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Estonia Population censuses have been taken in Estonia in 1881, 1897, 1922, 1934, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989 and 2000 [35] The responsible institution is the Statistics Estonia [36] Ethiopia Three censuses have been taken in Ethiopia: 1984, 1994 and in 2007 The responsible institution is the Central Statistical Agency Most of the census in 2007 was taken in August, while the Somali Region and the Afar Region were not covered The northern Afar region is a remote, hot and arid area The eastern Somali region (Ogaden) hosts a large nomadic Somali population and is a conflict area where Ethiopian regular forces are fighting against Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) Finland The first population census was taken in 1749 when Finland was a part of Sweden The most recent census took place on December 31, 2000 France The census in France is carried out by INSEE Since 2004, a partial census is carried out every year, and the results published as averages over 5 years Germany The first systematic population on the European continent was taken in 1719 in Prussia (roughly corresponding to today's northern Germany and western Poland) The first large-scale census in the German Empire took place in 1895 Attempts at introducing a census in West Germany sparked strong popular resentment in the 1980s since many quite personal questions were asked Some campaigned for a boycott In the end the Constitutional Court stopped the census in 1980 and 1983 The last census was in 1987 Germany has since used population samples in combination with statistical methods, in place of a full census Greece Census takes place every 10 years and is carried out by the National Statistical Service of Greece [37] Last census was in 2001 Guatemala Modern population censuses have been taken in Guatemala in 1930, 1950, 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994 and in 2002 Controversial cenuses include those in 1950 and 1964 (misclassification of the Maya population) and 1994 (generally questioned) About 14,000,000 people live in Guatemala as of July 2009 Relaciones Geográficas of Mexico and Guatemala, 1577-1585 Census 99 On May 25, 1577, King Philip II of Spain ordered by royal cédula the preparation of a general description of Spain's holdings in the Indies Instructions and a questionnaire, issued in 1577 by the Office of the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo, were distributed to local officials in the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru to direct the gathering of information The questionnaire, composed of fifty items, was designed to elicit basic information about the nature of the land and the life of its peoples The replies, known as "relaciones geográficas," were written between 1579 and 1585 and were returned to the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo in Spain by the Council of the Indies Hong Kong Census takes place every 10 years and by-census between two censuses by the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong The last census was conducted in 2001 and the last by-census was taken in 2006 Hungary Official decennial censuses have been taken in Hungary since 1870; the latest one – in line with the recommendations of the United Nations and the Statistical Office of the European Union – was carried out in 2001 Starting from 1880 the Hungarian census system was based on native language (the language spoken at home in the early life of the person and at the time of the survey), vulgar language (the most frequently used language in the family), and other spoken languages Iceland The first Icelandic census took place in 1703, following upon the first Danish census of 1700–1701 Further censuses were carried out in 1801, 1845 and 1865 The 1703 exercise was the first ever census to cover all inhabitants of an entire country, mentioning the name, age and social position of each individual All of the information still exists, although some of the original documents have been lost The setting up, in 1952, of the National Registry (Þjóðskrá) eliminated the need for censuses All those born in Iceland, and all new residents, are automatically registered Individuals are identified in the registry by means of a national identification number (the so-called kennitala), a number composed of the date of birth in the format ddmmyy and four additional digits, the third of which is a control digit, and the last of which indicates the century in which the person was born (9 for the 1900s and 0 for the 2000s) The National Registry doubles as an electoral register Likewise, all bank accounts are linked to the national identification of the owner (companies and institutions all have their own identification numbers) India The decennial census of India is the primary source of information about the demographic characteristics of the population of India The 2011 census will be the largest census in the history of mankind [38] The first census in India in modern times was conducted in 1872 First regular census was started in 1881 by Lord Rippon Since then, a population census has been carried out every 10 years The latest census commenced on 1 May 2010 It will create a National Population Register with photographs and fingerprints of every resident All usual residents of India will also be provided with their Unique ID numbers and National Identity Cards The census is carried out by the office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, Delhi, an office in the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, under the 1948 Census of India Act The act gives Central Government many powers like to notify a date for Census, power to ask for the services of any citizen for census work The law makes it compulsory for every citizen to answer the census questions truthfully The Act provides penalties for giving false answers or not giving answers at all to the census questionnaire One of the most important provisions of law is the guarantee for the maintenance of secrecy of the information collected at the census of each individual The census records are not open to inspection and also not admissible in evidence Census 100 The census is conducted in two phases: first, house listing and house numbering phase and second, the actual population enumeration phase The census is carried out by the canvassing method In this method, each and every household is visited and the information is collected by specially trained enumerator They collect data related to households e g number of members, water & electricity supply, ownership of land, vehicles, computers and other assets and services In the second phase, total population is counted and statistics related to individuals are collected [38] Indonesia The first population census was done during the colonial era, 1930 Before that, a non-overall census was already conducted in 1920 After that census was done irregularly The first census after independence was 1961, followed by 1971 Since 1980 it is conducted regularly every 10 years In between, there is also economical census (every 10 years, five years after population census) and agricultural census (three years after population census) The last census was held on May 2010 Iran Main article: Demographics of Iran The Statistical Center of Iran carries out nationwide population and housing censuses every 10 years, the last of which occurred in 2006 (1385 AP) In the Islamic Republic of Iran, based on Article 4 of the Act of the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI), the census shall be implemented once every 10 years according to the Presidential decree So far there have been 6 incidences of population census in Iran in the years 1956, 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006; all taken in accordance with scientific methods Ireland The census in Ireland is carried out by the Central Statistics Office [39] The census is carried out every five years, with more detailed information collected in years ending in 1 and less in the years ending in 6 The 1976 census was cancelled as a cost-saving measure, but a supplementary census was held in 1979 after it became apparent that the 1970s had seen major demographic changes [40] The census scheduled for 2001 was postponed until 2002 due to the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease [41] The most recent census took place on 23 April 2006 [42] According to the 2006 form, "any person who fails or refuses to provide information or who knowingly provides false information may be subject to a fine of up to €25,000," under the Central Statistics Act 1993 On the CSO website, instructions for non-English speaking residents of Ireland were available They were mock copies of the census forms, with all headings questions etc being translated into a particular language These were not to be filled out, but were only a guide on how to fill out the English or Irish form This census also asked two new questions relating to ownership of PCs and Internet connection Data from the 1911 Census for the island of Ireland was made publicly available in 1961,[43] and are being published online [44] Subsequent census records will be made publicly available 100 years after collection [43] Questions relating to the ability to speak the Irish Language are included in the census The figures obtained have been criticised as inflated by cognitive biases, such as response bias or wishful thinking The 2006 census included an additional question on frequency of speaking Irish In June 2010, the 1901 census of Ireland became available on the internet [45] Census 101 Israel The first census in the state of Israel was held in November 1948, six months after its creation, to establish the population registry [46] Subsequent censuses were conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS) in 1961, 1972, 1983 and 1995 [46] In these, 20% of households completed a detailed survey and the remainder a shorter questionnaire [46] There is no legal requirement to hold a census within a given interval; in practice, the ICBS requests and the government decides [46] The next Census to be held was postponed from 2006 to late 2008 early 2009 [46] Only the detailed survey of 20% will be carried out, as a cost-saving measure [46] Italy The census in Italy is carried out by ISTAT every 10 years The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 Japan Japan collects census information every five years The exercise is conducted by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications October 1, 2010 is Population Census Day [47] The census-form solicits information on name, gender, relationship to head of household, year and month of birth, marital status, nationality, number of members of household, type and nature of dwelling, floor area of dwelling, number of hours worked during the week prior to October 1, employment status, name of employer and type of business, and kind of work Regardless of nationality, all residents in Japan are required to complete the census form Census form is only written in Japanese, but translation is available upon request in 27 different languages [48] Online census is only available in Japanese All information collected by census is confidential and protected by Statistics Act Information provided by census can never be used for any investigation purposes such as immigration control, police investigation, tax collections and so on [48] After the census, all forms are destroyed and recycled In Tokyo, people can choose to answer the census questions by filling out the paper form, or they can choose to answer census questions online Unique ID and password are provided with the census form Online census form is only available for residents of Tokyo only This because high concentration of people in Tokyo are living in apartment buildings or gated communities, which restricts the access of census workers Jordan The first population census after the independence in 1946 was taken in 1952 It did only count the number of people in the households and could therefore be considered only to be a housing census The first real complete census was taken in 1961 The following censuses have been taken in 1979, 1994 and 2004 The distribution of Palestinians and Jordanians within the population has been a politically sensitive issue since the Six-Day war in 1967 Kenya Census in Kenya was first held in 1948, when Kenya was still a Colony administrated by the British Since 1969 census has been taken every ten years The last census to date was in 2009 Kenya is the first African country to produce a completely processed census within one year after census [49] Census 102 Kosovo Kosovo, administrated by the UN since 1999, declared independence in 2008 Kosovo government is planning a general population census for 2011 [50] The first census was conducted in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1921 Latvia The most recent census in Latvia was in 2000 Before that, it was about 6 censuses, most part of these previous censuses was undertaken during Soviet (USSR) control The census in Latvia is carried out by Centrala Statistikas Parvalde (Central Statistical Bureau) Lebanon No census has been conducted in Lebanon since 1932 [51] It indicated a population of 861,399 Lebanese [52] Various estimates of the population have been taken since; in 1956 it was estimated a population of 1,411,416, with 54% Christian and 44% Muslim Conducting a census since then has been complicated by various conflicts in the 1970s and 1980s [53] Malaysia The census in Malaysia is carried out every 10 years, like many nations, since 1960 (with the exception of the fourth

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families This permanent migration was relatively small however and was one of the reasons why the Crusaders eventually lost the their hold on the Holy Lands Massive migrations of Germans took place into East Central and Eastern Europe, reaching its peak in the 12th to 14th centuries These Ostsiedlung settlements in part followed territorial gains of the Holy Roman Empire, but areas beyond were settled, too At the end of the Middle Ages, the Roma arrived in Europe (to Iberia and the Balkans) from the Middle East, originating from the Indus river AD 2nd to 5th century migrations See also map of the world in AD 820 Historical migration Internal European migration stepped up in the Early Modern Period In this period, major migration within Europe included the recruiting by monarchs of landless laborers to settle depopulated or uncultivated regions and a series of forced migration caused by religious persecution Notable examples of this phenomenon include the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, mass migration of Protestants from the Spanish Netherlands to the Dutch Republic after the 1580s, the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain in 1609, and the expulsion of the Huguenots from France in the 1680s Since the 14th century, the Serbs started leaving the areas of their medieval Kingdom and Empire that was overrun by the Ottoman Turks and migrated to the north, to the lands of today's Vojvodina (northern Serbia), which was ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary at that time The Habsburg monarchs of Austria encouraged them to settle on their frontier with the Turks and provide military service by granting them free land and religious toleration The two greatest migrations took place in 1690 and 1737 Other instances of labour recruitments include the Plantations of Ireland - the settling of Ireland with Protestant colonists from England, Scotland and Wales in the period 1560-1690 and the recruitment of Germans by Catherine the Great of Russia to settle the Volga region in the 18th century European Colonialism from the 16th to the early 20th centuries led to an imposition of a European colonies in many regions of the world, particularly in the Americas, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia, where European languages remain either prevalent or in frequent use as administrative languages Major human migration before the 18th century was largely state directed For instance, Spanish emigration to the New World was limited to settlers from Castile who were intended to act as soldiers or administrators Mass immigration was not encouraged due to a labour shortage in Europe (of which Spain was the worst affected by a depopulation of its core territories in the 17th century) Europeans also tended to die of tropical diseases in the New World in this period and for this reason England, France and Spain preferred using slaves as free labor in their American possessions Many historians attribute a change in this pattern in the 18th century to population increases in Europe However, in the less tropical regions of North America's east coast, large numbers of religious dissidents, mostly English Puritans, settled during the early 17th century Spanish restrictions on emigration to Latin America were revoked and the English colonies in North America also saw a major influx of settlers attracted by cheap or free land, economic opportunity and the continued lure of religious toleration A period in which various early English colonies had a significant amount of self-rule prevailed from the time of the Plymouth colony's founding in 1620 through 1676, as the mother country was wracked by revolution and general instability However, King William III decisively intervened in colonial affairs after 1688 and the English colonies gradually came more directly under royal governance, with a marked effect on the type of emigration During the early 18th century, significant numbers of non-English seekers of greater religious and political freedom were allowed to settle within the British colonies, including Protestant Palatine Germans displaced by French conquest, French Huguenots disenfranchised by an end of religious tolerance, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, Quakers who were often Welsh, as well as Presbyterian and Catholic Scottish Highlanders seeking a new start after a series of unsuccessful revolts The English colonists who came during this period were increasingly moved by economic necessity Some colonies, including Georgia, were settled heavily by petty criminals and indentured servants who hoped to pay off their debts By 1800, European emigration had transformed the demographic character of the American continent This was also due in part to the devastating effect of European diseases and warfare on Native American populations The European settlers' influence elsewhere was less pronounced as in South Asia and Africa, European settlement in this period was limited to thin layer of administrators, traders and soldiers Historical migration 339 Modern migration While the pace of migration had accelerated since the 18th century already (including the involuntary slave trade), it would increase further in the 19th century Manning distinguishes three major types of migration: labour migration, refugee migrations and lastly: urbanization Millions of agricultural workers left the countryside and moved to the cities causing unprecedented levels of urbanization This phenomenon began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread around the world and continues to this day in many areas Industrialization encouraged migration wherever it appeared The increasingly global economy globalised the labour market Atlantic slave trade diminished sharply after 1820, which gave rise to self-bound contract labour migration from Europe and Asia to plantations Also overpopulation, open agricultural frontiers and rising industrial centres attracted voluntary, encouraged and sometimes coerced migration Moreover, migration was significantly eased by improved transportation techniques During this same period similar large numbers of people migrated over large distances within Asia Southeastern Asia received 50 million migrants, mainly from India and south China North Asia, that be Manchuria, Siberia, Central Asia and Japan together, received another 50 million, in a migration that started in the 1890s with migrants from China, Russia and Korea, and was especially large due to coerced migration from the Soviet Union and Japan in the 1930s Less is known about exact numbers of the migrations from and within Africa in this period, but Africa experienced a small nett immigration between 1850 and 1950, from a variety of origins Provisions of the Potsdam Agreement from 1945 signed by victorious Western Allies and the Soviet Union led to one of the largest European migrations, and definitely the largest in the 20th century It involved the migration and resettlement of close to or over 20 million people The largest affected group were 16 5 million Germans expelled from Eastern Europe westwards The second largest group were Poles, expelled westwards from eastern Kresy region and resettled in the so-called Recovered Territories (see Oder-Neisse line) Hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians and some Belarusians, were in the meantime expelled eastwards from Europe to the Soviet Union Finally, many of the several hundred thousand Jews remaining in the Eastern Europe after the Holocaust migrated outside Europe to Israel and the USA Currently in progress are a large migration to the North America from Latin America, and a slightly smaller migration from the Islamic World into Europe References [1] sciencenews org articles 20031018 bob8 asp [2] "Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project" (https: genographic nationalgeographic com genographic atlas html?era=e003) National Geographic Society 1996-2008 Retrieved 2009-10-06 [3] Fitzhugh, Drs William; Goddard, Ives; Ousley, Steve; Owsley, Doug; Stanford , Dennis "Paleoamerican" ( si edu Encyclopedia_SI nmnh origin htm) Smithsonian Institution Anthropology Outreach Office Retrieved 2009-01-15 [4] "The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health" ( physorg com news169474130 html) Scientific American Retrieved 2009-11-17 [5] "Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America" ( archaeology about com gi o htm?zi=1 XJ& zTi=1& sdn=archaeology& cdn=education& tm=25& f=00& tt=13& bt=1& bts=1& zu= jstor org stable 279189) American Antiquity, Vol 44, No 1 (Jan , 1979), p2 Retrieved 2009-11-17 [6] "68 Responses to “Sea will rise „to levels of last Ice Age‟”" ( realclimate org index php archives 2009 01 sea-will-rise-to-levels-of-lastice-age ) Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University Retrieved 2009-11-17 [7] "Introduction" ( pc gc ca eng docs r pfa-fap sec1 aspx) Government of Canada Parks Canada 2009 Retrieved 2010-01-09 "Canada's oldest known

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