rinc ip les, a d o p ted b y the sessio n, fo r b uild ing A World Fit for Children. Ac c o rd ing to The Sta te o f the Wo rld s Child ren 2005 Unic e f Re p o rt 2 no ne o f these g oa ls w ill b e met b y the set d e a d line o f 2015. This im p lies tha t the A Wo rld Fit fo r Child ren g o a ls to o w ill no t b e a c hie ved . The rep o rt reve a ls a la rm ing sta tistic s w hic h und ersc o re s the d a ng ers fa c ing the w o rld s c hild ren: in 2003, 10.6 m illio n c hild ren d ie d und e r five ye a rs o f a g e; in 2005 o f the 2.2 b illio n c hild ren in the w o rld , 1 b illion c hild re n a re living in p o verty; 1 in 3 c hild re n live w ithout a d e q ua te shelter; 1 in 5 c hild re n ha ve no a c c ess to sa fe w a ter; 1 in 7 children have no access to health services. The report identifies three key factors as threats to child survival namely: Poverty Armed conflict HIV/AIDS Va nheuversw yn, 20053 c o m m ents o n the rep o rt a rg uing tha t the rep o rt is o nly o ne m o re c o nd e m na tio n o f the p re sent system . It sho w s ho w futile the em p ty w o rd s o f a ll b o urg eo is p o litic ia ns a re. In sp ite o f their ho llo w p ro m ises (Kyo to , Aid s, w o rld p o verty), they a re not interested in so lving these b urning q uestions. Instea d they c o ntinue their im p eria list w a rs und er the fig le a f o f d em o c ra c y a nd the 'w a r o n terro r' . Wa rs ta ke p la c e und e r c a p ita lism b e c a use they a re terrib ly p ro fita b le. To p ut a n end to this nig htm a re it is nec essa ry to d estro y the very system tha t c a uses the w a rs, the hung er, the p o verty. Unic e f estim a tes tha t the a nnua l c o st o f m eeting the m illennium g o a ls a re US$40 b illio n US$70 billion, while world military spending for 2003 alone was US$956 billion.

1 2 3

A World Fit for Children (Unicef, 2002) The State of the World s Children Report 2005 - Childhood Under Threat (Unicef, 2005) One billion children in extreme poverty: a holocaust on a world scale, M Vanheuverswyn (http://www.aidc.org.za/?q=book/view/440, 2005)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

20


Molo Songololo

In addition, the following international agreements have been put in place specifically to combat child sexual exploitation. Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography 2002 ILO convention 182; on the elimination of the worst forms of child labour Yokohama Minute 2001 Stockholm Declaration in 1996 and Stockholm Agenda for Action Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in persons, especially women and children supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime Despite these policy frameworks sexual exploitation and trafficking in persons have become a fast growing, lucrative, global criminal activities. Governments of the world must punish sex exploiters and those who facilitate such exploitation and protect children. In addition, to the above-mentioned international agreements South Africa is also signatory to: United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990 The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2000

South African legislative framework The So uth Afric a n p o lic y a nd leg a l fra m ew o rks a re , in g enera l, c o ng ruent w ith the interna tio na l a g ree m ents. In the Bill o f Rig hts, o f the South Afric a n Co nstitutio n, Ac t 108 o f 1996, Cha p ter 2 Se c tion 28 (2) sta tes tha t "A c hild 's b est interest is o f p a ra m o unt im p orta nc e in every m a tter c o nc erning the c hild ". Sec tio n 28 (1d ) a fford s c hild ren the rig ht to b e p rotec ted fro m m a ltrea tm ent, neg lec t, a b use o r d e g ra d a tio n . Cha p ter 2 further sta tes tha t the g o vernm e nt m ust resp e c t, p ro tec t, p ro m o te a nd fulfill these rig hts. A child is defined as any person under the age of 18 years. The c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren is p ro hib ited in Se c tio n 50A (1) o f the Child Ca re Ac t (1983 a s a m end ed ). It further p ro hib its sexua l a b use a nd sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren. In a d d itio n, there a re p ro hib itive p ro visio ns in the Sexua l Offenc e s Ac t (1989 a s amended) and the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996 concerning child pornography. South Africa and 119 other countries adopted the Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Ac tio n a g a inst the p heno m eno n of c o m m erc ia l se xua l exp lo ita tio n of c hild ren, a t the Sto c kho lm Co nferenc e , in Aug ust 1996. In so d o ing , So uth Afric a c o m m itted itself b ro a d ly to the following actions: Co-ordination and co-operation at local, national, regional and international levels Ensure a reduction in the incidence of commercial sexual exploitation The protection of children Facilitate the recovery and integration of child survivors of commercial sexual exploitation Ensure the participation of children in actions aimed at the prevention of the commercial sexual exploitation of children In 1996, So uth Afric a p ut in p la c e the Na tio na l Pro g ra m m e o f Ac tio n (NPA) fo r c hild ren c o o rd ina ted b y The Offic e on the Rig hts o f the Child in the Presid enc y. The NPA p ro vid e s a holistic framework for state departments to p ut c hild ren s issues on their a g end a s. It p ro vid es a vehic le fo r c o -o rd ina ted a c tio n b etw ee n NGOs, g o vernm ent a nd c hild related structures.4 The NPA identified eight priority issue areas: 4

National Programme of Action for Children in South Africa: Children in 2001 A report on the State of the Nation s Children (National Programme of Action for Children in South Africa The Presidency, 2001)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

21


Molo Songololo

Infrastructure Special protection measures Education Early childhood development Child and maternal health Nutrition Leisure and recreation Peace and non-violence The o b lig a tio ns o f the sta te in term s o f the Sto c kho lm Ag end a a nd the NPA a re c lea r. Tra nsla ting these o b lig a tio ns into effe c tive a c tio ns to ro o t o ut c hild a b use a nd sexua l exp lo ita tio n is w here p ro b le ms a re exp erienc ed . The need fo r c o o rd ina ted a c tio n a nd community interventions cannot be overemphasized. A m ulti-sec to ra l a p p ro a c h involving g overnm ent d e p a rtm ents a t na tio na l, p rovinc ia l a nd lo c a l levels to g ether w ith the p o litic a l w ill a nd c o m m itm ent o f reso urc es is req uired to effec tively p rotec t c hild ren fro m a b use a nd neg lec t a nd era d ic a te these social ills. Mec ha nism s sho uld b e d esig ned to fa c ilita te fo r inter-sec to ra l p o lic y fo rm ula tio n, planning, m onito ring a nd eva lua tio n, c o -o rd ina tio n, a nd the d efinitio n o f func tio ns and responsibilities and the development of joint national and provincial strategies. Co m m unity p ro g ra m m es suc h a s neig hb o urho o d p ro jec ts a im e d a t id entifying c hild ren a t risk, c hild re n in d iffic ult c irc um sta nc es a nd p ro vid ing p ro tec tio n fo r c hild ren sho uld b e streng thened throug h linka g es w ith p o lic e sta tio ns a nd lo c a l o ffic es o f the departments of health and welfare and social services. Tw o sig nific a nt leg isla tive p ro c esses a re und erw a y, na m ely, the review o f the Sexua l Offenc es Ac t (1989 a s a m end ed ) a nd the d evelop m ent o f the Child ren s Bill w hic h w ill rep la c e the Child Ca re Ac t (1983 a s a m end ed ). The leg isla to rs p a rtic ip a ting in these processes need to take cognizance of the da ng ers fa c ing So uth Afric a s c hild ren and the sho rtc o m ing s in existing leg isla tio n. Ne w leg isla tio n sho uld ensure c hild p ro tec tio n, c hild ren s rig hts, c rim ina lisa tio n o f the tra ffic king of c hild ren fo r p urp o ses o f sexua l exploitation and services for the child victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

22


Molo Songololo

3.2 About the service provider

Molo Songololo

Mo lo So ng o lo lo is a c hild rig hts org a nisa tio n tha t strives to a d va nc e c hild ren s rig hts to ensure their p ro tec tio n, d evelo p m ent, surviva l a nd p a rtic ip a tio n thro ug h ed uc a tio n a nd training, lobby and advocacy and support services. The o rg a nisa tio n ha s c ho sen a c hild rig hts a p p ro a c h b a sed o n listening to c hild ren a nd yo ung p eo p le , und ersta nd ing ho w they think a nd a c t, o ffering a ssista nc e a nd support w itho ut b eing d ic ta ting , a nd e ng a g ing them a s a c tive p a rtic ip a nts in a c tivities a nd decision-making. Esta b lishe d in 1980, the org a nisa tio n ha s a ric h histo ry tha t reflec ts the d evelo p m ent o f c hild ren s rig hts a nd tra nsfo rm a tio n in So uth Afric a . Mo lo So ng o lo lo ha s esta b lished itself a s a m a jo r ro le-p la yer in the a rea o f c hild rig hts a nd p ro tec tio n on a p rovinc ia l, na tio na l and international level. Mo lo So ng o lo lo s m a in o b jec tive is fo r the rig hts o f c hild ren to b e o b se rved to a d va nc e c hild ren s p hysic a l a nd m enta l d evelo p m ent, p ro tec tio n a nd their m o ra l a nd so c ia l nurturing. Its specific objectives include: Cre a te a w a reness a nd e d uc a tion a m o ng st c hild ren a b o ut their rig hts a nd responsibilities Pro vid e m o tiva tio na l a nd life-skills ed uc a tio n fo r c hild ren, a nd e nc o ura g e p ro -active self organisation and intervention amongst them Fa c ilita te for c hild p a rtic ip a tio n in c o m m unity a c tio ns, so c ia l a nd p o litic a l fo rum s, a nd decision-making processes affecting their lives Promote the needs and rights of children in difficult circumstances. Provide support and assistance to victims of abuse and exploitation Ad vo c a te a nd lo b b y fo r the rig hts, need s a nd p ro te c tio n o f c hild ren in c ivil so c iety and government Pro vid e a w a reness, e d uc a tio n a nd tra ining to servic e p ro vid ers fo r im p rove d servic e delivery and child protection Pro d uc e a w a reness a nd ed uc a tio na l m a teria ls to p ro m o te the rig hts, need s a nd protection of children Fo r the la st 10 ye a rs, Mo lo So ng o lo lo ha s b een in the fo refro nt of the c a m p a ig ns a g a inst c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion a nd c hild tra ffic king . It initia ted a nd p a rtic ip a ted in va rio us p ro c esse s inc lud ing , Netw o rk Ag a inst Sexua l Exp lo ita tio n of Child ren, Na tio na l Co nsulta tive Co nferenc e a g a inst Sexua l Exp loita tio n, 1995, Sto c kho lm , 1996 & Yo ko ha m a , 2001 - Wo rld Co ng resses Ag a inst Co m m erc ia l Sexua l Exp lo ita tio n, rese a rc h o n the Tra ffic king o f Child ren fo r Purp o ses o f Sexua l Exp lo ita tion 2000 a nd Tra ffic king o f Wo me n into the South Afric a n Sex Ind ustry 2000. Mo lo is a m e m b er o f the Na tio na l Hum a n Trafficking Inter-Se c to ra l Ta sk Te a m a nd sp e a rhe a d s a Southern Afric a NGO netw ork against child trafficking. Mo lo Song olo lo s w o rk ho ld s d irec t b enefit to c hild re n, no w a nd in the future ; fo r their rights, protection, development, survival and participation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

23


Molo Songololo

3.3 About the community

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsands

The Pilo t Pro jec t w a s d esig ned to c o ver Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s, na m ely Ma m re , Pella a nd Witsa nd s. Altho ug h m o st o f the w o rk o f the p ilo t o c c urred in Atla ntis, the p ilo t extend ed its rea c h a lo ng the West Coa st to c o m m unities a s fa r a field a s Sa ld a nha Ba y, Vredendal and Vredenberg. Atla ntis is a p eri-urb a n c o m munity w ithin the Ca p e To w n Unic ity m unic ip a lity. It is situa ted o n the Ca p e We st c o a st, a p p ro xim a tely 50 kilo m etres no rth of Ca p e To w n a nd e ig hty kilo m etres so uth o f Sa ld a nha Ba y. The first resid ents m o ved into Atla ntis in 1976. Fo rm e rly p a rt o f the Bla a uw b e rg Munic ip a lity, Atla ntis c o m p rises ten resid entia l a re a s rep resenting d ifferent ec o nom ic g ro up s w ithin the a rea . These a re a s a re Atla ntis Ind ustria l, Atla ntis SP, Avo nd a le , Be a c o n Hill, Ca m p hill Villa g e , Protea Pa rk, Ro b inva le , Sa xo n Se a , Sherw o o d and Town Centre. Atlantis serves as the hub for the markedly smaller surrounding areas. The p o p ula tio n o f Atla ntis is m a d e up o f a p p ro xim a tely 28 180 o r 52% fe m a le resid ents a nd a p p ro xim a tely 25 620 o r 48% m a le resid ents. This c o m p rises a to ta l o f 53 805 inha b ita nts rep resenting a ll fo ur m a jo r p o p ula tio n g ro up s in So uth Afric a .5 Of this num b er a p p ro xim a tely 23 430 o r 44% a re yo ung p eo p le 19 ye a rs o r yo ung er.6 Fifty o ne p erc ent o f these yo ung p e o p le a re m a le a nd 49% a re fem a le. The tota l p o p ula tio n is a c c o m mo d a ted in a p p ro xim a tely 11 000 resid entia l d w elling s w hic h ra ng e in sc o p e fro m free sta nd ing ho m es, b lo c ks o f fla ts, se p a ra te a c c o m m o d a tio n in b a c kya rd s to ho m eless persons. According to the municipal office in Atlantis the unemployment rate is estimated at 42%.7 Area Atlantis

Population 53 800

Established in 1976

Founded as Town constructed by apartheid reg im e fo r Colo ured p eo p le

Mamre Pella Witsands

20 000 4 000 10 000

1903 1869 1990

Moravian Missionary Station Moravian Missionary Station Informal settlement

Resources The c o m m unity o f Atla ntis ha s a fa irly w ell d evelo p e d infra struc ture c onsisting o f va rio us p ub lic a nd p riva te a menities. These inc lud e four Hig h Sc ho ols, thirteen Prim a ry Sc ho o ls, severa l c rèc hes a nd 2 p ub lic lib ra ries. A sta te ho sp ita l, hea lth servic es a nd 2 c linic s further servic e the c o m m unity. There a re va rio us sp o rting fa c ilities a s w ell a s 4 rec re a tio na l c entres. Atla ntis is a lso servic ed b y the jud ic ia ry a nd ha s a Ma g istra tes c ourt. The p ub lic sa fety servic es c o nsist o f a p o lic e sta tio n a nd fire d e p a rtm ent. Priva te sec tor investm e nt c urrently c o m p rises a ho tel, sho p p ing c entres, w hic h inc lud e m a jo r foo d reta il o utlets a s w ell a s m a jo r b a nks. There a re a lso 138 ind ustries o p era tio na l in the a rea . Va rio us relig io us structures service the community.8 The 5 sp o rt field s, 4 ha lls a nd 1 m ino r ha ll, this inc lud es the Dura Youth Centre , o ffers the yo uth som e a c tivities in Atla ntis. In the p riva te sec to r there a re 3 Co ffee Shop s, w hic h youth can frequent in addition to the Hotel, Pub and 2 dance clubs. Pella has no facilities fo r yo uth other tha n a p riva te sp o rts g ro und . Witsa nd s ha s no enterta inm ent fa c ilitie s for yo uth. Ma mre ha s 2 ha lls, o ne is the c o m m unity ha ll, 1 sp o rts g ro und a nd 3 p ub s. In addition, there are numerous shebeens. 5

Statistics South Africa: Census 2001 Ibid. Information provided by Atlantis Municipal office 6 June 2005 8 Ibid. 6 7

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

24


Molo Songololo

The a b senc e o f c onstruc tive a c tivity fo r c hild ren a nd yo uth a nd w id esp re a d p o verty leaves them w ith lim ited c ho ic e s to m eet their need fo r a sense of b elo ng ing a nd self d isc o very, w hic h is c ha ra c teristic o f a d o le sc enc e . This results in m a ny turning to the gangs and drugs and shebeens for a sense of belonging and to escape the harsh realities o f d a ily living . The SAPS ha s on rec o rd 220 sheb eens a nd 6 m a jor g a ng s w hic h a re a c tive thro ug hout the Atla ntis c o m m unity. Alre a d y the SAPS rep o rts tha t fo r the c urrent ye a r 120 children have dropped out of school. The Situational Analysis identified the key challenges facing youth in Atlantis, as follows: Substance abuse Sexuality issues Domestic problems Criminal activities Self image Clubbing / shebeens Lack of facilities School related The a re a s o f Pella a nd Witsa nd s la c k b a sic a menities inc lud ing e lec tric ity, a b lutio ns a nd running w a ter in ho m es. Atla ntis, sp e c ific a lly, is c ha ra c terised b y a nd d isting uished fro m other predominantly economically deprived communities in that its; Ba sic servic es a re fa r b etter tha n tha t o f sim ila r e c o no m ic a lly stressed c o m m unities in the Western Cape Province Existing netw o rks o f ind ivid ua ls a nd o rg a nisa tions exp ress a nd d e m o nstra te a c o m m itm e nt to c o m b a ting c hild sexua l a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n throug h p reventio n and intervention strategies and programmes Furtherm o re , Atla ntis ha s a stro ng histo ry o f so c io-p o litic a l a c tivism , c o m m unity m o b ilisa tio n a nd unio nisa tio n. This is in p a rt refle c ted in the num ero us NGO S a nd c o m m unity b a sed o rg a nisa tio ns o p e ra tive in the c o m munity a s w ell a s in the m a ny vo lunteers w ho g ive o f their tim e to a ssist vulnera b le c hild ren. The re a re a lso 2 shelters fo r abused women and children.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

25


Molo Songololo

4. Child sexual exploitation There is g ro w ing c o nc ern a b o ut the inc re a se in inc id enc es o f c hild a b use a nd ne g lec t g enera lly in the c o m munity o f Atla ntis a s evid enc ed b y the d e m a nd for servic es from members of the community, from Molo Songololo since the start of the pilot.

Defining child sexual exploitation The term c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n refers to the fina nc ia l exp lo ita tio n a s w ell a s exp lo ita tio n thro ug h ta king unfa ir a d va nta g e o f a c hild s vulnera b ility. Ko e n 19 o ffers tw o commonly used definitions of the sexual exploitation of children: use o f a c hild for sexua l p urp o se s in exc ha ng e fo r c a sh o r fa vo urs b etw een the c usto mer, intermed ia ry or a g ent a nd o thers (p a rent, fa m ily m e m b er, p ro c urer, a nd teacher) that profit from the trade in children for these purposes. and a c t of eng a g ing o r offering the servic e s of a c hild to p erfo rm sexua l a c ts fo r m o ney o r other consideration with that person or any other person. The Stoc kho lm Ag end a fo r Ac tio n d efines c om m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren a s sexua l a b use b y the a d ult a nd remunera tio n in c a sh o r kind to the c hild o r to a third p erso n o r p erso ns (lt) c o nstitutes a fo rm o f c o erc ion a nd vio lenc e a g a inst c hild ren a nd amounts to forced labour and a contemporary form of slavery. The child therefore does not commit an act of prostitution but the person exploiting the child, as well as those who facilitate the exploitation commit the act of prostitution.

Children at risk of sexual exploitation The So uth Afric a n institutiona l fra m ew o rk sho uld m a ke p ro visio n fo r a n effec tive resp o nse to c hild se xua l a b use in g enera l, a nd c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in p a rtic ula r, g iven the inc re a se in re p o rting o f sexua l c rim es a g a inst c hild ren.10 So fo r insta nc e , c hild ra p e a c c o unts fo r 17% o f the to ta l fig ure o f c hild a b use c a ses in the Western Ca p e Pro vinc e . Fro m Ap ril 2002 to Ma rc h 2003 there w a s a to ta l o f 6502 c a ses re p o rted a nd a to ta l o f 3597 c a ses p lo tted . Whilst there is inc re a se d rep o rting o f a b use a g a inst c hild ren it is w o rth noting that: The g ro w th in rep orts o f sexua l c rim es a g a inst c hild re n in South Afric a ind ic a tes tha t this typ e o f c rim e is either o n the inc re a se o r is b eing m o re w id e ly re p orted a nd sp o ken about. However, inconsistent definitions of "child sexual abuse" and inadequate recording a lso p re ve nt the a c c ura te c o llec tio n o f a d m inistra tive a nd sta tistic a l d a ta o n sexua l c rim es a g a inst c hild re n. 11 The rep ort Child Sexua l Exp loita tio n in Atla ntis12 d o c uments the c o nd itio ns tha t m a ke c hild ren in Atla ntis esp ec ia lly vulnera b le to sexua l exp lo ita tio n w hether fo r c o m m erc ia l o r non commercial purposes. These conditions include: A c o m m unity in c risis w here the so c ia l se c urity a nd so c ia l w elfa re o f c hild ren a nd youth is threatened Sig nific a nt p reva lenc e of severe so c ia l p ro b le m s, unem p lo ym ent, p o verty, sub sta nc e a b use , vio lenc e , sexua l a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n, d ysfunc tio na l fa m ilies a nd fa m ily breakdown 9

K. Koen: Children on the edge: Strategies towards an integrated approach to combat child sexual exploitation in South Africa (Molo Songololo, WomensNet, 2004) 10 As evidenced by a number of research reports as well as official police statistics. 11 A. Dawes and Z. Parker: Child Sexual Abuse in Atlantis: A research report (Children s Institute, University of Cape Town, 2003) 12 Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

26


Molo Songololo

Hig h levels o f frustra tio n, a ng er, ho p elessness, m istrust a nd fe eling o f b etra ya l b y parents, and service providers amongst children and youth Some g irls a re fo rc e d into sexua lly exp lo ita tive situa tio ns a t the a g e o f fo urteen o r d uring a d o lesc enc e . Ac c o rd ing to Erikso n 13 a d o le sc enc e is the p syc ho so c ia l d evelo p m enta l sta g e w he re a c hild b eg ins to esta b lish their id entity this sta g e is m a rked b y c o nfusio n a nd exp erim enting to d efine a sense o f self. This interna l strug g le c o m b ined w ith the above factors can make a child more susceptible to the manipulation of sexual exploiters and abusers. There a re c o ntinued a ne c d o ta l a c c o unts of g irls a s yo ung a s nine a nd ten ye a rs o f a g e a nd other o ld er g irls b e ing sexua lly exp lo ited fo r p ro fit o r g a in w ithin the b a c kya rd o r suike r-huisie set up . There a re a lso a c c o unts o f g a y b o ys und er the a g e o f eig hteen b e ing sexua lly exp lo ited b o th throug h p riva te a rra ng e m ents, suiker-huisies a nd sta nd ing on the street.

Who introduces the child to sexual exploitation? Tho se w ho fa c ilita te fo r the sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f the c hild ren o f Atla ntis a nd surrounding a rea s a re p re d o m ina ntly lo c a ls. Drug s p la y a m a jo r ro le in a c hild b eing sexually exploited. There a re b o yfriend s a c ting a s interm ed ia ries a nd insist tha t their girlfriends eng a g e in sex fo r m o ney so tha t they c a n sup p o rt a d rug ha b it. There a re g a ng sters w ho initia lly g ive g irls d rug s a nd o nc e the g irls a re a d d ic ted to the d rug s w ill p im p them . Ma ny p im p s a re c o nnec ted to the lo c a l g a ng s. Girls w ho a re d rug a d d ic ted a re therefo re , esp ec ia lly vulnera b le a s they a re ea sy p rey fo r p im p s. We a re a w a re tha t there a re o p era tio ns a nd she b eens tha t ha ve c o nta c t o r a re c o ntro lled b y ind ivid ua ls o r g ro up s fro m outsid e the a re a ; w e a re una b le to c o nfirm the e xtent of the c o nta c t a nd w ho the role-p la yers a re . Old er sex w o rkers m a y a lso b ring yo ung c hild ren to the ro a d a t the req uest o f a sex exp lo iter. Teena g e g irls them selves m a y b ring o ther g irls into this exp lo ita tio n. It w a s further esta b lishe d tha t there a re teena g e b o ys w ho a re b eing sexually exploited.

Overview of the occurrence and locations of the sexual exploitation of children The ta b le b elo w lists the p la c e s w here m en a re find ing c hild ren to sexua lly exp lo it; w hen this ha p p e ns d a y o r nig ht, w ee kend s o r d uring the w eek; w ha t is exc ha ng ed b etw een the c hild ren a nd the exp lo iters; w ho a re the sexua l exp lo iters a nd w here d o es the ra p e / a b use o c c ur? This info rm a tio n refers so lely to c hild re n from Atla ntis a s w e d o no t ha ve any references of children from Mamre, Witsands or Pella being sexually exploited.

The info rm a tio n c o nta ined in the ta b le ha s b een o b ta ined thro ug h o b serva tio n, sp e a king to a nd w o rking w ith c hild ren - w ho w ere sexua lly exp lo ited , o r a re still b eing sexua lly exploited from the Atlantis community.

13

RL Atkinson, RC Atkinson, EE Smith, DJ Bem, S Nolen-Hoeksema: Introduction to Psychology (Harcourt Brace College, Fort Worth, 1990)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

27


Molo Songololo

Pick up Location

Time

Nature of exchange

Description of Sexual Exploiters of children

Where does rape/abuse occur

Morning Star, Van Schoorsdrif

Day

Sex in exchange for money

Children stand on the roads. Exploiters pick up a child and drive to the railway, industrial area or surrounding bushes where they will park the car and exploit them.

Milnerton Main Road, Brooklyn and Bellville Main Roads

Night, Day occasionally

Sex in exchange for money

mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates

Parow Main Road, Goodwood Main Road

At night

Sex in exchange for money

Docks in Cape Town Shebeens in Atlantis

Day, Night

Sex in exchange for money sex in exchange for alcohol

Taxis in Atlantis

Friday nights and during the week

sex in exchange for drugs and alcohol

taxi drivers, taxi guards

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

during the week, weekends day and night throughout the weekend

Sex in exchange for money

local business people

sexual acts in exchange for alcohol

married men

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

mostly over weekends

Gangsters

Private Arrangements

Any time as requested by sex exploiter

sexual acts and pornographic photographs in exchange for drugs ecstasy and tik Sexual acts in e xchange for goods and cash

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

Mainly weekends 24hrs, week nights

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates Sailors mainly older working men

Often businessmen but could be anyone

Children stand on the streets. Exploiters typically take the children to parking lots, hotel rooms, their homes or brothels where you can either rent a room with someone you picked up on the street or ask for a girl from the brothels Pick children standing on street and take them to the brothels or at the sportsground

On the ships They pick up children in the shebeens and then exploit them in open air (fields), in cars, or the girls are taken to the ma n s ho me Pick up the child while working and takes them to the depot. Exploits child in the taxi on the property of the depots They drive and pick up girls who are just hanging around and exploit them in cars or at their homes They pick up girls which they a re ha ving a n a ffa ir w ith and take them to houses belonging to their single friends and sometimes in their own homes in houses owned by gang leaders (in Atlantis and elsewhere) which are used for drug dealing, shebeens and prostitution They pick up girl at a set point and take them home or to a hotel

28


Molo Songololo

Physical Dangers The c hild re n a re exp o sed to a num b er o f d a ng ers. Sto ries a b o und o f e xp lo iters w ho refuse to p a y a nd m a y d ro p the g irl o ff in a n isola ted lo c a tio n w here it is d a ng ero us fo r her to w a lk a lone a nd a lso o f p o lic e o ffic ia ls w ho a fter a rresting them o n the ro a d m a y offer to let them go in exchange for sex. There are girls who are aware of STDs, STIs, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and insist on condom use. Mo st o f the g irls a t Mo rning Sta r a re a w a re o f HIV/ AIDS a nd its tra nsm issio n b ut this d o es no t sto p them fro m ha ving unp ro tec ted sex w ith exp lo iters w ho a re w illing to p a y more for it.

Community Response Sexually exp lo ited c hild ren a re still la rg ely stig m a tised w ithin the c o m m unity a nd a ltho ug h the c om m unity is a w a re o f the exp lo ita tio n it is ke p t hid d en, throug h the la c k o f a c tion a g a inst this a tro c ity. Ca rs o ften d rive thro ug h the resid entia l a rea s a nd p ic k up young g irls. Peo p le see this a nd a re a w a re tha t these m en a re sexua lly exp lo iting the g irls b ut gossip in private. The community speaks negatively about the men and the girls. They do not see that the man is manipulating the child. Pa rents resp o nd b y p unishing their d a ug hters o r fo r a ny num b er o f rea so ns rem a in sile nt. Sy b ly vir m y sĂŞ e k is n jintoe b ut a s d a a r nie vriete in d ie huis is nie d a n vriet sy va n d ie g e ld w a t ek m a a k. . 14 (She kee p s telling m e I a m a w ho re b ut if there is no fo o d in the house then she ea ts fro m the mo ney I m a ke). The p ilot is the o nly p ro jec t in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s fo c used o n the sexua l exp lo ita tio n of c hild re n, a ltho ug h som e p a rents do seek assistance from the project, many do not. Few d o a nything to c ha lleng e the situa tio n a nd so m e ha ve re p o rted to the p ro jec t tha t they ha ve c o nta c ted the SAPS w ith the lic ense p la te num b ers o f the p erp etra to rs rep o rting the a c tivity b ut the SAPS d o es no t a lw a ys resp o nd . Ac c ord ing to the Sta tion Co m m a nd er o f the Atla ntis Po lic e Sta tio n there ha s b e en a n inc re a se in re p o rting o f ra p e a nd sexua l a ssa ult w ithin Atla ntis sinc e the Mo lo So ng o lo lo a w a reness c a m p a ig n d uring 2004.15 There ha s ho w ever b een a d e c re a se in re p o rting o f p ro stitutio n in g enera l, this inc lud es c hild p ro stitution.16 The Dep a rtment o f Justic e rep o rts tha t it ha s no t p ro sec uted a ny c a ses o f p ro stitutio n fo r the p erio d 2004 to the p resent a nd it d o es no t ha ve c a ses o n the current court role.17 Child sexua l exp lo ita tio n re m a ins a g ro w ing p ro b le m w hic h results in inc rea sing tra um a a nd suffe ring in o ur c o m m unities a nd a n ero sio n o f fa m ily life . Its existenc e re flec ts a devaluing of children and an absence of the once vibrant community spirit.

14

Comment made to Molo Songololo fieldworker by a sexually exploited child Interview with Superintendent Joseph conducted on 2 June 2005 Ibid. 17 Interview with Advocate Liezl America Control State Prosecutor at the Atlantis Magistrate s court conducted on 6 June 2005 15 16

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

29


Molo Songololo

5. The pilot project 5.1 Main goal The interventio n a nd p revention o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing areas.

5.2 Specific objectives The stated objectives of the pilot project are: Develo p situa tio na l a nd need s a na lysis fo r the interventio n a nd p reventio n o f sexua l exploitation of children. Develo p a n interventio n stra teg y a g a inst sexua l exp lo ita tion o f c hild ren a nd yo ung people. Cre a te p ub lic a w a re ness a nd tra ining fo r the p ro tec tio n o f c hild ren fro m se xua l a b use and exploitation. Id entify c hild ren a t risk a nd p ro vid e exit a nd re c o very sup p o rt fo r c hild ren w ho experienced sexual exploitation. Esta b lish c o m m unity c hild sa fety fo rum fo r the p ro tec tio n o f c hild ren a g a inst sexua l abuse and exploitation. Tra ining fo r the enha nc e m ent o f kno w led g e , skills a nd sup p o rt fo r servic es fo r so c ia l welfare support, health, education, shelter and healing for sexually exploited children.

5.3 Beneficiaries The p ro jec t sp ec ific a lly ta rg eted a nd b enefited c hild ren a nd yo ung p e o p le , those in school and those out of school and those: Who are in sexually exploitative situations Who have experienced sexual exploitation Who are at risk of being sexually exploited Co m m unity a nd p ub lic institutions a nd struc tures b enefited thro ug h ta rg eted initia tives aims at the following: Children & youth in general / families Community organisations, schools and significant individuals and groups Lo c a l a utho rity se rvic es, De p a rtm ents o f: Ed uc a tio n, Hea lth a nd Soc ia l Servic es a nd Poverty Alleviation Police and child protection services Business and community at large

5.4 Values and principles The values and principles which informed the work of the Pilot Project are that of Molo Songololo which includes democracy, integrity, equity, transparency and inclusivity: Child centred approach child participation; to act in the interests of the child; youth development as a prevention strategy Ethical practices confidentiality; respect; integrity; acceptance; honesty; establishing and maintaining boundaries Understanding that the project is about change and healing Teamwork including consultation and co-operation with relevant role players and capacity building in the community A holistic, co-ordinated and strategic response for the prevention of child sexual exploitation and the rescue, healing and recovery of sexually exploited children

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

30


Molo Songololo

5. 5 Initial pilot project implementation plan The plan was guided by the results of the community consultative process. Strategy

Target Group

1. Situational and needs analysis

Children and young people. Those involved in sexual exploitative practices, those at risk, in and out of schools, Community & local authority services, community leaders & Social Services Police, CBOs, NGOs Schools, local leaders, Business & Social services, ,

2. Intervention & Prevention Strategies

3. Awareness Raising for Prevention & Intervention

Schools, Public, CBO s & NGOs.

4. Exit & Recovery Support for children

Children at risk and those involved in sexual exploitation

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Activity Data collection Develop questionnaire and do interviews with targeted groups Analyse data and write up report also identify trends, perpetrators and extent. Report back to targeted groups Identify key stakeholders Workshops with groups. Workshops with targeted groups Consultative community forum Task team Strategic Planning Workshop with targeted groups Write-up report & present to stakeholders Produce public awareness raising material; on child rights, safety and sexual exploitation Posters & pamphlets Banners & pickets Child Rights Booklet Target different groups through Schools, business, radio, media, sports & recreation, churches & mosques & local authority services. Awareness & education workshops & discussions Launch Every Child is My Child Campaign to build community responsibility Annual Child Safety Week Programme Training to enhance existing skills, infrastructure and services Keep record, make contact, give assistance and do referrals. Trace children & families Establish peer support forum Provide family support and advise Access children to health, social welfare, education, shelter and legal services. Lobby for child-friendly services and support in community Workshops on the treatment and needs of prostituted children & those at risk.

Projected Outcomes Establish community profile. Socio-economic and survival status of children Extent of & factors that impact on the sexual exploitation of children Audit of community services Child Rights Protection Profile

Mobilise community support Established action plans against sexual exploitation of children Identified stakeholders

Raise public awareness against sexual exploitation Support for children at risk & those involved in sexual exploitation. Create child rights awareness Mobilise community to action

Reduce number of children involved in sexual exploitation Trained personnel Child friendly services for survivors Support group for survivors Peer support Laying of charges against perpetrators

31


Molo Songololo 5. Preventative Child Protection Service

Children at risk & those involved in sexual exploitation Local authority police & CPU CBO s & NGOs, schools, business, etc

6. Evaluation & Appraisal

All beneficiaries & stakeholders

Consult with all child protection, social welfare, health and educational services. Set-up Child Protection Forum Develop Community Child Protection protocol Eye-on-the-Child Network Identify & set-up Safe Houses for Children Annual report & audit of project Monitoring implementation and meeting of objectives Collect data & develop questionnaire Interviews with role-players Write-up Report Workshop findings and develop strategies for sustainability.

Created public awareness of child protection, services and what to do when a child needs help. Child Protection Forum Trained personnel Child-friendly services Safe houses for children

Report on success and limitations of project Recommendations Way forward

5.6 Implementation strategies The project applied a number of strategies to have maximum impact. The key strategies are discussed below.

The involvement of key role players in the community with the various components of the project helped the project to: Mobilize the community around the fight against child sexual exploitation, Conduct consultative meetings with the community, Increase the awareness of children, youth and adults of the issue and Get volunteers active in the daily work of the project.

Children and youth were also key participants in the project and interacted with the project on a number of levels namely: As rec ip ients o f a c tivities g e a re d a t rec o very, p reventio n a nd a w a reness ra ising about c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion inc lud ing : c o unse lling a t sc ho o ls a nd a t the p ro jec t o ffic e ; c a se stud y; youth c a m p s g e a re d a t lea d ership a nd life skills d evelo p ment; c hild rig hts, c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd c hild sexua l a b use w o rksho p s run a t p rim a ry a nd hig h schools; road show As informers of the process through participation in the community research and through feedback provided in the case study As facilitators of community based social action and awareness raising including: a number of community blitzes and a cavalcade

Empowering the community through sharing organisational expertise and information and encouraging networking: Increased the capacity of service providers, NGO s a nd c o m m unity o rg a nisa tio ns fo r service delivery as well as strengthening the fight against child sexual exploitation and child abuse in general; Established a Counselling Service at the schools

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

32


Molo Songololo

Recognising the complex nature of child sexual exploitation in Atlantis and the many needs that sexually exploited children have as a result of experiencing numerous traumas, the project had a holistic response to the issue with multi-sectoral community involvement. The project understood its work with vulnerable children to be about healing and change a nd sp e c ific a lly w ith the c a se stud y fo c used o n p rovid ing p a rtic ip a nts w ith o p p o rtunities fo r inner hea ling to enha nc e their o vera ll sta te o f w ell b e ing b e fo re fo c using o n skills d evelop m ent a nd e m p lo ym ent a s suc c ess o f the la tter la rg ely d e p end s up o n their self im a g e , self esteem , self c o nfid e nc e a nd g enera l sense o f self. In a d d itio n, integ rity a nd ethical practices were deemed to be of utmost importance. Providing victim support for children to exit from sexual exploitation and children who were required to testify in court. Non-racism to ensure participation in the project by all the communities in the surrounding areas. Extensive use of the Atlantis Community Radio Station and mainstream media to highlight child sexual exploitation in Atlantis.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

33


Molo Songololo

5.7 Pilot project management & human resources The skills, values, attitudes and knowledge required by the various members of the Project team are outlined below. Staff were seconded and employed already having particular qualities and skills at varied levels. The table below outlines the requirements for each role or function. Functions

Skills

Qualities and knowledge

Researcher

Research skills (research design, data collection, data analysis, writing); Ability to connect with people and listen; Ability to work with children and youth; Experience in developing materials for use at community and professional levels; Focus and clarity in materials development approach; Appropriate level of skill in language spoken in community; Creativity; need not have knowledge of subject area but will need to learn Creativity; Dynamic facilitation skills; Experience in education and training for children and youth; Ability to communicate with people at all levels; Able to communicate in languages spoken by community; need not have knowledge of subject area but will need to learn To be deployed according to the skills they bring Counselling; Case management Facilitation; workshop design; planning; organising

Qualities: Courage; compassion; commitment; people friendly; passion to work with children & youth; strong team player; flexibility; sensitivity to the issues

Materials Developer

Trainers / Facilitators

Volunteers Counsellors Youth Workers Project Manager Administrative Support Psychosocial Support

Knowledge: Child Sexual Abuse Child Sexual Exploitation Child Trafficking Legal aspects of the above Substance Abuse

Project management; Information management; Lobbying and advocacy; Public relations; Human resource management; Report writing; Administrative General office administration; Secretarial skills Debriefing; Counselling; Case Management; Understanding social problems, appropriate solutions, service organisations, referrals; Coordination of psycho-social support and counselling services, (including training, referrals, monitoring)

Attitudes and Values To ensure optimal success of the programme it is best that staff embrace the same attitudes and values in this way recipients will always receive the same message from the project. In addition to the values and attitudes noted below, all staff should embrace the project values as stated in the section Values and Principles of the Project. Work should always be conducted with integrity. In the case of working with traumatized children this cannot be over emphasized.

Staff attitudes toward sexually exploited children should always be: Respectful Caring Display sensitivity to their past and present life challenges Unconditional acceptance, acknowledge that they have experienced manipulation and abuse which leads to exploitation and not be judgemental.

It is essential that staff recognise and understand: The power relationship between themselves and the child/victim Conduct themselves with sensitivity and the appropriate level of professionalism because they are working with severely traumatized and vulnerable children, who typically have little or no faith in adults. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

34


Molo Songololo

Id e a lly sta ff sho uld b e a b le to d ra w o n their o w n exp erienc es o f hea ling , p erso na l g ro w th a nd self d e velo p m ent w hic h w ill ena b le them to und ersta nd the c ha lleng es rec ip ients of the project face. Spirituality and religion are often the foundations of programmes for the exit and recovery o f sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren a nd w o m en. It is therefo re im p o rta nt to d evelop a p o sitio n which will inform the role, if any, of religion and spirituality in the programme. Substance abuse is almost always a part of the behaviour of a sexually exploited child to adjust that behaviour it is necessary for the organisation to clarify: How it wishes to respond to the problem in a holistic way or only to focus on the substance abuse Staff conduct in respect of drugs and alcohol should be exemplary.

Management The project should include job descriptions for each member of staff with lines of authority clearly defined. It should also be clear what decisions are made by the Project Manager. The c ha lleng ing a nd c o m p lex na ture o f this w o rk p la c es g re a t d e m a nd s o n the Pro jec t Ma na g er a nd so re q uire s him / her to b e d ed ic a ted to this p ro jec t to ensure tha t their focus is not removed from the project to other projects within the organisation. The p ro jec t req uires a stro ng lea d er w ho is a b le to think stra teg ic a lly a nd a c t d ec isively to ensure effective and efficient service delivery. A team is not born but grown through trust, honesty, understanding and working together. The Pro jec t Ma na g er need s to foster tea m sp irit a nd nurture the tea m . The hig h levels o f stress exp erienc e d b y sta ff em p ha size the va lue o f tea m w o rk a nd sta ff sup p o rting e a c h o ther. The p ro jec t o ften ha d m a ny d e m a nd s p la c ed o n it as it was the only project in the a rea d e d ic a ted to c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd b ec a use o f the p a rtnership w ith So c ia l Services and Poverty Alleviation; many people visited the project for help with other social p ro b le m s o r need s. It is thus useful if a ll sta ff ha ve c o unselling , o rg a nizing a nd fa c ilita tio n skills a s e m erg enc ies d o o c c ur freq uently a nd in these c a ses a no ther sta ff m em b er c o uld step in and assist.

Training and Support Staff received on the job training in: fieldwork office management organizing skills computer operating Staff received more specialized training in: counselling c hild ren s rig hts sexual exploitation of children child trafficking legislation affecting children international conventions and dialogues on children to which South Africa is a signatory As the project progressed the need arose for regular debriefing of staff.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

35


Molo Songololo

5.8 Partnerships and networking Our main partners for the implementation, management, completion and evaluation of the project are: Social Services and Poverty Alleviation Department: Blaauwberg Region and Atlantis District - Alec America, Chrissie Cloete, Faustine Snyman To c rea te interventio n a nd p reve ntion stra teg ies to red uc e c hild re n s vulnera b ility to child sexual exploitation in Atlantis and surrounding areas. To share resources and support each other To ensure closer working relationship To ensure a speedy and effective response to referrals To prevent duplication of work but rather ensure the strengthening of both partners Depa rtment of Community Sa fety: SAPS - Superintendent Josephs; Community Police Forum - Mr. Ta joodien; Child Protection Services; Ha nds Off Our Children Anthea Michaels To develop prevention and intervention strategies for the rescue of children To ensure the safety, rescue and protection of children To ensure that no child gets arrested for the purposes of child sexual exploitation Ensuring a sp e ed y resp o nse to rep o rts o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd o ther fo rm s o f a b use including domestic violence To train and inform police officers on child sexual exploitation Health Department Dr Sue Hawkridge, Sr van Wyk To ascertain what kind of services are available for children at risk and sexually exploited children To lobby the department to provide permanent psycho-social support services for Atlantis and surrounding areas To provide support to Lay Counsellors and enhance the psycho-social services delivered to children To encourage intersectoral relations between the departments as well the NGO sector Education Department: Western Cape Province and Atlantis Principals Forum - Mr. Wentzel To encourage the implementation of the educational protocol To provide support and enhance the counselling service at schools To ascertain what services are being rendered for children with learning problems Lo b b y p rinc ip a ls fo rum to m a ke use o f the ed uc a tio na l reso urc e s a nd p ro g ra m m e s that Molo had to offer Atlantis Community Radio - Russel van der Berg, Frank Briell To create awareness on CSE To share information and advice on CSE To motivate young people, parents and children to seek assistance and speak out against CSE To inform the broader community of available services and where to go Atla ntis Children s Network Forum (initia ted by the pilot project) To share information on issues pertaining to children To plan awareness raising activities in Atlantis and surrounding areas To monitor activities for children To lobby government departments to respond to the needs of children To have a coordinated and therefore stronger response to child abuse in general, and child sexual exploitation in particular Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

36


Molo Songololo

United Sanctuary Against Abuse Ghasiena van der Schaff, Magrieta Rurters To ensure the safety of abused children and women To raise awareness on violence against women and children Working together to ensure the safety and protection of women and children To facilitate access to community organisations and key role players New Women s Movement for the Abused - Barbara Rass To ensure the safety of abused children and women To create intervention and prevention strategies to reduce child sexual exploitation Blaauwberg Municipality: Housing and Social Development - Pietie Cookson To fa c ilita te a c c ess to va rio us o rg a nisa tio ns a nd ind ivid ua ls in the c o m m unity, including youth at risk, gang members and sexually exploited children To facilitate access to resources, and venues To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy Fire Department - David Wilhelmse, Steven Albert To ensure the safety of abused children To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy Witsands Community Worker - Nombedesha Qunta To ensure the safety of abused children and women To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy To fa c ilita te a c c ess to c o m munity a nd yo uth o rg a nisa tio ns a s w ell a s c o m m unity workers and individuals in Witsands Women Who Care - Mrs. Rajap To facilitate access to resources To facilitate access to local business and community organisations World Vision - Cheryldene Hector To w o rk to g ether to b uild the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Mamre Primary - Desiree Passenz To facilitate access to youth and children in Mamre To facilitate access to early childhood learning bodies in Mamre To distribute resources in the Mamre community Pella Moravian School - Mrs. Dyson To distribute resources in the Pella community To ensure the safety of abused children To facilitate access to youth organisations Lay Counsellors To assist principals and schools in Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Vaatjie Primary School with a counselling service for learners To provide counselling to sexually exploited children To assist at court To assist at clinics and hospital, when needed To offer counselling and support to the community To counsel and support children, parents and caregivers To lobby for psycho-social services in the community

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

37


Molo Songololo

In a d d ition, to the p a rtnership s m entio ned a b o ve w e ha ve fo rg ed p a rtnership s w ith othe r organisations to specifically address the needs of the case study, these are stated below. Social Services and Poverty Alleviation - Atlantis District The project works together with the social workers where a participant is already being assisted by social services. Medical Practitioner - Dr Munro To assist in diagnosis and treatment of general medical conditions of participants. Social Worker and Trainer - Edith Kriel To provide training for the lay counsellors. To provide debriefing, group and individual sessions with project staff. Beauty Therapist - Mandisa Mbaligontsi To help the participants to care for themselves. To build self esteem by sharing grooming and personal care practices with the participants. Institute for Healing of Memories Mongezi Mngese To assist participants in dealing with past trauma through their weekend programme. CAB Mr Stockenstroom To assist participants in ending substance abuse and staying sober. Rynet Taxis Ronnie Jacobs To ensure safety of participants attending CAB meetings and computer classes. Development Action Group Anthea Houston, Nigel Tapela This p a rtnership initia ted a t the ta il end o f the p ro jec t, is a im ed a t setting up a resid entia l rec overy c entre fo r sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren. The w o rk w ill c o ntinue a fter the pilot project has been concluded. Colyn van Dyk To support the healing process To im p ro ve p a rtic ip a nts und ersta nd ing o f themselves

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

38


5.9 Overview of project activities Objective 1. Develop situational & needs analysis for the intervention & prevention of sexual exploitation of children.

Activities

Participants

Assigning researcher and team Desk research and data collection

Represented Communities

Researcher and 3 persons

Set up exploratory meetings support and buy-in

Children, youth, NGOs, CBOs, Individuals, Public & Private Sector

25

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella

Exploratory meeting

High school learners

40

Consultative workshops profiling the community Interviewed child involved in CSE Interviews

NGOs and Public Sector

24

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands Atlantis, Mamre

Community worker, child NGOs, CBOs, Individuals, Public Sector High school learners

1

Atlantis

20

High school learners

40

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands

Questionnaires

Foc us g roup s feedback

2. Develop an intervention strategy against

No.

Molo Songololo

a nd

272

Analyse, write up, print and distribute report Consultative and Feedback meeting

Researcher and 3 persons High school learners

40

Consult with and present research findings

Public Sector, CBOs, NGOs,

20

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands

Outcomes Community profile Research report Established extent & manifestation of CSE Established factors that negatively impact on the status of children & young people Profiled children & youth vulnerable to CSE Identified the needs of children vulnerable to CSE Obtained public opinion - child abuse, CSE & child protection services Identified CSE protection & prevention programs Identified role-players & sites for the prevention, rescue, protection, support & recovery of children & young people involved in sexual exploitation Community focus on child sexual exploitation increased, child participation process initiated Support and buy-in of key role-players and stakeholders established Report distributed Gave political insight into the causal factors of CSE Pa rtic ip a nts felt tha t the Molo initia tive w ill e nc o ura g e servic e p ro vid ers to ha ve stro ng er foc us reg a rd ing CSE a nd the refo re ensure sp eed y resp onses for children at risk Lea rners w ere ma d e a w a re of w ha t CSE m ea ns, w here , w hen a nd how it c a n occur Learners felt the consultative process added the voices of young people Consulta tive p roc ess e nc o ura g ed p a rtic ip a tion of a w id e va riety of servic e providers Allowed for strong input from all stakeholders in shaping the profile Ga ve a ll sta ke hold e rs a n op p ortunity to know w ha t p rog ra m m es exist for children, who the role-players are and what gaps exist After being interviewed the child was placed in care and went back to school. All sta kehold ers felt tha t the re is a stro ng ne ed to foc us on stra te g ies to c om b a t CSE Learners felt that their voices were being taken seriously after the report

Feedback on report received Key role-players and stakeholders informed, motivated and mobilised Wo rking rela tionship a nd p a rtne rship s a mo ng st va rious role-p la yers a nd

38


Molo Songololo sexual exploitation of children & young people

3. Create public awareness & education for the protection of children from sexual abuse & exploitation

Exp lo ra tive w orkshop s with targeted groups

Public Sector, CBOs, NGOs,

2

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands

2 Workshops exploring strategies for intervention and planning for implementation Developed protocols, guidelines with key role players Entered into partnerships

Key role-players and stakeholders

+100

Atlantis, Malmesbury, Vredendal, Vredenberg

Planning workshop for awareness campaign 2 Community blitzes in Atlantis

Cavalcade Drumming Session & Workshops on CSE and HIV/AIDS

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

SAPS, Dept of Social Services NGOs, community organizations, youth, public sector Public Sector, CBOs, NGOs, Individuals Children, youth, general public, NGOs, CBOs, Public Service, NGOs, Youth IYM, church youth, youth development forums, learners, unemployed

stakeholders strengthened. Child ren a nd young p eop le p a rtic ip a ted in p roc ess a nd id e ntified need fo r skills-development and empowerment. Stra teg ies, p rotoc ols a nd g uid elines id entified for c hild p ro tec tion a nd sexua l exploitation of children; including need for coordinated response.

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands

60

Mamre, Pella, Atlantis Witsands

Âą85

Witsands, Atlantis, Mamre, Pella

200

Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Atlantis Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Atlantis

500

Greater awareness and knowledge of sexual exploitation of children within the general community and amongst targeted groups. Child sexual exploitation on the agenda of service providers and greater level of commitment and response Increased levels of child abuse and child sexual exploitation cases reported to Molo Songololo Increased awareness and educational broadcasting on childcare, development and protection on Atlantis Radio. Increased assistance and support to children in need mobilised for greater support & intervention; Increased: awareness, vigilance, reporting (sexual abuse) Discomfort about negative media coverage Organisations striving to work under one banner and networking

40


Molo Songololo Road Show - incorporating: Child rights presentations Drama Song & dance Rap and Hip Hop Molo child rights packages, (magazine, booklet on child rights, posters, pamphlets, t-shirts) door to door pamphleteering

Learners, Representative of MEC for Community Safety, lay counsellors, unemployed youth, ANC Youth League, residents, Molo Staff

15 700

Atlantis, Mamre, Witsands Pella, Darling, Malmesbury

Radio Atlantis talk shows on CSE and child abuse Extensive use of print and television media

IYM, Molo staff

15 shows

Atlantis

IYM, Molo staff, community members and service providers ANCF, youth organisations, IYM, lay community members

20

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands

Youth, CBOs, NGOs, Public & Private Sector Service providers, NGOs, lay counsellors

2500

Production of 30 000 posters, 4 000 p amphlets & distribution thereof

Addressing public events 4. Establish community child safety forum for the protection of children against sexual abuse & exploitation

Community consultation

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Task team consist ed of 16 memb ers

Atlantis Witsands, Pella, Mamre, Darling, Malmesbury, Vredendal, Vredenberg and outlying areas along the West Coast Atlantis Witsands, Pella, Mamre, Darling, Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Atlantis

Com m unity Child Sa fety Fo rum s esta b lished a nd func tio ning - Atla ntis, Vredenberg, Vredendal and Malmesbury Inc rea sed c o op era tio n a m o ng st servic e p rovid e rs, role-p la yers a nd stakeholders Increased coordination of services for children and joint activities Project Protea established SAPS intervention strategy for the rescue of victims of sexual exploitation

41


Molo Songololo

5. Education and training for the enhancement of knowledge, skills and support for services for children; and for the prevention and intervention against sexual exploitation of children

Establish community child safety forums Police child protection strategy

NGOs, Public Sector SAPS, CPF, NGOs, Dept of Social Services

Ed uc a tio n a nd tra ining o n C SEC a nd Child Tra ffic king inc lud ing an Educational Seminar G ood Pra c tic e Mod el for the Intervention & Prevention of CSEC

NGOs, CBOs, Public Sector

450+

Education & training workshops

Public sector, youth, NGOs and CBOs Members of Community Children, youth

35

Primary school learners

+ 1500

High school learners

1620

Mamre, Pella, Atlantis

IYM High school learners IYM members

60

IYM members

30

Mamre, Pella, Atlantis, Witsands Mamre, Pella, Atlantis, Witsands Atlantis, Mamre

Lay counsellors, Atlantis Principals Forum

30

Train lay counsellors Life-skills education for children and youth Child Rights & Responsibilities Workshops Child Sexual Exploitation Prevention Workshops Young Wo me n s March Youth educational outing Participation in regional & national youth forums Coordinating Counselling service at schools

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Ong oing a w a reness of c hild ren s p lig ht Increased cooperation between organisations

22 60

60

Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Witsands and along West Coast Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Credenda, Greenburg, Amesbury, Gaansekraal, Graafwater, Koekenaap, Saldanha Bay Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Atlantis Atlantis, Mamre, Pella, Witsands, Mamre, Pella, Atlantis Mamre, Pella, Atlantis, Witsands

La y c ounsellors tra ined , d e p loyed a nd p rovid ing c ounselling , sup p ort a nd assistance to children in need and referral protocols. Polic e sensitized a nd ha ve inc re a sed know led g e a b o ut c hild sexua l exp loita tio n, leg a l fra me w ork, c a se ha nd ling , a nd vic tim sup p ort a nd refe rra l protocols. Se rvic e p rovid e rs imp roved und ersta nd ing a b out c hild se xua l exp loita tion, how to detect, respond, and intervene and referral protocols. Atla ntis It s Your Move c ha p ter esta b lished p roa c tive young p eop le combating child sexual exploitation Understanding: CSE, child trafficking, law, how to identify victims, where to refer victims to; Improved: crime detection, case handling, victim support services at court, organisational efficiency and effectiveness, Formalizing of networking structures in identified communities Increased awareness amongst children and positive behavioural change reported rights and responsibilities of children promoted at schools

Atlantis, Mamre, Witsands, Pella

42


Molo Songololo 6. Identify children at risk & provide exit & recovery support for children who experienced sexual exploitation

Field visits to places known for child sexual exploitation

Children, youth, NGOs, lay counsellors, general public, SAPS, CPF, service providers Children, youth

Approx . 70

Morning Star, Atlantis, Van Schoorsdrif, Old Darling

49

Project manager, youth workers Children, Molo Staff

10

Atlantis, Witsands, Saldanha Bay, Mamre,Vredenbu rg Atlantis

Id entify a nd m a ke c onta c t w ith c hild ren a t risk a nd sexua lly exploited

Project team

16

Direct assistance and support including counselling, shelter, healing and life skills workshops, camps, medical care

Lay counsellors, volunteers, Dept of Social Services, NGOs, public & private sector

16

Girls at Risk Camp

Home visits

Case study

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

16

Made contact with children at risk and victims of sexual exploitation Hosted life-skills and motivational camp for 49 girls at risk Direc t inte rvention in the lives of 16 g irls a nd young w o me n for the exp ress a im to exit, support and aid recovery for those at risk and sexually exploited children Attitudinal change toward: self, others, future; Beha vioura l c ha ng e : e nd ing sub sta nc e a b use , loving self, c a ring , a ng er ma na g em ent, sp ea king a b o ut tra um a , a p p lying c op ying m ec ha nism s, seeking new opportunities Ca se stud y p a rtic ip a nts: p la c ed in sa fer a c c o m m od a tion; De p t. of Soc ia l Se rvic e s w orking tog ether w ith the p rojec t; rec eived m ed ic a l c a re, c o unse lling , motivation and trust was established Children exited sexual exploitation

Atlantis, Vredenburg, Saldanha Bay

43


Molo Songololo

5.10 Challenges To g a in a c c ess to c hild ren w ho a re sexua lly exp loited esp e c ia lly w ithin the Atla ntis community, without undermining existing initiatives. To get families to protect their children from exploiters To get families to support their children through the recovery process To create interventions in the demand factors To m a inta in c o nfid entia lity o f c hild , resp ec t their p riva c y, a nd ta ke leg a l im p lic a tio ns into account Hig h inc id e nc e o f a b use , ne g lec t, d o mestic vio lenc e , p o verty, unem p lo ym ent, sc ho o l drop-o ut, teen p reg na nc ie s a nd sexua l violenc e m a ke teena g e g irls vulnera b le to sexual exploitation. Negative attitudes, lack of co-operation and working together amongst individuals and groups. Strong personalities, attitudes and varied priorities. Denia l o f the p ro b le m o f CSEC b y c e rta in ind ivid ua ls a nd a ttem p ts to p revent a c c ess to schools and other forums. A co-ordinated strategic response for the prevention of CSE and the rescue, healing and recovery of sexually exploited children. Mobilising the Atlantis community and service providers against the sexual exploitation of children Ha rnessing the c o m m unity a nd servic e p ro vid e rs energ ies to resc ue sexua lly exp lo ited children and offer the necessary recovery and support services Limited resources, competencies, capacities and expertise within organisations and community groups. Finding a way to work effectively together with the Social Services and Poverty Alleviation Atlantis District office given the tremendous demands on their exceptionally limited human resources. Providing and facilitating for significant alternative, support, care and protection for children, youth and their parents. Initial lack of psychological support services in community Limited counselling, therapy and support services for children, parents, etc. Accessing much needed and under resourced state psychiatric services for rescued children Accessing state run substance abuse residential rehabilitation programmes, which have very long waiting lists. Finding appropriate accommodation for children exiting sexual exploitation there are no facilities dedicated to assist in the healing and recovery of these children. Initially, the ACNF experienced difficulty in establishing a common vision. Working closely with the SAPS and CPF to rescue sexually exploited children.

Operational To m a inta in the p ro jec t fo c us a nd b a la nc e b etw een p reventio n a nd a w a reness raising activities and direct intervention in the lives of sexually exploited children. Unrea listic tim e fra m e o f the p ro jec t, it w a s very a m b itio us. A p ro jec t o f this na ture needs at least a five year project life. Inability to anticipate possible stumbling blocks Find ing a suita b le p ro jec t m a na g er a nd field w orke r w ith the releva nt skills, a nd knowledge in the targeted community. Initia lly, la c k o f a n o p era tio na l b a se in the c o m m unity a nd the d ista nc e b etw een Cape Town and Atlantis. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

44


Molo Songololo

Sec urity o f p ro jec t sta ff c o nc erning p im p s, g a ng s a nd o thers invo lved in the prostitution of children. Rec e iving a w id e ra ng e o f c a se s a t the p ro jec t o ffic e e.g. sexua l a b use , d rug a b use , rape, murder, delinquency, behavioural and learning problems, etc. The absence of an exit strategy for the project. Schools counselling service Debriefing, training, support and management of the lay counsellors Appropriate selection of trainees for counselling course Lack of accreditation of counsellor training programmes Attendance by volunteer lay counsellors at meetings Language difficulties amongst Afrikaans/ English speaking teachers and Xhosa speaking learners Volunteer lay counsellors having to travel between the different schools Future coordination of the counselling service

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

45


Molo Songololo

6. Case study 6.1 The motivation The p rojec t used a num b er of stra teg ies to a d d re ss the p reventio n a nd interventio n o f child sexua l exp lo ita tio n. The p revio us sec tio n o utlined the e xtensive w o rk d o ne to c o nd uc t the situa tio na l a na lysis, c re a te a w a reness in the c o m m unity a nd w ithin the p ub lic sec tor fo r the p reventio n a nd interventio n o f c hild sexua l exp loita tio n, b uild capacity w ithin the c o m m unity thro ug h ed uc a tio n a nd tra ining a nd p ro vid e exit a nd recovery support for victims of sexual exploitation. This section will concentrate on the exit a nd re c o very w o rk w here the p ilot p ro jec t exp lo re d m o re sp e c ific a nd foc used stra teg ies for exit and recovery support with a contained group of victims and young people at risk. Firstly, w e w a nted to d evelo p a m o d el fo r exiting c hild ren fro m sexua l exp lo ita tio n. We re a lized tha t a s ne c e ssa ry a s the rese a rc h, field w o rk, a w a reness ra ising a nd tra ining w a s the w o rk w o uld lo o se its m e a ning w itho ut a ny sig nific a nt interventio n in the lives o f the c hild ren b eing sexua lly exp lo ited . Sec o nd ly, it is o ur b elief tha t c hild ren b elo ng in their c o m m unities a nd sho uld b e c a red fo r b y the c o m m unity. We elec ted to exp lore the usefulness o f w o rking w ith sexua lly exp lo ited c hild re n w ithin the c o m m unity d ra w ing o n c o m m unity a nd p eer sup p ort for a ho listic interventio n p ro g ra m m e. We w a nted to see if this kind o f intervention p ro d uc e d d ifferent results to a n institutiona lized a p p ro a c h w here p eo p le o ften run a w a y fro m the institutio n. Thro ug h the p ro g ra m m e , they w o uld no t b e c o nfined a nd c o uld c o m e a nd g o a s they c ho se to , a ltho ug h w e w o uld a sk them to c o m m it to the c a se stud y fo r fo ur m o nths. We p la nne d to w o rk intensely w ith the p a rtic ip a nts o n b o th a g roup a nd a n ind ivid ua l b a sis, to a d d ress im m e d ia te need s a nd to fa c ilita te fo r events tha t w o uld inc re a se their self im a g e, self esteem a nd self c o nfid enc e , as the starting point for a healing and recovery process. The p ilo t thro ug h its field w o rk, a w a reness ra ising a nd p revention w o rk ha d c o m e into c o nta c t w ith a num b er o f sexua lly exp lo ited g irls a nd g irls a t risk o f sexua l e xp lo ita tio n. As a d ire c t interventio n to fa c ilita te fo r c hild re n to exit sexua lly exp lo ita tive situa tions a nd to p revent tho se a t risk b eing exp lo ited a n a w a rene ss ra ising a nd life-skills d evelo p m ent c a m p w a s o rg a nise d . The Girls a t Risk Aw a reness Ra ising a nd Life-Skills Develo p m e nt Camp w a s a ttend ed b y 49 g irls from Atla ntis, Ma m re , Pella a nd Witsa nd s. Sub se q uent to the camp, follow-up work was done with a few participants however, limited contact was made and no commitments undertaken.

6.2 Main goal Develop and implement an exit and recovery strategy

6.3 Specific objectives of the case study To exit children from sexual exploitation To provide assistance and support in their healing and recovery To put in place a sustainable strategy based on the needs of sexually exploited children

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

46


Molo Songololo

6.4 Initial case study implementation plan Date

Strategy

Target

Activity

Outcomes

Indicator

Dec 2004

Develop Exit & Recovery strategy Exit and Recovery

Project Manager and Staff Karin Koen Children in CSE and those at risk

Planning meeting

Strategic plan in place

Wrap-up plan available

Identify children in CSE Develop profile and exit strategy Facilitate exit and recovery support Place in shelters where necessary

Children rescued form CSE placed in shelters Recovery support in place

Names and profile available Shelters

10th Jan This work will be ongoing till end march

Exit and Recovery Support

Children in prostitution

Follow up on existing cases Further develop profile and exit strategy Facilitate exit and recovery support Place in shelters where necessary

Placed in alternative care if needed Recovery support in place

Profiles and recovery plans available Details of placement

March 2005

Write-up of Report

Staff

Report completed and written up

Report available

March June 2005

Continuatio n of exit and recovery

Staff

Analyse and write evaluation and sustainability plan of all aspects except exit and recovery Develop programmes, possibly run life skills workshop for those at risk. Continue counselling and referral. Set up strategies to deal with drug use/abuse

Reports of processes

Reports available

June 2005

Evaluation of Exit and Recovery

Staff

Interviews with girls, and other stakeholders

Report completed and written up

Report available

6th Dec onwards

6.5 Overview of case study participants We identified the case study method as the most appropriate way of creating sustainable stra teg ies fo r the c o ntinua tio n o f the p ro jec t. The intentio n w a s to fo c us o n tw enty c hild ren a nd yo uth sp e c ific a lly id entifie d fo r this c a se stud y. These c hild re n a nd yo uth w ere d ra w n fro m tho se the p ilo t ha d a lre a d y ha d c o nta c t w ith a nd fit into o ne o f the following categories, namely: 3 who has exited (one had been assisted by the project) 7 in prostitution 10 who are highly at risk The participants were identified through the following sources: Children that have been sexually exploited and have received support from the office (rape, indecent assault and physical abuse) Young p eo p le tha t a re exiting fro m p ro stitutio n a nd ha ve re q uested sup p o rt a nd assistance Children who attended the Girls at Risk Camp Children identified as children at risk through our contacts at the schools Contact made through field visits at Van Schoorsdrift and Morningstar Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

47


Molo Songololo

Le a rners tha t p a rtic ip a ted in the sexua l exp lo ita tio n w o rksho p s a t the sec o nd a ry schools Young people pointed out by older sex workers Young people identified by the Molo counsellors Young people referred to us by organisations and members of the community

6.6 Profile of case study participants The ta b le b elo w lists the o rig ina l 20 c hild re n a nd yo ung p eo p le id entifie d fo r the c a se stud y a nd ind ic a tes w hic h c a teg o ry the y fit into , a g e, sc ho ol a ttend a nc e , w hether they ha ve a g re ed to p a rtic ip a te in the c a se stud y o r no t a nd w ha t the na ture o f tha t participation was.

Table 1: Participants in case study No. 1

Name Person A

Age 17

School Dropped out

Participation in case study Agreed; fully participated

18 14

Dropped out Grade 8

Person D

Category Exited sexual exploitation High risk Exited sexual exploitation High risk

2 3

Person B Person C

5 6

Person E Person F

High risk High risk

20 17

Dropped out Grade 10

7

Person H

High risk

16

Grade 11

8 9 10

Person I Person J Person K

High risk High risk High risk

16 16 18

Grade 10 Dropped out Grade 12

11

Person L

Sexually exploited

15

Grade 9

12 13 14

Person M Person N Person O

Sexually exploited Sexually exploited Sexually exploited

17 23 16

Dropped out Dropped out Dropped out

15 16

Person P Person Q

18 22

Dropped out Working

17 18 19 20

Person R Person S Person T Person U

Sexually exploited Exited sexual exploitation High risk High risk

17 17

Dropped out Dropped out

Sexually exploited

16

Dropped out

Agreed; fully participated Agreed; participated in Saldanha/Vredenburg Agreed but boyfriend beat her for talking to us Agreed; fully participated Agreed; initial reluctance then full participation Agreed; initial full participation, relocated out of community to safe place due to threats on her life by gang leader Agreed; fully participated Agreed; fully participated Agreed but always reluctant, limited to no participation Agreed; participated in Saldanha/Vredenburg Agreed; participated never fully Agreed; fully participated Agreed; initial struggle eventually full participation Agreed; fully participated Initially agreed, family does not want her to engage with girls in prostitution. Left Atlantis Left to Upington SA is SM Unable to locate her

4

15

After id entifying the 20, the c o unsello rs c o nsulted w ith e a c h g irl ind ivid ua lly to invite them to a p resenta tio n w here the Ca se Stud y w o uld b e intro d uc ed . We fo und tha t 3 g irls ha d left Atla ntis a nd a nother g a ve the o ffic e 2 na m es a nd w e thus ha d a d up lic a tio n o f 1 person in effect we had identified 19 girls at the outset. 16 p eo p le w ere invite d to the w o rksho p w here the org a nisa tio n a nd p ro jec t tea m w a s introduced and it was outlined to the group what the intention of the case study was.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

48


Molo Songololo

Pa rtic ip a nts w ere invited to p a rtic ip a te in the c a se stud y a nd ind ivid ua l fo llo w -up consultations were held with each one where they clarified any concerns and committed themselves to participate in the Case Study. Of the 16 o nly 12 p a rtic ip a nts p a rtic ip a ted until the c o nc lusion o f the c a se stud y fo ur months later. The fa m ily o f 1 g irl, w ho ha d a g reed to p a rtic ip a te in the c a se stud y, w a s unha ppy with her decision. The b o yfrie nd o f o ne o f the p a rtic ip a nts b e a t her ea c h tim e w e trie d to m e et her a nd she asked us not to seek her out. One o f the p a rtic ip a nts m o ved o ut o f the c o m m unity fo r her o w n sa fety, she w a s being threatened by gangsters. Ano ther p a rtic ip a nt ha d b een a t risk a nd w a s suc c essfully a ssisted b y the p ro jec t, b e fo re the sta rt o f the c a se study; she m a d e p o sitive c ho ic es fo r herself a nd w a s ha p p y w ith the c ha ng es she d m a d e . She ind ic a ted tha t she d id not feel it nec essa ry to participate in the group as she had embraced the choices she made and is happy. History and experiences of participants It is im p orta nt to rec o g nize tha t mo st, b ut no t a ll, c hild ren w ho a re sexua lly exp lo ited a re fro m p o verty stric ken ho m es a nd c o m m unities. The re is no d istinc t p ro file of sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren in So uth Afric a . Wha t is evid ent is the ro le tha t d rug a b use p la ys in d ra w ing c hild ren into sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd ke ep ing them there , a s illustra ted in Ap p end ix 4. This se c tio n a ttem p ts to o ffer initia l insig hts into a c o m p lex p ro b le m b y providing some picture of the significant factors that affected the case study participants. This is by no means definitive given the small sample in the case study. The info rm a tio n b elo w is p re d o m ina ntly a reflec tion o f w ha t p a rtic ip a nts ha ve sha red . There are participants who have not fully acknowledged their circumstances and in these insta nc es the o b serva tio ns o f the sta ff ha ve b een d ra w n up o n. Fo r e xa m p le , so m e p a rtic ip a nts o nly p erc eive sexua l exp lo ita tio n a s ha p p ening in the stereo typ ic a l w a y, w hen o ne is sta nd ing o n the street. They m a y them selves ha ve a p riva te a rra ng e m e nt with an exploiter or be exploited by working men in the community who offer alcohol and d rug s in exc ha ng e fo r sex. Whe re unknown is ind ic a ted this is b e c a use w e d o not kno w w hether o r no t this fa c to r w a s p re sent in the p a rtic ip a nt s life . Substance abuse in home Sa le of sub sta nc es from home

3

Abuse by one parent

8

No sub sta nc e a b use in home Unknown

6 2

This inc lud e s a b use b y p a rents o r sib ling s. In so m e c a se s the rela tive is no w so b er a nd on the ro a d to rec o very, b ut w e ha ve still rec o rd ed this a s releva nt d a ta b e c a use of the impact of the substance abuse on the participant/s. 6 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n w e re exp o se d to sub sta nc e a b use in the ho m e ; the rem a ining 2 p a rtic ip a nts b a c kg ro und in this reg a rd is unkno w n.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

49


Molo Songololo

Exposure to domestic violence, verbal and emotional abuse and gender based violence Not part of daily living

4

domestic violence

5

verb a l a nd em otiona l abuse gender based violence

5

Unknown

2

7

Do m estic vio lenc e inc lud es vio lenc e b y fa ther to w a rd mo ther a nd m o ther / fa ther / caregiver toward children. Gend er b a sed vio lenc e inc lud es p a rtic ip a nts exp erienc es o f p hysic a l a b use b y ro m a ntic partners and by exploiters. 6 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n w e re exp o se d to d o m estic vio lenc e , verb a l a nd e m o tio na l a b use a nd g end er b a sed vio lenc e ; the rem a ining 2 p a rtic ip a nts b a c kg ro und in this reg a rd is unknown. At le a st o ne p a rtic ip a nt w a s exp o se d to sexua l exp lo ita tio n w ithin the ho m e w here a parent is actively involved in facilitating this exploitation. Child sexual abuse Raped or sexually abused

8

Incest

3

Unknown

7

This refle c ts sexua l a b use w hic h o c c urre d before the p a rtic ip a nts exp erienc ed a ny fo rm of sexual exploitation. 5 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n w e re sexua lly a b use d a t a n ea rlier sta g e ; the rem a ining 3 p a rtic ip a nts b a c kg ro und in this reg a rd is unkno w n. Current accommodation Who they live with Extend ed fa m ily (g ra nd m others, a unt o r unc le , parent plus extended family) Both Parents Mother Lived with other people Unknown Total

No. of participants 6 5 2 2 1 16

5 of the 16 participants have lived in at least 3 different places over the past 4 months 6 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tion lived w ith their p a rents a t the time of the exploitation or part thereof and two lived with other people. Relationship with father Difficult Father dead Absent Good Complete break down Total

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

6 3 5 1 1 16

50


Molo Songololo

2 of the participants are orphans who have been living with relatives. 5 of the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n g rew up w itho ut their fa thers whilst the remaining 3 have difficult relationships with their fathers. Influenced by gangs Influenced by gangs Not influenced by gangs Unknown Total

6 9 1 16

Tho se p a rtic ip a nts w ho w ere influenc ed b y g a ng s a ll rem a ine d o n the p erip hery a nd d id not b ec o m e g a ng m e m b ers. One p a rtic ip a nt w a s a b o ut to b e initia ted into a g a ng w hen the p ro jec t intervened a nd a ssisted her in no t jo ining the g a ng . Tw o ha ve b een sexua lly exp lo ited b y g a ng s. Ano ther p a rtic ip a nt w a s b e ing intim id a ted a nd g iven d rug s by a gang when the situation was uncovered by the SAPS. 3 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc e d sexua l exp lo ita tio n w ere a t so m e sta g e influenc ed b y g a ng s; the rem a ining 5 w ere no t a ltho ug h o ne w a s p ursue d b y a g a ng w ho w a nted to p im p her, w ith the a ssista nc e o f a n ind e p end e nt p im p she w a s a b le to escape the gang. Teenage parents Have children Do not have children Total

3 13 16

2 o f the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n ha ve c hild re n, b oth fro m boyfriends. Environmenta l fa ctors influencing ca se study pa rticipa nts who experienced sexua l exploitation (past or present) Environmental Factor exposed to substance abuse in the home exposed to domestic violence, verbal and emotional abuse and gender based violence

Yes 6

Unknown 2

Total 8

Percentage Yes 75

6

2

8

75

sexua lly a b use d a t a n ea rlier stage lived with their parents at the time of the exploitation or part thereof

5

3

8

62.5

6

2

8

75

grew up without their fathers

5

3

8

62.5

influenced by gangs have children

3 2

5 6

8 8

37.5 25

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

No

51


Molo Songololo

6.7 Case study strategies The p ro jec t und erstoo d its w o rk w ith vulnera b le a nd exp lo ited c hild ren to b e a b o ut hea ling a nd c ha ng e a nd sp ec ific a lly w ith the c a se stud y fo c used o n p rovid ing p a rtic ip a nts w ith o p p o rtunities fo r inner hea ling to enha nc e their o vera ll sta te o f w ell b e ing b efo re fo c using o n skills d evelo p me nt a nd e m p lo ym ent a s the la tter d ep end s on their self im a g e , self esteem , self c o nfid enc e a nd sense o f self. In a d d ition, integ rity a nd ethical practices were deemed to be of utmost importance. A num b er o f intera c tive stra teg ie s ha ve b een initia ted fo r the im p lem enta tio n a nd m a na g e m ent o f the c a se stud y. Outlined b elo w a re the o vera rc hing stra teg ie s a p p lied in conducting the case study and the specific intervention strategies used: 1. The small things count Provide a warm, caring, relaxed and friendly atmosphere that is non-judgemental and accepting of the person Emphasise truth, openness and honesty in all communications Always encouraging, motivating and giving positive feedback to participants Excursions served to expose participants to new places, concepts and activities which could feed into their process of self discovery and inner healing. They were also an opportunity for staff and participants to get to know and bond with each other in a less formal and structured way. Giving food, clothing, toiletries or feminine hygiene products as needed, and with sensitivity Always being aware of what one says and does as participants see staff as role models 2. Working from where they are at Be proactive and stay alert making ongoing assessments of what is being done and if this is congruent with the needs of the children at the time. Work with the participants from the basis of what the person needs Always offering them choices no forced participation Reg ula rly a ssesse d w ha t issues p a rtic ip a nts w ere d e a ling w ith a nd a d justed the o neon-one and group programme appropriately, to keep it relevant Enc o ura g e the g ro up to sup p o rt ea c h o ther a nd in this w a y they lea rn tha t they a re not alone At le a st o ne c o unse llo r w a s a lw a ys a va ila b le a t g ro up a c tivities, o uting s a nd esp ec ia lly w o rksho p s to a ssist in the event tha t o ne p a rtic ip a nt m a y b rea kd o w n a nd need support Nurture the special talents of each child 3. Working within the community To inc lud e w o rk w ith p a rents / c a reg ivers, te a c hers a nd fa m ilies, esp ec ia lly w here support from them was required, although this was not always possible To draw in community organisations and service providers as partners in case study Ca reful sc reening o f a ll fa c ilita to rs, ind ivid ua ls a nd o rg a nisa tio ns, b e fo re exp o sing the g ro up to them ; p a ying even g rea ter a ttentio n to a ll the m en they met thro ug h the case study Tw o o f the la y c o unsello rs w ere em p lo yed a s full tim e c o unsello rs to w o rk w ith the participants and a further three lay counsellors assisted on a voluntary basis as needed

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

52


Molo Songololo

Intervention strategies used in the case study 1. Counselling sessions Aims: To provide a safe space for participants to talk about their trauma To help participants regain control of their lives and find a way forward To conduct Needs Assessments with participants to establish what their needs are To develop an Individual Development Plan jointly with participants to Achievements: The participants received one to one counselling. Pa rtic ip a nts c o nfid e d in c o unsellors a nd e xp ressed their c o nc e rns, to ld their stories, cried and focused on themselves. Participants felt motivated, supported and encouraged by counsellors. A needs assessment questionnaire was drafted and administered to participants to determine their individual needs. The results o f the Need s Asse ssm ent c o m b ined w ith our o b serva tio ns a nd the feed b a c k fro m servic e p ro vid ers ena b led us to w o rk w ith the p a rtic ip a nt to p ut in p la c e a n Ind ivid ua l Develo p m ent Pla n. (g iven the lim ited tim e w e ha d w ith the participants this process is still underway at the time of writing this report)

2. House visits and family meetings Aims: To communicate with the participants as required. To g a in insig ht into p a rtic ip a nts living c o nd itio ns. To meet with caregivers and parents of participants to inform them of the work we are doing, how the family can offer support and also offer them an opportunity to communicate with each other in a safe environment. Achievements: House visits gave staff a better picture of living conditions of participants. Families encouraged their children to visit the office, keep appointments and participate in activities. Some participants were better understood by relatives and received more support from them.

3. Grooming and personal care workshops Aims: To teach participants basic grooming and personal care Achievements Participants learnt basic grooming and personal care Participants learnt to care for others in a fun way. Participants gained skills which they can use to generate an income. The workshops were run by a beauty therapist.

4. Alternative healing Aims: To support the healing process To im p ro ve p a rtic ip a nts und ersta nd ing o f them selves

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

53


Molo Songololo

Achievements: Participants received information about how they can improve their wellbeing. Participants experienced stress relief. An Alternative Healer specialising in reflexology, Indian massage and pressure points, provided one to one and group sessions with 6 of the participants.

5. Tools for healing programme Aims: To provide participants with knowledge, insights, experiences and skills which would enhance their healing process. To bring participants together as a group so that they do not feel alone. Achievements: Participants shared their experiences with each other. Participants learnt more about themselves. Participants grew in confidence, have a more positive self image and greater self esteem. Pa rtic ip a nts attitudes and behaviours started to change. Pa rtic ip a nts views on the world and their future adjusted. Participants supported and encouraged each other. Participants gained various coping skills through the workshops Participants gained greater insight and knowledge into some of the challenges facing them. Participants learned to let go of past traumas and to open up to more positive experiences. Participants gained knowledge of their social history and humanity. This programme comprised Weekly Workshops, the Camp and Excursions. 5.1 Weekly workshops topics Identity, Decision Making, Substance Abuse, Getting to know each other, group consultations and debriefing after excursions. 5.2 Camp A Camp was organized for the participants which focused on Self Development and Team Building through Environmental education. The camp was facilitated jointly by Molo Songololo and the Zeekoeivlei Environmental Education Programme. 5.3 Excursions Seven excursions were arranged for the group to: Molo Songololo Kenilworth office and Hout Bay beach Slave Lodge and Rhodes Memorial Baxter Theatre: Tall Horse Production Weekend Camp to Zeekoeivlei Environmental Education Programme. Baxter Theatre and District Six Museum: Community Day (Theme - Wishes and Dreams) Institute for Healing Memories weekend, twice Molo Songololo Youth Indaba on National Youth Day 5.6. Medical support Aims: To encourage the participants to take care of themselves and deal with medical conditions. To encourage participants to prioritise their health. To assist participants in getting necessary medical treatment. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

54


Molo Songololo

Achievements: Participants received counselling from medical and health practitioners as necessary. Participants received relevant examinations, tests and treatment to keep them in good health. Counsellors, where necessary, accompanied the participants on visits to the clinic for TB testing, STI or STD examinations, pregnancy tests etc. A local GP also agreed to provide medical assistance to the participants and as a start each one was taken for a full medical examination.

6. Skills development opportunities Aims To offer participants the opportunity to develop marketable skills. Achievements Computer Course 1 participant successfully completed the computer course and able apply the skills and knowledge learnt.

Women of the World festival Participant has received the opportunity to develop her writing skills beyond the competition and be part of a creative writing circle. Participant has grown in confidence. Participant has made friends with other different young people and is discovering a new world. Basic office administration trainee Participant exited from sexual exploitation. Participant grown in confidence. Participant is able to take responsibility for dependents as a result of having a feeling of greater self control. Participant has learnt basic secretarial skills and administrative skills. Participants conducts herself in a professional manner. Participants takes care in her personal appearance and grooming.

6.1 Basic office administration trainee The p ro jec t selec ted o ne o f the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts to w o rk in the o ffic e a s a tra ine e to d evelo p their m a rketa b le skills a nd to further a ssist in their exit a nd rec o very p ro c e ss. The selec ted c a nd id a te w a s b eing sexua lly exp lo ited a nd ha d sho w n her w illing ness to exit from it. In a d d itio n, she d isp la ye d c o m m itm ent to the c a se stud y, a hig h level o f resp o nsib ility, fo c us a nd intellig e nc e. She ha s e m b ra c ed the o p p o rtunity fully a nd ha s g ro w n tremend o usly p erso na lly a nd p ro fessio na lly. She ha s g a ine d va lua b le w o rk exp erienc e inc lud ing d evelo p m ent o f a d m inistra tive a nd sec re ta ria l skills, kno w le d g e o f b usiness etiq uette a nd b enefits fro m the sup p o rt o f the p ro jec t tea m a s she w o rks o n her recovery. The project provides the trainee with a stipend.

6.2 Computer course Fo ur o f the p a rtic ip a nts a ttend ed a b a sic c o m p uter litera c y c o urse run b y the Ha rtebees Multi-Purpose Community Centre. To date, one has successfully completed the course.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

55


Molo Songololo

6.3 Women of the world festival The festiva l held a Vo ic e o f the Girl Child Writing Co m p etitio n. One o f the p a rtic ip a nts entered the competition and will now be participating in the proceedings of the day on 9 August 2005 at the Baxter Theatre.

7. Other 7.1 Thanks Giving Service Aims To acknowledge and affirm the transformation of participants individually and as a group. To p ro vid e p a rtic ip a nts fa m ilies w ith the opportunity to express their support for their children. Achievements Participants themselves shared in the preparation for the service. Participants participated in the service through songs and speeches.

7.2 Christelike Afhanklikheids Bediening (CAB) Aims To inform participants of the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse. To offer support to participants as they tried to stop taking drugs and alcohol. To offer participants an opportunity to meet young people who do not abuse drugs and alcohol. Achievements Three participants attended CAB activities. Participants received encouragement, support and counselling from CAB. The CAB, is an organisation dealing with drug and alcohol abuse and recovery.

6.8 Ca se Study Overview of Activities Main Objective: Develop and implement an exit and recovery strategy Objective 2: To provide assistance and support in their healing and recovery The table below reflects the total number of and nature of contacts with the case study group for the months of March through to June Activity

March

April

May

June

General contacts

22

34

93

55

No of Home visits

35

27

29

19

No of counselling sessions

19

15

26

23

No of visits to office excluding counselling

14

21

50

58

Family meetings

7

Visits to service providers

3

Needs Assessment Completed

1

IDP complete Group Sessions in Vredenburg / Saldanha No. of girls Visited Alternative healer

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

1

5 8

10

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

56


Molo Songololo

Attendance of Tools for Healing Activities Activity

No. of Participants

Participation in Introductory meeting 5 March

8

Participation at mtg 18 March

4

Participation Business mtg 4 April

9

Participation Coffee Shop TFH 6 April

4

Participation 13 April Identity TFH

6

Participation 20 Apr TFH Business mtg.

7

Institute for Healing of Memories Weekend Workshop 22 24 April 25 April Therapy Colyn

4 2

Participation 27 April TFH Slave Lodge

7

Participation 2 May Outing to Baxter Theatre

9

Participation 4 May Decision Making TFH

8

Participation 11 May CAB 14 May Therapy Colyn

9 2

Substance Abuse TFH

Participation 18 May Camp Prep TFH

10

Participation 20-22 May camp Zeekoeivlei

11

Participation 25 May Camp feedback & future plans TFH

8

Participation 28 May Hands on District Six Museum: Community Day Wishes & Dreams; Baxter Theatre 4 June IYM Blitz 8 June Therapy Colyn 8 June Workshop

6 5 3 2

Grooming and Personal Care Workshop

6

Institute for Healing of Memories Weekend Workshop 10 12 June

5

15 June workshop in coffee shop with girls. 16 June Youth day

7 5

18 June Thanks Giving Service Coffee Shop

6

Outcomes Able to forgive the first person to pimp me Stopped hating myself - Starting to love me Shift from aggression to forgiveness Learning to cope better with daily challenges Learning to accept complicated and challenging parents Letting go of past traumas Being able to speak Shift to more confident language, posture and body language Making attempt at stable accommodation Starting to dream, seeing a different future, exploring alternatives Positive attitude toward self and the world. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

57


Molo Songololo

Better relationship with parents Building new friendships Moved to a safer environment or back home (where this was safer option) Increasing self confidence Efforts to reduce intake of drugs and alcohol, in some cases successfully Pa rents sta rted to rem ind p a rtic ip a nts o f a p p o intm ents w ith p ro je c t a nd enc o ura g e d their participation Reviewing relationships with abusive partner Communicating with people Pa rtic ip a nts ha ve inc re a sed a w a reness a nd und ersta nd ing o f: self, o w n b eha viour patterns, change, healing, substance abuse, new ways to deal with stress Using more positive vocabulary Objective 3: To put in place a sustainable strategy based on the needs of sexually exploited children Developed sustainability plan Held discussions with some potential stakeholders Outcomes Still in implementation process Ap p ro a c hed Child re n s ho m es some not suitable and have long waiting lists Ap p ro a c hed ho m es fo r a b used w o men fo r o ld er p a rtic ip a nts unsuc c essful a ltho ug h they p ro vid ed inform a tio n o n a va ila b le skills d evelop m ent p ro g ra m m es; still in discussion with others In idea phase with Development Action Group re: residential recovery centre Status in relation to sexual exploitation At start of case study Sexually exploited High risk Exited sexual exploitation Not at risk Total

5 8 3 0 16

At end of case study 3 5 5 3 16

2 p a rtic ip a nts ha ve exited sexua l exp loita tion w ith the a ssista nc e of the c a se study. 1 p a rtic ip a nt w a s resc ued a nd exited sexua l exp loita tion b y the p ro jec t p rior to the case study. 1 p a rtic ip a nt id entified a s a t risk w a s resc ued b y the SAPS from a situa tio n w hic h had the potential to lead to her being sexually exploited. Status in relation to substance abuse At start of case study Substance Abuse Rec re a tiona l use of substances Stop p ed use / a b use of substances Reduced intake No use of substances Unknown Total

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

9 3

At end of case study 4 2 4

1 3 16

1 1 4 16

58


Molo Songololo

The influenc e o f g a ng s on the Ca se Stud y p a rtic ip a nts w a s no t stro ng b ut this is not surprising since the project did not access children being sexually exploited by gangs. We a re ho w ever, a w a re tha t the g a ng s c o ntro l m a ny sheb eens a nd p im p s w ho m a nip ula te and coerce young children into sexual exploitation.

6.9 Challenges In providing support and assistance to the children: Build ing trust w ith the p a rtic ip a nts. In the c a se o f p a rtic ip a nts w ho ha d p rio r c o nta c t w ith the p ro jec t, a nd exp e c ta tio ns w ere ra ised a nd not m et, it w a s ne c essa ry to w o rk very hard to show them our commitment to assisting them. Locating those participants who are often moving from one place to the other. Ho use visits c a n b e unp re d ic ta b le , d ue to the living c o nd itio ns yo u c a nno t b e sure what to expect. La c k o f resourc es to a ssist p a rtic ip a nts fa m ilies w ho themselves a re vic tim s. In the absence of a multi-sectoral collaborative approach - finding any services dedicated to the needs of sexually exploited children. Finding safe and suitable accommodation for participants who need it. Upholding the statutory obligations of reporting the sexual abuse of a child when the child is either struggling to acknowledge the abuse or not willing to speak to the police for fear of the consequences. Lack of economic, family and community support systems. It is c le a r tha t the p syc ho lo g ic a l effe c ts o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n c o ntinue to live w ith the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts even thoug h they ha ve form a lly exited fro m sexua l exp lo ita tio n. At this p o int in the p ro jec t c yc le , it is the p syc ho lo g ic a l effe c ts o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n tha t p la c es these c hild ren a t g rea ter risk o f further sexua l exp lo ita tio n, o r to rem a in sc a rre d b y their exp erienc e , a nd thus una b le to reinteg ra te suc c essfully b a c k into so c iety. The y rep o rted tha t they still exp erienc e the fo llo w ing sym p tom s a s effec ts o f the sexua l exploitation experienced: Rec urring m e m o ries o f stressful inc id enc es fro m their p a st, w hether fro m their childhood sexual abuse experience, or from their experience of sexual exploitation; Dreams of stressful episodes from the past Fear that stressful episodes may re-occur Avoidance of thinking or feeling about past stress Tendency to use drugs as an antidote to coping with memories At times experiencing difficulty remembering stress from the past. Loss of interest in self, career, family Feeling distant and cut off from people Feeling numb, and unable to form trustful relationships Feel as if there is no real future Trouble falling or staying asleep Feeling irritable or having angry outbursts Difficulty in concentrating Feeling on guard and watchful at all times Feeling jumpy or easily startled Feeling d ra w n to d rug s, a nd in so m e c a ses c o ntinuing to rely o n a lc o ho l o r tik to cope.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

59


Molo Songololo

Interviews with the parents of case study participants yielded a similarly worrying picture. Parents displayed the following observations and feelings about their children: Ap a thy in som e c a ses a b out w ha t their d a ug hters w ere invo lved in. A stro ng c o nc ern w ith ec o no m ic surviva l tha t o ver rid es a c o nc ern a b out ho w their daughters were earning their money Co m p la ints a b o ut ha ving to c o p e w ith the c hild re n o f their d a ug hter s in their absence A lack of communication between parents and children Gra tefulness exp resse d a b o ut Mo lo s w o rk, b ut w ith a m a rke d sense o f d e ta c hm ent from the intention of the work In o ne c a se , a view w a s exp ressed : w ha t w o uld ha p p en to the fa m ily if tha t so urc e o f support was not there With tho se fa m ilies w ho w ere sup p o rtive o f the p ro g ra m me , a stro ng relia nc e on Molo s c o unsello rs w a s exp resse d to sup p o rt p a rents a nd fa m ily m e m b e rs a s they try to cope with the problem. Overa ll, a sense o f help lessness a nd ho p e lessness w hen it c a m e to d ea ling w ith the problem at a household level. Operational Limited office space Keeping participants motivated when they feel they have disappointed themselves by slipping back into self destructive behaviour patterns Keeping team motivated and optimistic when participants slip back into drug use and w hen exp o sed to the ha rsh re a lities o f p a rtic ip a nts lives Finding the right people to join the team within the targeted community Reassuring the participants as the case study concluded (Note: the organisation continues to work with participants) To meet the objectives in the limited time frame

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

60


Molo Songololo

7. Sustainability Plan The project has been a first for Molo Songololo and the Department of Social Services and Poverty Alleviation; ind eed , it ha s b een a first fo r So uth Afric a a nd the Atla ntis, Witsa nd s, Pella a nd Ma m re c o m m unities. As w ith a ll p io neering w o rk the o b sta c les a re no t a lw a ys a ntic ip a te d a nd the teething p rob le m s a re g re a ter tha n a ntic ip a ted . The p a rtners w ere ambitious having great expectations of delivery within 34 months. The project got off to a c ha lleng ing sta rt a s it sta rted to test a nd shift so m e p eo p le s rea lity. It to o k time , p a tienc e a nd a g re a t d e a l o f w o rk fo r the p ro jec t to b e c o m e m o re a c c ep ted w ithin the Atla ntis c o m m unity a nd the m ission o f the p ro jec t to b e rec o g nised a s im p o rta nt. Interna lly, Mo lo to o ha d its o w n c ha lleng es inc lud ing the need to a d a p t to a sa tellite o ffic e a nd sta ffing c ha ng es inc lud ing tha t o f the p ro jec t ma na g er. All these fa c to rs in c o m b ina tion ha d a neg a tive im p a c t o n the p a c e o f d elivery o f the p ro jec t. The effe c t thereo f is tha t the rec o very w o rk ha s o nly no w b een a b le to rea lly g et und erw a y. This w o rk need s to c o ntinue a s w e a re b e g inning to m a ke a n im p a c t o n the intend ed re c ip ients o f the project. The eva lua tio n find ing o n the susta ina b ility o f the p ro jec t is rela tively low , g iven the o ng o ing p reva iling c o m m unity a ttitud es, a nd the la c k o f c a p a c ity a nd sp ec ia list skills tha t exists c urre ntly w ith servic e p ro vid ers in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. It is the o p inio n o f the eva lua to r tha t the exc ellent found a tio n tha t Mo lo So ng o lo lo la id w ith the p ro jec t thus fa r w ill b e serio usly ero d ed if the Pro jec t w ere to w ithd ra w fro m Atla ntis a nd surround ing a rea s. In the c urrent c lim a te o f lo w into lera nc e a g a inst c hild se xua l a b use , it w o uld b e p o litic a lly a nd m ora lly irresp o nsib le fo r Molo So ng o lo lo no t to c o ntinue w ith the p ro jec t, albeit with a tighter focus that draws from current lessons learned. Pa rt o f Mo lo s a ttem p t s to e nsure p rojec t susta ina b ility inc lud ed tra ining le a rners in sc ho o ls a nd o n c a m p s, ind ivid ua l c o unselling sessio ns w ith sc ho o l b a sed c o unse llo rs, o utrea c h a nd field w o rk to id entify young w o m en a t risk o r invo lved in sexua l exp lo ita tio n, as well as ongoing public education workshops and awareness raising sessions. Ho w ever, it is c lea r fro m the eva lua tio n a nd a sse ssment of c urrent skills levels o f o rg a nisa tio ns in Atla ntis tha t they d o no t ha ve the c a p a c ity, skills o r reso urc e s to ta ke o n the sp ec ia list w o rk tha t Mo lo c urrently p erform s. In this reg a rd , the p ro jec t w o rk w ith the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts is o f p a rtic ula r c o nc ern. It is c lea r tha t neither So c ia l Servic es (Atla ntis) no r the Atla ntis Child re n s Netw o rk Fo rum ha ve the c a p a c ity to d e a l w ith the c a se stud y. The inc lina tio n a nd the a w a reness a re there , b ut insuffic ient skills, c o m b ine d w ith resourc e c o nstra ints m e a ns tha t they w ill fa ll throug h the c ra c ks, in the sa m e w a y tha t c hild re n a nd youth w ho a re no t p a rt o f the c a se stud y a re fa lling throug h the c ra c ks. When q uestio ned o n their w illing ness to ta ke up a sp e c ts o f Mo lo s w o rk, a ll o rg a nisa tio ns rep o rted tha t they reg a rd e d Mo lo a s the o nly skilled servic e p ro vid er in this fie ld , w ith the netw o rks a nd c re d ib ility, to ta ke forw a rd these issues. One o f the key ind ic a to rs o f o w nership w o uld ha ve b een if lo c a l o rg a nisa tions ha d exp resse d w illing ness to run w ith the issues w itho ut Molo . No ne interview ed w a s w illing or felt a b le to d o so . On o ne level this c a n b e interp reted a s a la c k o f o rg a nisa tio na l c o nfid enc e , b ut g iven the o rg a nisa tio na l a ssessm ent o f e xisting c a p a c ity, it is c le a r tha t there exists a w o rrying c o m p etenc y c ha lleng e a mo ng st servic e p ro vid ers a ro und tw o rela ted a re a s: skills a s w ell a s w illing ness to ta ke up the issue o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion. At a so c ieta l level, there rem a ins a n una c c e p ta b ly hig h level o f stig m a tiza tio n o n the to p ic . This stig m a tiza tio n exists unc o m fo rta b ly a lo ng sid e a fa ir d eg ree o f a w a reness o f p ull a nd p ush fa c to rs surrounding child sexual exploitation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

61


Molo Songololo

Challenges for sustainability There a re a num b er of challenges that still exist, and that will influence the sustainability of the work with the case study participants. These include: Beha vio ura l c ha ng e in the c o m m unity is slo w , a lthoug h there ha d b een enc o ura g ing improvements The c urrent d ep end enc e o f the p a rtic ip a nts in the c a se stud y o n Mo lo is w o rrying . This d e p end enc y is c o m p letely norm a l g iven the c urrent p ro jec t c yc le , b ut it is extrem ely d o ub tful tha t the c o m m itm ent o f the p a rtic ip a nts to a b sta in fro m c o m m erc ia l sexua l exploitation will continue beyond active Molo involvement The psychological healing needs of the participants are immense. Although they have p a rtic ip a ted in c o unselling w o rksho p s, these m erely served to op en up the b eg inning o f a d isc ussio n w ith them selves a nd o thers a b o ut their p a st (a nd in so m e c a ses, their present). The a p a thy o f so m e p a rents w a s extrem ely w o rrying . In this reg a rd , no stra teg y c a n o r sho uld b e d ivo rc ed fro m w o rking w ith the struc tura l rea so ns tha t c a uses this a p a thy from parents. In o nly a fe w c a ses w ere p a rtic ip a nts linke d up w ith tra ining o p p o rtunities-in this c a se , c o m p uter tra ining . Unless this typ e o f o p p o rtunity is enc o ura g e d a nd fa c ilita ted b y Molo , it is d o ub tful tha t the p a rtic ip a nts w ill turn their p syc ho lo g ic a l c o m m itm ent to change into a more concrete, tangible action. The p a rtic ip a nts a ll exp ressed a d esire to g et out o f sexua lly exp lo ita tive situa tion, b ut the fa c t tha t a num b er o f them still m a ke use o f re c re a tio na l d rug s m e a ns tha t a ny intervention w o uld ha ve to fo c us o n the rela tio nship b etw een inc re a se d vulnera b ility o f yo ung g irls o n d rug s a nd c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion. At the sa m e tim e , there a re a lso hig h rep o rted levels o f d rug a b use in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s tha t a lso inc re a ses the vulnerability of girls outside of the Molo case study.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

62


Molo Songololo

8. Evaluation The eva lua tio n o f the p ilo t p ro jec t w a s c o nd uc ted b y a n ind e p end ent eva lua to r w ho interview e d the va rio us ro le p la ye rs in c o m m unity o rg a nisa tio ns a nd p ub lic institutio ns a s w ell a s the c a se stud y p a rtic ip a nts. Further interna l eva lua tion a nd reflec tio n o n the c a se stud y w a s c o nd uc ted w ith the p ro jec t tea m . These find ing s ha ve b een b ro ug ht to g ether to c o m p le te this sec tio n o f the rep o rt. This sec tio n c o nsid ers the im p a c t o f d iffere nt a sp ec ts o f the p ro jec t, w here p o ssib le the im p a c t is reflec ted in term s of im p a c t o n the recipients and impact on the programme. Impact of partnerships on recipients Improved service delivery in the community Children arrested or picked up by the SAPS are treated with greater sensitivity Sexually exploited children are being rescued Easier access to psychosocial services by the community More effective counselling service at schools A more informed community Cases speedily solved through cooperation and networking Greater focus to coordinate effective support and services for children Enhanced and accelerated the healing process for case study participants Provided case study participants with life skills, coping techniques and mechanisms Case study participants begin to make new contacts in community with positive thinking youth Case study participants were safely transported at night Case study participants learnt to care for others Impact of partnerships on project The project was able to do and achieve more through the partnerships A more positive attitude towards Molo and the work on fighting child sexual exploitation Strong willingness to coordinate activities to combat child sexual exploitation Community networks were built More p eo p le c a m e to the offic e see king a ssista nc e w ith c hild ren w ho ha ve b een sexually abused, neglected and sexually exploited. Components of the project Impact of information gathering on recipients The im p a c t o f the rese a rc h o n the p rim a ry re c ip ients o f the p ro jec t, na m ely c hild ren b e ing sexua lly exp lo ited , w a s m a inly ind ire c t. The re se a rc h hig hlig hted the issue a nd b ro ug ht their p lig ht to the a ttentio n o f va rio us ro le p la yers in the c om m unity. The o rg a nisa tio n w a s a b le to use the rese a rc h a s a m o tiva ting fa c to r in its tra ining o f NGO s, the d ep a rtm ents o f justic e , so c ia l servic es, c o m m unity sa fety a nd o ther servic e p ro vid e rs. This ha s ha d a p o sitive effe c t o n ho w se xua lly exp lo ited c hild ren a re p e rc e ived a nd treated. The field w o rk ha d a m o re d ire c t im p a c t o n the sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren they w ere p ro vid e d w ith info rm a tio n, c o unselling , a ssisted w ith so c ia l g ra nts etc . a nd so m e eventually participated in the Case Study, which will be discussed in more detail below.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

63


Molo Songololo

Impact of information gathering on project The rese a rc h c o nfirm ed the inc id enc e o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis, a nd tha t this social phenomenon was largely unchecked. This18 stud y ha s c e rta inly he ra ld e d a very c lea r c ry fro m the youth, a nd p a rtic ula rly the vo ic e o f the g irl c hild o f Atla ntis. These vo ic es d ra w a ttentio n to the need fo r stra teg ic interventions, which target: Substance abuse by both parent and youth Sexual exploitation of young people Family breakdown and dysfunction Intense feelings of anger, mistrust and betrayal experienced by youth Ina d e q ua te servic e p ro visio n The rese a rc h re p o rt a nd its sub se q uent m ed ia c o vera g e c a used so m e Atla ntis o rg a nisa tio ns a nd re sid ents to c o nc lud e tha t the o rg a nisa tio n w ished to c a st the c o m m unity in a neg a tive lig ht. This p la c ed the o nus on Mo lo to p ro ve itself to the c o m m unity, to sho w tha t it is c o m m itted to the issue a nd to w o rking to g ether w ith the people of Atlantis to eradicate this scourge. Furtherm o re , the resea rc h o ffe red d irec tio n in d evelo p ing stra teg ic interventio ns in response to the cry of the youth. These p rinc ip les o f interventio n inc lud e 19: Ensuring tha t there is a p o litic a l c o m m itm ent to fa c ilita ting a nd sup p o rting sustainability in the intervention process Eng a g ing the c o m m unity in a p roc ess o f p a rtic ip a tio n a nd o w ne rship in d e a ling w ith the crises of the sexual exploitation of children Eng a g ing va rio us ro le-p la ye rs in a p ro c e ss tha t w ill ensure o ng o ing inter-sectoral collaboration Centra l to the suc c ess o f a ny c o m m unity d evelo p m e nt p roc ess is the id entific a tio n o f a d esig na ted d river/ c ha m p io n o f the p ro c e ss so m eo ne w ho se o nly p a ssio n is to see the implementation of that project There c a n b e no suc c essful interventio n if the ta rg ets o f the interventio n a re no t g iven the resp o nsib ility a nd o p p o rtunity fo r p a rtic ip a tio n in the p ro c ess. Pa rtic ip a tio n b y yo uth a nd c hild ren m ust b e m o re tha n a show o f to ke nism . These p rinc ip les a nd the rec o m m end a tio ns o f the rep o rt ha ve info rm ed the w o rk o f the project. The field w o rk p ro vid ed the p ro jec t w ith c o nta c t w ith c hild ren w ho w ere b e ing sexua lly exp lo ited o n the street. The initia l insig hts a nd info rm a tio n g a ined into the p ro b le m w a s used to lo b b y the SAPS a nd other o rg a nisa tio ns to w o rk w ith the p ilo t p ro jec t in developing a strategy to rescue children in sexually exploitative situations.

18 19

Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003) Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

64


Molo Songololo

Impact of community mobilisation and awareness and education on the recipients Peo p le visited the o ffic e fo r a ssista nc e a fter e a c h event. So m e tim es it w a s p a rents seeking either assistance with their children or social grants or any other related matter a nd a t o ther tim es c hild ren re p o rting tha t they ha d e xp erienc ed a b use a nd need e d help. The general public is aware of child sexual exploitation and trafficking Inc re a sed a w a rene ss o f c hild ren, yo uth, te a c he rs, p a rents, o rg a nisa tions a nd community at large of where to go to for help and support. Servic e p rovid ers a nd NGO s a b le to resp o nd m o re effec tively to the sexua l exploitation and trafficking of children. SAPS a nd Justic e De p a rtm ent a re a b le to ha nd le a c a se fro m the initia l re p o rt to the stage of having a case that can be prosecuted. Im p ro ved c rim e d etec tio n, intellig enc e , evid enc e g a thering a nd se nsitivity to economic and social crimes, gender; especially against women and children Improved case-handling in terms of statement-taking and interview techniques. Respect for the dignity of others and their human rights Increased number of sexually exploited children rescued by SAPS. Atla ntis Child ren s Netw ork Forum esta b lishe d . Children have access to trained lay-counsellors Improved victim support services at court and one-on-one support. NGOs re p o rted tha t a s a result o f the tra ining o ffered b y Mo lo , they w e re no w a b le to m a ke use of a w id er ra ng e o f skills to enha nc e the effec tiveness o f their w ork. Co m m ents a c hurc h b a sed c o unsello r: a s a result o f the tra ining , I a m m o re a w a re , I w a tc h b eha vio r a nd I a m m o re rec e p tive - I c a n p ic k up the sig ns q uic kly a nd so a m able to get appropriate help faster. Molo w a s a lso reg a rd ed a s ha ving a n o p en d o o r p o lic y, a nd a lw a ys a va ila b le w ith assistance and guidance beyond the training. Molo p ro vid ed o ther p ro fessio na ls a nd fa c ilita to rs w ith stra teg ic a ssista nc e , p a rtic ula rly in matters of how to take cases further, and with identifying relevant authorities to deal with cases. Molo ena b led p revio usly iso la ted ind ivid ua ls w ho p ro vid e d info rm a l a ssista nc e in c o m m unities (p a rtic ula rly in Witsa nd s) to rec eive tra ining a nd e xp a nd the effectiveness of their work through linking up with other organisations. Molo ha s help e d trem end ously to inc re a se the visib ility o f c hild a b use in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s - So c ia l Servic es a t d istric t level in p a rtic ula r noted tha t there ha d b een a m a rked d ec re a se in the rep o rting o f c hild a b use inc id enc es sinc e Mo lo s public awareness raising programme started. All sta keho ld ers a g ree d tha t the d eg re e o f kno w le d g e a nd a w a reness a ro und c hild a b use ha s c o ntrib uted to inc re a sed c o m m unity vig ila nc e in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. Re m a rks a m ed ic a l he a lth p ro fessio na l fo r Atla ntis Prim a ry He a lth Ca re Clinic : Molo w a s suc c essful in p ro vid ing a b rid g e b etw ee n lo c a l hea lth servic es a nd the c o m m unity. The y filled the g a p s tha t w e ha ve in p erso n p ow er b ec a use they w o rke d on the ground. Wo rksho p p a rtic ip a nts a c tively eng a g e d in d evelo p ing stra teg ies fo r p reventio n a nd intervention and examine good practice models HOOC & Eye on the Child. The im m e d ia te a va ila b ility o f Mo lo sta ff to d ea l w ith susp ec ted rep o rts o f c hild a b use was highly appreciated across the board. So m e o rg a nisa tio ns rep o rted d isc o m fo rt a b o ut the m e d ia c o vera g e tha t Mo lo b ro ug ht to the issue o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis. Co m me nted a p rinc ip a l it is no t the p ro b le m d o esn t exists, b ut w hy d id w e ha ve to b e sing led o ut in the m e d ia and on TV?

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

65


Molo Songololo

Impact of community mobilisation and awareness and education on the project The ra d io b ro a d c a sts w a s a via b le m etho d to c o m m unic a te the p ro jec t s o b jec tive s and activities, as those at risk responded by coming to the office seeking assistance. These a c tivities a nd events ra ised the p ro file o f the p ro jec t, a nd in so d o ing m a d e p eo p le a w a re tha t a c hild ren s rig hts o rg a nisa tio n in p a rtnership w ith So c ia l Servic es w a s w orking in the a rea . The events a ssisted the p ro jec t in fo rg ing stro ng er links w ith various role players in the community and in strengthening its partnerships. The response to the community mobilisation and awareness raising activities led to staff being overwhelmed and becoming more reactive to community demands than maintaining the project focus. He a lth o ffic ia ls re p o rted c o nc ern a b o ut the lo w level o f visib ility o f Mo lo in p ub lic hea lth fa c ilities. It w a s felt tha t Molo s a d vertising o f its servic e s w ere insuffic ie nt, a nd its p ub lic p re senc e c o uld ha ve b e en enha nc ed b y ta lks a nd se m ina rs c o nd uc ted in clinics. Additional tra ining sho uld ha ve b e en o ffe red to c o m p lem ent the tra ining a lrea d y provided, for example, emotional abuse, peer pressure and drug abuse. Impact of prevention on recipients Workshops The a w a re ness ra ising ed uc a ted c hild ren o f their rig hts a nd resp o nsib ilities. They w e re a lso a b le to d evelop a n und ersta nd ing o f c hild sexua l a b use a nd c hild sexua l exploitation. The sc ho o ls w ere p a rtic ula rly p lea sed w ith the w o rk tha t Mo lo c a rrie d o ut in sc ho o ls, a nd sa w Molo a s a va lua b le a nd nec essa ry so urc e of sup p o rt to their o w n effo rts tha t were often ineffectual because of resource constraints. So m e te a c hers felt tha t they w e re no t suffic iently d ra w n into d isc ussions a b o ut the na ture a nd c o ntent o f the p ro g ra m m es tha t Mo lo runs w ith their stud ents, a nd tha t Molo d id no t d eb rie f them a t the end of tra ining . This w a s fe lt to b e ha m p e ring linkages between support offered at school and training offered by Molo. There w a s c o nc ern ra ise d a b o ut the a m ount o f fo llow up tha t Mo lo c o uld d o w ith yo ung p eo p le w ho ha d a ttend ed tra ining sessio ns, a nd the issue o f susta ina b ility around training impact was raised. Schools counselling service The p resenc e o f la y c o unsello rs in sc ho o ls p ro vid ed a g o o d o p p ortunity fo r o ng o ing provision of information, counselling and support to children as well as teachers. There was a high degree of satisfaction with the content of the workshops and training that Molo offered Org a nisa tio ns re p o rted tha t the existenc e o f the c o unsello rs help ed them to id entify c a ses, a s o ften c o unsello rs w ere the o nes w ho w o rked o n the g round w ithin communities. Sc ho o ls w ere very a p p rec ia tive o f the w o rk c o unsello rs c a rried o ut in sc ho o ls: c o m m ents the Hea d of the Atla ntis Princ ip a ls Fo rum : the c o unsello rs a t sc ho o ls ha ve restruc tured the w a y tha t a b use is d e a lt w ith a nd tre a ted a nd hea le d in sc ho o ls. The Molo p ro g ra m me ha s b ec o m e a n integ ra l p a rt o f the p ro c ess a nd it need s to c o ntinue . Xhosa speaking counsellors assisted where teachers were having language difficulties Information was shared with principals and teachers to equip them with skills to identify learners with problems in the classrooms. Ed uc a to rs w ere info rm ed o f servic es p ro vid ed a nd a c c essed these servic es appropriately. One la y c o unsello r selec ted to p a rtic ip a te in the Ca na d a Wo rld Youth Ec o -leadership and Media Programme (a youth exchange programme). Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

66


Molo Songololo

Youth leadership development The yo uth w ho p a rtic ip a ted in Molo s Yo uth Mo vement, Its Yo ur Mo ve (IYM) w ere exp o sed to a num b er o f a c tivities a nd events jo intly fa c ilita ted fo r b y the Atla ntis Pro ject and the Molo Its Your Move Cape Town: Life skills training camps Peer educators training Child rights and responsibilities workshops Community blitzes to raise awareness Through the life skills programmes they have greater knowledge and understanding of the following critical issues: HIV/Aids Sex and sexuality Drug and alcohol abuse Child sexual exploitation / child trafficking Conflict resolution Gender Child ren s rig hts a nd resp o nsib ilities This has enabled the children of Atlantis: To recognise when they or another child is being abused; To break the silence of their own abuse; To speak out against abuse and To participate in the awareness raising as peer educators They also participated in other development opportunities including: Making subm issio n to the SA Pa rlia m ent o n the Child re n s Bill Pa rtic ip a te d in the IDASA Child ren s Go verna nc e p ro jec t 2005 Participation in the World Social Forum 2005 in Brazil Participation in the Unicef Study on Violence Against Children 2005 Participation in Seminar on Policing and Prosecuting Trafficking Cases Impact of prevention on project Workshops The rig hts a nd resp o nsib ilities o f c hild ren p ro m o ted a t sc ho ols, a nd w ha t to d o w hen you are at risk or have been abused. Tea c hers a nd p rinc ip a ls o b served the w o rksho p s a nd w ere ve ry p le a se d w ith the methodology, materials, response of learners and trainers. Resp o nd ents fro m so m e p rim a ry sc ho o ls q uestio ned the w isd o m o f p resenting d ra m a s a nd ro le p la ys to young a nd susc e p tib le c hild ren. Co m m ented a p rim a ry sc ho o l p rinc ip a l these c hild ren a re to o yo ung to und ersta nd the d iffere nc e b etw e en c hild a b use a nd o rd ina ry a ffe c tio n tha t they fa ther o f sib ling s sho w them , so it c a use s confusion in their minds. Schools counselling service Wo rking to g ether o n c a ses im p roved rela tio ns w ith org a nisa tio ns a nd ind ivid ua ls a nd cases are more easily resolved Co nfid entia lity w a s p rio ritized , w hic h inc re a sed the c o m m unity s fa ith in the p ro jec t Lay counsellors operational at different schools Access to information for referrals through the use of resource list increased efficiency Built better relations with principals and teachers Stakeholders interviewed felt that in some cases, the training given was too short to be a d e q ua te. In this insta nc e , resp o nd ents req uested m o re in-d ep th tra ining o n the leg a l aspects of child abuse. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

67


Molo Songololo

Co nc ern w a s a lso ra ised tha t the tra ining tha t Mo lo p ro vid es, fo c used m a inly o n the children and excluded parents. In this regard, it was felt that it makes no sense to send a reha b ilita ted c hild b a c k to a n unreha b ilita ted ho useho ld . Sp ec ific re q uests w ere m a d e fo r tra ining p a rents o n ea rly d etec tio n, or the esta b lishing o f a p a rent sup p o rt group to work in tandem with Molo on individual cases. There exists a stro ng rela tio nship o f trust b etw een ed uc a to rs a t sc ho o ls a nd Mo lo counsellors and staff There w a s a p p rec ia tio n fo r the fa c t tha t the c o unsello r b a se w a s d iverse , in tha t it sp a nne d b o th Co lo ured a nd Black members. Co unsello rs w ere resp ec ted a nd a d m ired fo r their d e d ic a tio n a nd c o m m itm ent to their w o rk in the m id st o f trying c irc um sta nc es: a p o verty stric ken c o m m unity w ith hig h levels of violence, and the fact that they were working without remuneration. Previo usly und er-served m e m b ers o f the c o m m unity w ere re a c hed . An effort w a s m a d e to d e a l w ith a ll c a ses sp ee d ily a nd this im p ro ve d servic e d elivery a nd community confidence in the project. Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s ha ve m ultip le need s a nd the p ro jec t o ften resp o nd e d to so m e o f these need s w hic h w ere o utsid e o f its c o re b usiness o r no t d irec tly rela ted to exiting children from sexually exploitative situations. This w o rk w a s im p o rta nt a ltho ug h it w a s no t intend ed a t the o utset o f the p ro jec t. It help ed the p ro jec t g a in the trust a nd sup p o rt o f the c o m m unity. It sho uld ho w ever b e noted tha t if stric ter a d herenc e to the c o re b usiness w a s g iven then the fo c us o f the c o unselling servic e w o uld p o ssib ly b e mo re em p ha sized , instea d o f the o rg a nisa tio n b e ing p erc eived a s a o ne sto p fo r a ny kind o f so c ia l p ro b le m . Six c o unsello rs left the p ro jec t w hic h im p a c ted o n servic e d elivery. The y w e re tra ine d a nd skilled b ut b e c a use they re c e ived no p a ym ent they left fo r g a inful emp lo ym ent. In the la tter p a rt o f the p ro jec t the c o unsello rs rec e ived a stip end fro m the o rg a nisa tio n however, this has now ceased as the pilot concluded. When p ro vid ing a c o unselling servic e , esp ec ia lly fo r c hild ren, it is im p o rta nt to ha ve adequate resources and the lack resource material was one such hindrance. Youth leadership development A hig h d eg ree o f a p p rec ia tio n w a s exp re ssed a b o ut the c o ntent a nd q ua lity o f Mo lo training, particularly the camps. The Mo lo a p p ro a c h ensured tha t in so m e insta nc es, yo uth w ho a ttend ed tra ining p ro g ra m m es a lso b ec a m e tra iners them selves w ithin the c o m m unity, there b y enhancing a replicating effect. All yo uth interview ed w ere very a p p rec ia tive o f Mo lo s tra ining , p ro fessio na lism a nd a b ility to und ersta nd a nd e m p a thize w ith their life situa tio n. Co m m ents a hig h sc ho o ls stud ent: fo r the first tim e I felt tha t I c o uld ta lk a b o ut m y situa tio n a t ho m e , b e c a use there were young people who were used to train us. This helped me to open up about things in my life that had been very painful and difficult to deal with. Molo ha s help e d to d evelo p yo uth role m o d els, throug h their tra ining , w ho in turn w ill inform a more responsible parenting role for such youth. Sc ho o ls re p o rted tha t there w a s a m a rked , p o sitive d ifferenc e b etw een tho se lea rners w ho a ttend ed the tra ining p ro g ra m mes a nd c a m p s, a nd those w ho d id no t. Le a rne rs w ho a ttend ed a re m ore a w a re o f their rig hts a s c hild ren, a nd a re a b le to a ssert tha t rig ht o n b e ha lf o f self a nd o thers. Suc h le a rners w ere a lso m o re likely to sp e a k up fo r o ther lea rners w ho m a y b e b ullied o r vic tim ize d a t sc ho ols, a nd in so me c a se s

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

68


Molo Songololo

b e c a me w histle b lo w ers to a lert tea c hers o f susp e c ted c hild a b use o r d rug p ro b le m s experienced by fellow learners. In the a b se nc e o f youth w o rkers, d uring the la tter p ha se o f the p ro jec t, fa c ilita ting the IYM a c tivities b e c a m e a stra in o n the p rojec t a s it w a s a d d e d to the p syc ho support portfolio. Impact of rescue and recovery on recipients All p a rtic ip a nts in the Ca se Stud y w ere extrem ely a p p re c ia tive o f the d e d ic a tio n, c o m m itm e nt a nd no n-jud g menta l w a y in w hic h Mo lo sta ff c a rrie d o ut their w o rk. Co m m ented o ne if it w a sn t fo r Mo lo , I w o uld no t ha ve ha d the c oura g e to g et o ff the streets, b e c a use no o ne c o uld re a c h m e , no t even m y p a rents. No w I a t lea st think tha t there is another life that is possible for me. The Ca se Stud y p ro vid ed the p a rtic ip a nts w ith c o unselling , o p tio ns, a lterna tive he a ling trea tm ent, sup p o rt in leg a l m a tters, sup p o rt in m ed ic a l m a tters a nd w o rkshop s, p ro g ra m m es, c a m p s a nd b e a uty thera p y a ll g e a re d to inc re a se their self im a g e , self esteem, self confidence and general sense of self. Cha nges in pa rticipa nts rela tionship with self: Willingness to come forward and talk openly about the past Willingness to work in a network with others to discuss common issues and challenges Openness to deal with push factors into sexual exploitation with counsellors Fragile re-valuing of self and self worth Increased responsibility for own life and decisions Ability to set goals for future Changes in family relationships: Changed norms, attitudes and behavior of participants toward parents Accelerating own maturity and growth in order to compensate for lack in parental skill or ability Withd ra w a l fro m p a rents if no t sup p o rtive, a nd inc re a se d d esire fo r ec o no m ic independence Commitment to building healthier families of their own in future Changes in sexual and reproductive behavior: Willingness to conduct monogamous relationships Able to negotiate condom use Taking responsibility for reproductive health by going for regular HIV/AIDS testing More conscious of relationship of sexual self and the abuse of drugs Beginning to understand sexual behavior in relation to broader socio-economic issues A desire to have healthier relationships with partners and other men in future Changes in community attitudes: Increase in awareness and knowledge about child sexual exploitation in Atlantis Increased willingness to admit that a problem exists Increase in acceptance of support services from external service providers Increased community vigilance about child sexual exploitation Decrease of stigmatization of those coming for assistance to Molo Willingness of other young people to assist and work with participants in case study Child sexual exploitation an agenda item for most service providers.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

69


Molo Songololo

Impact of counselling on recipients Positives Created the feeling that counsellors are always there for the participants Instead of staff giving appointments to the participants, they were asked to make the commitment by setting the day and time for their counselling appointment or to come to the office for consultation. They were more likely to keep these appointments. Consistent support from parents or care givers where present this was a great encouragement for the participant Offered the participants a space to express there concerns, tell their stories, cry and focus on themselves Negatives Participant not always able to discuss difficult issues When a participant did something they felt embarrassed about e.g. reverting to drugs then they feel guilty, and try to avoid counselling Impact of counselling on programme Positives The c o unsello rs ro le to m o tiva te a nd encourage the participants, in general (being free to express themselves) Presence of two full-time counsellors Provides information to staff on what can be done, how it can be done and what is necessary Negatives Need s a sse ssm ent: The c ounsello rs ha d d ifficulty completing this thoroughly and needed to conduct it as a process rather than as a once-off activity with participants. This slowed the pace of delivery and the Individual Development Plans could not be fully utilised At times there was not enough counselling sessions for some participants as c o unsellors tim e b e c a m e m o no p o lized b y the need s o f a no ther p a rtic ip a nt It is the c o unsello rs resp o nsib ility to find the p a rtic ip a nt w hen a n a p p o intm ent is missed. The office space having only one counselling room and two counsellors and at times there would be a number of participants in the office requiring counselling. Impact of excursions on recipients Positives For the participants this was a new experience; it was something different, learning and discovering that life can be different to what they are acquainted with Outings had both educational and entertainment value Broadens their horizons, discovering a new world Pa rtic ip a nts felt m ore b e a utiful a fter eng a g ing w ith na ture a nd this new w o rld Participants started to use more positive vocabulary and described nature poetically Negatives Changing of drivers, participants feeling unsafe with the different drivers At times the participants felt inhibited and intimidated in indoor venues

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

70


Molo Songololo

Impact of excursions on programme Positives Parent support encouraging them to get up early and attend Staff were able to build relationships with the participants through informal interactions The participants were given the opportunity to get to know each other informally in a more relaxed environment It allowed everyone to bond and made the more serious work easier for everyone to engage with as people got to know and understand each other better The project had the resources to make everything possible Negatives Staff not being informed beforehand of the content of shows the participants did not always understand and had questions about the performances Participants not always prepared for outing in terms of conduct and etiquette Unreliable transport Impact of Tools for Healing workshops and camp - on recipients Positives Pro vid es se nse o f I a m no t a lo ne & b o nd ing Workshops provides a space for reflection, feedback, sharing & debriefing on self and activities Workshops offered a space where personal development and growth of individuals was affirmed and acknowledged by group Workshops offered motivation and encouragement to participants Camp created space for intensive work Camp gave participants a chance to commune with nature Negatives Presence of children at activities makes participation difficult for those participants who have children Group dynamics as the group became more comfortable they also became more critical of each other; those most sensitive to rejection struggled with this Impact of tools for healing workshops and camp - on programme Positives Workshops brings individuals together as a group Could run life skills workshops, have guest speakers and provide general educational space All facilitators introduced to group were accepted by group In the absence of a dedicated workshop facilitator team work was key to the success of this area of work Can do more life skills workshops and have more speakers opportunities are endless Negatives Very time consuming for project also cuts into staff family time. To accommodate the high school learners the excursions took place on Saturdays and public holidays and the workshops started at 15h00 frequently running to 18h00 and then participants have to be transported home. Requires counsellor support Presence of other people in office - space constraints

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

71


Molo Songololo

Impact of institute for healing of memories on recipients Positives Safe space away from daily stresses of life allows participants to focus on letting go of the past Strong facilitators in terms of content provide sufficient support for participants Participants started to use positive vocabulary Participants returned with determination to redirect their lives Negatives Given the vulnerability of the participants it needed follow-up support Impact of institute for healing of memories on programme Positives Offers participants an effective start to the process of healing Follow-up workshops offered Offers bursaries Negatives The lack of transport and the distance from Atlantis makes participation costly Impact of alternative healing on recipients Positives Encouraged them to take care of themselves To focus on their talents and abilities to perform in other positive activities Participants felt relaxed and found that the treatment relieved their stress Participants expressed their surprise at the personal information they received about their health and well being. gained more insight into their lives Participants felt more confident and enthusiastic after session Negatives If participant fails to keep the appointments it delays the healing process Due to the distance we could not go as frequently as we may have wanted Impact of alternative healing on programme Positives Complemented the programme, encouraged participants, provided information about what activities would benefit them individually Aided the healing process Impact of medical support on recipients Positives Provided medical treatment Provided medication where needed Offered advice Lifted the spirits of participants through humorous, friendly manner Provided peace of mind about certain conditions which was worrying participants. Impact of Social Services on recipients Positives Good counselling, provided support Responsive to the needs of the participants

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

72


Molo Songololo

Impact of Social Services on programme Negatives Understaffed so limited support was provided, which slows down the processes. Impact of grooming and personal care on recipients Positives Allowed participants to be more supportive of each other Participants learned to care for someone else Participants are learning to care for themselves in a healthy way Reflected that they have learnt to trust each other Use their talents to encourage other young people in similar situations It can provide an opportunity for income generation Participants felt more confident and beautiful after each session They enjoyed the activity and took great interest in learning how to do it They learnt a marketable skill Impact of grooming and personal care on programme Positives Reflected back to project team how much the group had grown do for another lovingly and gently

their willingness to

Impact of human resources on recipients and project Pro m o ting a c hild rig hts a p p ro a c h to o rg a nisa tio ns a nd info rm ing c hild ren a nd youth of their rig hts a nd resp o nsib ilities, sta ff b ro ug ht a fresh p ersp e c tive a nd a p p ro a c h to d e a ling with child related social problems in Atlantis and surrounding areas. Staff placed the issue o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n o n the a g end a o f NGOs, servic e p ro vid e rs a nd va rio us o rg a nisa tio ns. The sup p o rt o f ke y ro le p la yers a nd o rg a nisa tio ns w ere ha rnessed b ehind the project. Through various consultative processes a number of significant initiatives were b o rn, like the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum . Sta ff further c o ntrib uted to c a p a c ity b uild ing o f NGO s, servic e p ro vid ers a nd ind ivid ua ls. Sta ff sig nific a ntly touc hed the lives o f twelve children and youth as they supported them on their respective paths through life. Impact of training and support on recipients and project The a b senc e o f a c lea rly o utlined tra ining a nd d evelo p m ent p ro g ra m m e a nd releva nt sup p o rt fo r the p ro jec t sta ff w ho op ene d the o ffic e in Atla ntis led to a num b e r o f challenges in the execution of a complex and emotionally draining project. Debriefing for sta ff w a s no t c o nsistent. In the p erio d s w hen d e b riefing d id no t o c c ur it im p a c te d neg a tively o n the tea m s c a p a c ity to d eliver ind ivid ua lly a nd c o llec tively.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

73


Molo Songololo

9. Recommendations The p ilo t p ro jec t ha s lea rnt m a ny lesso ns o ver the p a st 34 m o nths, so m e o f these lesso ns a re d ue to the c ho ic es m a d e b y the p ro jec t a nd o thers a re d ue to the a b senc e o f p o litic a l w ill a nd c o m m itment b y va rio us sta te o ffic ia ls a nd d e p a rtm ents a nd a d eg ree o f a p a thy w ithin the c o m m unity. These lessons tog ether w ith feed b a c k throug h the evaluation process inform the recommendations made below. On a macro level Policy development The Office on the Rights of the Child in the Presidency, should take the lead in developing a multi-sectoral policy requiring the various spheres of government and the many government departments to commit resources to end the sexual exploitation of children. A multi-sectoral body should be set up bringing together state departments and civil society organisations to ensure coordinated action, this should be replicated from a national level down to ward level. SAPS policy on dealing with child sexual exploitation must be developed and implemented including how SAPS interacts with families and NGOs working in the field A policy and implementation plan must be drafted for the rehabilitation of offenders Research into the following is required: The extent of child sexual exploitation What are the causal factors: why do men sexually exploit children, how do children end up being sexually exploited and the increased demand for sex with children Guidelines need to be developed profiling victims of child sexual exploitation A profile of the socio-political conditions which creates vulnerability must be developed. Factors like family, drugs, gangs, violence, domestic violence, poverty, globalization, sexualisation of children by the media, HIV/aids should be considered. Strategies for interventions good practice models Information must be made available to the public on: Existing policies, who is responsible for enacting them and who monitors the policy implementation The available services for rescued children, Existing protocols and intervention processes Who the actual offenders are they need to be identified and exposed Training and public awareness Public awareness should go beyond targeted communities and service providers to target interest groups within communities e.g. parents, sport clubs, taxis, churches, trade unions, truckers etc. SAPS training on child sexual exploitation is necessary to enable a more child centred response from the police service. Training should address statement taking from children, how cases are recorded, what to do when children are arrested for prostitution because they lied about their age. Life orientation lessons at schools need to include human rights, child rights, gender, sexuality, the re-education of males; in addition, widespread community education should provide the same education and training.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

74


Molo Songololo

Policy implementation Integrated response with dedicated resources A cohesive strategy with a multi-sectoral approach must be developed and implemented to ensure the rescue, recovery and healing of victims Victims need to be reintegrated into family and community. This must be done with c are and sensitivity respecting the privacy of the child and avoiding stigmatization and discrimination by the community. At the same time we would like to see the community respond positively to children who have been violated. To this end the awareness work needs to change the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of people. Residential recovery programmes must be established for sexually exploited children Services and support must be easily accessible. A child rights approach should inform action plans. Family support and family life should be built into action plans The legal and justice system must support the work of the SAPS Intervention projects need to include: Exposure of children and youth to alternative activities and facilities e.g. arts & culture Assisting the child in developing a sense of identity including: self awareness exercises and awareness of cultural history A social worker or psychologist on their staff Community mobilisation, to form community networks to look out for our children and work together with organisations in community child protection forums The Department of Community Safety through SAPS and Community Police Forums need to play a leading role in the rescue of children from sexually exploitative situations The Department of Social Services and Poverty Alleviation needs to prioritise the sexual a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren a nd d e velo p p o lic y tha t w ill c la rify the ro le the y c a n p la y in c o m b a ting this vio la tio n o f c hild ren s d ig nity m o re e ffe c tively. Monitoring A database should be set up to maintain a record of arrests, made by SAPS of both offenders and children being sexually exploited SAPS must respond to reports about offenders and should be challenged when this is not the case The lack of responsiveness, abuse of power and corruption, in respect of child sexual exploitation, within SAPS must be investigated. Monitoring of offenders, pimps, syndicates and gangs who sexually exploit children. On a project level Information Gathering Molo needs to document, in detail, all cases of child sexual exploitation it encounters. Molo sho uld g a ther info rm a tio n o n w ho the sex exp lo iters a re , the c a usa l fa c tors, the socio-econoomic conditions that make children vulnerable. Molo sho uld w o rk to g ether w ith o ther o rg a nisa tio ns in sha ring the info rm a tio n in a n effo rt to d evelo p a c lea rer p ic ture o f the na ture a nd extent o f c hild sexua l exploitation. Community mobilisation and awareness and education The Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum ta kes resp o nsib ility fo r ra ising a w a reness o f c hild ren s rig hts a nd c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n. The sp ec ia list a c c e ss to inform a tio n tha t Molo c urrently enjo ys b e m a d e a va ila b le to service providers as well to spread information and access to information

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

75


Molo Songololo

Molo ta kes a m o re e vo lutiona ry a p p ro a c h in exp a nd ing their w o rk, a nd c o m m enc e w ith ta rg eted a w a reness p ro g ra m m es to young p eo p le in sc ho o l, b ut p rio ritize yo ung people at risk and out of school. Prevention Molo should continue working with and providing support to the lay counsellors. A d e d ic a ted c o o rd ina to r fo r the Atla ntis IYM is need ed to im p ro ve c o m m unic a tio n with the IYM Cape Town and youth access to activities. Support and build capacity of the ACNF Conduct ongoing awareness and education in schools and with service providers Rescue and recovery Molo becomes an advocate for the case study participants by accessing training and em p lo ym e nt o p p o rtunities thro ug h lea rnership s o r o ther tra ining a nd em p lo ym ent opportunities. Wo rksho p s sho uld b e run w ith the p a rents a nd fa m ilie s o f the c a se stud y p a rticipants, a nd a sup p o rt g ro up fo rm e d so tha t p a re nts c a n b e ta ug ht skills a nd stra teg ie s fo r working with their daughters. Work with those case study participants who still require support continues. Molo should also work with a younger group of children, under 16 years of age Molo refine the rescue and recovery intervention strategies further Molo set up a residential recovery centre for sexually exploited children. Molo lobby for the recommendations focused on the macro level. The c hild ren o f So uth Afric a a re b e ing a b used a nd sexua lly exp lo ited daily; so m ething m ust b e d o ne to end this a tro c ity. The p ilo t c o vers a sm a ll c o rner o f o ur va st c o untry a nd d esp ite the ho rro rs unc overed , it ha s o nly to uc hed the tip o f the ic e b erg in the lo c a tio n. There is m uc h w o rk to b e d o ne. The need for a rig oro us c o o rd ina ted effo rt fro m a na tio na l to g ra ssro o ts level c a nnot b e suffic iently e m p ha size d . The sta te m ust up ho ld its commitments to children as stated in international agreements and the constitution of our sex exploiters.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

76


Molo Songololo

Children Khalil Gibran And a woman who held a babe against her bosom said, "Speak to us of Children." And he said: Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of Life's longing for itself. They come through you but not from you, And though they are with you, yet they belong not to you. You may give them your love but not your thoughts. For they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls, For their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams. You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you. For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday. You are the bows from which your children as living arrows are sent forth. The archer sees the mark upon the path of the infinite, and He bends you with His might that His arrows may go swift and far. Let your bending in the archer's hand be for gladness; For even as he loves the arrow that flies, so He loves also the bow that is stable.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

77


Molo Songololo

Appendix 1 Atlantis Pilot Project Evaluation Report: Ruby Marks Table of Contents Part 1: Acknowledgements Executive summary

Part 2: Evaluation approach and methodology Limitations of the evaluation

Part 3: Situational Analysis Part 4: Results and a ssessment B. B1. B2. B3. B4. C. C1. C2. C3. C4.

Strengths and challenges of the project Strengths: Community Counsellors Challenges: Community Counsellors Strengths: Community a wareness raising Challenges: Community a wareness raising Strengths and Weaknesses: Molo c ase study Results of the focus group discussions Success of the case study Remaining challenges Key institutional insights and lessons learned: Molo case study

Part 5: Sustainability Issues D. D1. D2.

Sustainability Issues Assessment of project sustainability Support of the Department of Social Welfare

Part 6: Recommendations E.

Recommendations and Future Roll Out

Part 7: Conclusion F.

Conclusions

Appendices Questionnaire outline List o f resp o nd ents interview ed

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

78


Molo Songololo

Part 1: Acknowledgements The eva lua tio n p ro c ess w a s a p a rtic ip a tive o ne tha t invo lved releva nt Mo lo Song olo lo sta ff, b o th in the d evelo p m ent o f the term s o f re ferenc e , a s w ell a s the setting o f im p a c t ind ic a to rs in line w ith p ro g ra m m e o b jec tives. The p a rtic ip a tory p ro c esses fo llo w e d a llow e d fo r jo int lea rning o n the d evelo p m ent of e m p o w erm ent ind ic a tors, w hilst a lso a llow ing sta ff m e m b e rs to inp ut im p ressio ns a nd exp e rienc e s throug h sto ry telling , fo c us g ro up a nd ind ivid ua l interview s w ith sta ff invo lved in the p ro jec t. In this reg a rd , I w a nt to a c kno w led g e the c om m itted a nd insig htful c o ntrib utio ns tha t w ere m a d e b y the following sta ff m e m b e rs: Pa tric So lo m o ns, Ka rin Ko en a nd Lo rna Housto n. Lind a Sig w a b e a lso a ssisted w ith a d m inistra tive a rra ng e m ents very c a p a b ly. I a lso w ish to p a y trib ute to the c om m itm ent a nd d yna m ism o f Ab ra ha m Nic ho la s a nd Va nessa Antho ny w ho p ro vid e d the energ y a nd d rive fo r the p ro jec t. I a m c o nvinc ed tha t the c o m m unity regard both of you as honorary citizens of Atlantis! I a lso d e d ic a te this rep o rt to the d etermined , fig hting sp irit o f a ll the yo ung g irls in the p ro jec t, w ho in m a ny w a ys e p ito m izes w ha t the Mo lo p ro jec t w a s trying to a c hieve: w o m en w ho , d esp ite their o ften trying c irc um sta nc es, w a s a b le to im a g ine a nd live a b etter life fo r them selves, a nd fulfill their p o tentia l a s w ell-a d justed , b a la nc ed a nd a c tua lize d ind ivid ua ls b ec a use they ha d the c oura g e to g ra b the life line tha t Mo lo offered to change their lives. I w ish to tha nk Ka ra Gra c e Ma c ka y, w ho w o rke d o n the p ro jec t a s m y rese a rc h a ssista nt, a nd sp ent m a ny d a ys help ing w ith interview s. Her insig hts a nd c o m m ents w ere im m ense ly helpful in shaping the evaluation report. Fina lly, I w a nt to tha nk a ll the resp o nd ents w ho w ere m o re tha n keen to sha re their p o sitive exp erienc es in w o rking w ith Mo lo So ng o lolo . Rest a ssure d tha t Atla ntis w ill neve r be the same again - and really, that is the kind of impact that we want to achieve in all of our development work!

Ruby Marks July 2005 Cape Town

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

79


Molo Songololo

Executive summary The Western Ca p e Dep a rtm e nt o f So c ia l Welfa re a nd Po verty Allevia tion p ro vid ed fund ing o ver a three-ye a r p erio d to Mo lo So ng o lo lo to c o nd uc t w o rk in Atla ntis a nd surrounding areas around the following overlapping strategies: Cre a te a w a reness, e d uc a tio n a nd tra ining fo r interventio n a g a inst c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren (CSEC) a m o ng st a ll the sta keho ld ers in the affected community. Advocate and promote the rights and responsibilities of children. Lobby for the rights and needs of children at risk and those sexually exploited. Develop awareness, educational and training materials for targeted groups. Mo b ilise c o m munity, servic e p ro vid ers a nd esta b lish inter-sec to ra l ta sk tea m s to develop strategies, programmes and services for the prevention of CSEC. Fa c ilita te fo r the im p lem enta tio n a nd m o nito r the im p a c t o f p revention stra teg ie s a nd programmes. The eva lua tio n inc lud ed extensive intervie w s, fo c us g ro up s a nd p a rtic ip a nt o b serva tio n w ith a ll releva nt sta keho ld ers o ver a p erio d o f a p p ro xim a tely tw o m o nths. Overa ll, the p ro jec t a ssessm ent c a rrie d o ut a p a rtic ip a to ry eva lua tio n a ssessm ent m etho d o lo g y, a nd rep o rts a hig h d eg ree o f c o m m unity a nd o ther sta keho ld er sa tisfa c tio n w ith the Mo lo p ro g ra m m e. All the resp o nd ents felt tha t Mo lo suc c eed ed in its sta ted a im s to ra ise a w a reness a nd ta c kle the issues o f c hild a b use a nd rela ted issues w ithin the c o m m unity. In addition to this, Molo also had considerable success in the following related areas: Skills d evelo p m ent fo r c o m m unity m e m b ers a nd servic e p ro vid e rs to inc re a se their effectiveness; Pro tec tio n a nd reha b ilita tio n of c hild vic tims, inc lud ing yo ung w o m en in sexua lly exploitative relationships or at risk of becoming sexually exploited; Advocacy and lobbying for legal reform, as well as monitoring of law reform. There w a s a stro ng view exp re ssed b y the m a jo rity of resp o nd ents tha t Mo lo sho uld c o ntinue its w o rk in the a re a s o f c hild a b use g enera lly a nd c rea ting interventio ns in c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n sp ec ific a lly. This re p ort o utlines the suc c esse s a nd c ha lleng es o f the Mo lo p ro jec t in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s, a nd a lso hig hlig hts ke y issue s o f organizational le a rning , future susta ina b ility a nd re c o m m end a tio ns fo r a n enha nc ed ro llo ut stra teg y to inc rea se the p ro jec t suc c ess. Overa ll, the p ro je c t is a ssessed a s a fa ir success, given the obstacles it encountered. I w o uld like to ta ke this o p p o rtunity to c o m m end Mo lo fo r its mo ra l c o ura g e a nd c o m m itm e nt to d ea l w ith this issue , a s w ell a s the We stern Ca p e Dep a rtm e nt o f So c ia l Welfa re a nd Po verty Allevia tio n fo r their fa rsig hted ness in p ro vid ing fund s fo r this w o rthy project.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

80


Molo Songololo

Part 2: Evaluation approach and methodology The eva lua tio n m etho d o lo g y w a s b a sed o n p rinc ip les o f g e nd er-sensitive a nd c hild sensitive ind ic a to rs tha t utilized ro b ust q ua ntita tive a nd q ua lita tive tec hniq ues. Be c a use this w a s a m oving p ro jec t tha t w a s in its fina l sta g es, there w a s so m e relia nc e on a ne c d o ta l a nd p erc ep tua l info rm a tio n. This w a s c o m p lim ented b y b est p ra c tic e w ith reg a rd to m e a sure m ent a nd re se a rc h so a s to p ro d uc e a c re d ib le a nd w ell-rounded evaluation. The eva lua tio n sub sc rib e d to the b a sic tenets o f Utiliza tion Fo c use d Rese a rc h. This m ea nt that the evaluator was: Co m m itted to d eterm ining w ho the intend ed users o f the resea rc h w ere , a nd to establish what they would be using the research for; Co m m itted to ensuring tha t b o th the d esig n a nd the a d a p ta tio n of useful resea rc h could be adapted in other locations; Ensuring high quality participation from key stakeholders to guide the research process towards its intended use; Ded ic a te d to ensuring tha t resea rc h m etho d o lo g y a nd p ro c e sses enha nc ed sho rt term and long term uses of the evaluation. Agreed terms of reference: The p urp o se o f the eva lua tio n w a s to revie w p ro g ress a g a inst the p ro jec t ob jec tives, a nd assess the impact to date. The evaluation also sought to understand the process by which a c hieve m e nts ha ve b een a tta ined , d ra w c o nc lusio ns a nd id entify rec o m m end a tio ns fo r enhancement of future, similar initiatives. The eva lua tio n w a s a lso a n o p p ortunity to b uild the c a p a c ity o f Mo lo sta ff in the evaluation process. Through the use of participatory processes, staff gained experience in a sp ec ts o f eva lua tio n inc lud ing d evelo p ing ke y eva lua tio n q uestio ns, a nd the development of appropriate indicators that would reflect the project objectives. Evaluation process: The eva lua tio n tea m c o nsiste d o f the Molo Direc tor, re sea rc her a nd Atla ntis Pro jec t Manager, and was led by the evaluator. The team worked together to: Formulate key evaluation questions; Develop question guides; Establish process and product indicators; Identify types of information; Develop sample plan; Undertake preliminary analyses of the data. Evaluation Methods and Tools: A number of methods were used to evaluate the project. These included: Individual interviews Group interviews Story telling Problem trees Role play Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

81


Molo Songololo

Observation Key informant interviews Observation Sampling Data analyses Limitations of the evaluation: Using the p a rtic ip a to ry a p p ro a c h m e a nt a c tive invo lvem ent o f sta ff a nd vo lunteers, and thus a potential decrease in objectivity As in a ll rig hts-b a sed stud ies tha t seeks to eva lua te c ha ng es in sexua l b eha vio ur, there exists the p o ssib ility tha t resp ond ents c o uld p ro vid e ina c c ura te inform a tio n. Suc h info rm a tion c ould b e b a sed o n their p erc e p tio ns of w ha t it m ea ns to b e a p p ro p ria te ly sexual and not necessarily reflect their actual sexual behaviour. The resp o nd ents m a y ha ve b ia sed their resp o nses to w a rd s w ha t Mo lo So ng o lo lo promotes. Co st effec tiveness a na lyses w a s no t c o nd uc ted b e c a use the p ro jec t w a s still in its implementation stage

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

82


Molo Songololo

Part 3: Situational analysis Demographic Information Atla ntis is a g ro w ing p eri-urb a n c o m m unity w ithin the Ca p e To w n Unic ity m unic ip a lity. It is situa ted o n the Ca p e West c o a st, a p p roxim a tely fifty kilometers no rth o f C a p e Tow n a nd eighty kilometers south o f Sa ld a nha . The first d evelo p m ent in Atla ntis to o k p la c e in ea rly 1970 in the w estern p a rt a nd the first resid ents mo ved in 1976. Fo rm erly p a rt o f the Bla a uw b e rg Munic ip a lity Atla ntis c o m p rise s ten resid entia l a rea s rep re senting d iffere nt ec o no m ic g ro up s w ithin the a re a . These a re a s a re Atla ntis Ind ustria l, Atla ntis SP, Avo nd a le , Be a c o n Hill, Ca m p hill Villa g e , Protea Pa rk, Ro b inva le , Sa xo n Se a , Sherw o o d and Town Centre. The p o p ula tio n is m a d e up of a p p ro xim a tely 28 180 o r 52% fem a le resid ents a nd a p p ro xim a tely 25 620 o r 48% m a le re sid ents. This c o m p rises a to ta l o f 53 805 inha b ita nts rep resenting a ll fo ur m a jo r p o p ula tio n g roup s in So uth Afric a .20 Of this num b e r a p p ro xim a tely 23 430 o r 44% a re young p eo p le 19 ye a rs o r yo ung er.21 Fifty one percent of these yo ung p eo p le a re m a le a nd 49% a re fem a le . The to ta l p o p ula tion a re a c c o m mo d a ted in a p p ro xim a tely 11 000 resid entia l d w elling s w hic h ra ng e in sc o p e fro m free sta nd ing ho m es, b lo c ks o f fla ts, se p a ra te a c c o m m o d a tio n in b a c kya rd s to ho m eless persons. According to the municipal office in Atlantis the unemployment rate is estimated at 42%.22 Area

Population

Established in

Founded as

Atlantis

53 800

1976

Town constructed by apartheid regime for Coloured p eo p le

Mamre Pella Witsands

20 000 4 000 10 000

1903 1869 1990

Moravian Missionary Station Moravian Missionary Station Informal settlement

The c o m m unity o f Atla ntis ha s a fa irly w ell d evelo p e d infra struc ture c onsisting o f va rio us p ub lic a nd p riva te a m enities. These inc lud e four Hig h Sc ho ols, thirteen Prim a ry Sc ho o ls, severa l c rè c hes a nd tw o p ub lic lib ra ries. A sta te ho sp ita l, he a lth servic e s a nd tw o c linic s further servic e the c o m m unity. There a re va rio us sp o rting fa c ilities a s w ell a s fo ur rec re a tio na l c entres. Atla ntis is a lso servic e d b y the jud ic ia ry a nd ha s a Ma g istra tes c o urt. The p ub lic sa fety servic es c o nsist o f a p o lic e sta tio n a nd fire d e p a rtm ent. Priva te sec to r investm ent c urrently c om p rises a ho tel, sho p p ing c entres, w hic h inc lud e m a jo r fo o d reta il o utlets a s w ell a s m a jo r b a nks. There a re a lso o ne hund red a nd thirty e ig ht ind ustries operational in the area. Various religious structures service the community.23 The 5 sp o rt field s, 4 ha lls a nd 1 m ino r ha ll, this inc lud es the Dura Youth Centre , o ffers the yo uth som e a c tivities in Atla ntis. In the p riva te sec to r there a re 3 Co ffee Sho p s, w hic h youth can frequent in addition to the Hotel, Pub and 2 dance clubs. Pella has no facilities for youth other than a private sports ground. Witsands ha s no enterta inm ent fa c ilitie s fo r yo uth. Ma m re ha s 2 ha lls, one is the c o m m unity ha ll, 1 sports ground and 3 pubs. In addition, there are numerous shebeens. 20

Statistics South Africa: Census 2001 Ibid. Information provided by Atlantis Municipal office 6 June 2005 23 Information provided by the Atlantis Municipal office 6 June 2005 21 22

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

83


Molo Songololo

The a re a s o f Pella a nd Witsa nd s la c k b a sic a menities inc lud ing e lec tric ity, a b lutio ns a nd running water in homes. The a b senc e o f c onstruc tive a c tivity fo r c hild ren a nd yo uth a nd w id esp re a d p o verty lea ves them w ith lim ited c ho ic e s a nd m a ny turn to the g a ng s, d rug s a nd sheb eens fo r enterta inm ent. The SAPS ha s o n rec o rd 220 she b ee ns a nd 6 m a jor g a ng s w hic h a re a c tive thro ug hout the Atla ntis c o m m unity. Alre a d y the SAPS re p o rts tha t fo r the c urrent year 120 children have dropped out of school.

Child sexual exploitation in Atlantis The c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren is p ro hib ited in Se c tio n 50A (1) o f the Child Ca re Ac t (1983 a s a m end ed ). It further p ro hib its sexua l a b use a nd sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren. In a d d itio n there a re a lso p ro hib itive p ro visio ns in the Sexua l Offenc es Ac t (1989 a s a m end ed ). In a c c o rd a nc e w ith So uth Afric a s interna tio na l a g ree m ents, in p a rtic ula r its ratification of the: United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Stockholm Declaration and, Stockholm Agenda for Action The So uth Afric a n institutiona l fra m ew o rk sho uld m a ke p ro visio n fo r a n effec tive resp o nse to c hild sexua l a b use in g enera l. It sho uld a lso m a ke sp e c ific p ro vision fo r effec tive resp o nses to the sexua l exp lo ita tio n o f c hild ren. Pa rtic ula rly a s there is inc re a se d in 24 rep o rting o f sexua l c rim es a g a inst c hild ren. So fo r insta nc e c hild ra p e a c c o unts for 17% o f the to ta l fig ure o f c hild a b use c a ses in the Western Ca p e Pro vinc e. Fro m Ap ril 2002 to Ma rc h 2003 there w a s a to ta l o f 6502 c a ses re p o rted a nd a to ta l o f 3597 c a ses p lo tted . Whilst there is increased reporting of abuses against children it is worth noting that: The growth in reports of sexual crimes against children in South Africa indicates that this type of crime is either on the increase or is being more widely reported and spoken about. However, inconsistent definitions of "child sexual abuse" and inadequate recording also prevent the accurate collection of administrative and statistical data on sexual crimes against children25 Fig ures rele a sed b y the Na tio na l Minister fo r Sa fety a nd Se c urity o n 20 Se p tem b er 2004 ind ic a te tha t there ha s b een a sig nific a nt a nd c o nsistent inc re a se in c hild a b use c a se s rep o rted d uring the p erio d 2002 to 2004 a t b o th na tio na l a nd p rovinc ia l levels. Ac c o rd ing to So uth Afric a n Po lic es Servic es the num b e r o f re p o rted c hild a b use c a ses in the We stern Cape increased, in a number of areas and almost doubled since 2001/2002. There is g ro w ing c o nc ern a b o ut the inc re a se in inc id enc es o f c hild a b use a nd ne g lec t g enera lly in the c o m m unity o f Atla ntis a s evid enc ed b y the d e m a nd fo r servic e s fro m m e m b ers o f the c o m m unity, fro m Mo lo So ng o lo lo sinc e the o p ening o f the o ffic e in February 2004. The rep ort Child Sexua l Exp loita tio n in Atla ntis26 d o c uments the c o nd itio ns tha t m a ke c hild ren in Atla ntis esp ec ia lly vulnera b le to sexua l exp lo ita tio n w hether fo r c o m m erc ia l o r non-commercial purposes. These conditions include:

24 25 26

As evidenced by a number of research reports as well as official police statistics. A. Dawes and Z. Parker: Child Sexual Abuse in Atlantis: A research report (Children s Institute, University of Cape Town, 2003) Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

84


Molo Songololo

A c o m m unity in c risis w here the so c ia l se c urity a nd so c ia l w elfa re o f c hild ren a nd youth is threatened Sig nific a nt p reva lenc e of severe so c ia l p ro b le m s, unem p lo ym ent, p o verty, sub sta nc e a b use , vio lenc e , sexua l a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n, d ysfunc tio na l fa m ilies a nd fa m ily breakdown. Hig h levels o f frustra tio n, a ng er, ho p elessness, m istrust a nd fe eling o f b etra ya l b y parents, and service providers amongst children and youth Atla ntis ho w ever is c ha ra c terised b y a nd d isting uished fro m o ther p red o m ina ntly economically deprived communities in that its; Ba sic servic es a re fa r b etter tha n tha t o f sim ila r e c o no m ic a lly stressed c o m m unities in the Western Cape Province. Existing netw o rks o f ind ivid ua ls a nd o rg a nisa tions exp ress a nd d e m o nstra te a c o m m itm e nt to c o m b a ting a g a inst c hild sexua l a b use a nd exp lo ita tio n throug h prevention and intervention strategies and programmes. Furtherm o re , Atla ntis ha s a stro ng histo ry o f so c io -p o litic a l a c tivism , c o m m unity m o b ilisa tio n a nd unio nisa tio n. This is in p a rt re flec ted in the num ero us NGOs a nd c o m m unity b a se d o rg a niza tio ns o p era tive in the c o m m unity a s w ell a s in the m a ny vo lunteers w ho g ive o f their tim e to a ssist vulnera b le c hild ren. There a re a lso tw o shelters for abused women and children. The rep o rt Child Sexua l Exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis c o nc lud es tha t intervention a nd p reventio n p ro g ra m m es req uire a stra teg ic resp onse a g a inst c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis. It further hig hlig hts tha t new initia tives sho uld c o nsid er a nd b uild on the c urrent w o rk b e ing d o ne a nd invo lve a ll the ro le-p la yers inc lud ing the a c tive p a rtic ip a tio n o f c hild ren a nd youth. Such strategies, require an integrated child rights approach in the following areas; Public awareness raising campaigns and community mobilisation Schools support and prevention programmes keeping youth in school Parenting support and promotion of parental obligations and responsibilities Youth skills d evelo p ment a nd tra ining , inc lud ing sexua lity, c o nflic t a nd a ng e r management, leadership and rights education Co-ordination of existing services and networks and development of capacity Tra ining o f Po lic e a nd Child Pro tec tio n Servic es a nd Co urt Offic ia ls in c a se management. Support, healing and re-integration programmes for victims and families The g enera l inc id enc e o f c hild se xua l exp lo ita tio n c a ses in Atla ntis is no t kno w n. Ho w ever Mo lo Song olo lo ha s ha d c o nsistent a nd susta ine d c o nta c t o ver the p a st three m o nths w ith tw enty g irls a nd yo ung w o m en, w ho a re sexua lly exp lo ited , ha ve b een sexua lly exp lo ited o r a re p o tentia lly a t risk o f b eing sexua lly exp lo ited . In a d d itio n a w ee kend c a m p w a s held in Se p tem b er 2004 fo r fo rty-nine g irls c o nsid ere d b e ing p o tentia lly a t risk o f end ing up in sexua lly exp lo ita tive situa tio ns. The re a re a lso c o ntinued a necdotal a c c o unts o f g irls a s yo ung a s nine a nd ten ye a rs o f a g e a nd o ther o ld er g irls b e ing sexua lly exp lo ited p o ssib ly for p ro fit o r g a in w ithin the b a c kya rd o r suike r-huisie set up . Fig ures a re d iffic ult to o b ta in, a s the p ra c tic e o f c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n is still la rg ely hid d en a nd stig m a tised w ithin the c o m m unity. Ac c o rd ing to the sta tion Co m m a nd er o f the Atla ntis Polic e Sta tio n there ha s b een a n inc re a se in re p o rting o f ra p e a nd sexua l a ssa ult w ithin Atla ntis sinc e the Mo lo So ng o lolo a w a reness c a m p a ig n d uring 2004.27 There ha s ho w ever b een a d ec re a se in rep o rting o f p ro stitutio n in g enera l, this inc lud es c hild 27

Interview with Superintendent Joseph conducted on 2 June 2005

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

85


Molo Songololo

prostitution.28 The Dep a rtm ent o f Justic e rep o rts tha t it ha s no t p ro sec uted a ny c a ses o f p ro stitutio n fo r the p erio d 2004 to the p rese nt a nd it d o es no t ha ve c a ses o n the c urrent court role.29 Mo lo So ng o lo lo a nd the Dep a rtm ent o f So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Alle via tion in the Western Ca p e id entified sexua l a b use a nd sexua l exp lo ita tion o f c hild ren in Atla ntis a s a serious a nd g ro w ing p ro b le m tha t need s stra teg ic intervention o n d ifferent levels to combat it. The p ro g ra m me fa c ilita ted b y Mo lo So ng o lo lo a nd fund ed b y the Western Cape Department o f So c ia l Servic es a nd Po verty Allevia tio n is a im ed a t c o m b a ting c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. It ha s b e en a c ha lleng ing initia tive a nd ha s p ro vid e d Mo lo So ng o lo lo a n o p p o rtunity to c re a te suc h stra teg ic interventio ns a t c o m m unity level to resc ue , exit, a nd sup p o rt a nd e m p o w er yo ung p eo p le a t risk a nd those forced into prostitution. The m o st c ha lleng ing a sp ec ts ha ve thus fa r b een to c rea te interventio ns in the d em a nd factors as well as accessing girls who are or have been sexually exploited. It has also been a c ha lleng e to p ro vid e a nd fa c ilita te fo r sig nific a nt a lterna tive , sup p o rt, c a re a nd protection for children and young people. This report will highlight not only the activities of the p ro jec t a nd the ro le-p la yers a nd b ene fic ia ries; b ut w ill a lso fo c us o n the c ha lleng es experienced thus far and lessons learnt.

28 29

Ibid. Interview with Advocate Liezl America

Control State Prosecutor at the Atlantis Magistrate s court conducted on 6 June 2005

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

86


Molo Songololo

Part 4: B Strengths and challenges of the project B.1 Strengths of the project: Community Counsellors The p re senc e o f c o m m unity c o unsello rs in sc ho o ls p ro vid e d a g o o d o p p o rtunity fo r o ng o ing p ro visio n o f info rm a tio n, c o unselling a nd sup p o rt to c hild ren a s w ell a s teachers. There exists a stro ng rela tionship o f trust b etw een ed uc a to rs a t sc ho o l a nd Mo lo counsellors and staff The counsellors were extremely responsive to the needs of schools, and would respond immediately if contacted for assistance. There was a high degree of satisfaction with the content of the workshops and training that Molo offered. Sc ho o ls a nd c o m m unity m e m b ers felt tha t the c o unsello rs p ro vid e d a n inva lua b le first level contact to discuss cases There w a s muc h a p p re c ia tio n exp re sse d fo r the fa c t tha t loc a l c o unsello rs w ere recruited and trained Org a niza tio ns rep orted tha t the existenc e o f the c o unsello rs help ed them to id entify c a ses, a s o ften c o unsello rs w ere the ones w ho w o rked o n the g round w ithin communities. There w a s a p p rec ia tio n fo r the fa c t tha t the c o unsello r b a se w a s d iverse , in tha t it sp a nne d b o th c o lo ured a nd b la c k me m b ers. Co unsello rs w ere resp ec ted a nd a d m ired fo r their d e d ic a tio n a nd c o m m itm ent to their w o rk in the m id st o f trying c irc um sta nc es: a p o verty stric ken c o m m unity w ith hig h levels of violence, and the fact that they were working without remuneration. Sc ho o ls w ere very a p p rec ia tive o f the w o rk c o unsello rs c a rried o ut in sc ho o ls: Co m m ents the Hea d o f the Atla ntis Princ ip les Fo rum : the c o unsello rs a t sc ho o ls ha ve restruc tured the w a y tha t a b use is d ea lt w ith a nd tre a ted a nd hea le d in sc ho o ls. The Mo lo p ro g ra m me ha s b ec o m e a n integ ra l p a rt o f the p ro c ess a nd it need s to c o ntinue .

B.2 Challenges of the project: Community Counsellors Schoo ls exp re ssed c o nc ern a b o ut w ha t they susp e c ted w a s the b a sic level o f tra ining that counsellors had received through Molo. There w a s c onc ern a b o ut the low num b ers o f c o unsello rs a va ila b le fo r follo w up w ith individual cases The la c k o f a c c re d ita tio n o f c ounsello r tra ining w a s ra ised a s a d iffic ulty in ensuring buy-in of cases from the medical and social welfare department There w a s c o nc ern a b o ut w ho w o uld inherit the c o unsello rs if Mo lo left Atla ntis: this ha d to d o w ith the fa c t tha t a ll sta keho ld ers w a nted the w o rk o f the c o unsello rs to continue, but no one was certain who would carry forward this responsibility. There w a s c o nc ern a b o ut the la c k o f tra nsp o rt fo r c o m m unity c o unsello rss, w hic h m a d e it m o re likely tha t a re a s a ro und the Molo o ffic e b e servic e d , a nd no t tho se areas that required transport to travel to. So m e c o m m unity m e m b ers a s w ell a s sc ho o ls ra ise d the id e a of intro d uc ing allowances for community counsellors. In resp o nse to the q uestio n o n ho w the c o unsello rs c o uld inc re a se their o w n effectiveness, the following points were raised by counsellors and schools: Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

87


Molo Songololo

access to transport, increased, specialized and accredited training, o p p o rtunities to lea rn fro m o ther c o unsello rs in o ther c o m m unities w o rking o n sim ila r problems increased knowledge on drugs, inc re a se d a w a reness o f p ush fa c to rs tha t p ro p el c hild ren into sexua lly exp lo ita tive situations, working with families.

B.3 Strengths a nd Cha llenges of the Project: Awa reness raising: (including training, public awareness, community participation) Strengths of the project: Awareness raising A hig h d eg ree o f a p p rec ia tio n w a s exp re ssed a b o ut the c o ntent a nd q ua lity o f Mo lo training, particularly the camps. The Mo lo a p p ro a c h ensured tha t in so m e insta nc es, yo uth w ho a ttend ed tra ining programmes a lso b ec a m e tra iners them selves w ithin the c o m m unity, there b y enhancing a replicating effect. All yo uth interview ed w ere very a p p rec ia tive o f Mo lo s tra ining , p ro fessio na lism a nd a b ility to und ersta nd a nd e m p a thize w ith their life situa tio n. Co m m ents a hig h sc ho o ls student: fo r the first tim e I felt tha t I c ould ta lk a b out m y situa tio n a t ho m e, b e c a use there were young people who were used to train us. This helped me to open up about things in my life that had been very painful and difficult to deal with. Molo ha s help e d trem end ously to inc rea se the visib ility o f c hild a b use in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s - So c ia l Servic es a t d istric t level in p a rtic ula r noted tha t there ha d b een a m a rked d ec re a se in the rep o rting o f c hild a b use inc id enc es sinc e Mo lo s p ublic awareness raising programme started. All sta keho ld ers a g ree d tha t the d eg re e o f kno w le d g e a nd a w a reness a ro und c hild a b use ha s c o ntrib uted to inc re a sed c o m m unity vig ila nc e in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. Re m a rks a m ed ic a l he a lth p ro fessio na l fo r Atla ntis Prim a ry He a lth Ca re Clinic : Mo lo w a s suc c essful in p ro vid ing a b rid g e b etw ee n lo c a l hea lth servic es a nd the c o m m unity. They fille d the g a p s tha t w e ha ve in p erso n p ow er b ec a use they w o rke d on the ground. The im m e d ia te a va ila b ility o f Mo lo sta ff to d ea l w ith susp ec ted rep o rts o f c hild a b use was highly appreciated across the board. Molo ha s help e d to d evelo p yo uth role m o d els thro ug h their tra ining w ho in turn w ill inform a more responsible parenting role for such youth. Sc ho o ls re p o rted tha t there w a s a m a rked , p o sitive d ifferenc e b etw een tho se lea rners w ho a ttend ed Mo lo tra ining p ro g ra m m es a nd c a m p s, a nd tho se w ho d id no t. Le a rners w ho a ttend ed a re m o re a w a re o f their rig hts a s c hild ren, a nd a re a b le to a ssert tha t rig ht o n b eha lf o f self a nd o thers. Suc h le a rners w ere a lso mo re likely to sp e a k up fo r o ther lea rners w ho m a y b e b ullied o r vic tim ize d a t sc ho ols, a nd in so m e c a ses b ec a m e w histle b lo w ers to a lert tea c hers o f susp e c ted c hild a b use o r d rug problems experienced by fellow learners. Non-governm enta l Org a niza tio ns m e m b ers rep o rted tha t the Mo lo tra ining ena b le d them to w ork w ith existing c hild a b uses c a ses w ith a fa r g re a ter d e a l o f effic ienc y a nd effe c tivene ss tha n b e fo re. Their d etec tio n skills ha d b e en im p ro ved , a nd they b etter und erstoo d the rela tio nship b etw een the leg a l a nd so c io -ec o no m ic a sp e c ts tha t impacts and shapes child abuse. In this regard, it was felt that the Molo training enha nc es a nd fa c ilita tes the existing tra ining tha t NGO a nd other hea lth a nd community facilitators receive from their own sources. Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

88


Molo Songololo

Molo p ro vid ed o ther p ro fessio na ls a nd fa c ilita to rs w ith stra teg ic a ssista nc e , p a rtic ula rly in matters of how to take cases further, and with identifying relevant authorities to deal with cases. Molo ena b led p revio usly iso la ted ind ivid ua ls w ho p ro vid e d info rm a l a ssista nc e in c o m m unities (p a rtic ula rly Witsa nd s) to rec e ive tra ining a nd exp a nd the effe c tiveness of their work through linking up with other organizations. The sc hoo ls w ere p a rtic ula rly p lea sed w ith the w o rk tha t Mo lo c a rrie d o ut a nd sa w Molo a s a va lua b le a nd nec essa ry so urc e o f sup p o rt fo r their o w n effo rts tha t w ere often ineffectual because of resource constraints. NGOs re p o rted tha t a s a result o f Mo lo tra ining , they w ere no w a b le to m a ke use o f a w id er ra ng e of skills to enha nc e the effec tiveness o f their w o rk. Co m ments a c hurc h b a sed c o unsello r a s a result o f the tra ining , I a m m o re a w a re, I w a tc h b eha vio r a nd I a m m o re rec e p tive - I c a n p ic k up the sig ns q uic kly a nd so a m a b le to g e t appropriate help faster. Molo w a s a lso reg a rd ed a s ha ving a n o p en d o o r p o lic y, a nd a lw a ys a va ila b le fo r assistance and guidance beyond the training.

B.4 Challenges facing the Project: Awareness raising So m e o rg a niza tio ns rep o rted d isc o m fo rt a b out the m e d ia c o vera g e tha t Mo lo brought to the issue o f p ro stitutio n in Atla ntis. Co m m ented a p rinc ip a l it is not that the p ro b le m d oesn t exist, b ut w hy d id w e ha ve to b e sing led o ut in the m ed ia a nd o n TV? There w a s c o nc ern ra ise d a b o ut the a m ount o f fo llow up tha t Mo lo c o uld d o w ith yo ung p eo p le w ho ha d a ttend ed tra ining sessio ns, a nd the issue o f susta ina b ility around training impact was raised. Stakeholders interviewed felt that in some cases, the training given was too short to be a d e q ua te. In this insta nc e , resp o nd ents req uested m o re in-depth tra ining o n the leg a l aspects of child abuse.

Resp ond ents from som e p rima ry sc hoo ls q uestio ned the w isd o m of p resenting d ra m a s a nd role p la ys to young a nd susc ep tib le c hild ren. Com m ented a p rim a ry sc hool p rinc ip a l these c hild ren a re to o young to understa nd the d ifferenc e b etw een c hild a b use a nd o rd ina ry a ffec tio n tha t they fa ther o f sib ling s show them, so it causes confusion in their minds. He a lth o ffic ia ls re p o rted c o nc ern a b o ut the lo w level o f visib ility o f Mo lo in p ub lic hea lth fa c ilities. It w a s felt tha t Mo lo s a d vertising o f its servic es w a s insuffic ient, a nd talks and seminars conducted in clinics could have enhanced its public presence. Ad d itio na l tra ining sho uld ha ve b e en o ffe red to c o m p lem ent the tra ining a lrea d y provided, for example, focusing on emotional abuse, peer pressure and drug abuse. Co nc ern w a s a lso ra ised tha t the tra ining Mo lo p ro vid e d , fo c used m a inly o n the c hild ren a nd exc lud e d their p a rents. In this reg a rd , it w a s felt tha t it m a kes no sense to send a reha b ilita ted c hild b a c k to a n unreha b ilita ted ho useho ld . Sp e c ific req uests w ere m a d e fo r tra ining p a rents o n ea rly d etec tio n, o r the esta b lishment o f a p a rent support group to work in tandem with the work that Molo does with individual cases. So m e te a c hers felt tha t they w e re no t suffic iently d ra w n into d isc ussio ns a b o ut the na ture a nd c o ntent o f the p ro g ra m m es tha t Mo lo ra n w ith their stud ents, a nd tha t Molo d id no t d eb rie f them a t the end o f tra ining . This w a s felt to ha m p er linka g e s between support offered at school and the training offered by Molo.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

89


Molo Songololo

Part 4: Results and assessments: C. Strengths and challenges of the project:

The Molo case study: The Mo lo c a se stud y id entified 20 c hild ren a nd yo uth w ho w ere either a t risk o f b ec o m ing sexua lly exp loited , o r w ere a lrea d y c o m m erc ia lly sexua lly exp lo ited in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. The Mo lo c a se stud y w a s sp e c ific a lly a im e d a t enc o ura g ing c hild re n to le a ve se xua lly exp lo ita tive situa tio ns a nd he lp tho se w ho w ere a t risk o f b eing d ra w n into commercial sexual exploitation. The aims of the project were as follows: To exit children from sexual exploitation To provide assistance and support in their healing and recovery To put in place a sustainable strategy based on the needs of sexually exploited children Mo lo s w o rk w ith this g roup w a s a n a ttem p t to eng a g e w ith these yo ung p eo p le a nd w o rk to b uild their self-esteem . This w a s a c hieve d thro ug h the p ro visio n o f va rio us diversionary activities. These activities included: Help ing the g irls b a c k into ed uc a tio n or to fo c us o n their ed uc a tion if they w ere in schools, providing access to computer training, and p ro vid ing info rm a tio n a nd sup p o rt o n a num b er o f to p ic s inc lud ing d rug s, he a lth, sexual health, contraception, and information and access to Social Services. Of the original 20 girls who were identified, only 12 have been retained in the programme. It appears that the 8 participants left for a range of push and pull factors: the push factors were as a result of the lack of available alternative opportunities in Atlantis, and the pull factors included seeking access to work opportunities in areas outside of Atlantis.

The evaluation of the case study sought to answer the following questions: What was the intention and objectives of the case study? What was the exit, support and recovery intervention strategies used? What was the result of the intervention? What lessons can be learned?

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

90


Molo Songololo

Case study participants 1

Person A

Exited sexual exploitation fully participated

2

Person B

Exited sexual exploitation fully participated

3

Person C

Exited sexual exploitation in Saldanha participated albeit limited

4

Person D

Highly at risk. Fully participated

5

Person E

Highly at risk. Participated

6

Person F

Highly at risk. Fully participated

7

Person G

Highly at risk. Fully participated

8

Person H

Sexually exploited. Fully participated

9

Person I

Sexually exploited. Fully participated

10

Person J

Sexually exploited. Fully participated

11

Person K

Sexually exploited. Initial struggle eventually full participation

12

Person L

Sexually exploited. Fully participated

13

Person M

Highly at risk. Initial fully participation, relocated out of community to safe place due to threats to her life by gang leader

14

Person N

Highly at risk Agreed but always reluctant, limited to no participation

15

Person O

Highly at risk. Agreed but boyfriend beat her for talking to MS

16

Person P

Sexually exploited. Family does not want her to engage with girls in prostitution.

17

Person Q

Highly at risk. Left Atlantis

18

Person R

Highly at risk. Left to Upington

19

Person S

SA is SM

20

Person T

Sexually exploited. Unable to locate her

C.1 Results of Focus Group Discussions: The rem a ining g irls in the c a se stud y w ere interview ed extensively o n the im p a c t b e ing in sexually exploitative situations had on their own sense of self. All of the girls were extremely a p p rec ia tive o f the d ed ic a tio n, c o m m itm ent a nd no n-jud g m e nta l w a y in w hic h Mo lo sta ff c a rrie d o ut their w o rk. Co m m ented o ne if it w a sn t fo r Mo lo , I w o uld no t ha ve ha d the c o ura g e to g et o ff the streets, b ec a use no one c o uld re a c h m e, no t even m y parents. Now I at least think that there is another life that is possible for me. They reported the fo llo w ing sym p to m s tha t they w ere still exp erienc ing a s effec ts o f the sexua l exploitation that they had been involved in: Rec urring m e m o ries o f stressful inc id enc es fro m their p a st, w hether fro m their c hild hoo d sexua l a b use exp erienc e , o r a b use exp erienc ed w hile thro ug h sexua l exploitation; Dreams of stressful episodes from the past Fear that stressful episodes may re-occur Avoidance of thinking or feeling about past stress Tendency to use drugs as an antidote to coping with memories Experiencing problems at times with remembering stress from the past. Loss of interest in self, career, family Feeling distant and cut off from people Feeling numb, and unable to form trusting relationships Feel as if there is no real future Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

91


Molo Songololo

Trouble falling or staying asleep Feeling irritable or having angry outbursts Difficulty in concentrating Feeling on guard and watchful at all times Feeling jumpy or easily startled Feeling d ra w n to d rug s, a nd in so m e c a ses c o ntinuing to rely o n a lc o ho l o r tik to cope. It is clear that the psychological effects of sexual exploitation continue to live with the girls even thoug h they ha ve fo rm a lly exited fro m c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tion. Ag a in, it m ust b e e m p ha size d tha t there exists unc onfirm e d sp ec ula tio n tha t a t le a st 3 g irls a re still a c tively invo lved in c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n. At this p o int in the p rojec t c yc le , it is the p syc ho lo g ic a l e ffe c ts o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n tha t c urrently p uts these g irls m o re a t risk o f returning to c o m m erc ia l sexua l a c tivity, o r to rem a in sc a rred b y their exp erienc e , a nd thus una b le to reinteg ra te suc c essfully b a c k into so c iety. Interview s w ith the p a rents o f these girls yielded a similar worrying picture.

Parents displayed the following observations and feelings about their children: Apathy in some cases about what their daughters were involved in. A stro ng c o nc ern w ith ec o no m ic surviva l tha t o ver rid es a c o nc ern a b out ho w their daughters were earning their money Complaints about having to cope with the children of their daughters in their absence A lack of communication between parents and children Gra tefulness exp resse d a b o ut Mo lo s w o rk, b ut w ith a m a rke d sense o f d e ta c hm ent from the intention of the work In o ne c a se , a view w a s exp ressed : w ha t w o uld ha p p en to the fa m ily if tha t so urc e o f support was not there With tho se fa m ilies w ho w ere sup p o rtive o f the p ro g ra m me , a stro ng relia nc e on Molo s c o unsello rs w a s exp resse d to sup p o rt p a rents a nd fa m ily m e m b e rs a s they try to cope with the problem. Overa ll, a sense o f help lessness a nd ho p e lessness w hen it c a m e to d ea ling w ith the problem at a household level.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

92


Molo Songololo

C.2 Success of the case study The exit, sup p o rt a nd rec o very stra teg y utilized b y Mo lo inc lud e d ind ivid ua l a nd g ro up sessio ns, c a m p s a nd retrea ts fa c ilita ted b y tra ined c o unsello rs a nd o rg a niza tio ns, m eeting s w ith p a rents, a nd ta lking to p ro stitutes w ho w ere so lic iting se rvic es o n the streets. The exit fro m c o m m erc ia l sexua l a c tivity o f a t lea st 60% o f the c a se stud y is a n indicator of the partial success of the project.

This approach yielded some successes but also some challenges. The success of the case study includes the following: Behavioral change

The following behavioral changes were observed: Changes in community attitudes Increase in awareness and knowledge about prostitution in Atlantis Increased willingness to admit that a problem does exist Increase in acceptance of support services from external service providers Increased community vigilance about commercial sexual exploitation Decrease of stigmatization of girls coming for assistance to Molo Willingness of other young people to assist and work with girls in case study Co m m erc ia l sexua l exp loita tio n a n item o f d isc ussio n o n the a g end a o f m o st servic e providers. Cha nges in girls rela tionship with self: Willingness to come forward and talk openly about past Willingness to work in a network with others to discuss common issues and challenges Openness to deal with push factors into commercial sexual activity with counsellors Fragile re-valuing of self and self worth Increased responsibility for own life and decisions Ability to set goals for future Changes in family relationships: Changed norms, attitudes and behavior from girls to parents Accelerating own maturity and growth in order to compensate for lack in parental skill or ability Withd ra w a l fro m p a rents if no t sup p o rtive, a nd inc re a se d d esire fo r ec o no m ic independence Commitment to building healthier families of their own in future Changes in sexual and reproductive behavior: Willingness to conduct monogamous relationships Able to negotiate condom use Taking responsibility for reproductive health by going for regular HIV/AIDS testing More conscious of relationship of sexual self and the abuse of drugs Beg inning to b e a b le to und ersta nd sexua l b eha vio r in rela tio n to b ro a d er so c io economic issues A desire to have healthier relationships with partners and other men in future

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

93


Molo Songololo

C.3 Remaining challenges: There a re a num b er o f c ha lleng es tha t still exist, a nd tha t w ill influenc e the susta ina b ility o f the work with these young girls. These include: Beha vio ra l c ha ng e in the c o mm unity is slo w , a ltho ug h there ha s b een enc oura g ing improvements The c urrent d ep end e nc e o f the g irls in the c a se stud y o n Mo lo is w o rrying . This d e p end enc y is c o m p letely norm a l g iven the c urrent p ro jec t c yc le , b ut it is extrem ely d o ub tful tha t the c o m m itm ent o f the g irls to a b sta in fro m c o m me rc ia l sexua l exploitation will continue beyond active Molo involvement The p syc ho lo g ic a l hea ling need s o f the g irls a re im m ense . Altho ug h they ha ve p a rtic ip a ted in c o unselling w o rksho p s, these m erely served to op en up the b eg inning o f a d isc ussio n w ith them selves a nd o thers a b o ut their p a st (a nd in so m e c a ses, their present). The a p a thy o f so m e p a rents w a s extrem ely w o rrying . In this reg a rd , no stra teg y c a n o r sho uld b e d ivorc ed fro m w o rking w ith the struc tura l rea so ns c a using this a p a thy fro m parents. In o nly a few c a ses w ere g irls linked up w ith tra ining o p p o rtunities - in this c a se , c o m p uter tra ining . Unless this typ e o f o p p o rtunity is enc o ura g e d a nd fa c ilita ted b y Molo , it is d o ub tful tha t the g irls w ill turn their p syc ho lo g ic a l c o m m itm ent to c ha ng e into a more concrete, tangible action. The g irls a ll exp ressed a d esire to g et o ut o f c o m m erc ia l sexua l a c tivity, b ut the fa c t that a number of them still make use of recreational drugs means that any intervention w o uld ha ve to fo c us o n the rela tio nship b etw een inc rea sed vulnera b ility o f yo ung g irls o n d rug s. At the sa m e tim e , there a re a lso hig h rep o rted levels o f d rug a b use in Atla ntis a nd surround ing a re a s tha t a lso inc re a se s the vulnera b ility o f g irls o utsid e o f the Molo case study.

C.4 Key institutional insights and lessons learned: Case study The o p p o rtunity fo r o rg a niza tio na l le a rning b a sed o n the exp erie nc e o f the exit, re c o very a nd sup p o rt stra teg y tha t w a s utilized b y Mo lo in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a rea s is im m ense a nd ric h a s a c a se stud y fo r re p lic a tio n in o ther a re a s w here sim ila r p ro b le m s exists. The following insights and lessons can be discerned from the Molo case study: Co m m unity b uy-in a nd sup p o rt is c ruc ia l fo r o w nership a nd future p ro g ra m m e a uto no m y a nd ind ep end enc e. This ha s to b e d e a lt w ith sensitively, b ec a use tra d itio na lly rura l c o m m unities a re extrem ely susp ic io us o f urb a n-b a se d o rg a niza tio ns tha t they feel o ften d o n t susta in the initia l p rojec t exc item e nt into a susta ina b le community presence owned by the community. Awareness of the micro climate that exist in the community, shaped by experiences of d isp o ssessio n, b re a kd o w n of fa m ilies, une m p lo ym ent a nd a se a rc h for id entity ho ld s ric h c lues to the rea so n w hy a seem ing a p a thy exists a ro und issues o f c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n fo r w hic h a hig h d e g ree of m o ra l into lera nc e exists a t a m a c ro c lim a te level. In this insta nc e , it m a y w ell b e tha t c o m m unities w ho tra d itio na lly w o uld b e vo c a l a b o ut these kind o f issues d evelo p a hig h, tho ug h p a ssive , resista nc e w hen it o c c urs w ithin their ho useho ld s. Here , the link b etw een the struc tura l vio lenc e o f Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

94


Molo Songololo

unem p lo yment a nd p oo r e c ono m ic p ro sp ec ts ha ve to b e und ersto o d in rela tio n to its impact on prevailing attitudes and behaviors within communities. The c o m m unity o f Atla ntis w a s initia lly extrem ely a nta g o nistic to w ha t they reg a rd ed a s a n exp o sure o f a p ro b le m tha t until then ha d a n a ttitud ina l a nd sta tistic a l invisib ility. In this reg a rd , it is im p o rta nt tha t the d efense o f the rig hts o f c hild ren a nd yo uth is no t sa c rific ed fo r the sa ke o f a c o m munity w ho m a y no t w a nt to b e id entifie d a s ha ving a p ro b le m a ro und p ro stitutio n. These typ es o f ta b o o s sho uld a lw a ys b e a d d ressed w ith c o ura g e a nd c o m m itm ent, b ut a lso w ith so und b a sic kno w le d g e a nd understanding of the social and moral fabric of such communities. Pub lic ed uc a tio n a nd a w a reness ra ising is ke y to visib ilise the issue. So und rese a rc h, utilizing a representative sample and members of the local community to conduct the rese a rc h is ke y to ensure rese a rc h c re d ib ility a nd o w nership . Co m m unities sho uld a lso be allowed to generate their own solutions. Co m m unic a tion a nd info rm a tio n is vita l to effe c tively a d d ress the issue , p a rtic ula rly b etw een p a rents a nd c hild re n, te a c hers a nd lea rners, NGOs a nd g o vernm ent d e p a rtm ents. The esta b lishm ent a nd m a intena nc e o f netw o rks to c re a te c o ng ruenc e and a co-ordinated approach is vital to ensure success. The invo lvem ent o f tea c hers a nd p a rents is ke y. Pro vid ing to o ls a nd g uid a nc e thro ug h workshops and focus groups is empowering and encourages action. Reb uild ing self-esteem thro ug h hea ling a nd c o nnec ting w orksho p s is ke y to reconnecting the target group with self, family and community. Ha ving m e nta l hea lth p ro fessio na ls w ork ind ivid ua lly w ith the ta rg et g ro up is nec essa ry to offer the individualized, specialized care that is required. The o p p o rtunity fo r the ta rg et g ro up to sp ea k o ut a b o ut their exp erienc e s c a n b e inc re d ib ly em p o w ering fo r sexua lly exp lo ited yo uth, not o nly to their p eers b ut a lso to p o lic y m a kers. The sha ring o f exp erienc e s a nd p ub lic rec o g nitio n o f the p ro b le m facilitates public recognition and community reintegration.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

95


Molo Songololo

Part 5: D.

Sustainability issues

Susta ina b ility ha s b ee n a ke y issue fo r Mo lo fro m p ro jec t inc e p tio n thro ug h to p ro jec t im p le m enta tion. Susta ina b ility a lso e m erg ed a s a ke y issue for c o m m unity a nd o rg a niza tio na l sta keho ld ers d uring the eva lua tio n p ro c ess. The und ersta nd ing o f susta ina b ility va ried g rea tly: fo r so m e o rg a niza tio ns it m e a nt w a ys o f c o ntinuing w ith a sp ec ts o f Mo lo s w o rk, fo r o thers it m e a nt tha t existing o rg a niza tions w o uld ta ke o ver the Molo mandate upon project completion. For Molo, sustainability meant The a b ility o f the p ro jec t to c o ntinue w ith a fa ir a m ount o f ind e p e nd enc e fo r a s lo ng a s is nec essa ry a fter the fina nc ia l, te c hnic a l a nd m a na g e ria l a ssista nc e fro m Mo lo a nd the De p a rtm e nt o f So c ia l Servic e s a nd Poverty Allevia tio n end s, w ith the d e p end e nc e b e c o m ing less a s c a p a c ity a nd ow nership is tra nsferred to sta tuto ry a nd non-statutory b o d ies . The eva lua tio n utilized the und ersta nd ing o f susta ina b ility fro m a ll p a rties to a ssess the d eg re e a nd likeliho o d tha t p ro jec t b enefit a nd a c tivities w ill c o ntinue a fte r the fund ing c a m e to a n end . The fo llo w ing ta b le illustra tes a n a ssessm ent o f p ro jec t susta ina b ility beyond project funding. The table utilizes information received during extensive interviews w ith a ll sta keho ld e rs, a nd p rim a ry a s w ell a s sec o nd a ry b ene fic ia ries. The Atla ntis p ro jec t w a s a ssessed a c c o rd ing to the susta ina b ility ind ic a to rs using a sc a le o f o ne to three ticks, representing low (*), medium (**), or high (***) ratings.

Table 1: Assessment of Project Sustainability Sustainability Indicator

Assessment of Performance

Knowled g e of M olo s w ork

***

Receptiveness to issues around child abuse and sexual exploitation Experience, knowledge and skills to deal with issues Many organizations reported positive benefit from work of Molo

Community members willing to take up issues of child abuse and sexual exploitation Involvement of organizations in project planning Many organizations supported continuation of the project Many organizations reported that they were

** *

**

*

**

***

*

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Project Eva lua tor s Comments All stakeholders were aware of Molo s w ork There still exists lingering resistance to accept the scale and depth of the problem Very high reliance on Molo to p rovide specialist knowledge and skills Mixed responses-most organizations felt tha t Molo s w ork w a s p ositive, particularly work in schools. Some negativity existed around work with sexually exploited children Community aware of issues, but unwilling and unable to take up issues Organizations were consulted at project inceptions, but reported that the consultation ended after the initial consultation All organizations expressed a strong need for the continued work of Molo Organizations reported that they did not have the skills, resources or 96


Molo Songololo

willing and able to take up Molo mission Many organizations reported that they were now able to work more effectively with cases such as child abuse Molo used a train-the trainer approach, using extrainees to train others

The train-the-trainer approach was active Molo works with and through existing projects

*

*

* **

Molo addresses needs expressed by the community

**

The Molo approach was child-centered and gender-sensitive

***

capacity to take up the work that Molo was currently performing Organizations reported awareness, but not really skills. They were able to discuss and detect cases, but were unable to do more than that. The methodology that Molo used was participative and empowering, so an unintended consequence of this w a s a tra ining of tra iner s approach. The methodology was not strongly developed and integrated into training activities Molo worked well with a number of organizations, but more could have been done to ensure stronger coordination of approach and implementation The needs that Molo took up were clearly established as areas of needs. However, the extent of community participation and buy-in to the project was identified as an ongoing concern All sta kehold ers a g reed tha t Molo s approach was both child focused and gender sensitive

D.1 Assessment of Project Sustainability: Planning for sustainability: Molo introduced the Atlantis project from its inception as a time lim ited p ro jec t, w ith p rojec t sup p o rt fo r three ye a rs o nly. All o rg a niza tio ns w e re c o nsulted a b o ut this, a nd the lim ited c o ntra c tua l tim e link w ith the Western Ca p e Dep a rtm ent o f So c ia l Welfa re a nd Po verty Allevia tio n m a d e c le a r to m em b ers o f the c o m m unity. Pa rt o f Mo lo s a ttem p ts to ensure p rojec t susta ina b ility inc lud e d tra ining lea rners in sc ho o ls a nd o n c a m p s, ind ivid ua l c o unselling sessio ns w ith sc ho ol b a sed c o unsello rs, o utrea c h a nd field w o rk to id entify yo ung w o m en a t risk or invo lved in sexua l exp lo ita tio n, a s w ell a s ongoing public education workshops and awareness raising sessions. Ho w ever, it is c le a r fro m the eva lua tio n a nd a ssessm ent of c urrent skill levels o f o rg a niza tio ns in Atla ntis tha t they d o no t ha ve the c a p a c ity, skills o r reso urc e s to ta ke o n the sp ec ia list w o rk tha t Mo lo c urrently p erform s. In this reg a rd , the p ro jec t w o rk w ith the yo ung w o men in the c a se stud y is o f p a rtic ula r c o nc ern. It is c le a r tha t neither So c ia l Servic es (Atla ntis) no r the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk ha ve the c a p a c ity to d ea l w ith the case study. The inclination and the awareness is there, but insufficient skills, combined with reso urc e c o nstra ints m e a ns tha t the young w o m en w ill fa ll thro ug h the c ra c ks, in the sa m e w a y tha t yo ung w o m en w ho a re no t p a rt o f the c a se stud y a re fa lling thro ug h the c ra c ks. When q uestioned o n their w illing ness to ta ke up a sp ec ts o f Mo lo s w o rk, a ll o rg a niza tio ns re p o rted tha t they reg a rd e d Mo lo a s the only skilled servic e p ro vid er, w ith the netw o rks a nd c re d ib ility, to ta ke fo rw a rd these issues. One o f the ke y ind ic a to rs o f o w nership w o uld ha ve b een if lo c a l o rg a niza tio ns ha d exp resse d w illing ne ss to run w ith the issues w itho ut Mo lo . No ne interview ed w ere w illing o r felt a b le to d o so . On o ne le vel this c a n b e interp reted a s a la c k o f o rg a niza tio na l c o nfid enc e , b ut g iven the Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

97


Molo Songololo

o rg a niza tio na l a ssessm ent o f existing c a p a c ity, it is c le a r tha t there exists a w o rrying c o m p etenc y c ha lleng e a mo ng st servic e p ro vid ers a ro und tw o rela ted a re a s: skills a s w ell a s w illing ness to ta ke up the issue o f c o m m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n. At a so c ieta l level, there rem a ins a n una c c ep ta b ly hig h level o f stig m a tiza tio n o f the issue a nd g irls a ffe c ted b y it. This stig m a tiza tio n exists unc o m fo rta b ly a lo ng sid e a fa ir d eg ree o f a w a reness o f p ull and push factors surrounding commercial sexual exploitation.

D.2 Support of the Depa rtment of Socia l Services a nd Poverty Alleviation: The sup p o rt o f the Dep a rtm ent o f So c ia l servic es w a s ke y to the im p le m enta tio n a nd p o sitive b enefit of the p ro jec t in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. The De p a rtm e nt reg a rd ed the Pro jec t a s a p ilo t tha t m a y very w ell illum ina te im p o rta nt issues o f c o m m unity c o nc ern tha t c o uld b e le a rned fro m a nd p o ssib ly re p lic a ted elsew here . In this reg a rd , the Dep a rtm ent ha s suc c e ed e d in tha t there: exists a n a c tive c a se stud y. The im p le m enta tion o f the p ilot a nd the c a se stud y in p a rtic ula r p ro vid e a m o d el fro m w hic h lessons c a n b e d ra w n. The ke y lesso ns lea rne d rela te p a rtic ula rly to c o lla b o ra tio n a nd p a rtnership s b etw een sta tuto ry a nd no n-sta tuto ry b o d ies. The p ilo t p ro jec t hig hlig hted a ke y issue tha t ha d b een la rg ely invisib le until the p io ne ering w o rk tha t Mo lo c a rrie d o ut in p a rtnership w ith the Dep a rtm ent. In this insta nc e , the Dep a rtm ent ha s to b e c o m mend e d fo r its p ro a c tive a p p ro a c h to a p ro b le m tha t ha d hitherto b een ig no red . Ho w ever, there a re issues o f c o nc ern tha t serves a s ke y insig hts a nd lesso ns le a rned if a p ro jec t suc h a s this is rolled out in the future: Co lla b o ra tio n b etw ee n the Western Ca p e De p a rtm e nt a nd the Distric t b a sed So c ia l Servic es re p re senta tives a re ke y to ensure tha t the p ro vinc ia l sup p o rt is c o nc retized in district level memorandum of agreement and partnership. Reg ula r m eeting s b e tw een the rep resenta tives o f the Dep a rtm ent a nd the servic e p ro vid er a re ke y to ensure tha t there exists a n o ng o ing d ia lo g ue b eyond the ha nd ing in of quarterly reports. De p a rtme nta l o w nership o f the Pro jec t w ith a c le a r lo c us o f re p o rt, c ontro l a nd m a intena nc e . A num b er o f De p a rtm enta l sta ff ha d b een a ssig ned to the p ro jec t sinc e its inc ep tio n, a nd this m a kes c o ntinuity a nd jo ined -up p ro jec t p la nning d iffic ult, even with the best intentions of the staff involved. Integ ra tio n o f p ro jec t o b jec tives into d ep a rtm enta l stra teg ic o b jec tives a nd p la nning so that the aims of the department dovetail clearly with those of the programmes that the Dep a rtm ent sup p o rts. In this reg a rd , it is g o o d to no te tha t this is ind ee d the c a se for the current Departmental Strategic Plan.

Summary on sustainability of the project: The eva lua tio n find ing o n the susta ina b ility o f the p ro jec t is rela tively low , g iven the o ng o ing p reva iling c o m m unity a ttitud es, a nd the la c k o f c a p a c ity a nd sp ec ia list skills tha t exists c urre ntly w ith servic e p ro vid ers in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. It is the o p inio n o f the eva lua to r tha t the exc ellent fo und a tio n tha t Mo lo la id w ith the p ro jec t thus fa r w ill seriously b e ero d e d if the Pro jec t w ere to w ithd ra w fro m Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s. In the c urrent c lim a te o f lo w into lera nc e a g a inst c hild a nd se xua l a b use , it w o uld b e p o litic a lly a nd m o ra lly irresp o nsib le no t to c o ntinue w ith the p ro jec t in Mo lo , a lb e it w ith a tighter focus that draws from current lessons learned.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

98


Molo Songololo

Part 6: F.

Recommendations and Future Roll Out

Project continuation and coverage Molo d id a n exc ellent jo b o f ra ising a w a reness a b o ut the p reventio n, d etec tio n a nd sup p o rt a nd rec o very o f b o th c hild a b use vic tim s a s w ell a s yo uth a t risk, o r in p ro stitution. Co m m unity a w a reness a ro und the issue is hig h, b ut there a re still w o rrying levels o f c o m m unity a p a thy. Given tha t the p ilo t is fa irly yo ung , a nd tha t it is a d d ressing issues fo r w hic h a c erta in d eg ree o f c o m munity to lera nc e existed (sha p e d b y existing soc io -ec o no m ic issues, id entity issues, a s w ell a s a g enera l sense o f ho p elessne ss a b o ut the future), the suc c e ss tha t ha d b een exp e rienc ed b y Mo lo is fa irly re m a rka b le . Cha ng ing ing ra ine d c o m m unity b eha vio r tha t c o nd o nes a nd invisib ilises c hild a b use a nd c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n ta ke s tim e a nd c o nsistent w o rk. It is therefo re rec o m m end ed tha t the Dep a rtm ent c ontinue to sup p o rt the c urrent reha b ilita tio n a nd sup p o rt w o rk w ith the c a se stud y, b ut tha t the existing c a se stud y b e exp a nd ed so tha t the w o rk c a n b e c a rried o ut w ith m o re g irls. It is re c o m mend ed tha t Mo lo ta ke a m o re evo lutiona ry a p p ro a c h in exp a nd ing their w o rk, a nd c o m m enc e w ith ta rg eted a w a reness p ro g ra m m es to yo ung p eo p le in sc ho o l, b ut prioritize young people at risk and out of school. Molo ha s a c hieve d rem a rka b le suc c ess w ith their w o rk to ra ise a w a rene ss a round c hild ren s rig hts a nd c hild a b use . It is rec o m m ended, that in view of current budgetary c o nstra ints, tha t this w o rk b e sc a led d o w n, a nd b ec o me the resp o nsib ility o f the existing Child ren s Netw o rk. Mo lo sho uld c o ntinue to p la y a g uid ing a nd sup p o rtive ro le , b ut in a sp ec ia list c a p a c ity, sp e c ific a lly thro ug h tra ining a nd linking the netw o rk w ith o ther servic e p ro vid e rs a nd a g enc ies. Mo lo sho uld c o nsid er c o ntinuing their w o rk in Atlantis and surrounding areas as an indirect, rather than as a direct service provider a ro und c hild ren s rig hts.

Project approach The c a se stud y c urrently w o rks intensively w ith the g irls to p ro vid e sup p o rt a nd g uid a nc e . Ho w ever, there a re no c lea r p la ns to a c c ess tra ining a nd skills lea rning opportunities for the girls as alternative means of supporting themselves. It is suggested tha t the c urrent w ork w ith the g irls inc lud e intensive life a nd c a reer p la nning sessio ns, so tha t they c a n m a ke re a listic a ssessm ents of their c urrent c a p a c ity a nd a va ila b le o p p o rtunities. Altho ug h three g irls in the c a se stud y a re c urrently und erg o ing c o m p uter tra ining , the se o p p o rtunities ha ve to b e exp a nd ed . It is rec o m m end ed tha t Molo b ec o m es a n a d vo c a te fo r these g irls b y a c c essing tra ining a nd e m p lo ym ent opportunities through learnerships or other training and employment opportunities. Very few o f the p a rents sho w a ny re a l interest in their d a ug hters lives a nd risky b eha vio r. Wo rksho p s should b e run w ith these p a rents, a nd a sup p o rt g ro up fo rm ed so tha t p a rents c a n b e ta ug ht skills a nd stra teg ie s fo r w o rking w ith their d a ug hters. A ho listic a p p ro a c h is c ritic a l to ensure the susta ina b ility of re c o very a nd reha b ilita tio n attempts. There is a need for c o nsta nt d ia log ue a nd c o m m unic a tio n b etw een Mo lo a nd other servic e p ro vid ers. In this reg a rd , the sp e c ia list a c c ess to inform a tio n tha t Molo

c urrently enjoys need to b e m a d e a va ila b le to servic e p rovid ers a s w ell to spread information and access to information. Molo sho uld a d o p t a p eer ed uc a tio n a p p ro a c h a ro und d rug use a nd c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n. A w o rrying num b e r o f g irls in the c a se stud y rep o rted reg ula r use o f Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

99


Molo Songololo

a lc o ho l a nd d rug a b use. Mo lo sho uld ensure tha t the young w o m en in the c a se stud y a re used to c a rry o ut tra ining a nd p a rtic ip a te a nd lea d a w a reness-ra ising . This w ill b uild the c o nfid enc e o f the w o m en, streng then their c o m m itm ent to c ha ng e , a nd also break down existing stereotypes and stigmatization within the community. Molo sho uld c o ntinue w o rking w ith a nd p ro vid ing sup p o rt to the c o m m unity c o unsellors. This w ill re q uire a d d itio na l, sp e c ia lize d tra ining fo r c o unsello rs, b ut it w ill a lso p rovid e a n a re a o f exp a nd ing need - p ro vid ing ho m e b a se d c a re c lo se to w here people live. The w o rk lo a d s a nd need fo r c o unselling in Atla ntis a nd surro und ing a re a s is very hig h. The num b e r o f c o unsello rs sho uld b e inc re a sed to inc re a se the p ro jec t s sp re a d a nd reach into more households through counsellors and peer educators.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

100


Molo Songololo

Part 7: G.

Conclusion:

The c olla b o ra tio n b etw een the Western Ca p e De p a rtm ent o f Soc ia l Welfa re a nd Po verty Allevia tio n a nd Molo So ng o lolo resulted in the im p le m enta tio n o f p io neering w o rk tha t d e m o nstra tes rea l suc c e ss. The streng thening o f this suc c ess thro ug h o ng o ing fina nc ia l sup p o rt fro m the Dep a rtm ent to Mo lo So ng o lolo is ke y to ensuring the c o ntinued suc c ess o f the w o rk. It need s to b e a c kno w led g e d tha t the c a se stud y re p re sents a new b o d y o f w o rk tha t hitherto rem a ined la rg ely invisib le w ithin c o m m unities. In this reg a rd , the De p a rtm e nt should b e c o m m e nd ed fo r their w illing ness to sup p o rt a n a rea o f c onc ern tha t rela tively few reso urc es a nd servic e p ro vid ers a re c o m m itted to . Sim ila rly, Mo lo So ng o lolo d eserves resp ec t a nd re c og nitio n fo r their o ng o ing m o ra l c o ura g e a nd c o m m itm e nt to exp ose a nd d e a l c o nstruc tively w ith issues tha t a re la rg ely stig m a tize d in communities. The Dep a rtm ent w o uld d o w ell b y c o ntinuing its sup p o rt o f this w orthy p ro jec t, a nd extend ing its sup p o rt to Mo lo So ng o lo lo to rep lic a te the lea rning s a nd insig hts of this p ilot in other areas of need.

Appendix 1: List of stakeholders interviewed Respondents and Organizations Mr Willemse:

Atlantis Fire Department, Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Exec utive m e m b er

Mr Amsterdam:

Kerria Primary School (principal)

Mr Wentzel:

Wesfleur Primary School (principal)

Ms Dyson:

Pella Primary School (principal)

Charl Damon:

Dura Youth Centre, Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Exec utive m e m b er

Mr Sederman :

Berzelia Primary School (principal)

Mr Vermeulen:

Proteus High School (principal)

Cheryldene Hector:

World Vision

Mr Murray:

Robinvale Primary School

Ms Saunders and Ms Adams:

Kerria Primary School

Claudia February:

Vaatjie Primary School and Molo Counsellor

Shunique Blanckenberg:

Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Exec utive m e m b er

Barbara Rass:

Atla ntis Wo m en s Mo vem ent fo r the Ab use d

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

101


Molo Songololo

Mr. Stockenstroom:

Christian Dependency Ministries

Sister Van Wyk:

Sister at the Primary Health Care Clinic

Mrs Rajap:

Chairperson of Women Who Care

Faustine Snyman:

Member of the Gender Organization and part of Social Services, Neighborhood Response for Child Abuse and Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Exec utive m e m b er

Steven Albert:

Part of the Emergency Forums, Molo Counsellor and member of the Atlantis Community Police Forum Social Services a nd Child ren s Pro tec tio n

Chrissie Cloete: Nombedesho Qunta:

Molo Counsellor and community worker representing Witsands

Julie Mentoor:

Ward Committee member, CEO at Hartebees Multi-Purpose Community Centre, ANC Womens League and community worker

Mr Cupido:

Atlantis High (Deputy Principal)

Sylvia Brandt:

Community worker (25 years). Part of World Vision, TAC, Women Against Crime, etc.

List of counsellors interviewed 1.

Marian Jooste

2.

Siphokazi Centane

3.

Julian Appolis

4.

Avril Apollis

5.

Michael Alexander

6.

Anne Van Blerk

7.

Bongiswa Mtshemla

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

102


Molo Songololo

Appendix 2 Partnerships Our ma in pa rtners for the implementa tion, ma na gement, completion a nd eva lua tion of the project were: Depa rtment of Community Sa fety: Superintendent Josephs, SAPS; Community Police Forum & Child Protection Services To ensure the safety, rescue and protection of children To ensure that no child gets arrested for the purposes of CSE Ensuring a sp e ed y resp o nse to rep o rts o f sexua l exp lo ita tio n a nd o ther fo rm s o f a b use including domestic violence Provide training and information to police on CSE Health Department To ascertain what kind of services are available for children at risk and sexually exploited children To lobby the department to provide permanent psycho support for Atlantis and surrounding areas To provide support to Counselors and enhance the psycho-social services delivered to children To encourage intersectoral relations between the departments as well the NGO sector Education Department: Blaauwberg Region and Mr Wentzel, Atlantis Principals Forum To encourage the implementation of the educational protocol To provide support and enhance the counseling service at schools To ascertain what services are being rendered for children with learning problems Lo b b y p rinc ip a ls fo rum to m a ke use o f the ed uc a tio na l reso urc e s a nd p ro g ra m m e s that Molo had to offer Russel van der Berg, Frank Briell, Atlantis Community Radio To create awareness on CSEC To share information and advice on CSE To motivate young people, parents and children to seek assistance and speak out against CSEC To inform the broader community of available services and where to go Social Services and Poverty Alleviation Department: Western Cape Province and Alec America, Chrissie Cloete, Faustine Snyman Atlantis District To create intervention and prevention strategies to red uc e c hild re n s vulnera b ility to child sexual exploitation in Atlantis and surrounding areas. To share resources and support each other To ensure closer working relationship To ensure a speedy and effective response to referrals To prevent duplication of work but rather ensure the strengthening of both partners Atla ntis Children s Network Forum To share information on issues pertaining to children To plan awareness raising activities in Atlantis and surrounding areas To monitor activities for children To lobby government departments to respond to the needs of children Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

103


Molo Songololo

To have a coordinated and therefore stronger response to child abuse in general, and child sexual exploitation in particular Institute for Healing of Memories To assist participants in dealing with past trauma through their weekend programme. CAB To assist participants in ending substance abuse and staying sober. Rynet Taxis To ensure safety of participants attending CAB meetings and computer classes Development Action Group This p a rtnership initia ted a t the ta il end o f the p ro jec t, is a im ed a t setting up a resid entia l rec overy c entre fo r sexua lly exp lo ited c hild ren. The w o rk w ill c o ntinue a fter the pilot project has been concluded.

Social Services and Poverty Alleviation - Atlantis District The department is so under resourced it cannot commit specific resources to work with the p ro jec t. The p ro jec t d o es w o rk to g ether w ith the so c ia l w orkers w here a participant is already being assisted by social services. Dr Munro To assist in diagnosis and treatment of general medical conditions of participants. Edith Kriel To provide debriefing group and individual sessions with project staff. Mandisa Mbaligontsi To help them to care for themselves To share basic beauty therapeutic practices with the participants United Sanctuary Against Abuse To ensure the safety of abused children and women To raise awareness on violence against women and children Working together to ensure the safety and protection of women and children To facilitate access to community organizations and key role players Ba rba ra Ra ss, New Women s Movement for the Abused To ensure the safety of abused children and women To create intervention and prevention strategies to reduce child sexual exploitation Pietie Cookson, Blaauwberg Municipality: Housing and Social Development To fa c ilita te a c c ess to va rio us o rg a niza tio ns a nd ind ivid ua ls in the c o m m unity, including youth at risk, gang members and sexually exploited children To facilitate access to resources, and venues To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy David Wilhelmse, Steven Albert, Fire Department To ensure the safety of abused children To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

104


Molo Songololo

Nombedesha Qunta, Witsands Community Worker To ensure the safety of abused children and women To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy To fa c ilita te a c c ess to c o m m unity a nd yo uth o rg a niza tio ns a s w ell a s c o m m unity workers and individuals in Witsands Mrs Rajap, Women who Care To facilitate access to resources To facilitate access to local business and community organisations World Vision To w o rk to g ether to b uild the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw o rk Fo rum Desiree Passenz, Mamre Primary To facilitate access to youth and children in Mamre To facilitate access to early childhood learning bodies in Mamre To distribute resources in the Mamre community Mrs Dyson, Pella Moravian School To distribute resources in the Pella community To ensure the safety of abused children To facilitate access to youth organisations Colyn van Dyk To support the healing process To im p ro ve p a rtic ip a nts und ersta nd ing o f them selves Lay Counsellors To assist principals and schools in Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Vaatjie Primary School with a counselling service for learners To provide counselling to sexually exploited children To assist at court To assist at clinics and hospital, when needed To offer counselling and support to the community To counsel and support children, parents and caregivers To lobby for psycho-social services in the community

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

105


Molo Songololo

Partner 1. SAPS, Community Police Forum & Child Protection Services

2. Health Department

3.Education Department Blaauwberg Region Atlantis Principals Forum

Objective To ensure the safety, rescue and protection of children To ensure that no child gets arrested for the purposes of CSE Ensuring a speedy response to reports of sexual exploitation and other forms of abuse including domestic violence Provide training and information to police on CSE To ascertain what kind of services are available for children at risk and sexually exploited children To lobby the department to provide permanent psycho support for Atlantis and surrounding areas

Nature of partnerships Regular meetings to monitor reports on c hild ren s issues Advised and referred police officers where needed Children found absconding from school was brought to project office for counseling by police Police protected and ensured the safety of Molo staff whilst identifying and rescuing sexually exploited children

Beneficiaries Children, parents, teachers, service providers, court staff and police

Outcomes/results A more informed police service Police more sensitive towards children A relationship of trust was established between the project staff and police that are being sexually exploited Partnership with police assisted families and victims of domestic violence to seek help, this led to the decrease of complaints and charges In involvement and partnership with CPF, CPF member organisations strengthened the case study

Meeting department heads of clinics and hospitals Reaching an understanding on the urgency of such support

Children, parents, young women at risk, those wanting to exit and those that are being sexually exploited

Agreement reached on the need for psycho support for the whole community on all levels The department provides debriefing, support and training for the lay counselors The whole community will have immediate access to this kind of support Decrease of long waiting lists and referrals outside of Atlantis A Psychiatric Clinic at the local hospital

To encourage the implementation of the educational protocol To provide support

Sharing of ideas on the various problems principals and educators faced with learners at the school

Learners, teachers, principals, parents, learners and parents of Witsands, lay counsellors

Closer cooperation and a stronger working relationship Teachers, principals and learners had more support Cases have been responded to more effectively and speedily Atlantis Principals Forum:

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

106


Molo Songololo

and enhance the counseling service at schools To ascertain what services are being rendered for children with learning problems Lobby principals forum to make use of the educational resources and programmes that Molo had to offer

4.Atlantis Community Radio

5. Social Services and Poverty Alleviation Department Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

To create awareness on CSEC To share information and advice on CSE To motivate young people, parents and children to seek assistance and speak out against CSEC To inform the broader community of available services and where to go To create intervention and prevention

Project agreed to assist with counseling, advice, referrals Sharing ideas on smoother operation of counseling service Joint lobby of the Department of Education for increased availability of school psychologists to deal with serious issues, e.g. lobbying for transport for the learners of Witsands Agreement that Molo research findings be used for educational and creating awareness purposes That the issue of CSEC not be sensationalized That young people will not be exposed in the media and be used as guinea pigs

Cooperation on certain referrals Discussion and

Child rights workshops increased the knowledge of both the learner and the teachers Teachers reported on a change of attitude by the learners regarding their rights and responsibilities Learners felt more motivated to come to the office to seek help More effective counseling service at schools

NGO s. CBOs, children, parents and service providers

A more informed community A more positive attitude towards Molo and the focus on CSE Radio programmes assisted young women at risk and those that are being sexually exploited to seek support from project To provide support and enhance the counseling service at schools To provide support and enhance the counseling service at schools Also resulted in many different kinds of cases being reported about children

Social Services and the broader community

Cases speedily solved Community had a better understanding of the different roles that Molo and Social Services played 108


Molo Songololo

Western Cape Province Atlantis District

6. Atla ntis Child ren s Network Forum

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

strategies to red uc e c hild ren s vulnerability to child sexual exploitation in Atlantis and surrounding areas. To share resources and support each other To ensure closer working relationship To ensure a speedy and effective response to referrals To prevent duplication of work but rather ensure the strengthening of both partners

advice on investigative cases Agreement on closer working on the cases of sexually exploited children especially in cases where children had to be removed and placed in safety

To share information on issues pertaining to children To plan awareness raising activities in Atlantis and surrounding areas To monitor activities for

Close cooperation and strengthening of intersectoral relationships Bring together groups and organisations working with children Create a forum for discussion, sharing of

and the services rendered The implementation of the confidentiality clause left clients feeling good and respected Referrals to Social Services assisted children in domestic violence situations to be removed and placed in safety Counsellors and social workers work together on cases involving case study participants.

Victims of sexual abuse, Children at risk, Learners, Caregivers, Parents, Youth, Community at large

Lobby and advocacy raised greater awareness on CSE Stakeholders had an opportunity to share information Greater focus to coordinate effective support and services for children A strong willingness to ensure proper functioning of the ACNF e.g. formulation of a constitution Ongoing awareness raising activities Strong willingness to coordinate activities to combat CSE

109


Molo Songololo

children To lobby government departments to respond to the needs of children

7. Institute for Healing of Memories

To assist participants in dealing with past trauma through their weekend programme.

8. CAB

To assist participants in ending substance abuse and

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

information, resources, intervention strategies and support Network amongst each other and work together on joint activities and programmes Make a audit of services for children and to strengthen existing initiatives Create awareness, prevention and intervention against CSE Organise activities for the rights and protection of children under one banner IHOM hosts and facilitates weekend long healing workshop with 2nd phase day long follow-up workshop IHOM complements project work and project also provides follow-up work to the weekend Participants are invited and informed of CAB meetings,

Case study participants

Start of healing process for some participants Where healing had already begun, accelerated the process for participants Participants feel relieved of some past trauma and have improved self image Participants start loving themselves

Case study participants

Participants have increased awareness of substance abuse Participants interact with other young people fighting substance abuse 110


Molo Songololo

staying sober.

9. Rynet Taxis

To ensure safety of participants attending CAB meetings and computer classes

10. Development Action Group

To set up a residential recovery centre for sexually exploited children.

11. Dr Munro

To assist in diagnosis and treatment of general medical conditions of participants.

12. Edith Kriel

To provide debriefing group and individual sessions with project staff

13. Mandisa Mbaligontsi

To help them to care for themselves To share basic

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

educational talks and excursions CAB offers counseling to participants and family on substance abuse Transporting participants when they needed to attend at night

This partnership was initiated at the tail end of the project. The work will continue after the pilot project has been concluded. Dr Munro offers consultation, including the cost of medication which is obtained from the pharmacy, at a discounted rate. Initially to train members of the community as lay counselors. Currently, supporting the project staff with debriefing Volunteered her services to the project. She comes in once a week and

Participants begin to make new contacts in community with positive thinking youth

Case study participants

Girls were safely transported between home and venue Staff were informed if girls did not attend

Case study participants, sexually exploited children

Case study participants are keen to embark on the project

Case study participants

Participants who are ill, receive the necessary medical treatment. Counselling and encouraging participants to care for themselves

Case study participants

Trained 22 lay counsellors Staff feel relieved and supported when grappling with difficult issues and situations Staff have a safe place to express their concerns

Case study participants

The girls have fun Learning how to better care for my body Learning how to care for others Learning skills which can be used for income 111


Molo Songololo

14. United Against Sanctuary Abuse

15. New Wom en s Movement for the Abused

16. Blaauwberg Municipality: Housing and Social Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

beauty therapeutic practices with the participants To ensure the safety of abused children and women To raise awareness on violence against women and children Working together to ensure the safety and protection of women and children To facilitate access to community organizations and key role players To ensure the safety of abused children and women To create intervention and prevention strategies to reduce child sexual exploitation To facilitate access to various organizations

runs a workshop with the girls teaching them how to care for their bodies. Provide support to women and children that may need to be placed in safety Motivate young people to participate in positive youth activities Lobby, advocate and create awareness

generation

Women, children and young people Victims of sexual abuse and violence

Closer working relationship amongst each other Children at risk can be placed with immediate effect, especially where there are long waiting lists

Assist in identifying where the children at risk is Advice and guidance on who to speak to about children at risk Provide support, shelter and counseling for

Women, children , those at risk, young people and victim sexual abuse and violence

Networking and building strong working relationships Speedy and effective response to referrals for placement

Assist in advising and identifying children at risk

Young people, school children and those at risk

More young people mobilised to fight against CSEC A greater awareness and more information on programmes for young people 112


Molo Songololo

Development

and individuals in the community, including youth at risk, gang members and sexually exploited children To facilitate access to resources, and venues To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy

17. Fire Department

To ensure the safety of abused children To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy

18. Nombedesha Qunta, Witsands Community Worker

To ensure the safety of abused children and women To ensure youth development as a prevention strategy

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Facilitate for access to various individuals and children, ensuring the safety of Molo staff Provide support to ensure the effective and smooth running of the ACNF Support awareness raising campaign to combat CSEC Motivate and stimulate young people to participate in developmental programmes Regular referrals of cases to the Molo office Providing family counseling to Molo clients after completion of counseling training Support for and active participation for awareness campaign Mobilise the Witsand community structures to support the fight against CSEC Mobilise young people to actively participate in Molo

Members of the broader community

Networking and sharing of resources and ideas

Community at large, young people, children in general

Implementing information gained through training Has a better understanding in how to deal with abused children Are able to give guidance on how best to use the legal aspect regarding sexual exploitation of children

Broader Witsand community, women, children and organisations

A community that is more aware of the dangers of CSEC, what to do and where to seek help Active young people sharing positive information with their peers A strong community support at court against violence of women and children

113


Molo Songololo

To facilitate access to community and youth organizations as well as community workers and individuals in Witsands

19. Women who Care

To facilitate access to resources To facilitate access to local business and community organisations

20. World Vision

To work together to build the Atla ntis Child ren s Network Forum

21. Mamre Primary

To facilitate access to youth and children in Mamre

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

programmes Use counseling training skills in the Witsand community to ensure that members of Witsand are not excluded from any activity or necessary support services Distribute resources in the community and share Sharing of information and ideas on what resources is available and how best to access it Introduction to local business and motivation to support campaign activities Providing support and availing staff to ensure the smooth running of the ACNF Mobilise and encourage young people to actively participate in programmes and positive youth activities Distribution of resources and

Broader community, children, women and young people

Successful campaign activities Increased awareness and involvement of local business

Broader community, NGO s CBO s, service providers, young people and children Youth organisations, learners, parents

More organisations joining hands to ensure the implementation of campaign strategies

The increased involvement of young people from Mamre in programmes and activities Easy access to young people in Mamre A greater awareness on CSEC, what to do or where to seek help and information

114


Molo Songololo

22. Colyn van Dyk

To support the healing process To improve p a rtic ip a nts understanding of themselves

23. Pella Moravian School

To distribute resources in the Pella community To ensure the safety of abused children To facilitate access to youth organisations

24. Lay Counsellors

To assist principals and schools in Atlantis, Mamre, Pella and Vaatjie Primary School with a

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

information in Mamre Facilitated for project to run workshop with Mamre Youth Development Forum Provide support and counselling provide Indian massage, reflexology and pressure points therapy Provided contact with community leaders Mobilise and encourage young people to actively participate in programmes and positive youth activities Distribution of project resources and information in Pella Facilitate for project to run workshop with Youth on CSEC Counsellors volunteered their services to counsel at schools, in the community and sexually exploited children

Case study participants

Participants felt more confident about the directions they are moving in; gained greater insight into themselves felt less stressed and calmer

Learners, Pella Youth Development Forum

Increased access to information and resources A greater awareness on CSEC, what to do or where to seek help and information

Primary school learners, case study participants, children and families in Atlantis, Pella, Witsands, Mamre

trained lay counsellors were based at primary schools assisted with Case Study camps and counselling of participants assisted with counselling outside of the schools by resp ond ing to resid ents req uests for help secured training and debriefing support from Health Dept. and the establishment of a Psychiatric Clinic at 115


Molo Songololo

counselling service for learners To provide counselling to sexually exploited children To assist at court To assist at clinics and hospital, when needed To offer counselling and support to the community To counsel and support children, parents and caregivers To lobby for psycho-social services in the community

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

Counsellors would apply what they learnt beyond the Atlantis project Counsellors would assist in improving and strengthening working relationships all major role players and stakeholders Project provides counsellors with coordination, training and debriefing

the Hospital assisted in identifying children with problems provided support and counselling to children provided support and information to teachers offered new ways of responding to abused children and their treatment and healing in schools Xhosa speaking counsellors assisted teachers where language difficulties were present supported and informed families and parents of c hild ren s c ha lleng es a nd a b use, if they w ere unaware of it offered court preparation and support to children assisted in improved service delivery at courts imp roved p rojec t s w orking rela tionship with other organizations and the schools

116


Molo Songololo

Appendix 3 Child sexual exploitation in Atlantis There is g row ing c onc ern a b out the inc rea se in inc id enc es of c hild a b use a nd neg lec t g enera lly in the c om m unity o f Atla ntis a s evid enc ed b y the d em a nd for servic es fro m members of the community, from Molo Songololo since the start of the pilot. Defining Child Sexual Exploitation The term c hild sexua l exp lo ita tion refers to the fina nc ia l exp loita tion a s w ell a s exp loita tion 30 throug h ta king unfa ir a d va nta g e of a c hild s vulnera b ility. Koen offers tw o c o m m only used definitions of the sexual exploitation of children: use of a c hild for sexua l p urp o ses in exc ha ng e for c a sh or fa vours b etw een the c ustom er, interm ed ia ry or a g ent a nd others (p a rent, fa m ily m em b er, p roc urer, a nd tea c her) tha t p rofit from the tra d e in c hild ren for these p urp oses . a c t of eng a g ing or offering the servic es of a c hild to p erform sexua l a c ts for m oney or other c onsid era tion w ith tha t p erson or a ny other p erson . The Stoc kholm Ag end a for Ac tion d efines c om m erc ia l sexua l exp lo ita tio n of c hild ren a s sexua l a b use b y the a d ult a nd remuneration in cash or kind to the child or to a third person or p ersons (lt) c onstitutes a form of c oerc io n a nd violenc e a g a inst c hild ren a nd a m ounts to forc ed la b our a nd a c ontem p ora ry form of sla very . The c hild therefore d oes not c om m it a n a c t of p rostitution b ut the p erson exp lo iting the c hild , as well as those who facilitate the exploitation commit the act of prostitution.

Children at Risk of Sexual Exploitation The South Afric a n institutiona l fra m ew o rk should m a ke p rovision for a n effec tive resp o nse to c hild sexua l a b use in g enera l. It should a lso m a ke sp ec ific p rovision for effec tive resp o nses to the sexua l exp lo ita tio n of c hild ren p a rtic ula rly a s there is a n inc rea se in rep orting of sexua l 31 c rim es a g a inst c hild ren. So for insta nc e , c hild ra p e a c c ounts fo r 17% o f the tota l fig ure of c hild a b use c a ses in the Western Ca p e Provinc e. Fro m Ap ril 2002 to Ma rc h 2003 there w a s a tota l of 6502 c a ses rep orted a nd a tota l of 3597 c a ses p lotted . Whilst there is inc rea sed reporting of abuse against children it is worth noting that: The g row th in rep orts of sexua l c rim es a g a inst c hild ren in South Afric a ind ic a tes tha t this typ e of c rim e is either on the inc rea se or is b eing m ore w id ely rep orted a nd sp oken a b out. How ever, inc onsistent d efinitions of "c hild sexua l a b use" a nd ina d eq ua te rec ord ing a lso p revent the a c c ura te c ollec tion of a d m inistra tive a nd sta tistic a l d a ta on sexua l c rim es a g a inst 32 children

30 K. Koen: Children on the edge: Strategies towards an integrated approach to combat child sexual exploitation in South Africa (Molo Songololo, WomensNet, 2004) 31 As evidenced by a number of research reports as well as official police statistics. 32 A. Dawes and Z. Parker: Child Sexual Abuse in Atlantis: A research report (Children s Institute, University of Cape Town, 2003)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

116


Molo Songololo 33

The re p o rt Child Sexua l Exp lo ita tio n in Atla ntis d o c um ents the c ond itions tha t m a ke c hild ren in Atla ntis esp ec ia lly vulnera b le to sexua l exp loita tion w hether fo r c o m m erc ia l or no n commercial purposes. These conditions include: A c o m m unity in c risis w here the soc ia l sec urity a nd so c ia l w elfa re of c hild ren a nd youth is threatened Sig nific a nt p reva lenc e of severe soc ia l p rob lem s, unem p lo ym ent, p overty, sub sta nc e a b use , vio lenc e, sexua l a b use a nd exp loita tion, d ysfunc tiona l fa m ilies a nd fa m ily breakdown. Hig h levels of frustra tion, a ng er, hop elessness, m istrust a nd feeling o f b etra ya l b y parents, and service providers amongst children and youth The rep ort Child Sexua l Exp lo ita tion in Atla ntis c onc lud es tha t intervention a nd p revention p ro g ra m m es req uire a stra teg ic resp onse a g a inst c hild sexua l exp loita tion in Atla ntis. It further hig hlig hts tha t new initia tives sho uld c onsid er a nd b uild on the c urrent w ork b eing d one a nd involve a ll the role-p la yers inc lud ing the a c tive p a rtic ip a tion of c hild ren a nd youth. Suc h strategies, require an integrated child rights approach in the following areas; Public awareness raising campaigns and community mobilisation Schools support and prevention programmes keeping youth in school Parenting support and promotion of parental obligations and responsibilities Youth skills d evelop m ent a nd tra ining , inc lud ing sexua lity, c onflic t a nd a ng er management, leadership and rights education Co-ordination of existing services and networks and development of capacity Tra ining of Polic e a nd Child Protec tion Servic es a nd Co urt Offic ia ls in c a se management. Support, healing and re-integration programmes for victims and families Ma ny g irls a re forc ed into sexua lly exp loita tive situa tions a t the a g e o f fo urteen or d uring a d olesc enc e. Ac c ord ing to Erikson 34 a d olesc enc e is the p syc hosoc ia l d evelop m enta l sta g e w here a c hild b eg ins to esta b lish their identity this sta g e is m a rked b y c onfusion a nd experimenting to define a sense of self. This internal struggle combined with the above factors can make a child more susceptible to the manipulation of sexual exploiters and abusers. There a re c ontinued a nec d ota l a c c ounts of g irls a s young a s nine a nd ten yea rs of a g e a nd other old er g irls b eing sexua lly exp loited for p ro fit or g a in w ithin the b a c kya rd or suiker-huisie set up . There a re a lso a c c o unts of g a y b o ys und er the a g e of eig hteen b eing sexua lly exp lo ited b oth throug h p riva te a rra ng em ents, suiker-huisies a nd sta nd ing o n the street.

Who introduces the children to this exploitation? Those who facilitate for the sexual exploitation of the children of Atlantis and surrounding areas a re p red o m ina ntly loc a ls. Drug s p la y a m a jor role in a c hild b eing sexua lly exp lo ited . There a re b o yfriend s a c ting a s interm ed ia ries a nd insist tha t their girlfriends eng a g e in sex so tha t they c a n sup p ort a d rug ha b it. There a re g a ng sters w ho initia lly g ive g irls d rug s a nd onc e the girls are addicted to the drugs will pimp them. Many pimps are connected to the local gangs. Girls w ho a re d rug a d d ic ted a re therefore, esp ec ia lly vulnera b le a s they a re ea sy p rey fo r p im p s. We a re a w a re tha t there a re o p era tions a nd sheb eens tha t ha ve c onta c t or a re 33 Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003) 34

RL Atkinson, RC Atkinson, EE Smith, DJ Bem, S Nolen-Hoeksema: Introduction to Psychology (Harcourt Brace College, Fort Worth, 1990)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

117


Molo Songololo

c o ntro lled b y ind ivid ua ls o r g ro up s fro m o utsid e the a rea ; w e a re una b le to c o nfirm the extent o f the c o nta c t a nd w ho the role-p la yers a re. Old er se x w o rkers m a y a lso b ring yo ung c hild ren to the ro a d a t the req uest o f a sex exp lo iter. Teena g e g irls them selves m a y b ring o ther g irls into this exp lo ita tio n. It w a s further esta b lished tha t there a re teena g e b o ys w ho a re b e ing sexually exploited. There a re those w ho fa c ilita te for c hild ren to b e p ro stituted to m en outsid e Ca p e Tow n. Som e children are organised via cell phone by certain exploiters.

Who are the sexual exploiters of children? Som e of the m en reg ula rly exp loit the c hild ren sexua lly w hile others m a y not. The exp loiters include lo c a l b usinessm en, m a rried m en, g a ng sters, p a stors, p olic em en, truc kers, tra ffic c o p s, lawyers and sailors. These men are mainly white but also include black men. In a d d ition, to the a b o ve throug h our m onitoring it w a s esta b lished tha t the exp lo iters inc lud e , those p a ssing throug h the a rea , those living in neig hb ouring c o m m unities, tow ns a nd a rea s, a nd those fro m other p a rts of Ca p e To w n a nd elsew here. These m en inc lud e, tra velling salesman, service and construction personnel, truckers, government workers and others.

Where, when and how does it occur? Child ren a re b eing sexua lly exp loited w ithin a nd outsid e of the Atla ntis c o m m unity. There is a m a rked inc rea se in the d em a nd for sex w ith c hild ren a nd teena g ers. The m en either offer m oney, a lc ohol or d rug s in exc ha ng e for sexua l a c ts. The sexua l a c ts inc lud e: ora l sex, a na l sex, va g ina l sex, kinky sex a nd a c ts, sa d ism , m a sturb a tion, m ultip le p a rtners a nd unp rotec ted sex. The sexual exploitation of children is occurring day and night throughout the week. Wha t the c hild ren a re w illing to d o influenc es if a c lient c hooses one g irl a b ove a nother example if a girl will have unprotected sex with a client or anal sex or oral sex etc.

for

It is a lso c lea r tha t the street p rostitution of c hild ren c ould b e the low er end of the c hild sexual exp loita tion c ha in in the a rea g iven the inc id enc e of c hild ren b eing p ic ked up w ithin the residential areas. We ha ve a lso notic ed tha t street p rostitution is very m uc h c ontrolled b y the w ea ther a nd seasonal factors. The reason for this is the bad weather and drop in temperatures. The weather appears to have little effect on the sexual exploitation of children within the community.

Overview of the Occurrence and Locations of the Sexual Exploitation of Children The ta b le b elow lists the p la c es w here m en a re find ing c hild ren to sexua lly exp lo it; w hen this happens d a y o r nig ht, w eekend s or d uring the w eek; w ha t is exc ha ng ed b etw een the c hild ren a nd the exp loiters; w ho a re the sexua l exp lo iters a nd w here d oes the ra p e / a b use occur. This information refers solely to c hild ren fro m Atla ntis a s w e d o not ha ve a ny referenc es of children from Mamre, Witsands or Pella being sexually exploited. The inform a tion c onta ined in the ta b le ha s b een ob ta ined throug h ob serva tion, sp ea king to a nd w orking w ith c hild ren - w ho w ere sexua lly exp loited , or a re still b eing sexua lly exp loited from the Atlantis community.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

118


Molo Songololo

Child sexual exploitation in Atlantis Pick up location

Time

Nature of exchange

Description of sexual exploiters of children

Where does rape/abuse occur

Morning Star, Van Schoorsdrif

Day

Sex in exchange for money

Children stand on the roads. Exploiters pick up a child and drive to the railway, industrial area or surrounding bushes where they will park the car and exploit them.

Milnerton Main Road, Brooklyn and Bellville Main Roads

Night, Day occasionally

Sex in exchange for money

Parow Main Road, Goodwood Main Road

At night

Sex in exchange for money

Docks in Cape Town

Day, Night

Shebeens in Atlantis

Mainly weekends 24hrs, week nights Friday nights and during the week

Sex in exchange for money sex in exchange for alcohol

mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates mainly white but also black men; mainly business people but include pastors, policemen, traffic cops, lawyers and advocates Sailors mainly older working men

They pick up children in the shebeens and then exploit them in open air (fields), in cars, or the girls a re ta ken to the m a n s ho m e Pick up the child while working and takes them to the depot. Exploits child in the taxi on the property of the depots They drive and pick up girls who are just hanging around and exploit them in cars or at their homes

Taxis in Atlantis

sex in exchange for drugs and alcohol

taxi drivers, taxi guards

during the week, weekends day and night throughout the weekend

Sex in exchange for money

local business people

sexual acts in exchange for alcohol

married men

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

mostly over weekends

Gangsters

Private Arrangements

Any time as requested by sex exploiter

sexual acts and pornographic photographs in exchange for drugs ecstasy and tik Sexual acts in exchange for goods and cash

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

In the street in residential areas, Atlantis

Often businessmen but could be anyone

Children stand on the streets. Exploiters typically take the children to parking lots, hotel rooms, their homes or brothels where you can either rent a room with someone you picked up on the street or ask for a girl from the brothels Pick children standing on street and take them to the brothels or at the sportsground

On the ships

They pick up girls which they are ha ving a n a ffa ir with a nd ta ke them to houses belonging to their single friends and sometimes in their own homes in houses owned by gang leaders (in Atlantis and elsewhere) which are used for drug dealing, shebeens and prostitution They pick up girl at a set point and take them home or to a hotel

The p riva te a rra ng e m ents a re o ften d evelo p e d o ver tim e . So m e o f the m en a lso selec t a c hild tha t they w ill esta b lish a n exp lo ita tive rela tio nship w ith . Fre q uently these a re b usiness

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

119


Molo Songololo

m en w ho se tim e is tig htly p la nned a nd m a na g ed . The na ture o f this rela tio nship m a y inc lud e any one or a combination of the following situations: They come to the street regularly and only pick up this child They pick the child up on the street and take the child home or to a hotel with them They a sk the c hild to only see them a nd no other exp loiters They fetch the child from home and take her to a hotel or their home They call the child and ask her to meet them in Tableview where they then meet and go either to a hotel or to the p erson s hom e. They m a y offer to p ro vid e so m e kind of sup p ort to the c hild s fa m ily like the fixing of a roof or they household need.

Physical Dangers The c hild ren a re exp o sed to a num b er of d a ng ers. Stories a b ound of exp loiters w ho refuse to p a y a nd m a y d ro p the g irl off in a n isola ted loc a tio n w here it is d a ng ero us for her to w a lk a lone a nd a lso of p olic e o ffic ia ls w ho a fter a rresting them on the roa d m a y offer to let them go in exchange for sex. There a re g irls w ho a re a w a re of STDs, STIs, HIV/ AIDS a nd p reg na nc y a nd insist on c ond om use. Most of the g irls a t Morning Sta r a re a w a re of HIV/ a id s a nd its tra nsm ission b ut this d oes not stop them from having unprotected sex with exploiters who are willing to pay more for it.

Community Response Sexua lly exp loited c hild ren a re still la rg ely stig m a tised w ithin the c o m m unity a nd a lthoug h the c o m m unity is a w a re o f the exp loita tion it is kep t hid d en, throug h the la c k o f a c tion a g a inst this a troc ity. Ca rs often d rive throug h the resid entia l a rea s a nd p ic k up young g irls. Peo p le see this a nd a re a w a re tha t these m en a re sexua lly exp lo iting the g irls b ut g ossip in p riva te. The c o m m unity sp ea ks neg a tively a b out the m en a nd the g irls. They d o not see tha t the m a n is m a nip ula ting the c hild . Pa rents resp ond b y p unishing their d a ug hters or for a ny num b er o f reasons remain silent. Sy b ly vir m y sĂŞ ek is n jintoe b ut a s d a a r nie vriete in d ie huis is nie d a n vriet sy va n d ie g eld w a t ek m a a k. 35 The p ilot is the only p rojec t in Atla ntis a nd surround ing a rea s foc used on the sexua l exp lo ita tion of c hild ren, a lthoug h som e p a rents d o seek assistance from the project, many do not. Few d o a nything to c ha lleng e the situa tion a nd so m e ha ve rep o rted to the p rojec t tha t they ha ve c onta c ted the SAPS w ith the lic ense p la te num b ers of the p erp etra tors rep o rting the a c tivity b ut the SAPS d oes not a lw a ys resp o nd . Ac c ord ing to the Sta tion Com m a nd er of the Atlantis Police Station there has been an increase in reporting of rape and sexual assault within Atla ntis sinc e the Molo Song ololo a w a reness c a m p a ig n d uring 2004.36 There ha s how ever been a decrease in reporting of prostitution in general, this includes child prostitution.37 The Dep a rtm ent of Justic e rep orts tha t it ha s not p rosec uted a ny c a ses o f p rostitution for the period 2004 to the present and it does not have cases on the current court role.38 Child sexua l exp loita tion rem a ins a g row ing p ro b lem w hic h results in inc rea sing tra um a a nd suffering in our c o m m unities a nd a n erosion of fa m ily life. Its existenc e reflec ts a d eva luing of children and an absence of the once vibrant community spirit. 35

Comment made to Molo Songololo fieldworker by a sexually exploited child Interview with Superintendent Joseph conducted on 2 June 2005 37 Ibid. 38 Interview with Advocate Liezl America Control State Prosecutor at the Atlantis Magistrate s court conducted on 6 June 2005 36

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

120


Molo Songololo

Appendix 4 Reflections on the Case Study Intervention by a participant

18 years old

I w a s m oo d y, a g g ressive a nd a ng ry w hen I first c a m e here. When I sta rted to ta lk to the c ounsellor a nd sta rted trusting her, I found m yself b eing g oo d to others. With tim e I ha ve m a d e c ha ng es in m y life a nd lea rnt m a ny p ositive thing s a b out how to g o throug h life. The c ounselling help ed m e a lot w hen I sa t w ith a p ro b lem a nd d id n t w a nt to d isc uss the problems I was encouraged by her and started to talk about my worries which left me relieved a nd the p a in I felt insid e w ould d issip a te. I sp o ke b it b y b it a nd then eventua lly w ould tell the whole story. Now I feel I can talk to her everyday, it helps me a lot and I have complete trust in her. She is the only p erson I ta lk to a b out m y w orries. Sinc e the c ounselling I a m no long er m oo d y a nd a g g ressive, I feel like a new p erson tod a y a s m ost, 90%, of m y neg a tive feeling s ha s left m e. I feel I a m m oving to b eing 100% p ositive in m y life. No w I d o n t ha ve neg a tive influences in my life anymore. Since participating in the case study I have learnt to trust all the staff. The staff is like my family; they treat me better than my parents and have assisted me with so much. My exp erienc e a t the Institute for Hea ling o f Mem o ries (IHOM) w eekend .. I w ond ered w hy w e w ere sent there a nd felt unsure a b out Molo s m otives for send ing us. I thoug ht I w ill not sa y a nything . Then w e c a m e to the sm a ll g roup s a nd w hen I sta rted to ta lk to the fa c ilita tors I felt enc oura g ed to sp ea k to them . Their stories touc hed m e a nd I felt tha t if they c a n tell their story I should c ontrib ute a nd tell m ine. I w a s relieved the w a y they trea ted m e, a s if they w ere my p a rents. I g rew so fond o f them a nd w ished tha t they c ould b e m y p a rents. I thoug ht tha t Molo was bringing me closer to dealing with my past and to the right place. The IHOM helped m e to feel like a c ha ng ed p erso n, I c a m e hom e d ifferent. Peo p le a sked w ha t d id Mo lo d o to you you are so different - some thought Molo used witch craft on me but I showed them that I could change. I became the person I wanted to be! Before , I ha ted m yself a nd then I c a m e to lea rn to love m yself a nd others throug h tha t weekend a nd the sup p ort of the fa c ilita to rs. I a m slow ly lea rning to trust others, w ho truly und ersta nd m e , 100%. With every c a m p I w ent w ith a p ositive a ttitud e, I c ould not w a it to g o to the next c a m p b ec a use I w ould sp ea k o p enly. I c ould no long er keep a ll o f m y p a st insid e. My p a st d rove m e in the w rong d irec tion. I thoug ht w hy d id I no t g et here sooner, b efore I used d rug s? Bec a use I used the d rug s to c a lm m e a nd a t the c a m p s I a m a b le to ta lk w ith them (the fa c ilita tors). It w a s a lm ost like the d rug s ha d b een m y c ounsellor b ec a use m y thoug hts w ere a w a y from the rea lity. Now the c ounsellors help m e to let g o of the sa m e stresses a nd hea l insid e. With d rug s I end ed up feeling inc rea sing ly neg a tive, a ng ry a nd a g g ressive b ec a use it w a s only tem p ora ry. I c ould no t w a it for p eop le a t hom e to see the c ha ng e in m e , the new m e. I d on t know how to tha nk the IHOM they ha ve b een m y m ed ic ine. They w ill b e in m y thoug hts for the rest of m y life. It is throug h them tha t I c a n d ra w on m y p ositive feeling s. Without them I w ould not ha ve sta rted tha t p ositive c ha ng e I felt so m uc h love a nd friend ship true love a nd friend ship a t the c a m p . Wa lking p roud ly w ith m y head up not looking at people sideways. The Wed nesd a y w orksho p s .. I c a m e w eekly a nd w e sp o ke a b out d a ily living a nd g a ve feed b a c k on the a c tivities. I a lw a ys ha d p ositive feed b a c k b ec a use the a c tivities a re w here

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

121


Molo Songololo

p o sitive thing s ha p p e ned . The w o rksho p s g a ve m e sp a c e to ra ise thing s tha t m a d e m e feel d o w n. I w a s o verw helm e d b y m y feeling s rec ently a nd I see m e d to ha ve a lo t o f ne g a tivity. Then w e sp o ke a nd I d id no t w a nt to ta lk a nd inste a d w ro te d o w n m y feeling s. I w a s feeling suicidal a nd a lone in the w orld b ec a use I felt rejec ted b y m y m other. I felt tha t I a m b eing rejec ted b y everyone now tha t I need them m ost. The c ounsellor rea d it (w ha t I w ro te) a nd sp o ke to m e , m otiva ted m e to live, think p o sitively a nd love m yself. I a lso thoug ht to m yself tha t I ha ve g row n so m uc h a nd I ha ve seen the c ha ng es tha t a re p ossib le. I left tha t neg a tive thoughts b ehind m e. I a lso thoug ht a b out m y fa m ily a nd how they w ould feel if I d id c o m m it suic id e. This is w hy it is g oo d for m e to c o m e here (to the p ilot p rojec t offic e) a nd ta lk, otherwise I feel as if I have acid burning me up inside. When w e w ent to the Sla ve Lo d g e a nd w e sa w the sla very vid eo a nd how p eo p le w ere treated I felt that it was just like the way my father treated me. As we went to each exhibition I w a s d eep ly touc hed . I d id n t w a nt to rea d som e o f the inform a tion for fea r tha t I w ould find something I c ould id entify w ith. It ha p p ened . I sa w the story of a n a b used g irl w hic h m a d e m e feel b a d . I sa w tha t it is nec essa ry to sha re our exp erienc es to enc oura g e others. This rea lity tha t I id entified w ith m a ny of the sta tem ents m a d e b y the c hild ren in the exhib ition. It w a s interesting a nd help ed m e rea lise tha t there a re other g irls g oing throug h this too , a nd p erha p s their c irc um sta nc es a re w orse tha n m ine. I w ond ered if there w ere others g oing throug h this a nd thoug ht I w ould like to m eet other g irls w ho w ent throug h w ha t I d id , a nd w e c ould ta lk a nd enc o ura g e ea c h other. They m ust not ta ke resp onsib ility for these a c tions (a b use) a nd b la m e them selves, it is not your fa ult w ha t ha p p ened to yo u. I used to b e a loving p erson b ut tha t c ha ng ed a nd now I a m w orking to b ec o m e tha t loving p erson a g a in. I w ould enc oura g e them to strive tow a rd their g o a ls a nd b elieve in them selves a nd to p la c e a ll their p ositive thoug hts in tha t visio n. I too try to p la c e a ll m y p ositive thoug hts into m y d rea m s. My d rea m s keep m e p ositive a s I w a nt to a tta in them a nd I c a n see how I c a n rea lise these dreams. Ta lk it out, la ug h it out, c ry it out. Don t kill yo urself b ec a use tha t m a n w ill la ug h in his hea rt. When w e sa w the d ra m a a t the Ba xter Thea tre w here the fa ther a b used the m other a nd c hild ren ta king out the w ork stress. I c ried a nd thoug ht tha t this is w ha t ha p p ened a t hom e w ith m y fa m ily w here m y fa ther took out his w ork stress on m e. At tha t tim e I ra n a w a y m a ny tim es till I c ould n t ta ke it. The m a n, like m y fa ther, w ould sa y w e d on t und ersta nd a nd it s the p eo p le. I sa w m yself in the c hild w ho w a s c rying . When they solved the p ro b lem s a nd the fa ther m a d e a p olog ies it w a s just like m y fa ther exc ep t he a lw a ys rep ea ted it. Still tod a y I c a nnot forg ive him fo r w ha t he ha s d one to m e. The d ra m a g a ve m e insig ht into fa m ily. I still enjoyed it though. At Rho d es Mem oria l I felt like I w a s in a d ifferent w orld I enjoyed the op en a ir it c lea nsed m y b ra in I thoug ht I c ould g o to suc h a p la c e everyd a y. It help ed m e to enjoy m yself a nd it w a s fun I d id n t w a nt to lea ve - a lso loo king a t the b ea c h in the d ista nc e , b lue skies a nd the g reen g ra ss. Green a lw a ys m a kes m e feel c a lm er a nd ha p p ier. I seld o m enjoy m yself, a nd that afternoon was so refreshing. I never used so m e o f these w ord s b efore a b out c ha ng e a nd b ea uty, it m a kes m e feel g ood . Now w hen I sp ea k w ith p eop le , som e think I a m keep ing m e hig h b ut its just tha t I a m g row ing a nd lea rning tha t w hic h I d id not know b efore. It is a p rivileg e for m e to m a ke use of these op p ortunities so I a lw a ys try to g et the b est out of it. I ha ve a lrea d y m a d e a hug e

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

122


Molo Songololo

c ha ng e in m y life , p e o p le enc o ura g e d m e , b ut I m a d e the c ha ng e in m y life. I a m no lo ng er the p erso n w ho sits in the d a rk in a c o rner; I a m in a b ig tunnel filled w ith lig ht! It is a m a zing to live in lig ht I see m yself m o ving to w a rd m y d re a m s. I a lw a ys ha d neg a tive thoug hts o f m y future, many people cursed me. Now I have a positive vision for myself. At the camp at Zeekoevlei I was surprised at my own knowledge of birds. The environmentalist sa id tha t she a d m ired m y enthusia sm in the g roup a nd m y know led g e of b ird s. The session on Stra teg ies for Cha ng e w a s interesting a nd w hen w e d isc ussed w ha t ha s ha p p ened to us. The fa c ilita tor sp o ke a b out loving yo urself a nd help ed us to look a t the c ha ng es w e w ould like to m a ke in o ur lives. She sp o ke a b out c o m m itm ent to those c ha ng es a nd I und erstood this, b ec a use it is true w e c a n t just ta lk a b out c ha ng e. She a lso sp o ke a b out forg iveness a nd ha te w hic h help ed m e to und ersta nd the effec t of ha tred on your inner self. I a lso rea lised tha t forgiveness is not something you do just because it is in the Bible. I started to forgive those who ha ve d one m inor thing s to offend m e , a lthoug h I a m not rea d y to forg ive those w ho ha ve abused me. The fa c ilita tor of the session on d ea ling w ith life s stresses is a very g ood m a n, he sp o ke a b out trusting yo urself, resp ec ting yourself a nd o thers a nd loving yourself. I thoug ht tha t he w a s ta lking a b o ut a ll these thing s yet I d on t love myself like this, I have so many negative thoughts. Then he sa id I a m a b ea utiful p erson a nd I a sked m yself a m I rea lly tha t b ea utiful g irl a nd I thoug ht yes I a m , I b eg a n to c ry. I rea lised tha t if I c a nnot think of m yself a s b ea utiful, how could I loose that negativity? The exercises he did with us helped us to relax and breathe, I felt so relieved a nd c ould feel the stress g o ing o ut of m y b od y. He m a d e m e feel m ore p o sitive. I d ec id ed tha t I keep hea ring this I m ust sta rt loving m yself a nd I need to do it. The nig ht w e slep t in the b ush I d id n t w a nt to sleep there b ec a use it w a s in d a rkness a nd d a rkness m a kes m e think o f a ll the b a d thing s tha t ha p p en in the d a rk. I thoug ht I m ust runa w a y from the c a m p b ut I w hen I sa w the b ush c a m p I felt b etter. I w a s just a fra id of the hip p os. I slep t lig htly b ec a use I w a s a fra id of the hip p os, sna kes, insec ts a nd the d a rk. When I a w o ke in the m orning I rea lised tha t m y fea rs w ere unfound ed a nd I w ould ha ve slep t b etter if I knew that in the beginning. At the rep tile d isp la y I w a s very sc a red of the p uffa d er a nd I thoug ht if it c o m es to m e I w ill fa int. My fa ther used to sc a re m e w ith sna kes. I w a s so a nxious a t the b eg inning , b y the end of the d isp la y I felt b ra ve to b e a b le to fa c e a nd touc h the rep tiles. I a lso lea rnt m ore a b out reptiles. The Youth Da y Ind a b a w a s a lso interesting , the p la y tha t sp o ke a b out the g irl w ho slep t w ith her fa ther b ut she d id n t know , I thoug ht how tha t c ould b e m e. The w orksho p I a ttend ed about Apartheid laws was good. It was very interesting to go to District Six to hear how people lived in District Six and then how the forc ed rem ova ls a ffec ted their lives a nd a lso to see the few p eo p le w ho m oved b a c k. The w a lk to the Mem o ria l Pa rk w a s a lso interesting I sa w a n old la d y w ho a sked so m eone for a p iec e of b rea d ; I w ond ered if she is a n orig ina l inha b ita nt of Distric t Six. I enjoyed the klo p se m usic a nd the song they sa ng for resid ents w ho ha d d ied . I enjoyed the outing very m uc h, I came back and told everyone about it.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

123


Molo Songololo

I w a s so c a ug ht up in Atla ntis a nd felt a fra id o f g o ing o ut o f the a re a , b ut w hen w e sta rted to go out this year I have found that every outing has been fun, no accidents or problems. When I first sa w the a lterna tive hea ler I w a s w orried I thoug ht she w a s a sa tinist w ith her d ec o ra tions in her p la c e a nd the w a y her eyes a re. I a d m ire her she c ould b e m y friend she likes to ta lk p ositively to you a nd g ives one lots of m otiva tion. It s a s if she c a n rea d your m ind she sa id lea ve the neg a tive thoug hts b ehind a nd she told m e w ha t ha p p ened to m e a nd I w ond ered how she knew w ha t I thoug ht a nd m y life. She a sked m e w here I w a nt to b e in the future a nd urg ed m e in tha t d irec tion. She is kind hea rted a nd g enerous. When I w ent to her I a rrived w ith a lot of stress in m y nec k a nd should ers, a s she m a ssa g ed m e , she sp o ke to m e a nd b y the end of the m a ssa g e I felt a s if the stress w a s running out of m e. I felt love flow ing through my body from her as she massaged. The w orkshop s w ith Ma nd isa w ere oka y b ut m y skin is a b it sensitive. I felt like a la d y b eing cared for and without any cost involved. She is fantastic, a very nice girl and friendly. The most important lessons I learnt and gains I made through the case study are: Regaining my self respect Learning how to communicate with others and how to engage with people in discussion To have patience I have more self confidence I am learning to love myself I learnt to be honest and truthful Note: The participant was asked to reflect on her experience in the Case Study, she needed no prompting. The story was told in English and Afrikaans the listener made verbatim translations to English. She has read and approved this account.

Comment from her counsellor When I first met this participant in March she was a very shy, withdrawn, depressed, out of control and aggressive person as well as suicidal. She also wished to kill her father who sexually abused her. Working with her was sometimes very difficult, she trusted no one. I could not expect her to talk to me. I had to win her trust first. I think that joining the excursions with the group helped her to trust us. She told us tha t she stop p ed using m a nd ra x a nd a lc ohol a nd she ha d oc c a siona lly used tik, b ut sinc e stop p ed this too. She visited the offic e reg ula rly, a ttend ed a ll exc ursions, w orkshop s, w eekend w orksho p s a nd c a m p s a nd c a m e to the offic e for c ounselling sessions. She sta rted to exp lore her inner self, w rite b ea utiful p oetry inc lud ing 2 p oem s entitled Change a nd Choices. She a ttend ed the Institute for Hea ling o f Mem ories w eekend tw ic e a nd a follow - up m eeting w ith them . She a lso a ttend ed the Self Develop m ent a nd Tea m Build ing c a m p a nd w ent to the Alterna tive Hea ler. She is a ttend ing a c o m p uter litera c y c ourse. She entered the Voic e o f the Girl Child Writing Com p etitio n a nd w a s one of the p a rtic ip a nts selec ted to p a rtic ip a te in the Wo m en o f the World Festiva l p roc eed ing s on 9 Aug ust 2005 a t the Ba xter Theatre. She embraced all activities with a positive attitude and in debriefing / feedback sessions, she was able to reflect onwhat she learnt and found valuable. She has found it very challenging

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

124


Molo Songololo

to cope with all the emotions that have been unlocked through the intervention, but also applies the coping techniques she learnt from the activities. Harnessing family support is challenging, they will speak to you but will not take appropriate action. There has been a visible change in her behaviour from aggressive and shy to a calmer more confident individual. Over time she has become full of life and smiles when she comes to Molo. She is more outspoken, in control of her feelings and says she is learning to love herself and to forgive others. Working with her was challenging, it is good to see the significant change in her. She is a beautiful young woman with so much talent and potential.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

125


Molo Songololo

Appendix 5 Story of a sexually exploited girl The Story of Person A, 16 years old I feel calm to watch the waves it feels like it is washing over my brain and taking away my pain a nd a s it d oes so , m y p a in is a lso surfa c ing a nd b eing relea sed . I feel p rivileg ed to b e here a t the sea tod a y. I feel ha p p y, a lthoug h it m a y not a p p ea r so . To d a y I c a nnot b e p roud enoug h of m yself - to think a b o ut w ho I w a s a nd w ho I a m tod a y it s a hug e c ha ng e. I fa c e m y p a st freq uently a nd tha t em otion touc hes m e , I a m streng thening m y hea rt to a c c ep t the p a in entering m y life. If I think, a s a yo ung w om a n tod a y, of m y p a st p resent a nd future I know I w ill ta ke life a s it c o m es, the c ha lleng es a nd the ro a d tha t is m ine. (She sp ea ks w ithout stop , the words coming from deep inside.)

I w a s in Sub B w hen I sta rted to g o to a m a tinee d a nc e in Silverstrea m , Pig g les, w e w ould lie a nd sa y tha t w e w ere g oing to friend s a nd w ent to Pig g les instea d . They (a t Pig g les) thoug ht I was old enough to enter. I looked older than I was. If you were smoking a cigarette they would let you in, p resum ing you w ere old eno ug h to sm oke so tha t is how I sta rted sm o king c ig a rettes. Then I sta rted sm o king slow b o a ts (d a g g a c ig a rette, in the b ush w ith friend s, yo u had to join in to be part of the group. The older ones introduced us to slow boats, we would go to the water and roll and smoke them there. Fa m ily a nd friend s ha d sta rted to m ess w ith m e. Friend s w a nted you to ha ve a b o yfriend to be in the c irc le. My m other sa id tha t I a m not a virg in a lthoug h I w a s - b ec a use she d id n t like m y friend s. She p ro b a b ly knew som e of w ha t they w ere up to b ut I w ould n t listen. I d id n t even think a b out b o yfriend s or sex a t tha t tim e. Then I w a nted som ething strong er b ec a use I wanted to escape from my life circumstances. This (pressure from mother and peers) led me to think of sleep ing out a nd ta king d rug s (m a nd ra x) b ec a use I d id n t know how to c op e a nd respond to these pressures. When I sm oked m a nd ra x for the first tim e I w a nted to keep d o ing it. It m a d e m e feel g ood , I first sm oked just a skyf then I ha d to sm oke a w hole p ill. It m a d e m e feel sleep y, rela xed a nd I d id n t w orry a b out a nything or a nyone then I felt fine. So I c ontinued a b using m a ndrax. Then you m a ke p la ns to g et a p ill b eg or sell som ething like your top , jea ns, ea rring s o r som eone else s stuff tha t you ha ve, o r you ta ke thing s fro m the house a nd sell it like a kettle or toaster just so that you can smoke. Then you start robbing with the older ones on a Friday night a nd you d o w ha t they tell you like jum p this p erson w hen they c o m e a round the c orner, he ha s a g rea t w a tc h . You m ust b e w illing b ec a use you a lso w a nt to sm o ke. To d a y it s the sa m e w ith tik, it d oes the sa m e thing to you, you w ill d o a nything for tik - sell your thing s o r stea l other p eo p les thing s to exc ha ng e fo r tik. We c ould a lw a ys exc ha ng e g ood s for m a nd ra x if you c a n t w a it to sm o ke , o therw ise yo u sell it first a nd then use the m oney to b uy d rug s. Som etim es I used to ta ke d rug s w ith one of the d ea lers, Mr B. This is w here I g o t d ra w n into this situa tion (c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n) a s he a lso g a ve m e d rug s for free in exc ha ng e fo r g ood s. He w a s m a rried w ith b ig c hild ren. He is still a d rug a d d ic t. Then one d a y he sa id w e a re g oing to the c ity, I d id n t even know w hy w e w ere g oing there. He just enc oura g ed m e to g o a long

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

126


Molo Songololo

a nd (o n tha t d a y) I w a s a lre a d y d rug g e d fro m m o rning to nig ht o ne p ill a fter the o ther. So I w a s w illing to g o to the c ity. Tha t d a y it a ll ha p p ene d very fa st a nd I w a s to o d rug g ed up to see w ha t w a s ha p p ening a nd this is w here m y sto ry o f b eing se xua lly exp lo ited sta rted . I d id not know where we were going to, there was drugs and I was using so I willingly went. We used d rug s, m a nd ra x, in the c a r a s w e d rove. When I looked a g a in I w a s in the street w here the p rostitutes w ork only I d id not know this a t the tim e. I w a s 12 yea rs old the d ea ler I told m e I w a s in the c ity a nd I m ust d o w ha t the other g irls d o . I w a s stup id Person A em p ha sised this point many times. When w e returned fro m tha t street Mr B a lso m a d e m e d o b usiness in a roo m in his house w ith a m a n fro m Pella . Shortly therea fter m y m other fetc hed m e w ith the p olic e from his house. I still ha d so m e m oney on m e, he ha d ta ken the other m oney. I w a s still d rug g ed w hen they a rrived . To this d a y I d on t rem em b er w ha t a c tua lly ha p p ened tha t d a y. The next d a y I rea lised tha t I w a s on the roa d to b eing sexua lly exp loited . I w a s on the roa d for 3 m onths after that first day. Afterwards I sp ent a lot of tim e a t his ho m e often sleep ing out (of the house) a s there w ere a lw a ys d rug s a nd d rug g ing friend s I w a s ra rely a t hom e. I still w ent to sc hool b ut often played truant. I sa w him the other d a y a nd he w a s surp rised to hea r tha t I a m not ta king d rug s. He still receives money from some of the girls on the street. With money in your hand you feel important and like you are someone but the effects was the w orst. I exp erienc ed a lot on tha t ro a d a nd fro m p ro stitution. It s not everyd a y tha t c lients c o m e for sex or b low job s so m e d a ys you g et stra ng e c lients w ho w a nt you to d o stuff a nd they w ill usua lly p a y you m ore tha n w ha t you w ould g et for stra ig ht sex. For exa m p le, they want you to pee in their mouth, or you tie them up against the tree and tie the penis with rope a nd then m a ke like you a re p la ying skip p ing w ith the rop e until he c om es. Or you g o hom e w ith them a nd tie them to the b ed a nd b ea t them w ith a w hip , until they c o m e. Or they ta ke rocks (drugs) and they just want you to be company while they are drugging and getting high. Or you ta ke p hotos of the c lient na ked or m a sturb a ting . Or yo u just w a tc h p ornog ra p hic m ovies w ith him a nd he m a sturb a tes till he c o m es. Or they ta ke p hotos of you up p er b o d y this depends on you and each photo costs a different amount of money. Or he brings his own vib ra tor a nd you m ust p ut it in his a nus a nd he m a sturb a tes until he c o m es. If you d on t w a nt to g o w ith a c lient b ec a use they d on t ha ve a c ond o m they m a y g o a nd b uy c o nd om s, som etim es even fla vo ured ones, a nd return to p ic k you up . I ha d a c lient w ho w a nted you to c a tc h his sem en w hen he eja c ula tes a nd sm ea r it on his fa c e a nd m outh he sa id it ta sted like yoghurt. I d id not rea lise it w ould b e so b a d - the stig m a of p rostitution. I w a s so d rug g ed I c a nnot recall exactly what happened. I was so stupid at the time having money for drugs was all that m a ttered . I ha d to b e d rug g ed b efore g etting into a c a r. I used to m a ke them w a it for m e w hile I sm o ked a p ip e in the b ushes on m y ow n. One d a y a c lient took the p ip e out of m y ha nd a nd sa id enoug h is enoug h you c a nnot sm oke like this. He w a s c onc erned a b out m y d rug g ing . I a lso m a d e them d rive to the m erc ha nts in Dunoon, a nea rb y fa rm , a nd b ehind Dunoon a t the w hite house so tha t I c ould b uy m e d rug s. I felt tha t the roa d w a s m y life , I would stay there. I felt unable to come right at any other place. I was sexually exploited by Mr B, a nd m a ny other p im p s a nd m ost c lients. There w ere 3 c lients w ho sp o ke to m e telling m e I

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

127


Molo Songololo

d o n t b elo ng there. So m etim e s I d id b usiness w ith them b ut a t o ther tim es they just sp o ke to me about doing something else with my life, gave me money and left. One client if he saw me there he w ould p ic k m e up a nd d ro p m e off a t the Seven Eleven a t Sa xonw old so tha t I c a n g o hom e. I sta rted to think I d on t b elong here a nd on the other ha nd I need ed m oney to sup p ly m y d rug ha b it. I d ec id ed I d on t b elong there. On tha t roa d there a re g irls w ho refuse to g ive up tha t g a m e b ec a use it s their life. I met someone else, Mr C, a gangster, months later I was told I must work with him and he is my p im p . I w a s fine w ith the a rra ng em ent b ec a use I w o uld g et d rug s. Ma ny d on t kno w w ha t d rug s d o to you; yo u c a n d o a nything for d rug s reg a rd less of c ost. It w a sn t a b out m y circumstances even. He took me to the road again. I was on the road for 3 months after that. My m other a nd p eo p le d id n t w orry or look for m e. The p im p trea ted m e like a d og eventually. He made me stay with one of his friends. Two of his relatives and 2 g a ng sters, w ho w ere his friend s, lived in the 2 b ed roo m ed RDP house w here I w a s kep t. There w a s c onsta nt d rug g ing a nd d rinking in the house everyb o d y p a rtic ip a ted . It w a s the sa m e a s I exp erienc ed a t Mr B s p la c e. Everyd a y c lients c a m e there to d o b usiness w ith m e a nd the c lients w ould b uy d rug s for b oth of us. Then the friend s w ould w a nt to join in using the d rug s and I had to charm the client into agreeing to share the drugs with them. If I was not willing to a sk I w ould b e b ea ten. They used to b e c lients fro m the roa d a nd then they eventua lly a sk if they c a n c o m e to you a nd Mr C w ould tell them to c om e to the house w henever they p lea sed . At tim es they d id not a sk a nd he just invited them to c o m e to the house. The g a ng sters w ould c o m e there a nd sleep w ith their g irlfriend s; there w a s a c onsta nt frenzy of people, never ending traffic, day and night. I missed my mother and family and wanted to go b ut I c ould n t g et a w a y from him . I ha d to listen to him - w ha t he sa id w a s how thing s ha d to b e. He exp ec ted m e to sup p o rt him a s long a s he c ould enjoy him self a nd d rug from the m oney I b roug ht in. At nig ht w hen I w a s sleep ing so m eone w o uld c o m e , g et in b ed next to m e a nd ra p e m e a nd or a ssa ult m e. Ma ny tim es I w a s so d rug g ed I w o uld a w a ke in the morning w ith a m a n in m y b ed a nd rea lise tha t he ha d ra p ed m e. I w ould w a ke up w ith b lue m a rks a nd m y b od y feeling so re a nd w o nd er w here it c a m e fro m . I w a s p erm a nently d rug g ed , everyd a y d a y a nd nig ht I w a s ta king d rug s, he w o uld c onsta ntly sup p ly m e w ith drugs which helped this vicious cycle to continue. I lea rnt w here this m a n s p a rents a nd fa m ily w ere a nd thoug ht they w ould help m e a s one of his friend s sug g ested tha t his m other w ould help m e. One Sund a y nig ht I ra n a w a y to his m other. One of his friend s g a ve m e a lift to his m other. I thoug ht she w ould help m e b y ostra c ising him b ec a use I w a s so young . I w a s p rep a red to still g o on the roa d the next d a y (the p rostitution w ould not ha ve stop p ed ) if it w a sn t for his m o ther, b ec a use she sa id so fa r a nd no further. She told him I w a s too young to b e d o ing this. She sa id I c ould m a ke m yself a t hom e there. I thoug ht how c ould she stop m e? Ho w w ould I g et d rug s if I d id not ha ve m oney? She sold d rug s a nd I sta yed there. I help ed her like a na nny, looking a fter her g ra nd c hild ren, d oing d o m estic w ork, la und ry, w a shing , selling d rug s, a nsw ering p hones, m a king c a lls (rela ted to d rug op era tions) a nd p rep a ring d rug s - ec sta c y a nd m a nd ra x - fo r sa le a nd d istrib ution. I w a s w ond ering w here m y p eop le a re. A rela tive visited m e tw ic e in tha t tim e b ut never p a ssed on the m essa g es I sent to m y m other. I w a s b eing m onitored , b ut w a nted m y m other or the p olic e to c om e a nd resc ue m e. I c o uld n t sta nd outsid e or ta lk to a nyone then he w ould b ea t m e. I w a s terrified o f him a nd still a m . He is m a rried a nd ha s 4 c hild ren his eld est c hild is m y a g e. His m other w ould c a ll the p olic e (b ut) they never c a m e , he w ould c ha se m e w ith a knife a round the house everyone sa w , he w ould shout for a ll to hea r

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

128


Molo Songololo

tha t I a m a p ro stitute , in the m o st o b sc ene la ng ua g e. His m o ther enc o ura g e d m e to esc a p e b ut it w a s im p o ssib le , he w a tc hed m e a ll the tim e . I c o uld n t sleep I ha d to g et up if there w a s a customer (to buy drugs) in the middle of the night. I would be in trouble with her (his mother) if I d id n t g et up in the nig ht to sell d rug s. This w ent on for a b out 3 m onths. One d a y I w a shed w a shing a nd a s I w a s ha ng ing the w a shing o n the line I thoug ht a b out w ha t I d rea m t the nig ht b efore - tha t m y m other kno c ked on the d oor a sking for m e, I tried to think w ha t it m ea nt. Tha t d a y I rem em b er ha ng ing w a shing on the line. Her son s g irlfriend told m e tha t there w ere p eo p le for m e it w a s the p olic e a nd tw o c o m m unity w orkers a nd m y m other. I w a s neg lec ted , b ro ken p a nts, old shoes, old sw ea ter, ha ir c ut short he sha ved it. They sa id c om e w a lk w ith us a nd I sa w m y m other in the c a r. I w a s a ng ry w ith her a nd m e ! Why d id she ta ke so long ? Did she w a nt m e to knoc k m y hea d o r w ha t? Wha t w a s I thinking ! Why d id I sta y so long ? Did the Lord send her to c om e a nd find m e? I w a s relieved ha p p y a nd a ng ry a ll a t onc e. I c ould n t und ersta nd w hy she took so long . They (SAPS) d id not w a nt to m a ke a c a se it d id n t ha ve strong g round s the w o m a n w ho took the c a se fro m Phila d elp hia sa id . I left it a t tha t b ut I d id n t w a nt to stop w ith m y nonsense. Whilst a t hom e ; I still w ent on m y ow n to the street, w hen I ha d the c ha nc e. I w a s a fra id ; thoug h tha t Mr C m a y c o m e a nd look for m e. Tha t Tuesd a y a fter the Phila d elp hia p o lic ew o m a n c a m e a nd sa id there w eren t strong g round s to m a ke a c a se, w a s the la st tim e (I w ent to the street). The up shot of the story is I know w ha t tha t g a m e is like a nd w ha t p eo p le c a n d o to you. I d id n t know how to d ea l w ith p eo p le throw ing thing s (exp erienc e o f b eing p rostituted ) in m y fa c e. I thoug ht tha t the c o m m unity w orkers ha d just fetc hed m e a nd d id n t c a re a b o ut m e a ny m ore. I sta yed a t hom e a fra id tha t I m a y m eet Mr B or Mr C a nd they w ould d o som ething to g et m e b a c k. I kep t m e b usy in the house a nd slep t a lot a nd oc c a siona lly took d rug s. They (fa m ily) a lso m onitored m e a lot w hen I w a s a t ho m e they w ere a fra id tha t I w ould go back to that activities. Then their colleagues came and invited me to a workshop. I a m a t tim es sorry tha t I ha ve let op p ortunities offered m e, p a ss m e b y. I feel full of self p ity a nd sorry for m yself w hen m y m other a nd them (fa m ily) sa y you d on t w a nt it, yo u a re just w a sting the c ha nc es. I know tha t I need to a c c ep t the op p ortunities inc lud ing ed uc a tiona l opportunities I now have a 2nd chance and I am learning. I feel that my story is endless there is so m uc h to sa y. My hea rt is overflow ing w ith g ra titud e to the p eop le w ho a re sta nd ing b y m e. I thought this is my life and I must accept it nothing will change and get better then they came along. Today I am drug free! I still c a n t forg ive m y m other. She sa id to m e I m ust g o w ith Person D (a p rostitute) a nd ta ke c a re o f m yself. She d oesn t know w ha t tha t d id to m e - a ny p a rent w on t c ha se their c hild in tha t d irec tion. So m etim es the w ord s sp o ken hurts, I und ersta nd m y m other is strug g ling a nd unem p lo yed b ut they p ut m e d ow n a t hom e a nd I c a nnot sa y a nything in resp onse, it b rea ks m e d o w n a nd I d on t know how to b uild m yself up a fter tha t. It feels a t tim es like nothing w ill change. They d on t think w hen m y c ounsellor c o m es tha t I c a n sa y w ha t a c tua lly ha p p ened then they a c t like a ng els a nd then w hen you lea ve a ll hell b rea ks loose. Then I d on t feel like m y c ounsellor w a s there a nd I w ish m y c ounsellor sta yed a nd c a n see w ha t s ha p p ening . My m other ha s lost husb a nd s a nd ha s 3 c hild ren b ut she still d o es not see a nd und ersta nd . Som etim es even I feel I d on t und ersta nd m yself. Then I feel lea ve everything , they a re sa ying it, so g o d o it a nd g o b a c k . Then I m otiva te m yself to hold on to the chances offered to me. I feel I d on t b elong in the house - d oesn t she (m other) rea lise how this m a kes m e feel. Until 13 I lived a ll over . w e need ea c h other.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

129


Molo Songololo

Ta lking is g o o d I re c a ll in the w o rksho p w he n he (fa c ilita to r) sa id if yo u ta lk a nd c ry a nd sto p yo ur tea rs then its like yo u a re no t ta lking b ec a use yo u a re ho ld ing b a c k. If yo u ta lk a nd c ry yo u m ust d o it w ith p rid e a nd let g o . I feel relieved a nd g o o d a nd c le a n. I ha ve le a rnt not to wipe my tears away as they fall it is cleaning my insides. I a lso lea rnt you need to fa c e your p a st a nd w hen you d o so to d o it w ith p rid e. I used to ha ve a w a y of p utting m yself d ow n. I d id n t think p ositively a t a ll I ha ve lea rnt to stop the neg a tive thoug hts. Ma ny d a ys I feel I ha ve ha d suffic ient p a in. Then I feel I ha ve ha d so m uc h p a in so yo ung w ha t p a in is still c o m ing ? I a m now em otiona lly strong er a nd I fa c e m y p a in som etim es I d on t kno w w ha t to d o w ith it then I use the b rea thing exerc ise I ha ve lea rnt. Also a nother fa c ilita tor sa id you think a b out the p a st b ec a use you live w ith it b ut you c a n think a b out it a nd feel g oo d to see the p rog ress I ha ve m a d e, how I ha ve m oved a w a y from the neg a tivity. I ha ve d ec id ed a s a young g irl I w a nt to lea rn m ore so tha t I c a n help others esp ec ia lly other c hild ren. I a lrea d y try to enc oura g e other young g irls. I ho p e a nd p ra y tha t on that day my heart will be strong enough to do so with pride. There a re p erha p s c hild ren in a situa tion w ho c a n lea rn fro m this a nd know tha t this situa tion is not a good place to be in. I c a nnot exp ress c lea rly b ut I feel its like a life story, a p a inful story too , I c a nnot im a g ine w ha t w ill m y future hold a nd w ha t a re the roa d s I w ill c hoose, those tha t a re g oo d or b a d for m e. I need to lea rn a b out friend s w ho im p ress, m islea d a nd a b use you. Neither they nor a ny other ob sta c les w ill sta nd in m y w a y I m ust d o w ha t is g oo d for m e! How I w ill d ea l w ith it is not c lea r now . Now I feel c a lm insid e a nd p roud of m yself. I a m not yet strong enoug h to enc oura g e others, b ut I kno w I c a n d o so. At the m om ent I feel tha t enc oura g ing others is w ea kening m e , although I feel good when I encourage others. It fits with my dreams there is much I wish to do a nd look forw a rd to. I hop e for m uc h for m e a nd even m y enem y a nd fellow m a n. I a m enc oura g ed b y the exa m p le o f a friend w ho ha s b een a b le to sta rt b uild ing a new life for herself a fter too b eing sexua lly exp lo ited . I loo k a t the b ea utiful p erson she ha s b ec o m e I c a nnot tell her enoug h how p ro ud I a m o f her, she is a role m o d el to m e. I w a nt to ha ve a ha p p y life , b rig ht future fo r m e a nd a ll the others in m y situa tion. I w a nt to m a ke a p ositive contribution to the society. Notes: The story w a s told freely b y Person A a nd she only need ed to b e a sked q uestions of c la rific a tio n or to ela b ora te on som e sta tem ents m a d e. She sp oke fro m d eep d ow n, q uietly a nd a t tim es tea rs rolled d ow n her fa c e a s she told the story. The story w a s told fluently in Afrika a ns the listener m a d e verb a tim tra nsla tions to Eng lish. A num b er of b rea ks w ere ta ken d uring the telling of the story, p a rtic ula rly a fter Person A ha d sha red very tra um a tic a sp ec ts. During the breaks walks were taken, hands held and hugs and reassurance given. The listener checked intermittently how Person A felt and if she wanted to continue. Person A d oes not rem em b er her life over the p a st 5 yea rs very c lea rly; so m e lo c a tio ns, d a tes a nd c erta in a c tivities a re not in her up p erm ost m em ory. This is not unusua l, m a ny survivors of trauma struggle to remember certain periods or events in their lives.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

130


Molo Songololo

Appendix 6 Model for exiting children from child sexual exploitation There is no b lue p rint for exiting c hild ren fro m sexua l exp loita tion nor c ould there b e a s ea c h c hild a nd situa tion is d ifferent. In South Afric a , there is ha rd ly a ny w ork o f this na ture b eing d one a nd if it ha s, it a p p ea rs, this ha s not b een rec ord ed . This d oc um ent, w hic h is b a sed on the m od el used b y Molo Song ololo in Atla ntis, offers Molo s p ersp ec tive o n exiting c hild ren from sexual exploitation. Research It is useful to c ond uc t a c o m m unity survey a s a sta rting p o int, even if you a re b a sed in the community. It could serve to provide and clarify the following: what is the extent of the problem in the community who, if anyone is responding to the sexual exploitation of children w ha t a re c hild ren s und ersta nd ing a nd exp erienc es of c hild sexua l exp loita tion who are the exploiters where does this exploitation occur what are the motivating factors what are the inhibiting factors what strategies are needed to tackle the problem in this specific environment what needs to be done and what will the project do The situa tiona l a na lysis c ond uc ted a t the sta rt of the p ilot p rojec t p rovid ed , not only a nsw ers to som e of the a b ove q uestions, b ut a lso a p roc ess w hic h initia ted d ia log ue w ith key sta ke hold ers. The resea rc h itself served a s p a rt of the intervention a s it eng a g ed youth, servic e providers and NGOs around an issue that was not high on their agenda. Community mobilisation, awareness and education Sexua lly exp loited c hild ren ha ve m ultip le need s a s a result of the tra um a they ha ve typ ic a lly exp erienc ed p rior to b eing sexua lly exp loited . In a d d ition, the exp erienc e of sexua l exp lo ita tio n b ring s further p a in a nd suffering into their lives. It is therefore nec essa ry for a ny org a nisa tio n w ishing to c rea te p ositive intervention in the lives of these c hild ren to rea lize tha t the sup p ort of the c om m unity, NGOs a nd sta te d ep a rtm ents is p a ra m ount in a c hieving suc c ess. A m ulti-sec tora l a p p roa c h is essentia l for c o m b a ting the sexua l exp lo ita tion of c hild ren. Develop a c o m m unity c onsulta tion p roc ess, ra ise the a w a reness of key role p la yers and organize activities to mobilize them in the fight to end the sexual exploitation of children. The project could engage with the following role players: Justice Department prosecutors, magistrates, victim support staff at the courts Community Safety Department SAPS, Community Police Forum Social Services and Poverty Alleviation social workers, Child Protocol Non-g overnm enta l org a nisations Shelters, NICRO, Ra p c a n, a nd other loc a l org a nisa tio ns resp onsive to c hild a nd w o m en a b use, youth d evelop m ent, sub sta nc e abuse etc. Health Department Clinics, Hospitals, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

131


Molo Songololo

Education Department District office, local Principals Forum, school psychologists Any other key role p la yers in the c o m m unity Mem b ers of Pa rlia m ent, Wa rd Counsellors etc. This list is b y no m ea ns exha ustive, there a re m a ny p eo p le w ho a re p a ssiona te a b out c hild ren and youth and may come forward to offer their services. It is w ith this in m ind tha t the p ilot p rojec t ra n a num b er of ed uc a tion a nd tra ining w orkshop s w ith those servic e p rovid ers, NGOs a nd ind ivid ua ls w ho w ork w ith sexua lly exp loited c hild ren. The p rojec t a lso hosted a num b er of c onsulta tive fora to g a in their inp ut in d evelop ing a c oord ina ted stra teg ic resp onse to the p rob lem . It is out of one suc h sem ina r tha t the Atla ntis Child ren s Netw ork Forum g rew . Ong oing c o nsulta tion a nd netw orking resulted in organizations committing themselves to the work. Objectives for the workshops could include: To c rea te a w a reness & sensitise c hild -c a re, c hild -hea lth, c hild -justic e, c hild -protection, child-d evelop m ent p ersonnel on the p henom enon, extent a nd m a nifesta tions of c hild sexual exploitation To share information and experiences of child sexual exploitation To id entify fa c tors tha t im p a c t on c hild sexua l exp loita tion, c hild ren a t risk a nd g ood practice models To exp lore rec o m m end a tions p ut forw a rd b y Molo Song ololo s Resea rc h rep orts a nd other resources for the prevention of child sexual exploitation To esta b lish inter-sec tora l c olla b ora tion, c o-o p era tion, netw orking a nd a c tion p la ns for the development of an intervention strategy to combat child sexual exploitation To em b a rk on p rog ra m m es a nd a c tivities to ensure tha t the rec o m m end a tions o f the report is implemented To hig hlig ht the need for leg isla tive a nd soc ia l p olic y for the resc ue p rotec tion a nd reintegration of such children To a sc erta in the va rio us role p la yers c ontrib utions, in term s of c a p a c ity b uild ing in their struc tures, w ha t resourc es they c a n c o m m it to the p ro c ess a nd w ha t their sp ec ific tra ining needs are As the w ork sta rts to g a in m o m entum it m a y b e nec essa ry to set up a p rojec t b a se. The id ea l tea m should inc lud e a p rojec t m a na g er, youth w orkers, la y c o unsellors, a d m inistra to r, soc ia l worker or psychologist and a psycho-social support coordinator. It w a s a t this p oint tha t the p rojec t set up offic e in Atla ntis. A loc a l b usinessm a n w a s lob b ied for d isc ounted offic e sp a c e, a nd a fter a n extensive sea rc h a tea m of four w a s a p p ointed to open and run the project office. In ta nd em w ith the ta rg eted ed uc a tion p rog ra m m es the p rojec t em b a rked on a n intensive m ed ia c a m p a ig n to rea c h the c o m m unity a t la rg e, c om m unity ra d io w a s a key p a rtner in this c a m p a ig n. Da ily new sp a p ers a nd television w ere a lso used to rea c h resid ents. The p rojec t p ro d uc ed p a m p hlets a nd p osters w hic h w ere d istrib uted to sc hools, c rèc hes, c hurc hes a nd m osq ues m a king p eop le a w a re of the p rojec t a nd the issue. Door to d o or b litzes w ere a lso held in the c o m m unity w here resourc e m a teria ls w ere g iven to fa m ilies. The m ed ia c a m p a ig n d rew m a ny p eo p le to the p rojec t offic e seeking a ssista nc e w ith a w id e ra ng e of p ro b lem s in relation to their children including child sexual exploitation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

132


Molo Songololo

In resp o nse to the a w a reness ra ising a nd m o b ilizing a c tivities m a ny fa m ilies so ug ht a ssista nc e from the project. To assist the project in coping with the many requests for help 22 members of the c om m unity w ere tra ined a s la y c o unsellors. Selec ting the la y c ounsellors w a s a c ha lleng ing ta sk a s it w a s c ruc ia l to a p p oint trustw orthy ind ivid ua ls w ho c ould resp ec t the confidentiality of beneficiaries. Prevention and Intervention Existing c o unselling servic es a nd la y c ounsellors should b e rec ruited to sup p ort the p rojec t. There role w ould b e to resp ond to the a ntic ip a ted d em a nd fo r a ssista nc e onc e the p rojec t ha s m o b ilized the c o m m unity to ta ke a c tio n p ositively a nd d ec isively a g a inst c hild a b use a nd sexua l exp loita tion. To id entify p eo p le fo r tra ining , a d vertise w id ely throug h netw orks, a sk fo r referenc es a nd sp ea k to resp ec ted c om m unity lea d ers to refer p eop le. Fa c ilita te for c a nd id a tes to a ttend a n a c c red ited b a sic c ounselling tra ining c ourse a nd m a ke c a reful selection of a cohort of counsellors once they have completed the training. Training of lay counsellors should address the following subject areas: Basic counselling skills Play therapy Defining the sexual exploitation of children What is child sexual abuse, rape, incest, abduction and indecent assault The Child Care Act The Sexual Offences Act The South African Constitution The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child Reporting the abuse When a sexual offence is reported, what happens The child making a statement The medical examination The investigation Going to court The la y c ounsellors w ere d ep loyed to w ork in the sc hools fulfilling a d ua l role of b oth prevention and intervention. The lay counsellors typically assist children who appear to have a behavioura l p rob lem a s id entified b y the ed uc a tor. The c ounsellor, throug h p la y thera p y m a kes a n initia l a ssessm ent a nd so id entifies the p rob lem . Sa d ly the p rob lem s m ost id entified a re sexua l a nd p hysic a l a b use (102 c a ses of 272 in a p eriod o f 8 m onths). Child ren a re referred to the Sc hools Psyc holog ist if nec essa ry or c ounselled b y the la y c ounsellor. By id entifying tra um a tized c hild ren a nd p ro vid ing them w ith the nec essa ry a ssista nc e the Sc hools Counselling Servic e p la ys a p reventa tive role in resp ec t of c hild sexua l exp loita tion a s the vulnerability of those children is decreased through effective follow-up and treatment. The c ounsellor should form p a rt of the sc hools Lea rner Sup p ort Com m ittee to fa c ilita te for a p p ro p ria te referra l o f c hild ren. The c ounsellor a lso m a kes c onta c t w ith p a rents, a t lea st to inform them that their child is being counselled. Com m unic a te w ith the p rinc ip a l to ensure tha t the c ounsellor ha s suita b le w ork sp a c e a nd tha t c lea r a rra ng em ents a re m a d e in resp ec t of the servic es exp ec ta tions of the sc ho ol a nd vice versa.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

133


Molo Songololo

These a rra ng em ents m a y inc lud e: c la rifying the p urp o se a nd ro le o f the c o unselling servic e w ith sc ho o l sta ff; c o nfirm ing the ho urs a nd d a ys o f o p era tio n o f the servic e ; a ny e q uip m ent and resource needs including work space; how educators and counsellors can work together. The p rojec t invested in the d evelop m ent of youth lea d ers a s a p reventa tive a nd susta ina b ility stra teg y. Youth w ere offered the op p ortunity to p a rtic ip a te in w orksho p s, c a m p s a nd p rog ra m m es w hic h w ould enha nc e their a b ility to neg otia te the c ha lleng es a nd stresses they face including: life skills training camps, peer educators training, child rights and responsibilities. These op p ortunities w ere jointly fa c ilita ted for b y the Atla ntis Projec t a nd the Molo Its Your Move Cape Town. The life skills p ro g ra m m es a llow s youth to g a in g rea ter kno w led g e a nd und ersta nd ing of the follow ing c ritic a l issues: sex a nd sexua lity, sub sta nc e a b use, g end er, interp ersona l c o m m unic a tion, c onflic t resolution, HIV/ AIDS, c hild sexua l exp lo ita tio n, c hild tra ffic king , c hild ren s rig hts a nd resp onsib ilities. Lea d ership tra ining a nd em p ow erm ent w a s p rovid ed throug h p eer fa c ilita tion tra ining , p ub lic a w a reness d rives, p a rtic ip a tion in la w reform p roc ess a nd p a rtic ip a tion in va rio us loc a l, national and international public forums and conferences. This has enabled the children of Atlantis: to recognise when they or another child is being abused; to break the silence of their own abuse; to make submission to the Parliament on the Child ren s Bill to p a rtic ip a te in the Child ren s Governa nc e p rojec t of IDASA to speak out against abuse and to participate in the awareness raising as peer educators The youth c a n b ec o m e c ha ng e a g ents in the c om m unity a s they use their know led g e to ra ise awareness on child rights and responsibilities, child sexual exploitation and child trafficking. Eng a g ing the youth in this w a y a llow s the p rojec t to offer c hild ren a nd youth via b le a lterna tives to g a ng s, d rug a nd a lc ohol a b use a nd other self d estruc tive a c tivities w hilst building the future leaders of our country. The p revention w ork w a s further extend ed to the sc hools w here the p rojec t s youth w orkers ran child rights and responsibilities workshops at the primary schools with grades 5 7 and child sexual abuse and child sexual exploitation workshops at high schools from grade 8 11. These workshops had a great impact as many children reported to the youth workers or visited the project office after the workshops, saying that they had been abused. The p revention w ork, a w a reness ra ising a nd m ed ia c a m p a ig n a re a ll effec tive stra teg ies to rea c h c hild ren w ho ha ve b een or a re still exp erienc ing som e form o f c hild a b use o r c hild sexual exploitation. Field work Field w ork is m ost c ha lleng ing . It is not ea sy to a p p ro a c h the c hild ren / teena g ers w ho a re b eing sexua lly exp loited , on the street, a nd introd uc e yourself a nd ta lk. They d on t trust ea sily,

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

134


Molo Songololo

they a re b eing w a tc hed a nd there is p ressure o n them to eng a g e w ith the exp lo iters. There is a lso the elem ent o f d a ng er a nd the sa fety o f field w o rkers m ust b e c o nsid ered . The fie ld w o rk should be done at least by two people at a time for safety purposes. The p rojec t w a s a b le to sp ea k to a d ult sex w orkers w ho introd uc ed the c hild ren to the tea m . The tea m ha d to p a y a num b er of visits to the roa d a nd invite the c hild ren to visit the offic e b efore a ny m ea ning ful c om m unic a tion took p la c e b etw een the c hild ren a nd the p rojec t. It w a s onc e w e w ere a b le to see them in the offic e tha t w e w ere rea lly a b le to sta rt b uild ing trust. In the c a se of a c c essing c hild ren b eing sexua lly exp loited b y g a ng s, a g a in it is nec essa ry to ha ve a g o -b etw een w ho c a n introd uc e you to the c hild ren. Ca ution m ust a lw a ys b e ta ken and if necessary, the SAPS should accompany field workers. Direct Intervention It is im p orta nt to rec og nize tha t m ost b ut not a ll c hild ren w ho a re sexua lly exp lo ited a re fro m p overty stric ken hom es a nd c o m m unities. Their p ro file c a nnot b e nea tly d efined a t this sta g e. Wha t is evid ent is the role tha t d rug a b use p la ys in d ra w ing c hild ren into sexua l exp loita tion a nd keep ing them there. This is esp ec ia lly w orrying tod a y a s w e w itness la rg e num b ers of youth b ec om ing a d d ic ted to the hig hly a d d ic tive tik d rug . The d a ta listed b elow is p rovid ed in a n a ttem p t to offer som e p ic ture of the sig nific a nt fa c tors tha t a ffec ted the Ca se Stud y p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tion. This is b y no m ea ns d efinitive g iven the sm a ll sa m p le in the Ca se Stud y b ut it is ho p ed tha t it offers initia l insig hts into a c o m p lex p ro b lem w hic h ha s m inim a l inform a tion a b out the p rofiles o f vic tim s in South Africa. Of the participants who experienced sexual exploitation (in the past and present): 6 of the 8 w ere exp o sed to sub sta nc e a b use in the hom e ; the rem a ining 2 p a rtic ip a nts background in this regard is unknown 6 of the 8 w ere exp o sed to d o m estic violenc e, verb a l a nd em otiona l a b use a nd g end er b a sed violenc e; the rem a ining 2 p a rtic ip a nts b a c kg ro und in this reg a rd is unknow n. 5 of the 8 w ere sexua lly a b used a t a n ea rlier sta g e; the rem a ining 3 p a rtic ip a nts background in this regard is unknown. 6 of the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp loita tion lived w ith their p a rents a t the time of the exploitation or part thereof and two lived with other people. 5 of the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp loita tion g rew up w ithout their fa thers whilst the remaining 3 have difficult relationships with their fathers. 3 of the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp lo ita tio n w ere a t som e sta g e influenc ed b y g a ng s; the rem a ining 5 w ere not a lthoug h one w a s p ursued b y a g a ng w ho w a nted to p im p her, w ith the a ssista nc e of a n ind ep end ent p im p she w a s a b le to escape the gang. 2 of the 8 p a rtic ip a nts w ho exp erienc ed sexua l exp loita tion ha ve c hild ren, b oth from boyfriends.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

135


Molo Songololo

Environmenta l fa ctors influencing exploitation (past or present) Environmental Factor

exp osed to sub sta nc e a b use in the home exp osed to d om estic violenc e , verbal a nd em otiona l a b use a nd gender based violence sexually abused at an earlier stage lived w ith their p a rents a t the tim e of the exploitation or part thereof grew up without their fathers influenced by gangs have children

Yes

case No

study

pa rticipa nts who

experienced

Unknown

Total

Percentage Yes

6

2

8

75

6

2

8

75

3

5 6

2

8 8

62.5 75

5 3 2

3 5 6

8 8 8

62.5 37.5 25

sexua l

The influenc e o f g a ng s is not strong ly reflec ted in the Ca se Stud y p a rtic ip a nts b ut this is to b e exp ec ted sinc e the p rojec t d id not a c c ess c hild ren b eing sexua lly exp lo ited b y g a ng s. We a re how ever, a w a re tha t the g a ng s c ontrol m a ny sheb eens a nd p im p s. The p im p s manipulate and coerce young children into sexual exploitation. Contact, Support and Counselling A num b er of intera c tive stra teg ies w ere initia ted for the im p lem enta tion a nd m a na g em ent of the c a se stud y. There w a s a need to b uild trust a nd to d evelop a c ontra c t b etw een the p ilot project, the individual girls and them as a group. To initiate a similar rescue and recovery intervention the following may be useful: Develop a clear plan for the intervention Ensure that project team fully understands focus and priority of the intervention Assign staff to do follow-up with proposed participants and their families Work on establishing trust and invite them to visit office. Organise a briefing workshop and invite each one to attend Ensure tha t the p resenta tion c lea rly outlines the p ro jec t s und ersta nd ing of w ho the ta rg et a ud ienc e is i.e. sexua lly exp loited c hild ren, w ha t the intervention a im s to d o , ho w you plan to do it and what does it mean for the participants Present the c onc ep t to them . It is im p orta nt to em p ha sise tha t only you c a n c ha ng e yourself; the intervention w ill only b e useful if the ind ivid ua l m a kes a c o m m itm ent to change; the intervention is a means to an end Run the w orksho p a nd a llow sp a c e in the w orkshop for soc ia l intera c tion w here participants can get to know each other and the team Follow-up making individual contact and establish individual contract Organise a group meeting and establish group contract Chec k rec ord s a nd c orrec t a nd up d a te inform a tion in files (o ften inc orrec t d eta ils w ould have been given during early contact) The Approach The small things count Provid e a w a rm , c a ring , rela xed a nd friend ly a tm osp here tha t is non-jud g em enta l a nd accepting of the person Emphasise truth, openness and honesty in all communications Always encourage, motivate and give positive feedback to participants

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

136


Molo Songololo

Excursions serve to expose participants to new places, concepts and activities which could feed into their process of self discovery and inner healing. They create an opportunity for staff and participants to get to know and bond with each other in a less formal and structured way. Give food, clothing, toiletries or feminine hygiene products as needed, and with sensitivity Working from where they are at Be proactive and stay alert making ongoing assessments of what is being done and if this is congruent with the needs of the children at the time. Work with the participants from the basis of what the person needs Always offer them choices no forced participation At the same time continue to follow-up on participants when they slip this will help them to return to the project when they regain control of themselves Reg ula rly a ssess w ha t issues p a rtic ip a nts a re d ea ling w ith a nd a d just the w orksho p programme appropriately, to keep it relevant Enc oura g e the g roup to sup p ort ea c h other a nd in this w a y they lea rn tha t they a re not alone At lea st one c ounsellor should a lw a ys b e a va ila b le to a ssist a t g roup a c tivities a nd esp ec ia lly w orksho p s in the event tha t one p a rtic ip a nt m a y b rea kd o w n a nd need support Nurture the special talents of each child Working within the community Inc lud e w o rk w ith p a rents / c a reg ivers, tea c hers a nd fa m ilies esp ec ia lly w here sup p ort from them is required, although this may not always be possible Draw in community organizations and service providers as partners Ca reful sc reening o f a ll fa c ilita tors, ind ivid ua ls a nd o rg a niza tions, b efore exp osing the g roup to them ; p a y even g rea ter a ttention to a ll the m en they w ill m eet throug h the intervention Ha ving m enta l hea lth p ro fessiona ls w ork ind ivid ua lly w ith the ta rg et g roup is nec essa ry to offer the individualized, specialized care that is required. The intervention should include the following strategies Follow-up and make contact with children. Home visits. Motivate and encourage children to choose alternatives Provide counselling and assistance where necessary Make referrals and access children to other services and opportunities Conduct a needs assessment survey with individual children Design Individual Development Plans for each child Conduct healing and recovery programmes including life skills Conduct skills & income generation audit with children Encourage further learning and education back to school where possible Mobilise community support and assistance service providers

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

137


Molo Songololo

Intervention Strategies used in the Case Study 1. Counselling sessions The g irls rec eived one to one c ounselling . Referra ls a re m a d e a nd g irls a re a b le to a c c ess other services and opportunities. A needs assessment questionnaire was drafted and administered to participants to determine their individual needs. The results of the Need s Assessm ent c om b ined w ith our ob serva tions a nd the feed b a c k fro m servic e p rovid ers ena b led us to w ork w ith a p a rtic ip a nt to p ut in p la c e a n Ind ivid ua l Develop m ent Pla n. (Given the lim ited tim e w e ha d w ith the p a rtic ip a nts this p ro c ess is still underway at the time of writing this report) 2. House visits and Family meetings House visits were done, to not only communicate with the participants, but also to gain insight into their living conditions. In family meetings with caregivers and parents of the girls, we discussed the work we are doing, how the family can offer support and this also offered them an opportunity to communicate with each other in a safe environment. 3. Grooming and Personal Care A Beauty Therapist provided workshops which helped them to care for others in a fun way and imparted skills to the group. 4. Alternative Healing An Alternative Healer specialising in reflexology, indian massage and pressure points, provided one to one and group sessions with 6 of the girls. 5. Tools for Healing Programme This programme comprised Weekly Workshops, the Camp and Excursions. 5.1 Weekly Workshops Topics included: Identity, Decision Making, Substance Abuse, Getting to know each other, group consultations and debriefing after excursions. 5.2 Camp A Camp was organized for the girls which focused on Self Development and Team Building through environmental education. The camp was facilitated jointly by Molo Songololo and the Zeekoeivlei Environmental Education Programme. 5.3 Excursions Seven excursions were arranged for the group to: Molo Songololo Kenilworth office and Hout Bay beach Slave Lodge and Rhodes Memorial Baxter Theatre: Tall Horse Production Weekend Camp to Zeekoeivlei Environmental Education Programme. Baxter Theatre and District Six Museum: Community Day (Theme - Wishes and Dreams) Institute for Healing Memories weekend, twice Molo Songololo Youth Indaba on National Youth Day These excursions exposed the group to alternative activities and broadened their world view and included arts and culture, social issues, nature, cultural history and healing programmes

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

138


Molo Songololo

5.4 Medical support Counsellors, where necessary, accompanied the participants on visits to the clinic for TB testing, STI or STD examinations, pregnancy tests etc. A local GP also agreed to provide medical assistance to the girls and as a start each one was taken for a full medical examination. 6 Other 6.1 Thanks Giving Service A Thanks Giving Service was held to celebrate the case study. The participants families were invited to attend and the participants themselves shared in the preparation for and implementation of the service. 6.2 Basic Office Administration Trainee The project selected one of the case study participants to work in the office as a trainee and in this way she could gain some work experience and knowledge. The project provides the trainee with a stipend. 6.3 CAB In response to a guest talk by the CAB, an organisation dealing with drug and alcohol abuse and recovery, some of the participants started to attend the regular CAB meetings and activities. 6.4 Computer Course Four of the participants attended a basic computer literacy course run by the Hartebees MultiPurpose Community Centre. To date, one has successfully completed the course. 6.5 Women of the World Festival The festival held a Voice of the Girl child Writing Competition. One of the participants entered the c om p etition a nd w ill now b e p a rtic ip a ting in the p roc eed ing s of the d a y on 9 Aug ust 2005 at the Baxter Theatre. Human Resource Requirements The skills, values, attitudes and knowledge required by the various members of the Project team are outlined below.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

139


Molo Songololo

Staff will be employed already having particular qualities and skills below outlines the requirements for each role or function. Functions Skills Researcher Research skills (research design, data collection, data analysis, writing); Ability to connect with people and listen; Ability to work with children and youth; Materials Experience in developing materials for use at Developer community and professional levels; Focus and clarity in materials development approach; Appropriate level of skill in language spoken in community; Creativity; need not have knowledge of subject area but will need to learn Trainers / Creativity; Dynamic facilitation skills; Experience Facilitators in education and training for children and youth; Ability to communicate with people at all levels; Able to communicate in languages spoken by community; need not have knowledge of subject area but will need to learn Volunteers to be deployed according to the skills they bring Counsellors Counselling; Case management Youth Facilitation; Workshop design; Planning; Workers Organising Project Project management; Information Manager management; Lobbying and advocacy; Public relations; Human resource management; Report writing; Administrative Administrative General office administration; Secretarial skills Support

Psychosocial Support

at varied levels. The table Qualities and Knowledge Qualities: Courage; compassion; commitment; people friendly; passion to work with children & youth; strong team player; flexibility; sensitivity to the issues Knowledge: Child Sexual Abuse Child Sexual Exploitation Child Trafficking Legal aspects of the above Substance Abuse

Debriefing; Counselling; Case Management; Understanding social problems, appropriate solutions, service organizations, referrals; Coordination of psycho-social support and counselling services, (including training, referrals, monitoring)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

140


Molo Songololo

Attitudes and Values To ensure optimal success of the programme it is best that staff embrace the same attitudes and values in this way recipients will always receive the same message from the project. Some relevant values and attitudes are noted below, Take a child centred approach child participation; to act in the interests of the child; youth development as a prevention strategy. Apply ethical practices confidentiality; respect; integrity; acceptance; honesty; establishing and maintaining boundaries. Understand that the project is about change and healing. Work should always be conducted with integrity. In the case of working with traumatized children this cannot be over emphasized. Staff attitudes toward sexually exploited children should always be respectful, caring, display sensitivity to their past and present life challenges, unconditional acceptance, acknowledge that they have experienced manipulation and abuse which leads to exploitation and not be judgemental. It is essential that staff recognise and understand the power relationship between themselves and the child and conduct themselves with sensitivity and the appropriate level of professionalism because they are working with severely traumatized and vulnerable children, who typically have little or no faith in adults. Ideally staff should be able to draw on their own experiences of healing, personal growth and self development which will enable them to understand the challenges faced by project recipients. Spirituality and religion are often the foundations of programmes for the exit and recovery of sexually exploited children and women. It is therefore important to develop a position which will inform the role, if any, of religion and spirituality in the programme. Substance abuse is almost always a part of the behaviour of a sexually exploited child. To adjust that behaviour it is necessary for the organisation to clarify: How it wishes to respond to the problem in a holistic way or only to focus on the substance abuse Staff conduct in respect of drugs and alcohol should be exemplary. Management The project should include job descriptions for each member of staff with lines of authority clearly defined. It should also be clear what decisions are made by the Project Manager. The challenging and complex nature of this work places great demands on the Project Manager and so requires him/her to be dedicated to this project to ensure that their focus is not removed from the project to other projects within the organisation.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

141


Molo Songololo

The project requires a strong leader who is able to think strategically and act decisively to ensure effective and efficient service delivery. A team is not born but grown through trust, honesty, understanding and working together. The Project Manager needs to foster team spirit and nurture the team. The high levels of stress experienced by staff emphasize the value of team work and staff supporting each other. The project will have many demands placed on it. It is thus useful if all staff have counselling, organizing and facilitation skills as emergencies do occur frequently and in these cases another staff member could step in an assist. Training and Support Staff received on the job training in: Fieldwork Office management Organizing skills Computer operating Staff received more specialized training in: Counselling Child ren s rig hts Sexual exploitation of children Child trafficking Legislation affecting children International conventions and dialogues on children to which South Africa is a signatory Regular debriefing of staff must be set up to assist them in dealing with any trauma they may experience in the course of their work. This m o d el is useful a s a sta rting p oint, it is nec essa ry to ta ke a c c ount of the p a rtic ula r c ond itions of p a rtic ip a nts a nd the c ontext the p rojec t is loc a ted in to ensure op tim a l suc c ess. Fa c ilita ting for the g row th a nd d evelop m ent of p eop le req uires lots of flexib ility, c rea tivity, love and patience.

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

142


Molo Songololo

Appendix 7 MOLO SONGOLOLO - ATLANTIS PROJECT ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 SEPTEMBER 2004

2004 R

2003 R

INCOME Funds available at the beginning of the year

35 702

0

1 083 193 1 083 143

520 890 520 550

50

340

1 118 895

520 890

800 344

485 188

Accounting fees Audit fees Bank charges Campaign expenses Contingency costs Launch Printing and production of materials Personnel costs - Fieldworker - Co-ordinator - Researcher - Materials developer - Trainers Rent and electricity Telephone and fax Training and skills development workshop Travel

6 968 6 600 3 147 103 365 28 908 0 120 289 332 898 82 516 92 106 0 86 468 71 808 23 600 48 110 100 063 26 395

12 504 0 434 237 15 442 69 659 284 261 66 832 84 120 41 400 91 909 0 24 000 43 000 15 209 20 442

Funds available at the end of the year

318 551

35 702

Income received during the year Fund income Interest received

Total Income

Less Expenses

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

143


Molo Songololo

MOLO SONGOLOLO - ATLANTIS PROJECT FINANCIAL STATEMENTS STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE 9 MONTHS ENDED 30 JUNE 2005

(9 months) 2005 R

(12 months) 2004 R

Notes INCOME

330 593 330 593

1 083 193 1 083 143

0

50

504 398

800 344

4 000 6 000 1 992 8 972 0 0 0 262 238 19 250 82 156 0 57 485 67 232 36 115 0 17 600 41 957 0 28 140 27 272 42 057 11 724 30 076 21 382 988

6 968 6 600 3 147 103 365 28 908 0 120 289 332 898 82 516 92 106 0

(173 805) 318 551 144 746

282 849 35 702 318 551

Fund income Interest received

EXPENSES Accounting fees Audit fees Bank charges Campaign expenses Contingency costs Launch Printing and production of materials Personnel costs - Fieldworker - Co-ordinator - Researcher - Project manager - Trainers - Victim support worker - Materials developer Rent and electricity Telephone and fax Training and skills development workshop Travel Victim Support: Consultants Victims: Exit & Recovery Victim Support: Skills training Lay counselors & volunteer costs Evaluation Unallocated expense (Deficit)/Surplus for the year Add accumulated surplus at the beginning of year Accumulated surplus at the end of the year

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

71 808 86 468 23 600 48 110 100 063 26 395 0 0 0 0 0

144


Molo Songololo

Appendix 8 Atlantis pilot project team Staff 1. Tony Naidoo 2. Vanessa Anthony 3. Abraham Nicholas 4. Cathleen Taka 5. Riaan Hendricks 6. Lorna Houston 7. Priscilla Siegelaar 8. Lorna Gertse 9. Karin Koen 10. Debora Mobilyn Lay Counsellors 1. Steven Alberts 2. Michael Alexander 3. Avril Apollis 4. Julian Appolis 5. Dawn Bosman 6. Joyce Daniels 7. Claudine February 8. Lorna Gertse 9. Siphokazi Centane 10. Melissa Jonkers 11. Mirian Jooste 12. Leonora Malgas 13. Bongiswa Mankayi 14. Nombedesho Quanta 15. Annelize Adonis 16. Harry Phillipus 17. Debbie Scholtz 18. Anne van Blerk 19. Katie Roman 20. Lena Semories 21. Priscilla Siegelaar 22. Bongiwe Mtshemla Volunteers

1. Gregory Diedricks

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

145


Molo Songololo

Appendix 9 References 1. A World Fit for Children (Unicef, 2002) 2. The State of the World s Child ren Rep ort 2005 - Childhood Under Threat (Unicef, 2005) 3. One billion children in extreme poverty: a holocaust on a world scale, M Vanheuverswyn (http://www.aidc.org.za/?q=book/view/440, 2005) 4. National Programme of Action for Children in South Africa: Children in 2001 A report on the Sta te of the Na tio n s Child ren (Na tiona l Prog ra m m e of Ac tion for Child ren in South Africa The Presidency, 2001) 5. Statistics South Africa: Census 2001 6. K. Koen: Children on the edge: Strategies towards an integrated approach to combat child sexual exploitation in South Africa (Molo Songololo, WomensNet, 2004) 7. A. Da w es a nd Z. Pa rker: Child Sexua l Ab use in Atla ntis: A resea rc h rep o rt (Child ren s Institute, University of Cape Town, 2003) 8. Molo Songololo: Child Sexual Exploitation in Atlantis (Molo Songololo, Cape Town, 2003) 9. RL Atkinson, RC Atkinson, EE Smith, DJ Bem, S Nolen-Hoeksema: Introduction to Psychology (Harcourt Brace College, Fort Worth, 1990)

Atlantis Pilot Project Report August 2005

146


This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com. The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.


Atlantis Pilot Project