sonitus project _ porifera project

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SONITUS PROJECT PORIFERA PROJECT (WITH PAOLA BETANCES SANTANA)

(WITH DAVID DURAN SANCHEZ)

OKSANA PRYSHCHEPA PETROVNA MASTER OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE 1 SCHOOL OF AN ADVANCED DESIGN ELISAVA


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PORIFERA PROJECT SONITUS PROJECT Oksana Pryshchepa ŠAll rights reserved 239 pages

Professor stuff:

Jordi Truco Marcel Bilurbina Gorka de Lesea Marco Verde Rojer Paez Pau de Sola-Morales Santi Pladellorens David Lorente

MASTER OF ADVANCED DESIGN AND DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE Computational Design Laboratory Bio Design Laboratory

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7 concepts of the architecture

8 process, logics and language in architecture 18 function of the form. material organization

SONITUS PROJECT

PORIFERA PROJECT

53 codelab 54 72 80 98

history of the square lesseps animate scenario. generation of the form prototype. intelligent patterns. digital morphogenesis enviroment solutions. space division

112 140 152 160 174 190 210 239

component definition parametric scheme. digital modeling dynamic component demonstrational models scale 1:1 intelligent system architectonical project

111 biodelab

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CONCEPTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE

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PROCESS, LOGICS AND LANGUAGE IN ARCHITECTURE 8


ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES IN THE AGE OF HUMANISM by Rudolf Wittkower

Rudolf Wittkower, who had published important essays on a role of geometry in the works of Alberti and Palladio, essays later collected in Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism (1949, 1962). Wittkower takes issue with that which they share: a hedonist interpretation of architecture that privileges the sensuous aesthetic reception by the viewer and projects it back upon the architect’s intention. “In stead Wittkower posits a conscious intellect-driven will to form aimed at conveying meaning, and hence, aimed at the mind rather than the senses.¨ In order to support this hypothesis, Wittkower focuses the investigation on four issues that he considers essential: symbolism, appropriation of forms, development of characteristic building types (the latter two subsumed under the heading of “the question of tradition”), and commensuration. For example, in Part I, the discussion of the church plan is singled out as most significant for an understanding of a Renaissance conception of meaning in architecture, and offers Wittkower the opportunity to show a relationship between symbolism and geometry. The centralized plan, based on the circle and square, and developed from the Vitruvian homo ad circulum and ad quadratum, emerges both as a Renaissance ideal and as its “symbolic form.” As “visible materialization of the intelligible mathematical symbols,” it reveals the (Neoplatonic) Renaissance conception of a geometrical intersection between microcosm and macrocosm. ”For instance Francesco di Giorgio based his advice to church builders on empirical deduction: he argued that the innumerable types of churches can be reduced to three principal once: the round (the most perfect), the rectangular and a composite of both forms. Alberti’s De re aedificatoria contains the first full programme of the ideal church of the Renaissance. His synonym for churches-begins with an eulogy of the circle. Alberti discusses the size of the chapels in relation to the central core of the building and in relation to the wall space between them, or the height of the structure in relation to the diameter of the plan.

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Proportions recommended by Alberti are the simple relations of 1:1, 1:2,1:3, 2:3, 3:4 etc. Which are the elements of musical harmony, and which Alberti finds in classical buildings. Such simple rations were used by Alberti in his architectural practice. For instance, the whole facade of Santa Maria Novella can be exactly circumscribed by a square. The relation between music and architecture is widely discussed in Part IV of the book. With reference to Pythagoras Alberti stated that “the numbers by means of which the agreement of sounds effects our ears with delight, are the very same, which please our eyes and our minds”. Alberti differentiates between three types of plans: small, medium and large ones. Each type can be given three different shapes. For example, the small plans belong the square (2:2) and the shapes of one to one and a half (2:3) and one to one and a third (3:4). These rations comply with the simple musical consonances and need no further explanation. The splitting up of rations for the sake of making the proportions of a room harmonically intelligible appears to us very strange... The lowest sub-units into which the whole unit can be broken up, are the consonant intervals of the musical scale, the cosmic validity of which was not doubled. In some cases only one way of generation is possible, but in others two or even three different generations of the same ratio can be carried through; the ratio 1:2, the octave can be seen as fourth and fifth (3:4:6) or as fifth and fourth (2:3:4). In Part III, in which Wittkower focuses on Palladio’s formulation of new building types from ancient models, and therefore turns to the Renaissance strategy for appropriation, he reaffirms the centrality of the mathematical theme. In the elevations and plans that he examines, Wittkower finds a fundamental Renaissance order that allows disparate ancient forms and quotations to be brought into homogenous wholes. Thus he finds a persistent intention to seek a congruity of parts by way of the Vitruvian symmetria encoded both in Palladio’s villa plans and his church facades. Wittkower can finally state his thesis forcefully and explicitly: “The conviction that architecture is a science and that each part of a building, inside as well as outside, has to be integrated into one and the same system of mathematical ratios, may be called the basic axiom of Renaissance architects.”

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WITTKOVER//ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES IN THE AGE OF HUMANISM

Beyond this tight relationship between art and science, probably the most significant aspecto for Wittkower’s thesis about the rudiments of Renaissance architecture is his focus on syntax. A natural extension of his emphasis on proportion and exchanges between art and science, syntax ultimately constitutes the key object of his investigation. Unlike his reading of broad compositional strategies, when he comes to reading the architectural form (or sentence) constructed from the available classical kit of parts (or vocabulary) he dissects it with respect to its structure rather than meaning: the recognition of the significance of placement relationships between component parts and the investigation of the rules that control those relationships is Wittkower’s focus and probably his most original contribution, The book includes “Palladio’s Geometry: the Villas,” in which Wittkower argues that similar organizational schema underlie all the villas. “Paladio followed certain rules from which he never departered in the planning of his villas. The patterns of these plans is formed on the straight-forward needs of the Italian villa: loggias and a large hall in the central axis, two or three living-rooms or bedrooms of various sizes at the sides, and, between them and the hall, space for small spair rooms and staircases. As analysis of a few typical plans ranging over a period of about fifteen years will prove that they are derived from a single geometrical formula. Once he had found the basic geometric pattern for the problem ‘villa,’ he adapted it as clearly and as simply as possible to the special requirements of each commission. He reconciled the truth at hand with the ‘certain truth’ of mathematics which is final and unchangeable. Palladio took the greatest care in employing harmonic rations not only inside each single room, bat also in the relation of the rooms to each other, and it is this demand for the right ratio which is at the centre of Palladio’s conception of architecture. When we turn to the relations of three magnitudes, the theoretical position is surprisingly simple. Palladio declares three different sets of rations for height, width and length to be good proportions for rooms. For each of the three cases he gives a method of calculating the height from the length and width by a geometrical as well as by an architectural process. ”

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Wittkower’s pattern is here overlaid on Palladio’s Villa Foscari, “La Malcontenta,” of 1558-60. Working from this pattern, Palladio not only insured perfectly formed rooms that would fit together with the precision of puzzle pieces, but pre-loaded the building faces with a classical rhythm. As the walls were all load-bearing, the pattern also automatically gave his villas a workable system of structural bays. The vaulted ceiling at the center of La Malcontenta illustrates his method’s marriage of structure and form. The pattern’s “tartan” alternation of wide and narrow zones would be adopted by later architects to integrate modern services, as foreshadowed by its unintrusive accommodation of stairs in Palladio’s villas. VILLA FOSCARI

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WITTKOVER//ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES IN THE AGE OF HUMANISM

Wittkower’s diagrams of the villas are variations of a three-bay by three-bay diagram nine-square grid. Wittkower identifies the grid pattern at lower right as the basis for all of these. By stretching its zones slightly and selectively omitting line segments, Palladio used this diagram to define all of a villa’s spaces at once. The simultaneity and comprehensiveness of this method allowed rooms of varying shapes, sizes and orientations to mesh perfectly within a simple container. The approach contrasts with that of the designer who plants rooms sequentially across a house, one decision limiting the next, and each additional room more awkwardly forced into whatever space remains. This hapless approach is evident in the gerrymandered outline of the combined living spaces in so many of today’s houses, shapes no one would ever intentionally set out to make but could only have backed into.

VILLA THIENE AT CICOGNA

VILLA SAREGO AT MIEGA

VILLA POIANA AT POIANA MAGGIORE

VILLA BADOER AT FRATTA, POLESINE

VILLA ZENO AT CESSALTO

VILLA CORNARO AT PIOMBINO DESE

VILLA PISANI AT MONATAGNANA

VILLA EMO AT FANZOLO

VILLA MALCONTENTA

VILLA PISANI AT BAGNOLO

VILLA ROTONDA NEAR VICENZA

GEOMETRICAL PATTERN OF PALLADIO’S VILLAS

AT MIRA

Sources:Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism

by Rudolf Wittkower http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic874123.files/February%201%20-%20The%20Ideal%20City/Payne.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/50081820/Architecture-asconceptual-art http://www.architakes.com/?p=6596

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Six decades ago, an article entitled The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa stirred postwar architectural critique when it put forward a proposal that drew a parallel between sixteenth-century architecture, and the modern movement in the 1920s. First published in Architectural Review in 1947 and later republished in 1976 within a series of essays in a book by the same name, Colin Rowe’s article undoubtedly addressed a reevaluation of modern architecture, and brought its assumed qualities to the forefront of architectural discourse. Rowe’s anthology of essays contended that the context of modern architecture was not only dependent on the technological advances of the time, but was also reliant on historical lessons and external influences as stimuli for design development. The influence of Wittkower, who would eventually publish Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism in 1949, was fundamental as it was through his mentor that Rowe was introduced to the Palladian geometric systems, its numerology, and layered grids. In his paper, Rowe manipulated this new aspect of Wittkower’s hypothesis on the Palladian proportions, and used it to outline a formal similarity in Andrea Palladio’s Villa Foscari in Malcontenta and Le Corbusier’s Villa Stein in Garches. By evaluating the two villas in a series of plates illustrated by the buildings’ plans and elevations, Rowe revealed the resemblance in both the villas’ adherence to mathematical formula and geometric principles. These two buildings – “entirely unlike in their forms and evocations” – were uncovered to share “a comparable distribution of lines of support”. These lines of support, also illustrated in Rowe’s analytical plan diagrams, were revealed to share equivalent spatial ratios and placed at regular proportions of 2:1:2:1:2. Other similarities in the villas were disclosed through aerial projections that cemented Le Corbusier’s commitment to “mathematical formulae tinged with a comparable historicism”. Palladio’s structural system makes it almost necessary to repeat the same plan on every level of the building, while point support allows Le Corbusier a flexible arrangement: but both architects make a claim which is somewhat in excess of the reasons they advance.

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COLIN ROWE//THE MATHEMATICS OF IDEAL VILLA

Solid wall structures, Palladio declares, demand absolute symmetry; a frame building, Le Corbusier announces, requires a free arrangement: but these must be, at least partly, the personal exigencies of high style-for asymmetrical buildings of traditional structure remain standing and even frame buildings of conventional plan continue to give satisfaction. It is convenient to mention here, concerning the spatial form of the two villas, the interesting observation of Colin Rowe with regard to the flexibility or rigidity of the plant and the section that bears each of two types of construction. On the one hand the rigidity of the plant that imposes the system of the main walls implies the freedom of the vertical extension by means of the arch and the vault, as they predominate over the vertical planes. On the other hand the flexibility in plant that allows the construction in skeleton endures a spatial stratification, because what predominates now are the horizontal planes of the flagstones of flats and roofs, with which the flexibility in plant turns out to be resisted by a certain rigidity in section only partially mitigated by the emptyings or the clippings that get in the flagstones. And so, “ that species of palsy that Corbusier was advising in the plant of the buildings with the main walls turns out to be, up to a point, moved to the section of the buildings with a structure of iron and concrete ” . Curiously it will be in those less flexible elements – the plant in case of Palladio and the elevation in case of Le Corbusier – where the mathematical regulations of the proportions are applied in both cases. By situating Rowe’s compilation of essays within the incremental use of digital speculations as the genesis in contemporary architectural forms, it is then critical to draw from The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa at present, to consider the relationship between architecture, history and digital technology, and how this affiliation might yet fulfill its potential in uncovering innovation in contemporary architectural production and the reinterpretation of reality simultaneously.

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ANALITIC DIAGRAMS OF GARCHES AND MALCONTENTA


COLIN ROWE//THE MATHEMATICS OF IDEAL VILLA

ANALYZE AND DRAW THE CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLAN AND FACADES OF IL REDENTORE AND SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE

Sources:The mathematics of the ideal villa and other essays by Colin Rowe

http://darrenyio.blogspot.com/2008/03/review-mathematics-of-ideal-villa-and.html http://www.mi.sanu.ac.rs/vismath/BA2007/sym13.pdf http://www.except.nl/overig/yale/eisenman/04-Palladio.html

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NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES. 18


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matter. motion. time.

What we are speaking about, when we speaking about the form? It can be defined by different qualities, like size, shape, symmetry, colour, materiality, temperature, dynamism or statics, simplicity or complicity. But would it be certain for this moment or for any moment in general? Would it be an objective judgment valid for anybody or for you only? “Morphology is not only a study of material things and of the forms of material things, but has its dynamic aspect, under which we deal with the interpretation, in terms of force, of the operations of energy.” 1 Its common to use the definition of 3-dimentional space. In theory of relativity Einstein is talking about 4 dimensional world, where 4th dimension is the time. He also noticed that approximating to the speed of light the time loose its influence on the body. Due to Alfred Whitehead “The theory of the relativity of space is inconsistent with any doctrine of one unique set of points of one timeless space.... It is usually assumed that relative space implies that there is no absolute position. The assumption arises from the failure to make another distinction; namely, that there may be alternative definitions of absolute position. This possibility enters with the admission of alternative time-systems. Thus the series of spaces in the parallel moments of one temporal series may have their own definition of absolute position correlating sets of event-particles in these successive spaces, so that each set consists of event-particles, one from each space, all with the property of 1

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Introductory. On growth and form. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson


NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

possessing the same absolute position in that series of spaces. Such a set of event-particles will form a point in the timeless space of that time-system. Thus a point is really an absolute position in the timeless space of a given time-system. But there are alternative time-systems, and each time-system has its own peculiar group of points--that is to say, its own peculiar definition of absolute position.� 1 His “... new theory provides a definition of the congruence of periods of time. The prevalent view provides no such definition. Its position is that if we take such time-measurements so that certain familiar velocities which seem to us to be uniform are uniform, then the laws of motion are true. Now in the first place no change could appear either as uniform or non-uniform without involving a definite determination of the congruence for time-periods.� 2 Using the common terms we can define space (as any organic and inorganic form and any force in it) as the set of time events which happen in every moment of existence.

1 2

Space and motion. The Concept of Nature: The Tarner Lectures Delivered in Trinity College, November 1919 Space and motion. The Concept of Nature: The Tarner Lectures Delivered in Trinity College, November 1919

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form.

“A three-dimensional locus of event-particles which is the common portion of the boundary of two adjoined events will be called a ‘solid.’ A solid may or may not lie completely in one moment.” 1 Thus, we can define a form of any organism as the process of motion in a period of time, but depend on the difference of velocities (time-systems) of the perceiver and the percieved the perception of dynamics and statics could change. D´Arcy Thompson define any organic form as a function of time. “It is obvious that the form of an animal is defined by its specific rate of growth in various direction. Among organic forms we shall have frequent occasion to see that form is in many cases due to the immediate or direct action of certaine molecular forces, of which surfacetension is which plays the greatest part. Now when surface-tension (for instance) causes a minute semi-fluid organism to assume the spherical form, or gives the form of the catinary or an elastic curve to a film of protoplasm in contact with some solid skeletal rod, or when it acts in various other ways which are productive of definite contours, this is the process of confirmation that, both in appearance and reality, is very different from the process by which an ordinary plant or animal grows into its specific form. In both cases, change of form is brought about by the movement of portions of matter, and in both cases it is ultimately due to the action of molecular forces; but in the first case the movements of the particles of the matter lie for the most part within molecular range, 1

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Space and motion. The Concept of Nature: The Tarner Lectures Delivered in Trinity College, November 1919


NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

while in the other we have to deal chiefly with the transference of portions of matter into the system from without, and from the one distant part of the organism to another. It is to this latter class of phenomena that we usually restrict the term growth; and it is in regard to them that we are in the position to study the rate of action in different directions, and to see that it is merely on a difference of velocities that the modifications of form essentialy depends.” 1 From elementary mathematics we know that in similar solid figures, the surface increases as the square, and the volume as the cube, of the linear dimentiones. To define the growth of any natural organism we should take into account the correlation between length and weight in any particular species of animal, a determination of k in formula W=k*L3 , where L - volume. We believe that difference of magnitude2 make “...no other or more essential difference. But this is by no means so: for scale has a very marked effect upon physical phenomena, and the effect of scale constitutes what is known as the principle of the similitude or of dynamic similarity.” 3 The dynamic aspect, the influence of the external and internal forces create the variety of forms in the nature and the attempt to predict its mofrogenesis is coming out not an easy task. “When we deal with matter in the concrete, force does no, strictly speaking, enter into the question, for force, unlike matter, has no independent objective existence. It is energy in its various forms, known or unknown, that upon 1 2

The rate of growth. On growth and form. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson In mathematics, magnitude is the “size” of a mathematical object, a property by which the object can be compared as larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind. More formally, an object’s magnitude is an ordering (or ranking) of the class of objects to which it belongs. 3 On magnitude. On growth and form. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson

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structure.

matter.” 1 The organism is growing till it reaches the efficient form and size, which are determined by action of internal and external forces. Let´s take the biggest animal on earth and in the water. The animal with the size of a whale wouldn´t be able to exist on the earth, due to the force of gravitation, which would just smash him. Although the weight of the brain of the elephant weight almost the same as the brain of the whale, when the size of it is 7 times less.

An emergent behavior or emergent property can appear when a number of simple entities (agents) operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective. If emergence happens over disparate size scales, then the reason is usually a causal relation across different scales. In other words there is often a form of top-down feedback in systems with emergent properties. The processes from which emergent properties result may occur in either the observed or observing system, and can commonly be identified by their patterns of accumulating change, most generally called ‘growth’ Cell growth encompasses increases both in cell numbers and in cell size. Cellular differentiation describes the process by which cells acquire a ‘type’. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation. Morphogenesis involves the shapes of tissues, organs and entire organisms and the position of specialised cell types.

1The rate of growth. On growth and form. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson

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NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

selforganization.

3

Tree growing represents a bottomup process in which all parts respond to local interactions and the environment. Water crystals demonstrate an emergent natural process occurring under appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity. As same as soap bubbles which create the surface of the thickest film, maintaining it by self-organization. Another example of self- organization is a termite hill - a wondrous piece of architecture with a maze of interconnecting passages, large caverns, ventila tion tunnels and much more. Yet there is no grand plan, the hill just emerges as a result of the termites following a few simple local rules. The self-organization, reflecting in different durations of time, could seemed to us a static or dynamic model, tacking in a contest the activity it perfoms. Is it a selforganization of the city shell or emergent behaviour of the fishes, it represents the same paradigm.3 This type of behaviour belongs to the, so-called, fractal systems.

Paradigm - from Greek “pattern, example, sample�

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fractal systems.

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A Fractal System is a complex, nonlinear, interactive system which has the ability to adapt to a changing environment. Such systems are characterised by the potential for self-organisation, existing in a nonequilibrium environment. FS’s evolve by random mutation, self-organisation, the transformation of their internal models of the environment, and natural selection. Examples include living organisms, the nervous system, the immune system, the economy, corporations, societies, and so on. Fractal systems have many properties and the most important are: Emergence - Rather than being planned or controlled the agents in the system interact in apparently random ways. Co-evolution - All systems exist within their own environment and they are also part of that environment. Sub-optimal - A fractal systems does not have to be perfect in order for it to thrive within its environment. It only has to be slightly better than its competitors and any energy used on being better than that is wasted energy. Requisite Variety - The greater the variety within the system the stronger it is. Democracy is a good example in that its strength is derived from its tolerance and even insistence in a variety of political perspectives. Connectivity - The ways in which the agents in a system connect and interact to one another is critical to the survival of the system. The relationships between the agents are generally more important than the agents themselves. Simple Rules - The emerging patterns may have a rich variety, but the rules governing the function of the system are quite simple. An example is that all the water systems in the world, all the streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, waterfalls, are governed by the simple principle that water finds its own level. Iteration - Small changes in the initial conditions of the system can have significant effects after they have passed through the emergence. Self Organising - There is no hierarchy of command and control in a fractal system. There is no planning or managing, but there is a constant re-organising to find the best fit with the environment.


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populations within species, interaction of these embedded capacities within and the the material make-up of living populations with environmental factors. The level concerning nature. The modelling of context-sensitive growth processes communities, are species interact with NEW PARADIGMdescribed BASED ONabove THEwhich OLD RULES is based on this that understanding andone another in a specific under relatively incorporates it in its region methodological setup. similar environmental conditions, is called community ecology, and The next level concerns populations or, in other words, all encompasses the interaction between species organisms that constitute a specific group andwithin occur an in a Edge of Chaosecological - A system in equilibrium does not have the internal community and their shared environment. specific habitat. Population ecology involves the dynamic of dynamics to enable it to respond to its environment and will slowly For populationcommunity-level ecologies, the (or populations within and species, and the interaction of these quickly) die. A Calgary system team in chaos ceases to function as a system. The most developed interesting simulation tools that populations with environmental factors. The level concerning productive state to be in is at the edge of chaos where there is maximum produces reaction or change in an organism; secondly, generate aspatial distributions for plant communities. communities, which are species that interact with one There 1 variety and creativity, leading tolevel possibilities. sensibility, isnew the torelatively perceive asimilar stimulus; is a considerable ofcapacity complexity involved in the and another in awhich specific region under Iteration - Small changes thewhich initial is conditions of the system can have thirdly, sensitivity the capacity of an organism modelling ofinecosystems, including the geometric environmental conditions, is called community ecology,to and significant effects after they have passed through the emergence. respond to stimuli. The lastand isbetween regarded as a property common articulation ofthe individuals their particular features, encompasses interaction species within an One of the common technique fractals is L-system - use to all life forms isgenerating also called ‘irritability’. The within related which needs to and befor consistent with theirenvironment. position the ecological community and their shared string rewriting; may resemble branching patterns, such as in plants, processes ofand sensing, growth and actuation are often ecosystem the and related environmental input, asthe well as For populationcommunity-level ecologies, biological cellsembedded (e.g., neurons and within immune cells), blood capacities thesystem material make-up ofvessels, living the interaction between species andsimulation with a specific Calgary team developed interesting tools that pulmonary structure, architectural design. In 1968, the Hungarian biologist nature. The modelling context-sensitive growth processes environment. Fordistributions this of purpose, the teamcommunities. combined two types generate spatial for plant There Aristid Lindenmayer researched the growth patterns of different, simple described above based thisone understanding of amodels into aisbidirectional that incorporates, is considerable level ofon complexity involved inand the first, a multicellular organisms. The same year he begansetup. toecosystem develop a formal incorporates in its methodological local-to-global direction comprising an modelling of itecosystems, including the geometric simulation description of the development of such simple organisms, called the LinThe on next level concerns or, in other words, all based individual plantspopulations and their their particular proliferation and articulation of individuals and features, 2 denmayer system or L-system. An Lsystem is what in computer science organisms that specific groupposition and occur in a the distribution and, a global-to-local direction, which which needs to constitute besecond, consistent with their within is called a formal grammar, an structure that describes a formal specific habitat. Population ecology the dynamic of infers positions ofabstract individual plantsinvolves from ainput, given ecosystem and the related environmental as well as language through sequences of various simple objects known as strings. populations within species, and This the of these distribution of plant densities. iswith thena further informed the interaction between species andinteraction specific The use of computational models can ‘provide quantitative understanding populations factors. The level concerning by a specificwith pattern clustering and succession of two plants. environment. Forenvironmental thisofpurpose, the team combined types of developmental mechanisms; models might lead to a synthetic undercommunities, are species that interact withinto onefirst, However, the integration ofincorporates, all data one of models rather intowhich a than bidirectional one that a standing of theanother interplay between various aspects of development’. In in avery specific region under relatively similarsimulation single and complex detailed model, a multilevel local-to-global direction comprising an ecosystem doing so, suchenvironmental models might also provide a newcommunity analytical and generative conditions, called ecology, approach was developed. higher-level model determines based on individual plantsAisand their proliferation and and sensibility to architectural design, as they may facilitate a much unencompasses theof interaction between species within an the distribution plants,awhile a lower-level modelbetter distribution and, second, global-to-local direction, which 8 derstanding ofecological synergies between systems and environments, or subsyscommunity and their shared environment. determines the plants’ shapes and features. infers positions of individual plants from a given tem interaction, in terms of type their of behavioural characteristics and capacities For populationand community-level ecologies, While this modelling might obvious distribution of plant densities. This is have then further the informed Model of rose campion (Lychnis corowith respect toCalgary the purpose they serve locally and within the behavioural naria) expressed using a context-free team developed interesting simulation tools that theoretical and practical applications for biologists, itplants. holds by a specific pattern of clustering and succession of 3 L-system generated with L-Studio economy of a generate larger system. spatial distributions for communities. There similar potential for architects andplant urban designers. One However, rather than the integration of all data into one 1 http://www.fractal.org/Fractal-systems.htm is a considerable level of complexity involved in the specific application might involve the distribution buildings single and very complex model, aof multilevel 2 Aristid Lindenmayer, ‘Mathematical models fordetailed cellular interaction in development’, Journal of Theoretical Biology 18, 1968. 3 of ecosystems, including thetheir geometric to a given was environment. Depending on particular approach developed. A higher-level model determines CONTINUUM: Amodelling Self-Engineering Creature-Culture. Collective Intelligence in Design. Architectural Design September/October 27 articulation of individuals and their particular features, interaction with theplants, environment, can be the distribution of while a buildings lower-level model


biothing + SOM (Alisa Andrasek, Adam Elstein, Neil Katz and Tobias Schwinn), Phyllotactics, ’Material Potency’ workshop, Columbia University, 2006 The system is generated as a hybrid of spiral phyllotaxis and L-system algorithms. Spiral phyllotaxis is often found in nature, such as the pattern of dots in a peacock’s tail or the growth of sunflower seeds. In this example, Lsystems are grown on top of phyllotaxis’ world, inflecting the spiral lattice. Left: Parametric differentiation of a phyllotaxis algorithm.

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NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

emergent systems in the nature.

Ant colonies is an example of emergent phenomenon. No single ant has the cognitive ability to envision, design, or build a colony. And yet ant colonies are “designed” with tunnels, chambers, larders, nurseries, dumps for waste, and cemeteries for the dead – all without the aid of committees, architects, or blueprints.1 Ants may be the only group apart from mammals where interactive teaching has been observed. A knowledgeable forager of Temnothorax albipennis leads a naive nest-mate to newly discovered food by the process of tandem running. The follower obtains knowledge through its leading tutor. Both leader and follower are acutely sensitive to the progress of their partner with the leader slowing down when the follower lags, and speeding up when the follower gets too close. The behaviour of ants was essentially described in the book of Steven Johnson “Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software”. Ant colonies, in which every ant operates based on set of low level rules and feedback from its neighbours, serve as an excellent example of the success of emergence in nature with which Johnson illustrates five fundamental principals for building bottom-up systems. A hierarchical, top-down system attempts to use a centralized decision-making process based on abstract rules to guide behaviour. The emergent position looks at complex systems differently: a small number of rules that are processed by individual units are the best method of explaining the aggregate behaviour. While a statistical analysis of an emergent system will lead to abstract mathematical laws, these laws do not explain why individual units behave the way they do. After this skilful survey of emergence in the natural world, Johnson explains how human systems such as cities are affected by emergence. He adroitly overviews the relevant sources in communication theory, computer science, biology, psyANTHILL chology, and urban studies. 2 1 2

Not Exactly the Copernican Revolution. http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/currents/fall04/leslie.html Not Exactly the Copernican Revolution. http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/currents/fall04/leslie.html

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He presumes that information can be self-organized and can automatically respond to the consumer demand. “The most significant role for the Web in all of this will not involve its capacity to stream highquality video images or booming surround sound. . . . Instead, the Web will contribute the meta-data that enables these clusters to self-organize. It will be the central warehouse and marketplace for all our patterns of mediated behaviour, and instead of those patterns being restricted to the invisible gaze of Madison Avenue and TRW, consumers will be able to tap into that pool themselves and create communal maps of all the entertainment and data available online.� 1 Alan Turing outlined a system in which he showed a complex form of organization based on simple agents governed by simple laws. In the same company, Claude Shannon was investigating machines (also consisted of deciphering codes) that would be able to detect and amplify information patterns in noisy channel. ALAN TURING CODING MACHINE In terms of our contemporary cultural conditions we see these effects of relexive invention in a number of relatively recent social phenomena, particularly in user-generated political organisations such as moveon.org, or file-sharing communities such as BitTorrent and flickr. What these organisations have in common is the degree to which they challenge conventional models of social practice, employing the Internet and its decentralising effects to reconfigure the very nature of cultural invention and production. Through reflexive communication, these distributed networks are sites not only for the exchange of information, but for the invention of new information.2

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1 2

Johnson, Steven. Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software. Parallel Processing: Design/Practice. Collective Intelligence in Design. Architectural Design September/October 2006


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global network.

Theories of media and culture continue to propagate an idea of something called ‘semantic content’. But the notion that content may be separated from the technological vehicles of representation and conveyance that supposedly facilitate it is misguided. Data has no technique for creating meaning, only techniques for interfacing and parsing. To the extent that meaning exists in digital media, it only ever exists as the threshold of mixtures between two or more technologies. Meaning is a data conversion. What is called ‘Web content’ is, in actual reality, the point where standard character-sets rub up against the hypertext transfer protocol. There is no content; there is only data and other data.1 Capitalising on global networks and computational linguistic interfaces, the practice constantly modifies the design procedure in a way that leads to the integration of technology (structure), history (discourse), ecology (environmental BEN FRY AND CEB REAS, INTEGRATIVEVDEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT – PROCESSING conditions) and culture (programme). The main aspect of this procedure is the ability to critically resample and analyse architectural projects during the design process rather than engaging in retrospective analysis. The critical dimension derives from the integration of theoretical criticism and multiple architectural histories within the project’s generation. This is possible only through the development of open-source platforms for collaboration, which allow the integration of different fields of knowledge and expertise as entities embedded within the process itself.2 Critical Practice: Protocol for a Fused Technology. Collective Intelligence in Design. Architectural Design September/ October 2006 2 Language, Life, Code. Collective Intelligence in Design. Architectural Design September/October 2006 1

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The reflection of the same concept we find in psychology, geneology and neurology. The neurologist Richard Restak explains the brain’s neural networks as follows: “Every thought and behaviour are housed in the neural circuitry and neuronal activity that accompanies or start an experience persists in the form of reverberating neuronal circuits, which are defined more clearly with repetition. Thus, habits or other forms of memory can be the establishment of neural circuits permanent and semi-permanent. Johnson makes us think about how it is produced and feedback. Each neuron is interconnected with thousands of other neurons, and the transmission of stimuli takes place at all, being able to give any of them refer to the source, and the process begins again. An analysis of the neurobiological system provides a procedural model, or abstract machine, from which certain organisational principles may be captured. While CEB REAS, PROCESSING, ARTICULATE/PROCESSING it is evident that neurons process information, the function of such a system depends not only on its elements, but also on the way they are connected. Yet if we are to extract certain features from neurobiological networks, we see the difficulty in separating neuronal material from neuronal architecture primarily because nerve cells exhibit hybridity. Any system that is dynamic and interactive, flexible and distributed, lends itself to properties of selforganisation to a greater or lesser degree. Furthermore, these four points derived from neurobiological systems are important because they begin to provide a framework for a theory of collective intelligence and social software. 1 1

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Cognition: Neural Fabrics and Social Software. Collective Intelligence in Design. Architectural Design September/October 2006


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information. city. architecture.

Talking about self-organization, Johnson Steven mentions: “The inhabitants of a city create neighbourhoods. The city has a personality that organizes itself from millions of individual decisions, a global order built from local interactions. To create these structures are not necessary town planning regulations or deliberate. All you need are thousands of individuals and a few simple rules of interaction.” 1 The city can represent a pattern (as a result of emergent system development) or an artificially designed model, organization that started in the period of industrialization and steel continues to be the most popular. It depends a lot on the historical preconditions, especially political system 2, the urgency (war, climate, populational growth, etc.), the cultural paradigm. The architecture as a pattern inside the pattern I would say, the construction cell of the city body, with its own structure and materiality. So a proper building should be responsive to the external conditions, and to the best correlation of structure and material. There is no need to invent new forms or connections, the nature has anticipated everything “There is mutual understanding between biology ERBIL CITY (IRAQ) and technology.. Designers can get their inspiration from nature and have done so for ages. It can also be the other way around. Those who are specialized in the study of nature derive theories from ideas proposed by engineers and architects.” 3 One of the architects who were investigating and implementing the natural 1 2

Johnson, Steven. Emergence: The Connected. Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software. But in all cases where hierarchical approaches do not work (and in contemporary societies almost never work, especially in politics), the need to go to the emerging approaches is growing. 3 Nature as a role model. Adriaan Beukers. Lightness

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structures in construction was Buckminster Fuller. His principle of tensegrity1 and Antoni Gaudi’s principle of building weight loaded string constructions. The “strings” are rigidified and put upside down producing a model of a load stressed structure. Gaudi’s principle however no longer satisfies today’s standards. That a building is subject to other stresses than the force of gravity was not known in his time. Gaudi also was looking for an alternative way of construcRECONSTRUCTION OF GAUDÍ’S HANGING MODEL tion. “Bamboo and different species of grass are very well suited to building arches, simply by bending. Depending on the required property of shelter, bunches of bent reed can be frozen into their newly aquired shape.” Another architect who was using the same approach, is Frei Otto. Otto is the world’s leading authority on lightweight tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering. Otto’s career bears a similarity to Buckminster Fuller’s architectural experiments: both taught at Washington University in St. Louis in the late 1950s, both were architects of major pavilions at the Montreal Expo of The inhabitants of Antarctica and Alaska build the igloo, using the 1967, both were concerned with space frames and structural most sufficient shape and the most efficiency, and both experimented with inflatable buildings. The accessible material. ability of some materials to self-organise into a stable arrangement under stress has been the founding principle of structural form-finding in the physical experiments of Gaudí, Eisler and Otto. ‘Organisation’ here refers to the reordering of the material, or the components of the material system, in order to produce structural stability. 1

Tensegrity, tensional integrity or floating compression, is a structural principle based on the use of isolated components in compression inside a net of continuous tension, in such a way that the compressed members (usually bars or struts) do not touch each other and the prestressed tensioned members (usually cables or tendons) delineate the system spatially.

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light structures.

Taking as an example the Eden project of Frei Otto we can see that their shape represents the organization of the soap bubbles. The official name for the bubble-like geodesic structure mentioned earlier is a “hex–tri–hex.” Though the final structure looks very similar to half a sphere, the entire building uses straight planes with straight edges. It incorporates an outer shell of primarily hexagonal pieces, (some pentagons) which attaches to an inner network of triangles for stability. The design is so structurally stable that it don’t need any internal supports even in the 240m span of the largest biome. In addition, all the steel tubes that make up the grid-like network could be easily transported to the site in small pieces reducing costs. The structure transfers loads to the ground uniformly around its base which helps to eliminate large footings that otherwise might have been needed to support such a large enclosure. Energy efficiencywise, the hemisphere shape helps to conserve the heating that is needed especially in the humid–tropics biome. This is because of the fact that a sphere has the largest amount of volume compared to its surface area of any form. EDEN PROJECT Cushions of ETFE (ethyltetrafl ouroethylene) transparent foil are used for the glazing. This very light weight material, weighs approximately 1% of glass. In addition, its strength and the fact that it is self-cleaning makes it the perfect product to use for this project. Last, it also has excellent ultraviolet transmittance which is essential for the healthy development of the plants grown inside. Now its obvious that materials play a great role in construction, and respond to the structure, and in the same time the structure responds to the material which forms it. “There is no shape without material and effort.”

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material efficiency.

The most obvious implication of composing efficiently is, that constructions shouldn’t suffer under the burden of their own weight. Materials should be able to transfer as much energy as possible relative to their density.“ 1 “Efficiency of the course also involves making materials do what they do the best. Wood is not very good at taking pressure. Concrete is. Steel, and fibres made from glass, aramid, polyethene and carbon all are extremely good at withstanding tension. Horn, bone and ceramics can deal with compression.” 2 Materials approach is period related, subject to economic, social and cultural circumstances. The Ashby “bathtub curve” shows how relative consumption of the various groups of materials evolved over time. This graph demonstrates the rise, summit and decline of various materials in specific periods. It shows how currently metals are being displaced by composites. The product costs transport consistently is a factor 3 of total price, regardless the mode of transport. Moreover, transport needs per head of the world population is about one to one-and-a-half hours a day. With distance being related to time, not to kilometres. It is therefore evident that the product to be transported must be as lightweight as possible. This is one of the reasons why steel is in decline, Beukers argues. It takes relatively much development effort to enhance its performance, so that it makes sense according to Beukers to consider the much lighter composite materials.3 In Ashby “bathtub curve” there is marked en indication that striving for lightness strongly needs development of knowledge of building things out of lighter materials. These happen to be organic ones: polymers and composites. They are light simply because their main building stones are the lighter atoms: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon and they can be composed into materials of great strength. “Composites 4 are “sandwich“ materials. The foam structure which is used for their production is inspired the structure of the bone. A frame construction is able to turn a bending force into tension and compression stressless in separate bars.” 1 2 3 4

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The trinity essence. Adriaan Beukers. Lightness Nature as a role model. Adriaan Beukers. Lightness http://materia.nl/583.0.html?&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=59&tx_ttnews[backPid]=532&cHash=ae1dea7835 Composites are combinations of materials from (generally) two different groups that jointly perform better than individually. Plastic is easiest to reinforce in combination with other materials so quite a number of light versions are reviewed, to which moreover numerous technologies can be applied.


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the wearer’s temperature then falls, the PCM refreezes, releasing its absorbed heat and warming the garment. The PCM can undergo this melting/refreezing cycle almost indefinitely. PCMs are being developed by Outlast Technologies, US. Magnification unknown.

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Coloured scanning electron micrograph of microcapsules (blue) that contain a phase-change material (PCM) coating fabric fibres. The PCM can absorb and release heat generated by a person wearing the fabric, warming or cooling it as required. If the wearer’s body temperature rises after exercise, the PCM absorbs the heat and melts, preventing heat reflecting back onto the body. If

“The composites are mostly applied in aviation industry. For instance the body of The B2 Spirit by Northrop Grumman (long-range steal bomber) on 80% consists of composite materials, which in their turn consist of carbon or glass fibres and several thermosetting resins. Moreover they are more resistant to fatigue. Because of this B2 features a high payload and a phenomenal radius of action. Its shape is special. The fuselage and winds have almost become one. This may be the basic principle for aeroplanes to come, as it is a way to rule out structural discontinuities. The composites have the ability to be tailored according to special needs. By manipulating mutual directions of fibres, elastic behaviour can be controlled.1 Mixing solid material with air bubbles enhances some important properties, such as bending efficiency, thermal insulation and even flavour“.2 In the industrial world, polymer cellular foams are widely used for insulation and packaging, but the high structural efficiency of cellular materials in other, stiffer materials has only recently begun to be explored. Industrial and economic techniques do exist for producing foams in metals, ceramics and glass. Foamed cellular materials take advantage of the unique combination of properties offered by cellular FIBRES OF COMPOSITE solids, analogous properties to those of biological materials, but they do not share their origin. They are structured and manufactured in The PCM can absorb and release ways that are derived from biological materials, but are made from heat generated by a person wearinorganic matter. The production processes for metal foams and cel- ing the fabric, warming or cooling it. lular ceramics have been devel oped for the simultaneous optimisation of stiffness and permeability, strength and low overall weight. This is the logic of biomimesis, abstracting principles from the way in which biological processes develop a natural material system, applying analogous methods in an industrial context, and using stronger PHASE-CHANGE MATERIAL materials to manufacture a material that has no natural analogue. (PCM)

The trinity essence. Adriaan Beukers. Lightness State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report on Additive Manufacturing. http://www.wohlersassociates.com/

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Simple polymers are homogenous materials, similar in density and strength in all directions. Complex polymers need not be homogenous, and can be produced with surfaces that have different properties from the polymer interior. Complex polymers are use ful for films and surfaces with multiple layers, each with distinct and differentiated functions. Manufactured by mimicking and adapting the self-organising behaviour and complex functions of natural polymers, very strong transparent or translucent films can be produced with a water-repellent and self-cleaning surface for facade systems. The process, known as ‘free living radical polymerisation’, can produce honeycomb structures at a molecular level, although the controlled formation of the honeycomb morphology at larger scales is still in the research, rather than production, phase.1 An inquiry into synthetic-life research reveals a broad range of activities and involved institutions. The Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution (PACE) project, for example, is related to the development of artificial cells and methods to programme their chemical functions. The PACE project aims at creating the foundation for an embedded information technology using programmable, self-assembling artificial cells. And ProtoLife is dedicated to the development of ‘evolutionary chemistry with the long-range goal of creating artificial cells from nonliving raw material, and programming them with desired chemical functionality’.2 Scientists at a number of universities are currently conducting research into membrane materials that incorporate biological molecules capable of selective recognition of a specific signal in such a manner that the membrane will respond by changing its porosity. This change enables other molecules to permeate the membrane. In so doing, the flux through the membrane will be controlled at a local level without the need for central control. While biomembranes are currently not available on a scale relevant to the building industry, the current research is nevertheless promising and includes smart biological membranes that can interact with their environment based on self-assembling biological structures and polymers.3 1

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Self-Organisation and the Structural Dynamics of Plants. Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. Architectural Design March/April 2006 2 http://bruckner.biomip. rub.de/bmcmyp/Data/ECLT/Public/. 3 http://www.bath.ac.uk/chemeng/research/groups/babe.shtml.


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For the designer to utilise micro-organic material in a meaningful way, with any degree of achievable intent, it is imperative that the material may be manipulated and controlled, as for other traditionally available materials. In the capacity of coordinator, designers must engage the expertise of specialists, drawing upon a body of knowledge that they themselves cannot be expected to possess. For architects, the conventional assembly of sub-consultants will be extended to include microbiologists and mycologists alongside structural engineers and mechanical and electrical engineers. Such an interdisciplinary approach is essential for the successful creation of partially living architectural hybrids. The lack of differentiation between animate and artificial at the molecular level has made materials science a lot more interesting. HM Jonkers from the Technical University, Delft, is already carrying out experiments with concrete that can heal itself with the help of bacteria, and can be used in ‘growing’ buildings. And with the integration of sensate technologies, architectures will not only be able to change with time; they will become responsive to their environment. The synthetic membranous roof of the elegant, globular glass-panelclad Austria, designed by Peter Cook and KUNSTHAUS GRAZ, AUSTRIA Colin Fournier, has been bestowed with sentient properties. This fossil-like structure was originally conceived as a biotechnologically constructed apparatus in which the roof was thought of as a technologised, touchsensitive skin that hosted all secondary functions of the building, which in turn was punctuated with autonomously extendable, mobile nozzles that moved in response to microclimatic changes. This membrane also provided a dynamic interface with the environment through the activation of media cells that could be choreographed using varying degrees of opacity, translucency and transparency.1 1

Manipulation and Micro-Organic Architecture. Neoplasmatic Design. Architectural Design November/December 2008

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The tendency to use materials with the abilities to perform in an intelligent way allows to create highly functional, complex architecture, which would be able to perform as a living self-sufficient organism. It complements the idea of the branch of architecture, called green (ecologic, self-sufficient, sustainable) architecture. Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques are used, such as using wood as a building material, or using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s. Almost in the same period the development of computational science starts to affect the thinking of the architects in a relation of use of the artifficial intelligence in the architecture construction. In the postwar era, architecture was informed by several waves of systems thinking – cybernetics in the 1950s and 1960s, pattern language and design methods in the 1960s and 1970s – producing a diverse collection of practices in response (Team X, Archigram, Gyorgy Kepes, Reyner Banham and many others). These were prefigured, in turn, by certain Modernist preoccupations (for example, the Futurists and the Constructivists, the Bauhaus and CIAM, Usonian planning and product streamlining, El Lissitzsky and Moholy-Nagy).1 The meaning of the computational tool in the architecture becomes more significant as the architects seek to transfer the natural patterns and intelligent behaviour to the model, and moreover to predict its further development. In attempt to create the artificial complex structures and surfaces the better way to follow is paramertric approach. Typically in the CAD market there are products that create lines, arcs, and circles. Combine these items with dimensions and notes, and out come drawings for civil, architectural, or mechanical design. Because traditional CAD tools are based on geometric objects, making a design change requires changing all appropriate components in order to make the drawing correct. 1

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digital support.

Most current CAD/CAM/CAE software utilizes a design feature called parametrics, a method of linking dimensions and variables to geometry in such a way that when the values change, the part changes as well. A parameter is a variable to which other variables are related, and these other variables can be obtained by means of parametric equations. In this manner, design modifications and creation of a family of parts can be performed in remarkably quick time compared with the redrawing required by traditional CAD. Parametric modification can be accomplished with a spreadsheet, script, or by manually changing dimension text in the digital model.1 Universities no longer require the use of protractors and compasses to create drawings, instead there are several classes that focus on the use of CAD software such as Creo, formerly Pro Engineer, IEAS-MS, Solid Edge, Solid Works, Bricscad, GstarCAD, Grasshopper and AutoCAD. A parametric approach to design has already been in use in the aero, automotive, naval and product design industries. In fact, most related software applications are spin-offs from these industries. Robert Aish, Lars Hesselgren, J Parrish and Hugh Whitehead have been at the forefront of these developments in architecture for many years. He with a team of experts have been creating and testing CustomObjects, (a prototype associative and parametric computer modeling program specifically designed to be used at the building scale) and GenerativeComponents (“object oriented, feature based” modelling system and development environment that represents the convergence of design theory with computational theory).2 Most architectural design software now includes sunlight modelling for any location in the world, and an increasing range of plug-ins or scripts can simulate the behaviour of chains and springs under gravity. More sophisticated simulations, such as the stress response of structures under imposed loads, or the flow of air and heat through spaces and in materials, are standard modules in engineering software. 1 2

A wireframe view of one segment of the conservatory surface.

A CustomObjects model of the enclosing surface of a conservatory, composed of 80 surfaces. The form can be manipulated by altering parameters that automatically adjust heights, footprints, and the “bulge factor” of surface curvatures.

http://www.designcommunity.com/discussion/25136.html Instrumental Geometry. Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. Architectural Design March/April 2006

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GrasshopperŽ is a graphical algorithm editor tightly integrated with Rhino’s 3-D modeling tools. Grasshopper requires no knowledge of programming or scripting, but still allows designers to build form generators from the simple to the awe-inspiring.

Modo is an innovative 3D modeling, painting and rendering software designed to accelerate the creation of world-class models, associated color and normal maps, and ultra highquality renderings and animations.

Biothing. Swells, 2004 Design-search system (custom-written software) for highrising structures

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in Design

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Simulations are essential for designing complex material systems, and for analysing their behaviour over extended periods of time. As Michael Weinstock and Nikolaos Stathopoulos explain, working with simulations requires the development of a mathematical model of physical processes, and generative computational design can now inexpensively Architects working with software programs, which excel at the simulation of virtual environments, soon incorporate the advanced physics of nonlinear behaviour to explore the dynamic changes encounter problems when they also profess desire undergo to also incontribute the built environment. This is that structures andamaterials response toto changing conditions.

problematic for two reasons: firstly since architects are used to ‘assembling’ buildings from a catalogue of prefabricated components (think window frames, garage doors, I-beams etc) and secondly, a key dimension in any animation software is ‘time’. In other words, the Digital Architect must negotiate an awkward transition from the fluid forms of non-Cartesian geometry spiraling on their lcd screens (in 3d Studio Max or Maya software) toward their eventual stasis: as habitable form and shelter. The first part of the problem has largely been solved: access to laser and rapid-prototyping technologies (eg Stereolithography) is becoming increasingly available. This process is when a machine directs a computer controlled laser to ‘print’ or ‘form’ a 3D physical-model from information contained within the file of the 3D virtual-model. This process has ramifications at all scales of production, from a scaled prototype of an entire scheme to an interlocking building component to be used in the construction process. The second part of the problem, how to negotiate the temporal, presents more difficulty. If we consider any given animation program, such as the ubiquitous Macromedia Flash, then at some point forms animated over time need to ‘STOP’ [Flash ActionScript Command]. In the context of Digital ArchiVisualisation of the main wind-flow parameters around proposed building on a Visualisation shown, with colour coding that represents value or intensity of the parameters. of the mainthewind-flow paramin Chile. The focus of the wind-flow simulation is on wind patterns Work from the dissertation of Juan Subercaseaux, Emergent Technologies and tecture then, at which point in site the design process should theat the scaleeters around proposed building on2005, a site of the site and the effect of the natural and built topography on the wind-flow Design Masters programme, Graduate School of Architecture, with patterns. Velocity streamlines in different for directions and pressure gradients are in Chile. Nikolaos Stathopoulos as simulation and visualisation consultant. architect decide to ‘stop’ a design, so it is ready construcSubercaseaux, Emergent Technolotion? Also, in the transition from four dimensions to three - how Juan gies and Design Masters programme, AA 54 1 can time and movement be transfigured into the built project? Graduate School of Architecture, 2005. AA

http://www.interiorarcade.com/home-design-house-design/resorts-and-villa-designs/digitalally-conceptualizedarchitectural-buildings/ 1

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ways of manifacture.

But let us come back to the first question, new ways of manufacture. Today, with digital production and continuous datasets comprising a practical approach rather than an idealised aim, the production of geometrically complex buildings and building systems from differentiated components appears a tangible, as well as feasible, proposition. Overall, the most relevant consideration for now is the relation between existing skills and tools and emerging techniques and technologies. The work of the leading manufacturing companies suggests that the transfer and integration of CAM in the field of construction requires the development of new production approaches in parallel with an understanding of traditional means and skills. In fact, CAD/CAM technology may become a mechanism through which the potential of existing expertise and methods is fully realised.1 Since 2003 there has been large growth in the sale of 3D printers. Additionally, the cost of 3D printers has gone down. The technology also finds use in the fields of jewelry, footwear, industrial design, architecture, engineering and construction (AEC), automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education, geographic information systems, civil engineering, and many others. A large number of competing technologies are available in the marketplace. As all are additive technologies, their main differences are found in the way layers are built to create parts. Some are melting or softening material to produce the layers (SLS, FDM) where others are laying liquid materials thermosets that are cured with different technologies. In the case of lamination systems, thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. As a good example of architecture where the new technologies were 1

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Manufacturing Diversity. Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. Architectural Design March/April 2006


enabled and s not at all a recent technological development. microprocessors intechnological the 1970s, the developmea not at all a recent development. engineering Initially developed with the support of the US military to computers ( PC s) in the 1980s, and the associat Initially developed with the support of the innovation ha overcome the limitations of mechanised mass production in of desktop computing and related use of com NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES overcome the limitations of mechanised mas various prom the 1950s, the first generation of computer-controlled design (CAD(NC ) applications, had profound effect the 1950s, the first generation ofMunicipial computer-co Fl automation introduced numerical control ) to machines dissemination of CAM . automation introduced numerical control (NC a competition for metalworking applications. Over the following four for metalworking applications. Over the follow Octatube decades, derivate systems, now referred to as computer applied in different stages of the manifacture process is Municipial decades, derivate systems, now referred tocur as pavilion’s numerical control (CNC), have been developed for a much Floriade Pavilion, called Hydra Pier, in Hoofddorp, built by Octatube numerical control ( CNC ), have been developed frameless gla wider range of materials and a variety of scales, and still Space Structures. Octatube Space Structures, based in Delft in the range ofThe materials of scal building. The constitute the basis for most CAMwider applications. arrival and of a variety Netherlands, has been exploring innovative means of digital production constitute the basis for most CAM applications combination microprocessors in the 1970s, the development of personal enabled and supported by advanced digital design and engineering in the 1970s, the developme bent panels t computers (PCs) in the 1980s, andmicroprocessors the associated proliferation approaches for more than a decade. computers ( PC s) in the 1980s, and the over aassociat 2-metr of desktop computing and related use of computer-aided Octatube was contracted for the construction of the pavilion’s curvedof desktop computing use of(16 com metres x design (CAD) applications, had profound effects on the and related Explosive forming at the glass facade, a water-filled suspended frameless glass pond and the design ( CAD ) applications, had profound effect flat panels m dissemination of CAM. premises of Exploform in Delft Explosive formi double-curved roof panels of the building. With only one axis of symdissemination of CAM. of Exploform in metry in the freeform roof geometry, Octatube had to develop a process Negative fibre-r of fabricating a range of 3-D panels from aluminium sheets that are moulds formed milled polystyre considerably different in size, curvature and depth. In order to achieve right); resulting this variation in the double-curved geometry of the panels, the comaluminium pane pany developed a combined process of digital production and exploaluminium edge sive forming. Explosive forming as such is not an entirely new method. It entails the forcing of sheet metal into dies and moulds through the detonation of explosives under water. In a water tank the metal sheet to Negative fibre-reinforced concrete moulds formed on positive Explosive forming at the premises be formed is placed on top of the mould and sealed, and a vacuum in CNCmilled polystyrene moulds of Exploform in Delft (top left); Explosive formi the mould cavity is produced. Negative fibre-reinforced concrete of Exploform in The panels were then assembled on a wooden jig that had also been moulds formed on positive CNCNegative fibre-r CNC cut using the data from the digital 3-D model. On this jig, digitally milled polystyrene moulds (top moulds formed cut aluminium strips were welded onto the edges of the panels to allow right); resulting double-curved milled polystyre aluminium panel with welded right); resulting for a watertight assembly using 10-millimetre (0.4-inch) gaskets at the aluminium edges (left). aluminium pane seams between the panels. After spray painting, in order to achieve a aluminium edge durable and smooth surface finish, the complex 3-D aluminium panels 1 were ready for assembly on the Floriade Pavilion roof. Resulting double-curved alumini1

Manufacturing Diversity. Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. Architectural Design March/April 2006

um panel with welded aluminium edges

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rsonal ersonal iferation liferation ided aided e he

combination combinationofofhot-bent hot-bentmonolithic monolithicglass glasspanels panelsand andcoldcolddevelopments of digital fabrication and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) in the bent (3(3inches) bentpanels panelsthat thatachieve achievea acamber camberofof80 80millimetres millimetresRecent inches) building sector have a profound impact on architecture as a material practice. In this article, over 12 overa a2-metre 2-metre(6.5-foot) (6.5-foot)side sidelength. length.The Theglass glasspond pondof of55byby 12 describes advanced processes of steel, timber and membrane fabrication and Achim Menges construction through an investigation of the pioneering work of world-leading manufacturing metres metres(16 (16xx39 39feet) feet)was wasarticulated articulatedasassuspended suspendedpolygonal polygonal companies Covertex, Finnforest Merk, Octatube Space Structures, Seele and Skyspan. flat flatpanels panelsmade madefrom fromfully fullyprestressed prestressedglass. glass.However, However,the the

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epremises premises pleft); left); dconcrete concrete e CNC -ive CNC sds(top (top urved curved ded elded

Left: Octatube GRP/PIR polyurethane sandwich construction CNC-milled polystyrene mould for a roof segment at Holland Composites in Lelystad (top), and vacuum Left: Octatube GRP/PIR polyurethane sandwich construction CNC-milled polystyrene injection of the first polyester layer eventually becoming part of the roof surface mould for a roof segment at Holland Composites in Lelystad (top), and vacuum (bottom); Middle: Transportationaluminium of the Octatube Yitzak Rabin Center library roof Octatube double-curved Floriade injection of the first polyester layer eventuallypanels. becomingMunicipial part of the roof surface Pavilion, Hydra Pier. Hoofddorp, 2002. Octatube double-curved (bottom); Middle: Transportation of the Octatube Yitzak Rabin Center library roof Octatube double-curved aluminium aluminiumpanels panels Test Testassembly assemblyofofpanels panelsononwooden wooden jigjig(top (topleft), left),and andfinished finishedpanels panelsonon Hydra HydraPier Pierroof roof(top (topright); right); Exterior Exteriorview viewofofthe theHydra HydraPier Pier project ininHoofddorp, the project Hoofddorp, AD Morph. 070-077 1/6/06 3:34 pm Page 72the Netherlands, Netherlands,designed designedbyby Asymptote AsymptoteArchitects, Architects,2002 2002(left). (left).

1

3

Left: Octatube GRP/PIR polyurethane sandwich construction CNC-milled polystyrene mould for a roof segment at Holland Composites in Lelystad (top), and vacuum injection of the first polyester layer eventually becoming part of the roof surface (bottom); Middle: Transportation of the Octatube Yitzak Rabin Center library roof

segments in special containers from Lelystad to Tel Aviv (top) and assembly of the lower library roof structure onsite in Israel (bottom); Right: Roof structures of the segments in special containers from Lelystad to Tel Aviv (top) and assembly of the Yitzak Rabin Center, Tel Aviv, designed by Moshe Safdie Architects, 2005. lower library roof structure onsite in Israel (bottom); Right: Roof structures of the Yitzak Rabinpneumatic Center, Tel Aviv, designedinstallation by Moshe Safdie 2005. Covertex, cladding for Architects, the Allianz Arena,

Munich, Germany, 2004.

1 - Octatube GRP/PIR polyurethane sandwich construction CNC-milled polystyrene mould for a roof segment at Holland Composites in Lelystad. 2 - Vacuum injection of the first polyester layer eventually becoming part of the roof surface. 3 - Transportation of the Octatube Yitzak Rabin Center library roof segments in special containers from Lelystad to Tel Aviv. 4 - Assembly of the lower library roof structure onsite in Israel. 5 - Roof structures of the Yitzak Rabin Center, Tel Aviv, designed by Moshe Safdie segments in special containers from Lelystad to Tel Aviv (top) and assembly of the Architects, 2005. lower library roof structure onsite in Israel (bottom); Right: Roof structures of the Yitzak Rabin Center, Tel Aviv, designed by Moshe Safdie Architects, 2005.

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main challenge proved to be themain manufacturing and assembly challenge proved to be the manufacturing and assembly of the double-curved panels of the roof cladding. of the double-curved panels of the roof cladding. main challenge proved to be the manufacturing and With only one axis of symmetry in theassembly freeform roof geometry, Octatube had to develop a process of fabricating a With only one axispanels of symmetry the freeform roof of the double-curved of the cladding. rangeroof ofin 3- panels from aluminium sheets that are D

considerably different in size, curvature and depth. In order

Covertex, pneumatic cladding installation for the Allianz Arena, Munich, Germany, 2004.

5

70 of explosives, the actual forming process took place in water tanks at the premises of Exploform in Delft. The achieved of explosives, the actual forming process took place in water geometric precision was demonstrated by the remarkable tanks at the premises of Exploform in Delft. The achieved side

of explosives, the actual forming process took place in water tanks at the premises of Exploform in Delft. The achieved geometric precision was demonstrated by the remarkable side effect that even the intricate tessellation of the original digital model, which is registered in the CAM process and thus expressed in the manufactured object, could still be


NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

Another example of the innovative and integrated architectural, structural and environmental design is Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok. Its main terminal roof is designed with structural elements and bays placed in a cantilevered wavelike form to appear to “float” over the concourse beneath. This overall design principal was to express the former essence of the site, from which the water had to be drained before construction could begin. The eight composite 2,710-ton Trusses supporting the canopy of the main Terminal are essentially diagrams of the bending movements acting on them, with the greatest depth at mid-span and over the supports. These mega-trusses are composed of three smaller trusses joined via pin connections: the middle truss acting similarly to a drop-in beam flanked by two cantilevered trusses. The outer and inner trusses address compression inversely to one another. Whereas the top of the middle truss is formed by two cords to account for the compression of the roof structure, the bottom of the cantilevered trusses is formed by two chords, sense the concentration of compression reverses when the outer-trusses are cantilevered.1 The integration of structural form into overall aesthetic is a phenomenon personally describes by Helmut Jahn as “Archi-Neering”. These integrations include works on the advanced long span lightweight steel trusses coupled with exposed pre-cast concrete structures, low e-coated glass facade system, three layer translucent membrane, integrated cooling, using water as a low energy carrier and the thermal mass of concrete and a displacement ventilation system with minimal air-changes. The result of Helmut Jahn’s vision is a structure with performance materials serve in their total composition and in use more than in their conventional roles. This maximizes daylight use in comfort with substantial enegy life cycle cost savings. The installed cooling system reduced up to 50% compared to a conventional system. A translucent membrane with three layers was developed to mediate between the interior and exterior climate, dealing with noise and temperature transmission, while still allowing natural flow of daylight into building. Suvarnabhumi Airport main terminal characteristic green building envelop utilizes a minimalist structural form of point fix facade called cable truss system. The structure relied on pre-tensioned 1 2

https://www.daapspace.daap.uc.edu/~larsongr/Larsonline/Truss_files/The%20Suvarnabhumi%20Airport.pdf http://www.e-architect.co.uk/thailand/suvarnabhumi_airport.htm

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highly compacted dia 14mm stainless steel cable supported by compression spreader strut elements between two vertical trusses to provide stability. Dead loads are supported by dia.16mm high tensile stainless rod that were engineered right inside the main body of the point fix clamp making the DL rods to appear hidden between the glass silicon. Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok

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NEW PARADIGM BASED ON THE OLD RULES

future architecture?

WATER PLANT OF SPAIN

MEGA VILLAGE

http://www.interiorarcade.com/home-design-house-design/resorts-and-villa-designs/digitalally-conceptualizedarchitectural-buildings/

Every year the number of projects in a field of digital architecture grows, the universities offer the variety of courses related to the parametric modelling in the fields of architecture, promo design. Way back in 2008 there was a major competition held by the CG Society. The contest was to build digital architecture buildings back in 2008, the CG Society organized a contest that invited digital artists from all around the globe to present their most imaginative and most grandest futuristic vision for the new world through architecture and landscape design. Nowadays the idea of digital parametric design is spreading rapidly, but still the majority of intelligent architecture exists in the projects. As the idea is new, the realization appears to be costly, and the name of architecture or architect agency plays an important role. Even with all the existing opportunities and innovations, digital architecture is presumed by the mass as something futuristic. To archive a complex architectonic shape with all the functions estimated is a long-way process, that meets high demands in different fields of knowledge. It is in a practice, the development or ´borrowing´of the specific software for the peculiar project. And still the existing parametric architecture often seem to reflect the established understanding of geometry and behaviour of the building.

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Programms used for the realization of the project

*here is a short review of the new programms and platforms used in the process of the project development.

GRASSHOPPER (PLUG-IN FOR RHINO) Grasshopper is a visual programming language developed by David Rutten at Robert McNeel & Associates. Grasshopper runs within the Rhinoceros 3D CAD application. Grasshopper is visual programming language. Programs are created by dragging components onto a canvas. The outputs to these components are then connected to the inputs of subsequent components. Grasshopper is used mainly to build generative algorithms. Many of Grasshoppers components create 3D geometry. Programs may also contain other types of algorithms including numeric, textual, audio-visual and haptic applications.

FIREFLY (PLUG-IN FOR GRASSHOPPER) Firefly offers a set of comprehensive software tools dedicated to bridging the gap between Grasshopper (a free plug-in for Rhino) and the Arduino micro-controller. It allows near real-time data flow between the digital and physical worlds – enabling the possibility to explore virtual and physical prototypes with unprecedented fluidity. As a generative modeling tool, Grasshopper offers a fluid visual interface for creating sophisticated parametric models, but by default, it lacks the ability to communicate with hardware devices such as programmable microcontrollers or haptic interfaces. Firefly fills this void. It is an extension to the Grasshopper’s parametric interface; combining a specialized set of components with a novel communication protocol (called the Firefly Firmata or Firmware) which together enable real-time communication between hardware devices and the parametric plug-in for Rhino.

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ARDUINO (PLATFORM FOR INTERACTIVE PROGGRAMMING) Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It’s intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. The microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). The boards can be built by hand or purchased preassembled; the software can be downloaded for free. The hardware reference designs (CAD files) are available under an open-source license, you are free to adapt them to your needs.

PROCESSING (VISUAL PROGGRAMMING) Processing is an open source programming language and environment for people who want to create images, animations, and interactions. Initially developed to serve as a software sketchbook and to teach fundamentals of computer programming within a visual context, Processing also has evolved into a tool for generating finished professional work. Today, there are tens of thousands of students, artists, designers, researchers, and hobbyists who use Processing for learning, prototyping, and production. Processing an architect might model a building program as a system of springs and weights, which may rearrange themselves by pulling towards similar programs and pushing away from noxious uses. Such a simulation would need to unfold within time in an environment where physical forces acted in a very similar way to our own reality - an isomorphism between code and reality. These isomorphisms can extend beyond the simple rules of matter and can engage with social, institutional and environmental dynamics through the same object-oriented framework.

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CODELAB

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54

HISTORY AND CONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS


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1920

56

AFTER THE TRANSFORMATION IN 1962


HISTORY OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

AFTER THE TRANSFORMATION IN 1977

2011

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NOITCURTSNOCER

58


HISTORY OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

1600

1800

1900

1950

1963

RIERES I TURONS

CASES I XIPRERS STREET

THE 1ST SQUARE F.LESSEPS

SQUARE LESSEPS AND SQUARE LA CREU

THE 2ND THE 3D SQUARE. SQUARE THE UNION OF TWO THE 1ST SQUARES BELT LESSEPS AND LA CREU

CATEDRAL JOSEPETES JOSEPETS 1628 I MARE DE DEU DE CHURCH GRACIA 1687 CONFISCATION 1837

THE 1ST TRAM 1872

1976

2009 THE 4TH SQUARE THE LIBRARY JAUME FUSTER

ELECTRIC TRAM 1899

HISTORY OF REORGANIZATION

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SQUARE Square Lesseps is the biggest square of Gracia district (20 300 m2). It appeared as a result of the union of two LESSEPS. squares Josepets and la Creu. This place is tend to be a crossing-point of the important roads, two from north to GENERAL south: Gran de Gracia and Princep d’Asturies with Vallcarca Avenue and Republica Argentina. And the other axis of roads are Travessera de Dalt and General Mitre, from the west to the east. Square Lesseps is also crossed by a INFORMA- the ten other streets. TION The square is the centre of a public transport comunication and pedestrian movement. 12 buses and two metro

lines, more that 20.000 pedestrian and 120.000 vehicles are crossing square every day. To solve this problems two major roads with the size and amount of traffic comparable to the highway, are connected and buried underground. All the bus stops are moved out of the square along the incoming streets and consequence is minimal traffic congestion. The last reformation freed 6000 m2 for pedestrian use due to the expansion of sidewalks and reductions of the traffic. But steel the noise on the square is pretty appreciable. And we decided that a “sound information” would be a good basement for our project. Where we can reflect the noise situation on the square but in the same time harmonize it.

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STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

WHAT IS SOUND

Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through compressible media such as air or water. Sound waves are often simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties: - Frequency - Wavelength - Wavenumber - Amplitude - Sound pressure - Sound intensity - Speed of sound - Direction The sounds we perceive have to be beyond the threshold of hearing (0 dB) but not reach the threshold of pain (140 dB). This quality is measuring with the meter and the results are expressed in decibels (dB) in honor of the scientist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

WHAT IS NOISE

In relation to sound, is meaningless sound of greater than usual volume. Ambient noise is a frequent result of road transportation in urban areas. The addition of all the noise generated by cars, trucks and buses creates a permanent ambient noise (ranging from 45 to 65 db) that impairs the quality of life in urban areas and thus the property values of residences. Nearby road arterials, ambient noise is replaced by direct noise and vibrations. The acoustics created by the surrounding envronment (hills, buildings, trees, open space, etc.) alleviate or worsen local conditions.

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COLLEC- Two different devices were used to get the data: TION OF soundmeter that shows the maximum and the miniSOUND mum level of decibels of the sound in every detemined point; soundrecorder that shows the amplitude of DATA the sound, that were measured every 5 minutes. DIGITAL SOUND METER QM1591

M3 PORTABLE DIGITAL RECORDER

19 points in the square were defined to collect the sound data every hour (24 hours).

P.03 P.05 P.02

P.04 P.01 P.18

P.06

P.00

P.07

P.08

P.09

P.17

P.16

P.11

P.15 P.14

P.10

P.12

P.13

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POINSTS TO COLLECT THE DATA

Planta de localizacion de los puntos dentro de placa lesseps


STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

DIFFERENT TRAFFIC LEVEL ON THE SQUARE LESSEPS

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DIFFERENT TRAFFIC LEVEL ON THE SQUARE LESSEPS

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #1 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #12 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #2 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #16 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #5 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #17 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #10 | 5MINUTES

THE GRAFFIC OF POINT #18 | 5MINUTES


STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

POSITION

dBA/ Max

dbA/Min

Carrer de la Rieva de Vallcarca, 2 Avinguda de Vallcarca, 9 Avinguda de Vallcarca, 14 Carrer de la Maré de Déu del Coll Carrer de la Maré de Déu del Coll Travessera de Dalt Carrer del Torrent de l´Olla Carrer de Pérez Galdós Placa Lesseps (underground) Carrer Gran de Gracia Avinguda del Princep de Astúries Carrer de Mont-roig Carrer de Sant Magi Ronda del General Mitre Carrer de Berna Tunnel (high point 1) Carrer de Homer Ronda del General Mitre Tunnel (high point 2)

66.5 65 70.9 80.1 78 78.2 67.4 60.1 69.3 68.1 74.6 71.4 73.5 58.5 57.7 91.6 74 67.3 80.3

61 56 62.7 65 67.8 66.8 23.3 56 64.6 64 63.4 31 68.4 55 54.6 80.3 67.4 62.6 68.6


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STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

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STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

ANGLES OF THE SOUND MOVEMENT DEPEND ON THE SURROUNDING

DIRECTION AND REFLECTION OF THE SOUND IN THE SPACE DEPEND ON THE SURROUNDING

CONNECTION OF THE POINTS DEPEND ON THE LEVEL OF THE NOISE

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STUDIES OF THE SOUND// AUDIOCONTENT OF THE SQUARE LESSEPS

50-60 db

LEVEL OF VOLUME

CHANGING OF FREQUENCY

60-70 db 70-80 db 80-90 db

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ANIMATE SCENARIO. GENERATION OF THE FORM 72


73


SCENARIO As a result of investigation, we got the highest level of the OF THE have noise at the two exits of the tunnel. BEHAVIOR Actually the whole tunnel is a part

of the square. And even through we did not do any measurements inside the tunnel, we considered that it is the noisiest place on the square Lesseps. According to it, two points on the exits of the tunnel were chosen to be the atracctors to all the particles from every point.. The quantity of particles is equal to the number of frequency divided in 19. And the height they reach is equal to the level of decibels in every point.

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ANIMATE SCENARIO// GENERATION OF THE FORM

SCENARIO IN PROCESSING

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EXPORT OF DATA FROM PROCESSING TO RHINO

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ANIMATE SCENARIO// GENERATION OF THE FORM

DEFINITION OF THE BASIC SHAPE

The curves we want to use for the project were defined according to the space division that already existed in the square. We also took into account the level of noise. The points with the minimum level of noise were not used. As far as the points that go out of the limits of the square.The points that were not used for the building were defined as a base for the development of the enviroment.

area for the main building area for the additional constructions and green-planting

OCCUPATION OF THE AREA

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THE BASIC FORM COVERED WITH A SURFACE

OPEN LOFT

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CLOSED LOFT


ANIMATE SCENARIO// GENERATION OF THE FORM

SCALE OF THE BUILDING

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PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS 80


PROTOTYPE

81


DEFINITION OF THE PATTERN

82

To form a pattern of the system (on a base of the triangles) we divided the curves got from Processing in an accordance to our data. We choose to use data of the volume (in Db) and the frequency (in Hz). As values were really high, we divided the numbers in the same quantity, to get the numbers which can form proper scale and division of the building. Like in a case with volume. In the frequency we took only 1% of the result measurement.

CHOOSEN PATTERN

PATTERN VARIATION

THE AIRPLANE BREAKING THE SPEED OF SOUND


PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT PATTERNS BASED ON TRIANGLE IN GRASSHOPPER

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VARIATION OF THE SURFACES

84


71-78 78-85

5 6

PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS 1

2

3

4

5

6

TRNG_001

TRNG_002

TRNG_003

TRNG_004

TRNG_005

TRNG_006

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10

9

11 12 13 15 17

TRNG_007

TRNG_008

TRNG_009

TRNG_010

TRNG_011

TRNG_012

14

16

18 20 24 23 21

dB 57-64 64-71 71-78 78-85

19

LOGIC OF DIVISION

Divisions 3 4 5 6

Volume Min _57 dB Volume Max_91 dB Frequency Min_800 Hz Frequency Max_10045 Hz Frequency (1%) = Divisions

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PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

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SINGLE COMPONENT

COMPONENT WITH THE CONNECTION

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PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

Prototype: 5 lines of 3 components Process: Milling Machine and vacuum Plane Surface : 15 mm Extructural polystucture: 50-90mml

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PROTOTYPE IN RHINOCAM FOR THE MILLING MACHINE

90


PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

PROTOTYPE IN AUTOCAD FOR THE LASER CUT MACHINE

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WORKING PROCESS. CONNECTING ALL TH PARTS OF THE PROTOTYPE

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PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

PROTOTYPE MADE OF CARTON

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v

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v PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS

VIEWS OF THE PROTOTYPE PATTERN APPLIED TO THE BUILGING

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96


PROTOTYPE. PROTOTYPE. INTELLIGENT INTELLIGENT PATTERNS. PATTERNS. DIGITALDIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS MORPHOGENESIS

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SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS 98


99


NEW PATTERN

100

When we have applied our prototype pattern to the whole building, we discovered some problems with intersections between different “wings” of the construction. Also the problem occurred in the parts with a really high vertical inclination of the surface. Almost half of the building appeared to be unusable. We tried different ways to apply our pattern. First, it was applied independently for every part of the building, Then we covered everything with one surface and applied the pattern to it. But in the end we refused to apply prototype morphology at all. Instead we used triangle as a pattern, but now placed it in relationship with intersections of all the “wings” of the building. And all the space inside of the building was created in the way the “wings” intersect inside of the defined volume of the construction.


SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS

PROCESSING DATA AND A NEW MORFOLOGY

101


SPACE DIVISION

102


SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS

MAIN FLOOR | HALL | LOFT | COMMON SPACES

FIRST FLOOR | APARMENTS

SECOND FLOOR | THREE BEDROOM APARTMENT

THIRD FLOOR | APARTMENTS

FOURTH FLOOR | APARMENTS

SEVEN TO ELEVEN FLOOR | BAR, STORE, AUDITORIUM, COMMON AREAS

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Sceleton of the building

104


SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS

105


106


SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS

CONNECTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

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108


SPACE DISTRIBUTION. ENVIROMENT SOLUTIONS

TERRACE

STAIRS, DESCENT AND PLANTINGS

62 109


110


BIODELAB

111


COMPONENT DEFINITION 112


113


114


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE FIRST COMPONENT

the first component

To define the component we made lots of different attempts, working with a rectangular shape and it´s variations. The material we choose, carton and plastic, permits both fold it and bend it.

115


WORKSHOP/ TIME BASED FORMATION THROUGH MATERIAL INTELLIGENCE

WORKSHOP/ TIM 116

The defined component represents a rectangle with a cut angle, the way it lefts a circle top with extended legs hole. In the ends of cut edges were made the holes for the local connection. In other three ends of a rectangle there are the holes for the global connection. The holes made in the sides of the component were cut to try the different ways of the same (global) connection. When the local connection is applied the shape of the component changes till it looks kind of Reuleaux triangle (in the last local connection).

HEPA

DEFINED COMPONENT


DAVID DURAN AND OKSANA PRYSHCHEPA COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE FIRST COMPONENT

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

The next stage of development was definition of a unique global collection. To archive it we tried couple of variations. Simple (with only one type of connection) and more complex (with 2 types of connection). We were looking for the connection which would produce a soft curvature on a large scale, letting us to change the direction of the curvature and would create a rigid structure of the prototype.

117


DAVID DURAN AND OKSANA PRYSHCHEPA

118

WORKSHOP/ TIME BASED FORMATION THROUGH MATERIAL INTELLIGENCE


E

DAVID DURAN AND OKSANA PRYSHCHEPA COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE FIRST COMPONENT

WORKSHOP/ TIME BASED 119


This conection was not developed because it appeared difficult to connect the local connection to another components.

120


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE FIRST COMPONENT

121


A connection with a rotation of every second component to the opposite side. The structure produced by this connection creates a lot of noise. Its difficult to recognize the local change. Also it does not have enough rigidity.

A complex connection : a rotation of element (of two components) on 90 degree, and connection of the three comnonents.

122


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE FIRST COMPONENT This connection was the last one we choose. The problem appeared with a rigidity and a noise, different orientation of the elements (of three components). Some components used were redesigned for the better protection.

The final decision was to change a primal shape of a component to make it easier to work with the global connections.

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NEW COMPONENT

The attempts made with the first component led us to the new shape (by the union of 4 components together). We created a typology of the new component. And our choice fell on a simple rectangle with the inside drop-shape holes. The holes at the edges of the rectangle serve for the global connection, and the inside holes make the local connection possible.

TYPOLOGY OF THE COMPONENT

124


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT

LOCAL CONNECTIONS To create a volume the opposite ¨inside wings¨ were connected in a way that every hole on one side correspond to the hole (that situates in the same order) of another side. Also the connection of the top wings and those one in the bottom are equal. There are three holes, and an additional element for the first position, that allows four different connections. It was established the limits to be able to measure our system.

types of connection where top wings and bottom one are connected in the different positions

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126

STRAIGHT CONNECTION. 3/5 ELEMENTS


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

STRAIGHT CONNECTION. 6 COMPONENTS

127


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

STRAIGHT CONNECTION. 9 COMPONENTS

OPOSITE CONNECTION. 2 COMPONENTS

128


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

GLOBAL The main global connecchosen was the simple CONNEC- tion straight connection (on the TIONS previous pages).

It let us to change the curvature of the prototype. But not direction, nor porosity. So the variaty of new global connections were elaborated. It permitted us to develop a complex shape. On this page you can see the Diagonal connection, which permits more rapid rotation of the system.

DIAGONAL CONNECTION

129


130


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

CHANGE OF THE CURVATURE

A change of the curvature is produced by the change of the local connection of every component. The first position creates plane slow change and the fourth position permits fast change of the curvature. We made an investigation on a curvature variation using four components. The quantity of possible compositions is 1820. Here is represented only a part of it.

131


TRIANGLE CONNECTION. 3 COMPONENTS

Another types of connection were designed. This one permits to cover a surface with a minimum amount of the components.

[1]

[1]

132

[2]

[1]

[2]

[3]

[2] [3]

[4]

[3]

[4]

[4]


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

TRIANGLE CONNECTION. 6 COMPONENTS

[1]

[1]

[2]

[1] [2]

[3]

[2] [3]

[4]

[3] [4]

[4]

133


GLOBAL CONNECTIONS We defined a couple of connections used in the process of the prototype creation. Straigt connection, Circular connection (chemney), which could include 4-10 components. Is good to produce porosity. Diagonal connection, when the global connection is desplaces in one row. Oposite connection: two components have different direction of the local connection. Serves to change direction of the surface. Triangle connection, consists of three components unated in a triangle. Helps to change direction and creates porosity. Open connection. The components connected.from one side.

134


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

STRAIGT CONNECTION WIITHOUT JOINTS TRIANGULAR CONNECTION

OPPOSITE CONNECTION

CIRCULAR CONNECTION

DIAGONAL CONNECTION

OPEN CONNECTION

135


136


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. PROTOTYPES

To see what effect would produce the component with the curved edges, using basicly Circular and Triangular connections, we createad a prototype. The prototype can be considered as a light structure due to the space ocupation in relation to the material used.

137


1

2a

2b

2c

Prevails the first most plane position.

138


COMPONENT DEFINITION//THE MAIN COMPONENT. PROTOTYPES

4

3a

3b

5

3c

This prototype is based on the straight connection. And the first (the most plane) position is not represented here.

139


PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELING 140


141


LINES OF DISPLASEMENT IN EVERY POSITION

OUTSIDE MOVEMENT LINES

SUPERPOSITION OF THE COMPONENTS IN FOUR DIFFERENT POSITIONS

142

INSIDE MOVEMENT LINES.

* the countour of the inside hole (in the first position) is shown red.


PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELLING

PARAMETRIC SCHEME

For the digital recreation of the component we measured a displacement of the endpoints in all directions, also a displacemant of middle point in z-direction. To measure a displacement of the inside hole of the component 15 points were defined. When we´ve got all the inside and outside points. We connected corresponding points with the curves. In the first position (which has an additional component) we just apply the dimensions of the change to the digital component (but without a reconstruction of the aditional component).

POINTS AND MOVEMENT CURVES IN EVERY POSITION

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Gaussian is the product of the two values. Therefore right) to show the differentiation of values across a surface. Concavecurvature and convex curvature values are often represented as positivedevelopable and negative surfaces, otherwise called ruled surfaces,curve only in one isoparametric direction and have a Gaussian curvature of zero values. across their entirety.

MATERIAL

Curvature on surfaces Surfaces are defined by two directions in parametric space, often referred to as U and V directions. It is the combination of curvature in each of these directions at a point which defines the surface curvature. There are two forms of curvature you will come across in NURBS

and in these tutorials; mean curvature and Gaussian curvature. curvature is the amount of curve in modelling a surface, or principal and surface curvature icons within Grasshopper geometry deviates from being flat. Curvature is the name is the curvature, mean value of the two positive Gaussian ‘bowl-like’ surface often represented via a colour gradientAs(see icon, suggests, mean curvature curvatures; one half the sum of the principal curvatures at rentiation of values across a surface.directional Concave and a point. Surfaces with zero mean curvature across them are minimal s are often represented as positive and negative surfaces.

negative Gaussian curvature, ‘saddle-like’ surface developable surface, zero Gaussian curvature

Gaussian curvature is the product of the two values. Therefore developable surfaces, otherwise called ruled surfaces,curve only ces one isoparametric direction and have a Gaussian curvature of zero y two directions in parametric space,inoften referred s. It is the combination of curvature across in eachtheir of entirety. Further explanations of curvature: oint which defines the surface curvature. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_curvature principal and surface curvature icons within Grasshopper

curvature you will come across in NURBS ‘bowl-like’ surface e tutorials;positive mean Gaussian curvaturecurvature, and Gaussian curvature.

Mean Curvature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean_curvature

mean curvature is the mean value of the two one half the sum of the principal curvatures at zero mean curvature across them are minimal urve in a surface, or principal and surface curvature icons within Grasshopper g flat. Curvature is positive Gaussian curvature, ‘bowl-like’ surface (see icon, egradient is the product of the two values. Therefore urface. Concave and ruled surfaces,curve only es, otherwise called sitive andand negative irection have a Gaussian curvature of zero

principal and surface curvature

Gaussian Curvature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_curvature

negative Gaussian curvature, ‘saddle-like’ surface positive Gaussian negative Gaussian developable surface, GH TUTORIAL - 02 PERFORATED CURVATURE *Gaussian curvature examples from Essential developable surface, zero Gaussian curvature DAVID LISTER, JAS JOHNSTON - 28082011 curvature, ‘bowl-like’ curvature, ‘saddle-like’ zero Gaussian curMathematics for Computational Design surface surface vature

space, often referred vature in each of curvature.

Further explanations of curvature: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_curvature

ss in NURBS d Gaussian curvature.

Mean Curvature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean_curvature

an value of the two pal curvatures at em are minimal

Gaussian Curvature developable surface, zero Gaussian curvature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_curvature

ues. Therefore urfaces,curve only curvature of zero s of curvature: .org/wiki/Principal_curvature

negative Gaussian curvature, ‘saddle-like’ surface

GH TUTORIAL - 02 PERFORATED CURVATURE DAVID LISTER, JAS JOHNSTON - 28082011

negative Gaussian curvature, ‘saddle-like’ surface

.org/wiki/Mean_curvature developable surface, zero Gaussian curvature

.org/wiki/Gaussian_curvature

PERFORATED CURVATURE OHNSTON - 28082011

negative Gaussian curvature, ‘saddle-like’ surface *Gaussian curvature examples from Essential Mathematics for Computational Design developable surface, zero Gaussian curvature

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*Gaussian curvature examples from Essential Mathematics for Computational Design

ture

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*Gaussian curvature examples from Essential Mathematics for Computational Design

*Gaussian curvature examples from Essential Mathematics for Computational Design

SURFACE MADE WITH RHINO

Curvature As the name suggests, curvature is the amount of curve in a surface, or how much an object’s geometry deviates from being flat. Curvature is measured locally but often represented via a colour gradient (see icon, right) to show the differentiation of values across a surface. Concave and convex curvature values are often represented as positive and negative values. Curvature on surfaces Surfaces are defined by two directions in parametric space, often referred to as U and V directions. It is the combination of curvature in each of these directions at a point which defines the surface curvature. There are two forms of curvature you will come across in NURBS modelling and in these tutorials; mean curvature and Gaussian curvature. As the name suggests, mean curvature is the mean value of the two directional curvatures; one half the sum of the principal curvatures at a point. Surfaces with zero mean curvature across them are minimal surfaces. Gaussian curvature is the product of the two values. Therefore developable surfaces, otherwise called ruled surfaces,curve only in one isoparametric direction and have a Gaussian curvature of zero across their entirety.


PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELLING

APPLICATION OF THE SURFACE

Due to the pecularity of the surface, first we divided the curves (of the component outline), than connected points of division to create 8 distinct outlines, and after it applied Patch surface separately to every outline. Some surfaces failed to create properly, thou they were trimmed from the succesfully created surfaces. As the application of the surface only to one component appeared a complicated and in the end impossible task, we did not apply surface to the digital model of the prototype.

THE BORDERS OF THE SURFACES

SURFACE MADE WITH GRASSHOPPER

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THE DIFFERENCE OF DISPLACEMENT FROM THE 1ST TO THE 2ND, 3RD AND 4TH POSITION

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PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELLING

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS USED

All the variations of the global connection were reconstructed digitally. The common Straight connection is mostly used for the prototype construction, the second most extended one is Opposite connection. It allows to change direction of the surface curvature. Depend on the degree we have to change to, we connect the component in a different positions. But always one of the components (that we connect in different directions) is in the first position. Because of the first position is almost plane, it does not led to a great deformation of the components when they are connected by Opposite connection, which happens when we connect both of the components with the positions greater than the first one.

OPPOSITE CONNECTION

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STRAIGHT CONNECTION

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R98.19

R84.83

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STRAIGHT CONNECTION

18.46° 20.76° 2 .8 1° 319.0 0°

MOVEMENT LINES MOVEMENT DIGITAL CURVES OF THE 3 COMPONENTS

R173.70

R106.93

R139.37

R105.66

28.18 28.18 ° ° 30 .17° 30.1 7° 42.5 42.5 1° 1 4 44.7 ° 4.76° 6°

3 COMPONENTS. STRAIGHT CONNECTION

R98.19 R172.56 R172.56

R98.19 R149.86

5 COMPONENTS. STRAIGHT CONNECTION

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R84.83

R149.86 R84.83


PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELLING

The components (no matter the quantity) that are connected by the Straigt connection and where all of them are in the same position, follow the same curvature as the only one component.

9 COMPONENTS. STRAIGHT CONNECTION

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4 COMPONENTS. CIRCULAR CONNECTION

5 COMPONENTS. CIRCULAR CONNECTION

6 COMPONENTS. CIRCULAR CONNECTION

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PARAMETRIC SCHEME. DIGITAL MODELLING

The main changes of the global Triangular connection and difference of the growth in every position. The system element reduces almost with the same proportion from a position to position.

3 COMPONENTS. TRIANGULAR CONNECTION

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DYNAMIC COMPONENT 152


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REMODELING OF THE COMPONENT

For the bechmark the basic shape of the component was changed and the middle holes on the edges were erased. Also for the implementation of the dynamic mechanism the holes and slots were cutted. To improve the tension and straigth of the pulling strings we designed an additional element, which is fixed on the rotating part of the motor. The motor rotates with the angle which corresponds to the position of the component. The first position - 0, the second position - 60, the third position - 120, the fourth position - 180.

RE-DESIGNED COMPONENT FOR ARDUINO

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DYNAMIC COMPONENT

angle of rotation of the motor depends on the position of the component

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DYNAMIC COMPONENT

LEGEND 01. SCREW (2mmX4mm) 02. FIX WEEL (Acrylic 2mm) 03. SCREW 0,8mm 04. PULLEY (Acrylic 3mm) 05. SERVO SUPPORT (Acrylic 2mm) 06. DIGITAL SERVO (Corona DS-939MG, 2.5 kg.cm, speed 0.14sec/60ยบ) 07. SCREW (0.5mm X 7mm) 08. TENSIONED FIXATION 09. TENSIONED STEEL WIRE (0,38mm) 10. WEEL (vinyl 0.5mm) 11. WEEL (vinyl 0.8mm) 12. MICRO NUT (0,5mm)

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MOVEMENT Before we came to the final movement escenario, attempts were verified. SCENARIO different To archive a correct movement of the component with one motor we developed a scheme with the central axis and two rotating wheels, pulling the string. The motor is supported by a preciselly cutted piece from plastic. The behavior obtained was not appropriate enough, also the the “wings “ were overlaping in a very drastic way. Escenarios with two motors were more succesfull. The first one did not provide the additional rotating wheels. As far as we have apply it, the aim reached its final point. Two motors are connected to the same port in arduino to receive the same signal, making their movement synchronized. LASER CUT SCHEME FOR THE ADDITIONAL DETAILS

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COMPONENT WITH ONE SERVO AND A ROTATING ROD


DYNAMIC COMPONENT DYNAMIC SCENARIO

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DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS 160


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MODELING As to our system corthe different OF THE respond types of global connecBENCH- tion, we designed two MARK demonstrators. In the

beginning only the Straight and the Circular connections were provided. We made various attempts before the final design of the benchmark for the Circular connection was archieved. To create the testing models we used carton. Lately the Staight connection was combined with a Triangular one. Throu the design of te corresponding benchmark was changed couple of times for the different number of the components.

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THE PRIMAL DESIGN OF THE BENCHMARK


DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

TESTING MODELS FOR THE BENCHMARK

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MODELING The benchmarks shows the perforof a system and component OF THE mance itself, due to it we can estimate the BENCH- structural and morphological perforMARK mance of a particular element, and

compare strength, material behaviour and morphological changes in the system. The demonstrators simulate different dynamic behaviour of the same component, (depend on different growth systems) which represents the various types of connections in the system. Designing it, we took into account the digital research and approach previously developed. Demonstrator-system allows us to obtain comparative data from active systems tested in real time. In addition, through a rigorous methodology, it could be distinguished each change of the system behaviour and the consequences for sensing scenario selected for the study of the experimental system.

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BENCHMARK FOR THE CIRCULAR CONNECTION


[7]Benchmark [7]Benchmark

DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

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BENCHMARK FOR THE COMBINED CONNECTION

Time based Formations through Material Intelligence. Time based Formations through

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CIRCULAR CONNECTION

The Triangular and Circular connections could be considered as two types of a closed connection. The displacement of the components in this connection is equal for every component.

TRIANGULAR CONNECTION

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DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

STRAIGHT CONNECTION

CENTRAL POINTS´ TRACK

DIGITAL MODEL

COMBINED CONNECTION

CENTRAL POINTS´ TRACK

For the benchmarks we used 3 different types of connection. The simple Circular connection and combination of the Straight connection and Triangular connection (Combined connection). To create a digital model of the Combined connection, we defined the central point of the third (bottom) component as the central point of equilateral triangle in the first (plane) position. The endpoints of the triangle are the central points of two components with the angle of rotation 45. All the measures are made with the 3 time scaled original component. That was a scale choosen for the benchmark.

MOVEMENT OF THE COMBINED CONNECTION MOVEMENT OF THE STRAIGHT CONNECTION

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DIGITAL MODEL OF THE BENCHMARK FOR THE COMBINED CONNECTION

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DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

DIGITAL MODEL OF THE BENCHMARK FOR THE CIRCULAR CONNECTION

Here are two demonstrators whose programs, codes and design correspond to the system. Experiments performed on the system resulted in an experimental demonstrator that permits application of the following tests on the formal system: morphology, lightness, change, movement, adaptation, structure, material.

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[8]Programing

The benchmark reacts on the presence. The infrared sensor is fixed on the top of the model. The graduation of the data that the sensor percieves goes from 1 to 1024.

//INFRARED SENSOR #include <Servo.h> Servo myServo1; //servo 1,2 Servo myServo2; //servo 3,4 Servo myServo3; //servo 5,6 Servo myServo4; //servo 7,8 Servo myServo5; //servo 9,10 int myServoPin1 = 3; //select pin for the servo 1,2 int myServoPin2 = 5; //select pin for the servo 3,4 int myServoPin3 = 6; //select pin for the servo 5,6 int myServoPin4 = 9; //select pin for the servo 7,8 int myServoPin5 = 11; //select pin for the servo 9,10 int pos1 = 0; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos2 = 60; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos3 = 120; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos4 = 180; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees

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int PIRSensor = 0; // the PIR sensor will be plugged at pin 8 int state = 0; // variable to store the value read from the sensor pin int statePin = LOW; // variable used to store the last LED status, to toggle the light


DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

[8]Programing

The closer a person to the benchmark the higher the value the sensor receives. To every position corresponds a certain data by sensor. For the first position - value 0, for the second - 1-400, for the third 399-800, for the forth - 799 -1023.

//INFRARED SENSOR #include <Servo.h> Servo myServo1; //servo 1,2 Servo myServo2; //servo 3,4 Servo myServo3; //servo 5,6 Servo myServo4; //servo 7,8 Servo myServo5; //servo 9,10 int myServoPin1 = 3; //select pin for the servo 1,2 int myServoPin2 = 5; //select pin for the servo 3,4 int myServoPin3 = 6; //select pin for the servo 5,6 int myServoPin4 = 9; //select pin for the servo 7,8 int myServoPin5 = 11; //select pin for the servo 9,10 int pos1 = 0; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos2 = 60; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos3 = 120; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int pos4 = 180; // Variable to store the servo position in degrees int PIRSensor = 0; // the PIR sensor will be plugged at pin 8 int state = 0; // variable to store the value read from the sensor pin int statePin = LOW; // variable used to store the last LED status, to toggle the light

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FINAL DEMONSTRATION MODELS material - twintex, 0.5 mm

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DEMONSTRATIONAL MODELS

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SCALE 1:1

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Thinking about the application of our component to a real size project, we scaled it in respect to a human size. Thou the height and width of the component were increased to 1 meter. And lately to 1.2 m. Two different scenarios were defined. The difference between them is the type of data to analyse. The first responds to the wind conditions. The building creates refuge (by closing of the component) when the wind is stronger and opening it when the wind is calm. The second scenario reacts on the solar light. The greater the sunligt is, the closer the component becomes.

]

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[9]Scale / Sensoring

Time based Time Formations David Durรกn based through Formations through David Durรกn Intelligence. Oksana Pryshchepa Material Intelligence. Oksana Pryshchepa design

Advanced Design Advanced & Digital Architecture Material Design & Digital Architecture

HUMAN SCALE

COMPONENT BEHAVIOR DEPEND ON THE DIFFERENT EXTERNAL CONDITIONS

laboratory BIO laboratory BIO design

Time base


SCALE 1:1

[10]1:1 Component

[10]1:1 Component

[ADDA

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Each side of this model is 1 m long. Material - Wood Laminate, 0,5 mm. This size of the component (1.2 m) and pneumatic cylinder (1 m) creates the maximum tension of the material, but in the same time mantaining enough resistance and flexibility of the material, preventing the model of getting broken. In this picture the size of cylinder is 0.8 m. It does not produce enough tension to let the component reach the last position.

FINAL MODEL 1:1 SCALE

[10]1:1 Component

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laboratory BIO design

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FIREFLY AND DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR

Pneumatic cylinders come into effect, connected to the air pump. Pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid, in this case compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved. Use of Firefly permited us to simulate the dynamic behaviour with a possibility to control it in a digital way. Thus the movement of the piston could be stopped/limited in respect to the position needed. In the same time the presure of the air is continuing to grow.

PECULARITIES OF THE MODEL

In the process of probation of the movement different sizes of the pneumatic cylinders were tried. The same approach as were used in Arduino for the benchmark, we applied here. Two cylinders of 1 meter each were fixed directly on the component to simulate the movement. As the cylinders itself are heavy and the tension created by the air is really high, it appeared to be more complicated to control the movement of the component. Moreover, the material and scale itself required to make some additional parts, as the guidelines reinforcement and additional holes to fix the components to the ground connection. The size of the component were changed (from 1 m to 1.2 m) due to the high material resistancy. The weight of 1 the component is aproximately 1 kg.

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SCALE 1:1

TESTING OF THE MODEL

Testing of the 1:1 model made us realize the limits of pressure we had to apply (it appeared to be too high). Another problems appeared with the reinforced guidelines, which did not work properly when the pneumatic cylinder is placed on the top part of the component. In these pictures you can see, that the component have got broken for the reasons listed above. Later this problems were solved by using less size of the pneumatic cylinder and minirails thet permit smoother sliding of the owerlapping ¨wings¨.

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GROUND CONNECTION

A ground connection designed for the global movement of the surface, but connected to every component separately (the quantity of the components connected to the ground could vary. The arms of the model allow the movement in 3 axis, letting all the dynamics performed by the system. On the bottom picture the model of ground connection, made of plastic. The Ground connection in a real scale were made in wood (10mm). MODEL OF THE GROUND CONNECTON

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DIGITAL MODEL OF THE GROUND CONNECTON


SCALE 1:1

rotation in x-axis rotation in z-axis

REAL SIZE MODEL wood

design for a dynamic fixture SCHEME FOR A LASER CUT (AUTOCAD)

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A FLEXIBILITY RATE OF THE DIFFERENT MATERIALS

wood

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wood fibres

Twintex

fibres of Twintex

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE MATERIALS USED


SCALE 1:1

INVESTIGATION OF THE MATERIALS

In the working process we used different materials to try its´ resistance and flexibility. The main material used for the component definition is polypropylene. We discovered that performance of the wood and twintex match our project the best, due to its´ fibrous structure. The deformation of these materials does not occur in such a scale as it happens with the non-structural ones. The materials were tested on the components with the scale 210/210 mm. Twintex was chosen for the production of the demonstrators. Twintex is a thermoplastics glass reinforcement designed for high mechanical properties, such as excellent stiffness/ weight ratio and superior impact properties. Twintex products are made of commingled High Performance Glass and thermoplastic filaments. In case with a metal, it appeared to be not flexible enough to cope with the our task.

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The membrane, which would be able to connect all the internal sides of the component cannot do it inextricably. The membrane consists of 8 drop-shape pieces, every 2 of which create a closed volumetric shape. The movement of the membrane occures in the same manner as the muscle of the body shrinks. The material choosen for membrane is polypropylene. It connects to a component with the screws, placed in the additional strips that is integral with the membrane.

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SCALE 1:1

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FEATURES OF THE MEMBRANE

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The internal space of the membrane, created in the closest position of the component can provide an additional protection from light, wind and temperature change. Also, it can function as a termal reservour, helping to keep a high temperature inside the membrane capsula. This seems to be possible with the application of a transparent breething film (ETFE) as a material for the membrane and as a result of the greenhouse effect appearing due to the spherical shape of the capsule.

3D MODEL OF THE MEMBRANE


SCALE 1:1 GAUSSIAN MASK

MATERIALS TO APPLY

To improve the qualities of the surface, we could cover it with a layer of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to create self-cleaning effect. By transferring the microstructure of selected plant surfaces to practical materials, super-hydrophobic surfaces could be developed. This was called the Lotus Effect because it can be demonstrated beautifully with the great leaves of the lotus plant. The microLOTUS EFFECT rough surfaces show contact angles higher than 130o. That means, the adhesion of water, as well as particles is extremely reduced. Water which contacts such surfaces will be immediately contracted to droplets. The particles of contaminants adhere to the droplet surfaces and are removed from the rough surface when the droplets roll of.

CHANGE OF THE RADIUS

ETFE (ETHYLENE TETRA FLUORO ETHYLENE)

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[ADDA Ground Conection ] [11]

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Advanced Design & Digital Architecture

Advanced Design & Digital Architecture

Time based Formations through Material Intelligence.

Time based Formations through Material Intelligence.

David Durรกn Oksana Pryshchepa

BIO

design laboratory David Durรกn Oksana Pryshchepa design

laboratory BIO


Ground Conection 1][11] Ground Conection

[ADDA

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[ADDA

REAL SCALE OF THE DEMONSTRATOR Advanced Design & Digital Architecture

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Advanced Design & Digital Architecture

Time based Formations through Material Intelligence.

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Time based Formations through Material Intelligence.

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David Durรกn Oksana Prysh

laboratory BIO design

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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM 190


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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

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PROTOTYPE 01

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This prototype represents itself a lightweight model. All the structure ¨hangs¨ in the air with the help of the ´legs¨ , fixed to the ground by the simple connections, that do not constrain the movement of the prototype. The ¨chimneys¨ created by the Circular connection provides an additional support. ThIs connection is represented by the ¨chimneys¨ of different diameters and length, that could serve for different purposes.


INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

The lightness of the structure appears due to the Triangular type of connection. It makes possible the distribution of the elements in a larger area, as a triangle has three sides and the triangular hole created in this connection does not change itself, For the experimentation purposes all the components of the prototype are fixed in the second position. The design of the component is the same one used for the demonstrators, with cut edges, which serves better for the creation of a lightweight structure, in the same time maintaining the rigidity. The ´chimneys´ end with a round piece of transparent plastic, providing the shield and additional rigidity (by connecting the elements). The screws supporting these pieces are installed in a manner permitting a proper movement of the components.

DIMENTIONS OF THE PROTOTYPE 01 (MM)

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RULES APPLIED IN GRASSHOPPER

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The digital model of the prototype was partially made in Grasshopper. All the components are organized in the groups that represent a structural part of the prototype. Every part is connected to the Number Sliders that are responsable for the local position of the components, and they in its´ turn are in the mutual dependence through the functions (matematical formula that define the correlation of n components, where n - number of the components in the structural part, in which the changes take place). As the different types of connection result in the different changes, the values for every type of connection are different. The whole reconstituted part of the prototype is dynamic. In the right page you can see a modification of the system from the minimum level of proliferation to the maximum one. In our particular case, from the first to the fourth position. Due to the big number of the components that could be derivated in the same or in different time, the proliferation change, presented here, is only one of the multiply possibilities that can happen. Anyway, it becomes clear that the area where prevails a Triangular connection and where the components remain loose is more subjected to the alteration.


The present dimensions show that the most significant change in the morphology of the prototype happens in the part where prevails the Triangular connection. As it supports the structure with a minimum number of elements, and in the same time allows us to extend expansion of the system on the area in a rapid way.

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In a result of the local change of every component (in the same time) from the 1st to the 4th position, we have got an ocupational area of the system in the minimum and maximum position.

position 1 Surface analysis Dimensions (UV) 608/614 Area 2.3480e+5 position 4 Surface analysis: Dimensions (UV) 699/522 Area 2.587e+5

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As we were unable to apply the surface to the whole prototype, the part of it was reconstructed in Rhino, by extracting the dimensions and points from the photos.

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MAIN BASE FOR THE PROTOTYPE

White circles show the location of the ground connection. The number of circles correspond to the level of dynamics every part is subjected to.

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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BASE 1

The base of the component is a sheet of plastic (8mm). The drawing on it was designed and cut with the laser. This design is an attempt to relate our system to a surrounding area but in the same time retaining the connection to the prototype morphology.

DYNAMIC ASPECT. BASE 2

The dynamism of the system is different in every part. It is manifested in a different speed and direction of the movement of the system elements. We created a base that would reflect the pattern of the movement of the dynamic part choosen.

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RULES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BASE 2

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To produce a needed morphology we went through several stages: 1. the digital part of the prototype was designed in Grasshopper. 2. we found the curves of movement of every component that is located close to the ground. 3. as these components are in a different distance from the ground, we created surfaces on the level of each (such a) component. 4. the curves of the movement were extended and projected on the surfaces. 5. we found the points and planes of interconnection. some parts were additionaly designed to make a model more stable.

lines of the movement in this picture are marked in red


INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

DIGITAL BASE FOR THE PROTOTYPE PART

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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

DIMENSIONS OF THE PROTOTYPE 02 (MM)

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PROTOTYPE O2

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This prototype represents a curved solid surface. The structure created does not comtain any additional joints or separations. The morphology of the system created is very complex. It is limited by the use of Straight and Opposite connection (mainly). Circular connection and some types of another connections were used for the functional reasons. The ¨stripes¨ of the components does not correspond only to the lineal structure. Some rows of components curve creating spiral, so, for example, 2 ¨stripes of the prototype is the same (spiral) row joined with itself.


INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

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SPONGE TYPE PROTOTYPE

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INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

DIMENSIONS OF THE PROTOTYPE, MM

PROTOTYPE IN GRASSHOPPER

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NATURAL ORGANIZATION IN THE ARCHITECTURE

To pursue seriously the proposition of synthetic-life architectures it is important to take a close look at biological processes and materials, all the way down to the molecular scale, involving biochemistry in the understanding of the advanced functionality and performance capacity of biological organisms. The composite material organisation of biological structures is typically morphologically and functionally defined across a minimum of eight scales of magnitude, ranging from the nano- to the macro-scale. While inherent functionality is scale dependent, it is nevertheless interrelated and interdependent across scales of magnitude. It is, in effect, nonlinear: the whole is more than the sum of the parts. A central role is played by processes of selforganisation and the functional properties that emerge from them. The self-organisation processes underlying the growth of living organisms can provide important lessons for architects. Natural systems display higher-level integration and functionality evolving from a dynamic feedback relation with a specific host environment. Self-organisation is a process in which the internal organisation of a system increases automatically without being guided or managed by an external source. It is central to the description of biological systems, from subcellular to ecosystems. Self-organising systems typically display emergent properties, which arise when a number of simple entities or agents cooperate in an environment, forming more complex behaviours as a collective. Emergent properties arise when a complex system reaches a combined threshold of diversity, organisation and connectivity. When attempting to set forth a paradigm for differentiated and multi-performance architectures, it is interesting to examine available methods for modelling biological growth informed by a hosting environment. Through this investigation it is possible to derive architectural strategies and methods that are informed by environmentally specific conditions and, thus, to achieve advanced levels of functionality and performativity. Modelling growth processes that are sensitive to systemextrinsic influences and negotiated with systemintrinsic organisational information and related features hold great potential for architecture with respect to evolving buildings from similar processes. This suggests an expansion of the endeavour to incorporate ecological organisation and relations. Ecology is the study of the relation of organism to their hosting environment, which can be studied at various levels ranging from the individual organism to populations ,communities of species, ecosystems and, finally, the biosphere.1 1

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Neoplasmatic Design. Architectural Design November/December 2008


ARCHITECTONIC PROJECT

PORIFERA. NATURAL PATTERNS.

Functional morphology of Tethya species (Porifera) Three-dimensional morphometrics on spicules and skeleton superstructures of T-minuta. Nickel, M. ; Bullinger, Eric ; Beckmann, F..

Some members of the genus Tethya represent the most contractile poriferan species. All of them show a highly ordered skeleton layout. Based on three main spicule types, functional units are assembled, termed skeleton superstructures here. Using synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography and quantitative image analysis with specially developed particle and structure recognition algorithms allowed to perform spatial allocation and 3D-morphometric characterizations of single spicules and skeleton superstructures in T. minuta. All three skeleton superstructures represent composite materials of siliceous spicules and extracellular matrix. From structure recognition it was developed an abstracted mathematical model of the bundles and the sphere. After the analyze of the megaster network interrelation topology it was found a baso-apical linear symmetry axis for the megaster density inside the sphere. Based on these results, it was proposed a hypothetical biomechanical contraction model for T. minuta and T. wilhelma, in which the skeleton superstructures restrain physical stress generated by contraction in the tissue.While skeletal structures within the genus Tethya have been explained using R. Buckminster Fullers principle of tensegrity by other authors, it also could be explained in material science based on biomechanical approaches, to understand skeletal superstructures by referring to their composite material properties.

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Investigation of our system and its movement analysis led us to conclusion that it pretty much similar to a sponge system, as in structure, either in functional possibilities. The circular connection of the prototype exactly recreates the ¨chimneys¨ of the sponge.

SIMILARITIES IN THE MORPHOLOGY

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STRUCTURE OF SPONGE (PORIFERA)

A number of animal groups, however, do things very differently. While their growth is always governed by some genetically determined rules, these rules don’t necessarily lead to a defined adult size or shape. Put another way, even though there will be some structural similarities, no two animals in the species will have the same shape. Within such marine species, the growth form is often determined by environmental variables such as water currents or light, and the final adult shape is due probably as much to the environment as it is to the animal’s inherited characteristics. If several species have the same basic genetic rules for growth, individuals from those species will, for all intents and purposes, look identical if they are grown under similar environmental conditions. Sponges are animals that grow this way, and within every geographic region many species often appear, to the casual observer, to be identical. The problem is compounded, however, when comparing species from many different geographic regions. Unless the potential identifier has a great degree of familiarity with a specific region, it becomes well nigh impossible to identify such animals.

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MICROSTRUCTURE OF SPONGE (PORIFERA)

The soft body of sponge is supported by a firm network of endoskeleton. This support is made up of spicules of calcium carbonate, secreted by scleroblasts. The spicules are crystalline bodies with definite varied shapes. They are present in mesenchyme and remain embedded in gelatinous matrix. The spicules are enveloped by a sheath of organic material. Sollas (1885) reported that it is in the form of calcite. It also contains magnesium, sulphate, sodium, water etc. Minchin has established that the scleroblasts are derived from dermal epithelial cells and later pass into mesoglea to secrete spicules. Each scleroblast can produce only one ray of the spicules. The tri- and tetra-radiate spicules are secreted by the corresponding number of scleroblasts. The spicules are of four types. (i) Monaxon spicules: These are long needle-like spicules, large in number. They are one-rayed. They are arranged in circle around the osculum and form the oscular fringe.The monaxon spicules can be further classified into two kinds, depending upon their size and shape. (a) Long monaxon: They surround and guard the osculum. (b) Short monaxon: They mostly lie parallel to radial canals. (ii) Oxeote spicules: These are simple spear-like or club-like and project from the dermal cortex, over the polygonal elevation, opposite to the outer ends of radial canals, and give bristly appearance to the sponge. (iii) Tri-radiate spicules: These spicules outnumber all other types. These are three rayed and are present along the flagellated canals. One ray of the spicule is pointed towards the closed distal end of the canal. (iv) Tetra-axon spicules: These spicules have four rays. They occur alongwith tri-radiate spicules in the thick gastral cortex surrounding the spongocoel.

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At increasing magnifications you can see the skeletal structure composed of spicules. Triaxon spicules are shown on the first picture. At the magnifications on the right you can see the outline of intermeshed spicules in the body wall with cells growing around the outside. These spicules are made of calcium carbonate and are secreted by special cells called amoebocytes that migrate in a gelatinous layer, called the mesohyl, between the two cell layers that make up the body wall. The cells covering the outer surface of a sponge is called a pinacoderm. Other species of sponges have skeletons made from a protein called spongin. Cells of the body grow around these fibers and are thus supported by the protein matrix. When sponges are commercially harvested, they are dried and washed to remove the cells and the protein meshwork is sold as a natural sponge for bathing or washing cars. Some deep ocean species, called glass sponges, have elaborate skeletons made from silica that support the cells of the body. It boggles the mind to imagine the biochemical reactions that are required to concentrate silica from sea water and to secrete it as fibers to form the elaborate structures.

CROSS SECTION

SPONGIN

GLASS SPONGE

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ARCHITECTONICAL PROJECT

MODEL OF THE NATURAL BEHAVIOR

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Water flow and body structures Most sponges work rather like chimneys: they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum (“little mouth”) at the top. Since ambient currents are faster at the top, the suction effect that they produce does some of the work for free. Sponges can control the water flow by various combinations of wholly or partially closing the osculum and ostia (the intake pores) and varying the beat of the flagella, and may shut it down if there is a lot of sand or silt in the water. The simplest body structure in sponges is a tube or vase shape known as “asconoid”, but this severely limits the size of the animal. If it is simply scaled up, the ratio of its volume to surface area increases, because surface increases as the square of length or width while volume increases proportionally to the cube. The amount of tissue that needs food and oxygen is determined by the volume, but the pumping capacity that supplies food and oxygen depends on the area covered by choanocytes.

LOW PRESSURE

FAST CURRENT

HIGH PRESSURE

SLOW CURRENT

outer wall loculum inner wall central cavity intervallum septum

holfast tip

Structure of the sikon: 1 - osculum, 2 - spongiocelis 3 - outward channel, 4 - inward channel, 5 - hoanoderma, 6 - prozopyl, 7 - ostium, 8 - hoanoderma, 9 - mezohyl, 10 - apopyl.


ARCHITECTONIC PROJECT

THE MOST FAVORABLE ENVIRONMENT

The utilization of the wind energy for the recreation of a sponge natural behaviour can process in two different directions: vertical (for the vertical type prototype, in mountainous area with vertical airflow) and horizontal (for horizontal prototypes, in sea area with horizontal breeze circulation). The whole surface of the prototype is a conglomeration of the components, every of which makes movement according to the present enviromental conditions and the behavior of it´s neigbour. As every system, this system has it´s limits of dynamism and it´s rules of behaviour. Also rules of behavior can vary for different prototypes and different parts of a one prorotype.

the single component behaves in a way the sponge´s ostium does. but instead of water it correlates with the wind. The penetration of the airflow could be regulated by opening and closing of the component, depend on the external conditions.

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Thinking about the project location, we presumed that it ARTIbe situated as on the land either in the water or in FICIAL could the air. The final decision was to place the project on the RECREA- ground with some underground constructions. Our task was TION OF to simulate the sponge behaviour in another environmental THE NAT- conditions. The same principle of pressure difference and URAL BE- as a result creation of up-stream water flows. But this time it HAVIOR will be wind instead of water. Wind is caused by differences in pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air is accelerated from higher to lower pressure. On a rotating planet, the air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except exactly on the equator. Near the Earth’s surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise. Surface friction also causes winds to blow more inward into low pressure areas. Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds.

CHANGE OF THE SPEED OF THE WIND

The slopes of the mountain protrude into the atmosphere and air next to the mountain slopes is warmed MOUNthe heated slopes. Air next to the mountain becomes warmer than that at the same level away from the TAINOUS by mountain and over the plains. This produces a relative low pressure in the air next to the mountain. The low SCENARIO pressure induces convergence of flow toward the mountain. Air begins to flow up the slope. Provided there is sufficient heating and low stability, the airflow will eventually rise over the peak and break away from the slope. Updrafts then form over the mountain.

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ARCHITECTONIC PROJECT

How the sea breeze forms: The sea breeze circulation is comprised SEA two opposing flows; one at the surface (called the sea breeze) SCENARIO of and one aloft (which is a return flow). These two flows are a result of

AIR FLOW IN THE SEA AREA

the difference in air density between the land and sea caused by the sun’s heating. The sun warms both the ground and ocean at the same rate. However, since the ground’s heat remains confined to the top few inches of soil it radiates back into the atmosphere warming the air. As the air warms, its density decreases creating a weak low pressure area called a “thermal low”. Over the adjacent water the cooler, more dense air, being pull down by gravity, begins to spread inland. This inland push of air from the ocean undercuts the less dense air over land forcing it to rise. A sharp boundary develops due to the large difference between the air temperature over land and over water. This boundary, called a sea breeze front, acts in the same manner as the cold front we typically experience. AIR FLOW IN THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA

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ARCHITECTONICAL PROPOSAL

For the proper use of our system in the architectonic proposal, we decided that it should serve for the special treatment of the living creatures. The most attention we paid to the birds and patterns created by them. To specify the place, we took into consideration the demands for the system functionality (the presence of the wind circulation), the areas of the boundary of the birds and its´ migrational routes. We choose European continent, and its wetlands where the birds stay in a period of migration to Africa. The final site for the project was decided to be in Delta de l´Ebre, Catalunya, Spain.

FAVORA- The relation between wetlands and birds is shaped by many factors. These include the availability, depth, BLE CON- and quality of water; the availability of food and shelter; and the presence or absence of predators. Birds that DITIONS use wetlands for breeding depend on the physical and biological attributes of the wetland. Birds have daily and seasonal dependencies on wetlands for food and other life-support systems. The value of a wetland to a specific bird species is affected by the presence of surface water or moist soils and the duration and timing of flooding. Water might be present during the entire year, during only one or more seasons, during tidal inundation, or only temporarily during and after rainfall or snowmelt. At times water might not be present at the land surface, but might be close enough to the land surface to maintain the vegetation and foods that are needed by birds. Birds may use wetlands located in depressions in an otherwise dry landscape, along streams, or in tidally influenced areas near shorelines. The availability or influence of water is a very important wetland feature to birds. It is not, however, the only feature that determines if birds will be present, how birds use the wetland, or how many kinds or numbers of birds may use the wetland. Other determining physical or biological factors include water depth and temperature, presence or absence of vegetation, patchiness or openness of vegetation, type of vegetation, foods, water chemistry, type of soils, and geographic or topographic location. Any variations in any of these wetland features will cause subtle, but distinct, differences in bird use.

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ARCHITECTONIC PROJECT

1. CAMARGUE DELTA 2. PO DELTA 3. AMVRAKIKOS GULF 4. PRESPA BASIN

5. ALIAKMONAS DELTA 6. EVROS DELTA 7. GEDIZ DELTA 8. GÖKSU DELTA

9. SEYHAN DELTA 10. NILE DELTA 11. GABÉS GULF 12. EL KALA

13. GUADALQUIVIR DELTA 14. EBRO DELTA

MAP OF THE MAIN MEDITERRANEAN WETLANDS

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ANALYSIS OF THE BIRD MIGRATION IN MEDITERRANEAN

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Three categories of migrating birds were considered, depending on the area from which they come: incoming birds from sub-Saharan Africa in spring and those arriving in autumn either from continental Europe or from Scandinavian and the Siberian tundra and taiga. Analyses were performed for all species and separately for species of the Anatidae family (ducks, swans, geese) and waders (shorebirds of the families Scolopacidae and Charadriidae), which are essentially associated with wetlands or coastlines. Birds Coming from sub-Saharan Africa abundant and diverse in spring, are still numerous in summer, and decrease in winter. The pattern is different if one considers solely ducks, as only 3 duck species fly south to tropical Africa, namely, the northern pintail (Anas acuta), the garganey, and the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Conversely, numbers and species diversity are high for waders, which are mainly passage visitors, especially in spring and late summer. Birds Coming from Northern Areas of Tundra and Taiga Abundance is highest in April and October–November with a higher peak in autumn, notably because of juvenile birds. Species diversity is high during winter and low from May to July. The opposite pattern was observed for sub-Saharan species. This pattern is even clearer for birds of the Anatidae family: They are abundant from October to January and in very small numbers from March to September. In contrast to ducks, waders are mainly transient visitors, and only a few individual birds spend the winter in the Camargue. Their number is greatest in spring and autumn. Birds Coming from Continental Europe Up to 153 species might be involved in pathogen dispersion from continental Europe. Their abundance is highest from February to April and later from September to November. Species diversity remains high yearround with peaks in spring and autumn due to migrating passage visitors. The pattern observed for Anatidae species is the same as the 1 we described for Arctic species: birds are abundant in autumn and winter and in very small numbers in spring and early summer. However, the number of duck species remains stable year-round. Indeed, in species such as the mallard or the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina), some birds are sedentary whereas others are migratory. Waders show a constant level of species diversity because migration staggers over several months, but numbers are highly variable throughout the year.


ARCHITECTONIC PROJECT

THE BIRD MIGRATION ROUTES

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D. Gómez-Ortiz et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 159–170

Fig. 1. Location map of the study area at the NE of the Iberian Peninsula.

Ebro Delta —320 square kilometres in area and a 25 kilometre entry into the sea— is one of the outstandLOCATION The waves in distinct pulses into the ground that propagate, reflect and/or

activity. Dune morphologies are: anoid ridges in Zones 2 and 3. This rientation of the coast and to the st intensity winds blowing from ternal structure of barchan dunes n Fig. 2. Wind and migration er to compare with the obtained

ce because the dune system of El with this technique, as The Ebro d access. GPR is a non-destructive ture without the use of trenches nting one of the best methods to areas.

)

geophysical method (Davis and Daniels, 1996; Reynolds, 1997; view of it is presented here. The ents of the subsurface response to 00 MHz) electromagnetic (EM) the ground surface emits EM

ing water habitats in the Western Mediterranean. To protect its great ecological value, which lives peacefully diffract at interfaces where the dielectric permittivity of the subsurface changes. a EMbusy wave velocity data activity, thus allows in conversion a time alongside farming 1983 of the Ebro Delta Nature Reserve was declared (and extended in 1986 record of reflections into an estimated depth. and 1996). It covers a surface area of 7,802 hectares of the comarques of Baix Ebre (the northern hemi-delta) and Montsià southern hemi-delta), separated by the course of the river. 3,368 of those hectares belong to 3.1. Data collection(the and presentation oneData of the seven special protection reserves. Formed in relatively recent geological eras —since the last Ice from this study were collected with the Subsurface Interface Age, 11,000 ago—, its evolution —the result of the dynamics between the alluvial matter carried Radarabout (SIR) 3000 systemyears developed by Geophysical Survey Systems, (GSSI). GPR measurements were made using a 200 MHz centre byInc. the river and the force of erosion by the sea, associated with the rise in sea level— has been very changefrequency shielded antenna in monostatic mode, which is considered able in best the compromise last few centuries. The great includes many inland lagoons or lakes —Les Olles, Canal Vell, as the between penetration depth plain and event sedimentary materials (Jol et al., 2003). All the profiles Elresolution Garxal,inEls Calaixos, L’Alfacada, La Platjola, La Tancada and L’Encanyissada—, and the river has formed have been collected in continuous mode, with a distance interval islets, such Buda at the or Gràcia and Sapinya upriver. The shoreline is formed by between tracesas of 0.1 m and and a total Sant numberAntoni of 1024 samples permouth scan. The topography along the profile was obtained by means of a long sandy beaches with dunes topped with long grass and two great sand barriers at the ends that close differential GPS and the data were used to correct the topography in offthethe —Barra del Trabucador and dataAlfacs processing. In this continuous acquisition mode, eachPunta trace of de la Banya— and Fangar bays. The salient features of the the radargram is the result of a 64 times stacking in order to improve climate are the slight variations in temperature, high humidity and strong gusts of wind. the signal-to-noise ratio. A survey wheel attachment was used in order to enhance survey accuracy. Automatic gain control was employed during data acquisition and depending on dune height, a time window of 50 or 100 ns two way travel time (TWT) was applied.

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A GRANTIA CROSS SECTION

OCCUPATION OF THE TERRITORY

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After some observation of an internal structure of the sponge it appeared clear that the body is shaped by a strong complicated (but consisting of simple elements) structure. The constituents elements (spicules) have a limited variety, depend on which they create a distinct type of connection. In result the morphology of sponges varies. We do not have to forget about the influence of the external factors that significantly affect the growth of a sponge. To determine the way our project will spread in the territory we use a pattern of a cross cut sponge. It creates the inseverable chains of connected elements, that prompted us to develop a digital chain of architectonic morphologies on the chosen side. In the process of a recreation of the pattern, to determine the limits of territorial colonization and density of the pattern constituents elements, we took into consideration present hydrological conditions. Three big lakes that mostly attract the birds. And close position to the sea with its breeze as a source of renewable energy for the purposes of the project. Also, the first big concentration of elements appears close to the city, to make it possible the connection with an urban infrastructure, with is necessary for the investigational and medical objectives of our project.

A SCYPA CROSS SECTION

A LEUCOSOLENIA CROSS SECTION


ARCHITECTONICAL PROJECT

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LA PLATJOLA

L´Eucaliptus GO

LA

PARC NATURAL DEL DELTA DE L´EBRE

DE

LA

PL

AT

L´ENCANYISSADA

LA TANCADA

JO

LA

el Poblenou del Delta

CA CA

LA

VE

LL

SPECIFICATION OF THE LOCATIONS

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DE

LA

L

DE

LA

PA

NX

FO

RT

GO

location of the system elements

NA

RA

AL

A

ES

A

A

As in a wetland, the territory of The Ebro Delta is mostly covered with the water, which almost always contains rice planting, here and there appear salt pools and four big shallow lakes. Four architectonic constructions will be based on a dry and humid ground on the totally empty plain territory. The change of the morphology could be subjected to three conditions: seasonal change, atmospheric change and presence of the birds. As a birds´ migration is related to the seasonal change, three buildings would interact in dependence on the seasonal change. And one building, containing the medical centre would be applied to the external conditions. This also would make it possible to save and produce energy due to the specific behaviour (related to the sponge natural behaviour), that system can perform in the conditions of sufficient sun and wind.


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localization 01 Cami de la Carvera near to La Enca単izada

localization 02 Carretera de la Circumvallacio near to La Enca単izada

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ARCHITECTONICAL PROJECT

localization 03 Cami de Ranxo Gran near to La Tancada

localization 04 Carrer de la Baladares near to La Tancada

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DIFFERNT To ¨populate¨ the territory with the system, we developed a chain of prototypes in Grasshopper, based on types of chosen connections. All of them are established on the principle of the light structures. MORPHOL- different These structures are not complex and open enough for birds to stay for the refuge and for breeding. At the OGIES same time these huge ¨birdcages¨ would be equipped with the sensors and devices collecting necessary information and transmitting it to the central department.

VARIATIONS OF THE MORPHOLOGIES FOR THE PROJECT

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ARCHITECTONICAL PROJECT

DIMENSIONS OF THE SYSTEM ELEMENTS

all the dimensions are represented in metres

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SCALE //

POSSIBILITIES OF A CHANGE OF THE SCALE

WEEK // 12

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David Durรกn :: Oksana Pryshchepa

ADDA Advanced Design & Digital Architecture


ARCHITECTONICAL PROJECT

As the scale of the complieted morphologies is not too large, we evolved the underground level where the THE part of equipment and investigation would be hold. The top-part would belong to the birds. But there UNDER- major is no material separation prevailed. The base for the separation must be different conditions developed for GROUND the bird and human co-existance. SCENARIO

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