Page 1

diploma project Koel - Karo Sponsor : Self Sponsored

Volume : 1 student : MOHIT MADHUKAR programme : Graduate Diploma Programme

guide : SEKHAR MUKHERJEE

2013 COMMUNICATION DESIGN FACULTY (ANIMATION FILM DESIGN)

National Institute of Design Ahmedabad 1


2


The Evaluation Jury recommends MOHIT MADHUKAR for the

Diploma of the National Institute of Design IN COMMUNICATION DESIGN (ANIMATION FILM DESIGN)

herewith, for the project titled “KOEL - KARO” on fulfilling the further requirements by

*

Chairman Members :

*Subsequent remarks regarding fulfilling the requirements :

Registrar(Academics)

3


4


5


Incessant (an uninterrupted) grabbing of productive land for more industries is a recipe for disaster.

- Tehelka Magazine

6

.


Dedicated to the victims of Police Firing on 2nd February 2001, at Tapkara, Jharkhand.

7


“To what extent can we let go off someone’s interest to fulfill someone else’s interest.”

8


Preface National Institute of Design Introduction Story

Inspiration for the film................................19

Theme & log line ...................................... 22 Development of the story...................... 24 Problems faced........................................ 28 Target audience........................................ 29

Research

Land and its necessities........................ 31 Land acquisition..................................... 32 Implication of land acquisition............ 34 Naxalism.................................................... 43 Jharkhand and its people......................45 Koel-Karo Movement............................. 47 Topography............................................... 56 Stories........................................................ 64 The title...................................................... 72 Production Scriptwriting............................................. 75 Storyboard.................................................88 Final Storyboard...................................... 92 Animatics.................................................122 Character Design...................................126 Graphic novel approach........................158 Treatment for the film .......................... 160 Sound Design..........................................164 Post production .....................................166 Obstacles Conclusion

References 9


10


preface

A film whether it be a live action, documentary or animation, goes through many phases of advancement and change. Though the film, if tackled well, itself is enough to speak what it really wants to but the process that it undergoes, many a times is not justified truly. This document, containing my research work regarding Land Acquisition and experience in making an animation short film dealing with the same, is an outcome of the thought of preserving the methods and process that went through in making a film. Before explaining about my work and sharing my experience in making this film, I would like to suggest the readers that this document is based on an animation film that deals with the sensitive issue of “Koel-Karo Movement, Bihar” and “land acquisition”. In a struggle against the government or any other higher authority, the incidents that take place in an individual’s life can only be explained by him or her. No matter how deep the research is and how sensitively the issue is dealt, there are certain aspects that cannot be justified as truly as it may sound to be. Thus this document

and the film in any form or way has not been made to mistreat the sensitivity of the issue or hurt the sentiments of the people involved. The film is inspired and is not based on Koel - Karo movement that took place in Bihar in 1955. According to the data available, two dams were proposed to be built on the Koel and Karo rivers. Initially the people residing in the nearby areas were not informed. Around one lakh fifty thousand people would have been displaced from their own land. Assimilating this fact, the locals then stood up against the corporation and fought for their land, thus leading to fifty five years of long struggle of the indigenous people, finally resulting in the abandonment of the project. This short animation film has not been made with a motive to show what all happened in the movement and what all struggle it went through but rather as a metaphoric form in order to communicate the general issue of Land Acquisition in India and world around.

11


12


national institute of design The establishment of NID was a result of several forces, both global and local. The late 1950s saw a confluence of these forces, and this time a significant one for Indian culture and education. This was a time of reappraisal and reconstruction in a newly independent India. A young nation was confronted with the mammoth task of nation building, of balancing age-old traditions with modern technology and ideas. The Modern Movement, the philosophy of Machine Aesthetics, and revolutionary experimentation in the arts, architecture and design were all taking place at the same time. There was a search for the Indian identity across all aspects of life.

NID, 1961.

In 1955 Pupul Jayaker, the noted writer on Indian craft traditions and the founder of the Indian Handlooms and Handicrafts Export Council (HHEC) met the renowned American designer Charles Eames at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The Museum had organised a unique exhibition titled The Textiles and Ornamental Arts of India. This would be the beginning of a lifelong dialogue between these two eminent individuals. At the same time the Government

of India was considering establishing an institute of design, under the advice of Pupul Jayaker and other like-minded people. The 1950s were a decade of rapid industrialization in India and clearly, the need for such an institute grew stronger. In 1957 the Government of India requested the Ford Foundation to invite Charles and Ray Eames to visit India. Charles and Ray Eames traveled to all parts of the country, meeting and talking to writers, craftspeople, architects, scientists, industrialists, educators and philosophers. They took hundreds of photographs of their travels. On April 7, 1958, the Eameses presented the India Report to the Government of India. The Eames Report defined the underlying spirit that would lead to the founding of NID and beginning of design education in India. Based on the recommendations made in the India Report, the Government of India with the assistance of the Ford Foundation and the Sarabhai family established the National Institute of Industrial Design, as it was originally called as an autonomous all-India body in September 1961 13


at Ahmedabad. Gautam Sarabhai and his sister Gira played a major role in the establishment and early years of NID. Gautam Sarabhai revived the philosophy of the Bauhaus design movement which was learning by doing. This unique curriculum and revolutionary educational philosophy remain part of NID to the present day. Today the National Institute of Design is internationally acclaimed as one of the finest educational and research institutions for Industrial, Communication, Textile and IT Integrated (Experiential) Design. It is an autonomous institution under the aegis of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India and is recognised by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India as a Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. The National Institute of Design (NID) is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. The Business Week, USA has listed NID as one of the top 25 European & Asian programmes in the world. NID 14

has been a pioneer in industrial design education after Bauhaus and Ulm in Germany and is known for its pursuit of design excellence to make Designed in India, Made for the World a reality. NID’s graduates have made a mark in key sectors of commerce, industry and social development by taking role of catalysts and through leadership.

From left-Charles Eames, Indira Gandhi & Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru


15


“You will never be able to understand how it feels to become landless. Unless you have become one.� - A landless farmer

16


INTRODUCTION

Land is life. It’s an identity and basis of livelihoods for peasants and indigenous people across the Third World. It is the ground of culture. It has become one of the most vital assets in the global economy and as the demands of globalization is increasing, it is emerging as a key source of conflict. Ever since economists began telling us that land is an economic asset, which unfortunately, is in the hands of the oppressed, there has been a scramble by industry, driven by the real estate, to procure as much as possible.

peopel working in fields

Thus due to urbanization, rapid economic development, increasing infrastructure requirements etc., especially in a fast growing economy like India, this issue, precisely known as LAND ACQUISITION, has increased. This film inspired from real incident of ‘KOEL-KARO HYDEL PLANT, BIHAR’ deals with the issue of land acquisition and the struggle of the indigenous people to protect their land.

17


18


INSPIRATION FOR THE FILM.

For the fact of me being a single child, my parents were always worried about me, and this incident along with subsequent health issues helped nothing but fueled up their already worried thoughts. Comprehending this situation and considering the unentertained thoughts of an early retirement, my parents decided that they would shift to Ahmedabad, Gujarat; so that we all could stay together and that my recently developed attitude of frequently falling ill and similar other issues would not affect my studies. Taking a pragmatical approach, that the reward could be used as an

my house in ranchi

I was born and brought up in Ranchi, Jharkhand; and a major part of my life of more than fifteen years, which includes my entire childhood and schooling; I never left my birthplace, or for that matter, my house, for a long duration of time. It was only recently that I came here in NID and got detached form it. Every thing was going well and apart from few minor health issues; I don’t recall anything that holds much of a concern, only until few years back that I met with an accident and injured my knee. Unfortunately, the reports came out to be a serious ligament injury.

19


augmentation to help us sustain in a new city, my father thought to rent out or sell away the house. Deplored by this thought, I then realized that it were not my silly bicycle rides or the gully cricket or the secret addas that made me cherish my childhood, but was something else. Something that subliminally made me what I today stand as. It was my house. It was my home. It was the place where I was born.

The very first day of our shifting, my father planted a small pine plant in the barren land outside our house, which over these years grew into a huge tree. The growth was inevitable, but what was more splendid was the view of that land, which once upon a time had not even been echoed by the quotidian chirps, now stands as a vast abode for many verities of birds. I would rather credit my mother’s faith and tenacity in 20

tulsi plant in my courtyard

Fifteen years are substantially a huge span of time. I still remember the day I shifted to my newly built house and over all these years, I would not be surprised to say, that, I remained a bystander to see a house turn into a home.

worshiping that sacred tulsi plant and religiously watering it every morning, over the gardener’s skills, that today, it stands as an identity for our house and a reason for the natural aroma in our courtyard. Irrespective of the sheer silence that pertained in the house due to my poor exam results, or the awkwardness that erupted because I was caught with some escapade, it was the common hall that brought all three of us together to have dinner. A sense of authority that developed in me when my father, while watching the house being whitewashed, said- “I have done this time… from now onwards it is your duty to maintain this house…” made me assimilate that the house was more than few orderly arranged bricks. It was home. It was a place where I was brought up. It was my childhood. It was a major chunk of my life. It was my identity; and now due to some unavoidable circumstances, was on the verge of being taken away from me. I guess words, or as a matter of fact, any media, are not substantial enough to explain how it feels when your identity is snatched away from you. Thus the very first concept of the film was


Sometimes I feel that my father is more enthusiastic about the Design Stream than I am. When I told him that I was making an animation film, it seemed that he was much more interested in this project than I was. Still in the quest for the missing link, my father one fine day shared his childhood experiences. Evolving from an agrarian family, he told me how his grandfather used to grow fruits, vegetables, and crops in his farmland and how he used to sell these crops in the market and preserved a part of it for the family and what were the reasons that led us terminate into some other occupation and leave the tradition of farming. Still being financially sustainable, the thought,

of my land and my house being sold away, shattered me to a very great extent, thus leading me to question that was I the only one who was going through all this dilemma? Was I the only kid whose house was being taken away from him? Were we the only family, who due to unavoidable circumstances, were affected by this? Trying to answer these questions to my self, I slipped into one of my friend’s hostel room, just to find that he and few of my batchmates were watching the film Swades-we the people. Though I already had seen it before, this film directed by Ashutosh Gowarikar somehow showed me the missing thing and the untouched link in my story and reminded me the quotes of poet Rumi; “What you seek is seeking you.� I was not alone, there were a lot of people who were forcefully being deprived of their land mostly which comprised of adivasis (indigenous people). This issue, precisely known as LAND ACQUISITION and Swades inspired me to take this project ahead.

movie poster Swades - we the people.

developed from a personal experience where my house was to be rented or sold. Taking this concept ahead, where a kid is trying to protect his house from getting sold, I discussed the same with my parents, friends and batch mates, which made me realize that something was still missing. Something that was worthy enough but yet not explored and thought of.

21


THEME

LAND ACQUISITION In return of money many farmers in India are forced to sell their land and farm to the builders, real estate businessmen and government for industrial and urban development, ultimately throwing them into the miseries of poverty, crime, and death.

22


LOG LINE

A film about how a small kid trying not to get lured by the offerings of a huge robot that has come to grab his land and how along with his pet mouse and few spirits, fights with it and protects his land.

23


DEVELOPMENT OF THE STORY STORY 01: BARONS OF THE SOIL

The very first story that I developed was of a kid and his father who were fighting against a huge robot (metaphorically representing MNC’s) that was coming to destroy their house. The father was a retired army officer and was inventing some new kind of weapon, capable to destroy or fight against that huge robot. However discussing it with my guide and batch mates, I realized that though it was precise, to the point and communicating well, it was lacking something. Even after showing a village and the father & kid as its natives, it was lacking in that Indianess of its kind. It seemed as if it was more inspired from the western cinema 24

(typically transformers) rather than the local scenario. So I redesigned the structure where the

still from the animatic

“There is nothing called as ‘the best’, because there is always a possibility for a better one, so whatever you do, just consider it to be good enough.” I still cant say that the film is perfect or is completely justifying what it actually should, but the development it went through and the process it had gone under, definitely adds to my learning in the expertise of film making. The process has helped me understand and apprehend the art of, what to tell, what not to tell, how to tell and most importantly when to tell something in a narrative.

characters and the situation were the same but the incidents were different.


STORY 02 : THE LAST EARTHWORM. The story now dealt with the intricacies and the aftermath of the issue, where I tried to light upon the problems that followed with land acquisition. Summarizing the story and the summary itself, it came out as-

story boarding, character design, animatic, animation, treatment and rendering, sound design etc. has to be done and covered up only by an individual and considering the time limitation

and the length of this film, it seemed as a very overly lengthy task. So this story was not taken ahead and ceased till the point it had reached.

Followed with another set of discussions and getting overlaid with numerous feedbacks, I contemplated that the story that was earlier direct, precise and to the point, was now wandering in some different dimension. Compared to the last story, in this film, though with the help of brainstorming and research, a lot of untouched issues were now being light upon, it was now getting way too lengthy. Also, that in a student film, the necessary requirements like the script,

still from the animatic

“A film about a farmer’s dilemma of losing his land, the mirage of industrialization shown to his kid in school, the vagaries of the real estate businessman and Government, prior and later to the acquisition, and the ultimate destination of a landless farmer, with an approach to light upon the foggy notion that only industrialization itself is the pathway for a better future.�

25


Story 03 : Koel aur Karo In the quest of a reasonable story that was not highly inspired by the west but from local incidences and was under an individual’s control, I started reading about the ongoing protests and struggles going on for a long time, in context to land acquisitions in India. I got familiar with many of them but to me only one was highly inspiring. “The Koel-Karo Movement, Bihar”. Unlike the Sardar Sarovar Project on Narmada and similar other movements, this was not such popularized. This does not mean that the struggle that went in it was not worthwhile. Surveying a bit, in terms of people’s awareness about this incident, I concluded, that started in the eastern part of India, this incident was unintentionally neglected by the rest of the world. And the most important thing about Koel-Karo was that the reward of the movement was in the favor of the people who were struggling for it. In the war between the Government and the adivasis the achievement was of the adivasis. So taking this incident as the reason and the motive of making people aware about this 26

movement, I made a new story. Still touching up the intricacies and aftermath of land acquisition and dealing with the future implications of the same, the newly built story was almost about the same length as the last one and was getting out of my control. Also there were a lot of things and incidents happening in the film. Including the justification of Koel-Karo movement itself, there were two stories of different era running parallel. Since the first concept, the film was now attaining reasonability but was getting too much in terms of content, incident and duration and hence was questionable whether the audience would be able to grasp what the film is all about or would the film be justifying the movement or not. With eight minutes of runtime, this story did not have that uneven graph in terms of unexpectedness that could hold the audience to sit and apprehend the film. Thus this was the main reason that I skipped this narrative; and redesign the story.

still from the animatic


Story 04 : Koel-Karo. As mentioned earlier, there is scope of improvement in terms of its narrative, treatment and animation, I decided to freeze the concept and take off with pre-production and hence the completion of the film. This story, unlikely the rest of the earlier stories is compact, to the point, communicable, justifiable for the movement and appropriate for accomplishment in the given duration of time.

still from the animatic

Dealing straight away with the movement and metaphoriznig the characters such that there are only as many as required for a short film, the story now revolved around a small kid and few mice who fought against the same huge robot and try to protect their land from acquisition. Also that a small animation that runs along the end credits of the film, lights upon the implications of land acquisition in general.

27


Problems faced while making the story

Unfortunately I came across this book way too late when I was making the last story. And its true. All the rest of the stories were neither revolving around a great setup, nor was getting to the point. And yes there were a lot of characters sufficient enough to either confuse the audience or lower their interest in the film. So trying to stick myself to these lines, I tried to make a story, which this document is all about.

28

brain-storming chart

“A good short film is like a good joke. It has a great setup, gets to the point, and pays off right away. And it doesn’t demand too much in terms of where the story has to go. It gets to the idea right away. You get it. Even if it takes you somewhere different from what you expected, it gets their right way, too. It’s just very simple. And it’s about one idea. It can have multiple characters, but it has to be very clear, because in 3 or 5 minutes you don’t have time to really develop all these side stories and other plot lines.” - Andrew Jimenez and Mark Andrews, director of ‘One man band’, Pixar Animation Studios.


Target audience

This film, Koel-Karo, is tried to be made with the genuine idea that animation is a medium and not any genre after all. So it’s open to all kind of viewers, whether it is kids or adults. Though the film could have been made in other forms of film making as well, like Documentary films, or Live Action Films etc, and it shouldn’t be strange to say that any medium could have justified the story if it was dealt properly, I chose this medium to implement my learning’s of animation.

poster- Arjun0 the warrior prince

While this film was under its making, an animated feature film ‘Arjun; the warrior prince’ produced by UTV Motion Pictures and Walt Disney Pictures and directed by Arnab Choudhuri was released. Going through one of his articles, I came across his idea about animation, which I think today in the Indian animation industry is highly taken for granted. He believes that animation is not a genre; it’s a medium… and its completely true and people in India perceive animation film for a particular group of people; to be more precise, cinema for kids. The saddest part of all, it seems, is that most of the mainstream animation films in India are made with this motive.

29


30


Land and its necessities.

Land is life and is the basis of livelihoods for peasants and indigenous people across the world. For most people in the world, it is Terra Madre, Mother Earth, Bhoomi, Dharti Ma, etc. It is people’s identity and the ground of culture and economy. The land directly supports 75 per cent of the people in the Third World. It is the biggest employer on the planet, and unfortunately recently it has also become one of the most vital assets in the global economy. As the resource demands of globalization increase, land has emerged as a key source of conflict. Driven by limitless consumerism, global economy wants the land for mining and for industry hence leading to a massive land grab in India, Africa and Latin America. Under the name of development, the forceful grabbing of the land, also known as land acquisition, is one of the many main reasons for farmer’s suicide in India and around the world.

31


Land Acquisition.

Land Acquisition literally means acquiring of land for some public purpose by government or its agencies, from an individual after paying a fixed compensation in lieu of losses occurred to them. Unfortunately several controversies have arisen with claims that landowners have not been adequately compensated. Increased economic growth has only increased the many alternative uses of land, such as for industries, infrastructure, roads, railways and other economic activities and hence increased the rate at which land is being acquired. The tribal communities who used to live in an ecologically sustainable fashion, by bringing in ‘development’, we end up disturbing the way of their lives and the ecological balance of the region. Since they now do not own any land they find no other option than to migrate to cities in search of jobs so that they can sustain themselves and their family hence resulting in overcrowding of the cities. Also resulting in many intricate issues like that of child labour, prostitution, etc. Giving birth to many sorts of crime, the people who 32


a busy street of Mumbai

were earlier efficient in farming are now forced to take up odd occupation like that of a rickshaw puller, or maid servants or labours. Many who are not able to adjust in the cities commit suicide. Also some times the landowners are paid a good ransom amount of money, so by getting lured with this fact, the farmers now a days are ready to sell away their land and based on numerous surveys it has been found that, unlike their fathers and grandfathers, the kids of these farmers are no more interested in this occupation of farming and hence number of people involved in farming has rapidly decreased over these recent years. This recent trend amongst the young farmers has raised a question of nation’s food security. Sometimes in lieu of the land the farmers are either provided with money or a space, especially in the cities, or both. Finding it difficult to adjust with the new odd job, the displaced people keep that place on rent and themselves live in slums. Thus land acquisition, in many ways, is disturbing the ecological balance of the region.

33


IMPLICATIONS OF LAND ACQUISITION. rickshaw pullers

People, who had farms and were efficient in farming, are forced to leave their land and their basis of livelihood. Unable to cope up with some other odd occupation, they are left with very little work options, henceforth ending up as a rickshawpuller.

34

a rickshaw puller from olkata

Ever wondered why someone would want to be in an occupation where he has to exert physically carry people to their destinations? Why unlike us, they don’t buy a bicycle or a scooter but a rickshaw? Why even in the metropolitan cities they prefer to carry people, whether it be a harsh summer, a rainy day or a chilling winter? Where do they go? Where do they park their Three Wheeler when they are done with the day’s work? Where do they come from? And how come number of these rickshaw pullers, almost all within a certain age group, keeps on increasing in the city day by day?


PROSTITUTION Prostitution is the business or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for payment. The person who receives payment for sexual services is called a prostitute or sex worker and the person who receives such services is known by a multitude of terms.

Though apart from few cities like Kolakta, Mumbai etc., there are no brothels as such, it still pertains in almost every part of this country. Though there are many other reasons that force someone to be a practitioner of this occupation, land acquisition being one amongst them compel these people to live in highly unhygienic and pathetic conditions.

a prostitute from kolkata

Land acquisition is one of the many main reasons responsible for the growth of this issue. Though over these years, due to increase in the literacy rate, people have become more aware about its cons.

35


CHILD LABOUR Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. When the farmers’ family is forced to leave their land and migrate to the cities, children are the most vulnerable to get affected by this. Facing many issues to sustain themselves and their family in the city, the parents are not able to send their children to schools. Thus the children either end up getting involved in small-scale crimes that later on takes up an ugly face, or keep themselves limited to working in a restaurant as dish-cleaner, or rag-picker, or begging along the road sides.

36


I want to go to school like others, but my mother says that I do not have that NASEEB (destiny). When I asked what is naseeb, she started crying. I think I can borrow naseeb from the school going children. I will return it back to them in the school. Wish me luck so that I could get some for a while. -a child labour.

37


graph showing death rates in farming since 1995

suicides

38


nation’s food security

So if a country is heavily involved in land acquisition or is not keeping a check on the same, land being a limited asset, will keep on decreasing in terms of area. Thus leading to decrease in the annual production of food crops, hence affecting the food security of the country.

people involved in black marketing of food grains

Food security is the measure of the ability to ensure access to essential nutrition. It refers to a household’s or country’s ability to provide future physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that fulfills the dietary needs and food preferences for living an active and healthy lifestyle. It is a measure of the resilience to future disruption or the unavailability of critical food supply due to various risk factors including droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, wars, etc.

39


Hunger is the greatest evil in this world. There is no competition greater than the competition to acquire food. If the food gets less in quantity, people will go to unbearable extents to fill their stomachs.

40


risks of food security in the world

41


THE RED CORRIDOR. 42


NAXALISM Naxal, Naxalite or Naksalvadi are generic terms used to refer to various militant Communist groups operating in different parts of India under different organizational envelopes. In the eastern states of the mainland India (Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa), they are usually known as, or refer to themselves as Maoists while in southern states like Andhra Pradesh they are known under other titles. They have been declared as a terrorist organization under the Unlawful Activities. Land acquisition is one of the most important reason for the rise and growth of naxalism in India.

43


44


Jharkhand and its people. With Ranchi as its capital, Jharkhand is a state in eastern India, which was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Spreading in an area of 79,710 km2, Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The name that it got“Jharkhand” means “The Land of Forests”. During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. According to some writers like Gautam Kumar Bera there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands and fields. Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, of which 28% are tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. Most members of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand speak Mundari language and follow the animistic (the attribution

of a soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena) Sarna religion. Sarna is the Mundari word for ‘Sacred Grove’ and involves belief in a great spirit called the Sing Bonga (the chief god, as well as the creator-god and sun god, of the Mundas). Rituals are performed under the groves of Sal trees where Bonga is believed to appear or express himself. Similarly thy worship Sasandri (sacred ancestral burial). These sacred places, saran and sasandri are directly bound to the land and can therefore not be transferred to another place. In addition, the Mundas believe that the souls of their dead ancestors remain in the houses of their families. For more than a century, Jharkhand’s vast mineral wealth has attracted mining interests and infrastructure projects like rails and roadways. Prior to independence the focus was only on iron ore, copper, coal mining. Post- independence, a host of ‘development projects’ – dams, mines, thermal power and steel plants – found their base here. Among them are Lalpania dam, Chandil dam, coal mines of CCL, BCCL and ECL, UCIL, Bokaro’s thermal and steel plants, Ranchi’s 45


Coal mining in Bokaro

heavy engineering corporation and a host of other mines and industries. The government of Jharkhand State as of date has signed over 70 MOUs with multinational corporations. Some of the biggest projects are those of Mittal and Jindal. The Mittal Company, in conjunction with the European conglomerate Arcelor, envisions setting up a steel plant of 12 million tonne annual capacity and time has shown that whenever big projects like these come into an area, innumerable ancillary enterprises spring up. All of them stake a further claim on the land and resources at the tremendous cost of destruction of the landscape and disorganization in the people’s livelihoods and culture.

46


Koel - Karo Movement *

The Koel Karo basin is in Jharkhand and nestled between the Kaimoor hills, the Raj Mahal hills and the Vindhayachal Mountains. The area of the proposed Koel Karo project is located in the state of Jharkhand, about 80km southwest of the capital Ranchi.

Due to information provided by the Koel Karo Jan Sangathan (committee formed by the locals of Koel and Karo area to fight against the cause), 256 villages with a total population of 150,000 (primarily belonging to the Adivasi communities of the Mundas and Oraons) would have been affected by the project (very obviously, displaced). This would have entailed the total submersion, and therefore destruction, of 135 to140 villages. In total, 66 acres of land, which is either *as per the data provided by google.

Koel river, Jharkhand

In 1955, when Jharkhand was still part of Bihar, the Bihar State Electricity Board conceptualized the Koel Karo hydroelectric project. By 1972-73, the project report had been prepared, and land acquisition began. The intention was to generate 710 megawatts of electricity.

47


“I dont know who the government is for? Rather why the government is for? We were living peacefully in our village. The government officials came and removed us under the law of Land Acquisition. We didnt have a place to live so came to the city. We are living in this pathetic condition in slum, as u can see. The same government now comes and demolish this slum under the law of Land Encroachment. Where Should we go?

48


Since its inception, the local population was kept uninformed and even when construction of access routes to the Karo area began, the affected people were not informed. Moreover, none of the jobs created via the project were allocated to local people; instead, labourers from outside the region were employed. In 1973, the first blueprint for the Koel Karo project was published and only as late as 1974-75, when the project office in Torpa started purchasing land, did the people become aware that a dam was about to be constructed on their land and that extensive parts of the local area were on the point of being submerged.

Sasandri- the ancestoral burrial

cultivated or forested in a ratio of approx. 1:1, would have been permanently flooded. Furthermore, according to the Koel Karo Jan Sangathan, the deluge would have affected 152 Sarnas and 300 Sasandhris. Although an environmental assessment of a development scheme of this size is mandatory, either the Bihar State Electricity Board or the National Hydroelectric Power Cooperation did not conduct it, either during the planning stage or during the project’s implementation.

49


As a result, the people began to organise themselves and created the “Jan Sangarsh Samittee” in the Koel area (District of Gumla) and the “Jan Sanyojan Samitee” in the Karo area (District of Ranchi). In the year 1976, these two resistance groups were combined to form the “Koel Karo Jan Sangathan”. In 1977-78, the organisation initiated the “Kam Roko (stop the work)” campaign as a form of protest against the government’s failure to inform the locals about the forthcoming dam project and as part of the campaign, they constructed a barricade at the village of Derang and managed to halt the unloading of cement and steel by the Bihar State Electricity Board at the train station in Pakra. On January 5th 1979, following negotiations with the government, it was agreed to unload the materials at the station and in return, the government was required to delay construction until a mutually acceptable solution to the issue had been found. In 1980, the project was assigned to the National Hydroelectric Power Cooperation (NHPC). In 1984, the government of Bihar announced that it would continue with the implementation of the 50


Mean time, V. P. Lakra from the XISS (Xaviers Institute for Social Sciences) in Ranchi obtained an injunction at court that the government was not allowed to apply force in order to appropriate land until a mutual agreement had been reached between the two parties. In this way, the resistance of the population was successful and the military was forced to retreat. In 1985, the government announced that it would adopt a proposal by the Koel Karo Jan Sangathan to rebuild two villages - the village of Kocha from Koel area and the village of Tetra from Karo areas example villages. The local population then had to decide if they considered the compensation

efforts to be to their satisfaction. However, the construction work on these two villages never commenced as proposed. In 1995, the government of Bihar announced that the then Prime Minister of India, Narsimma Rao, had been invited to lay the foundation stone of the dam on the 5th of July. Thereupon, thousands of people took part in rallies and demonstrations in protest against this decision and on June 10th, 5,000 protesters gathered in Torpa; on June 26th a further 15,000 demonstrators marched in Tapkara. The protest culminated in the declaration of the “Janta curfew”. Three further barricades were constructed at the dam site. After the Prime Minister canceled his attendance in reaction to the strong protests, the then Chief Minister of Bihar, Lallo Prasad Yadav, announced that he would lay the foundation stone instead 5th of July. Once again, the population reacted strongly to this announcement. As a result, more than 25,000 people lay down on the road and thwarted the arrival of Laloo Prasad’s helicopter.

Laloo Prasad Yadav & Narsimha Rao

project with force if needed and subsequently deployed soldiers in the Karo area. Women blockading the access routes and barring the armed forces’ access to firewood, drinking water and sanitary arrangements primarily undertook the ensuing resistance. The rumor was spread that villagers had poisoned the wells; as a result, water for the troops had to be imported from the distant town of Torpa.

51


The events of 1st and 2nd February 2001 were a tragic point in the history of the Koel Karo project. On the first of February, Amrit Guria from the village of Gutuhatu observed 20 to 25 officers from the police stations of Tapkara and Rania cam and uprooted the barricade and loaded it onto a truck.

In response to this incident, a large crowd of 5,000 people gathered in front of the police station in Tapkara and protested against the occurrences of the previous day and demanded the immediate suspension of the policemen who had been involved in the incident. At about 11.00 a.m., members of the KKJS delivered their demands. Following consultation, it was stated that the respective DSP and the MLA were not authorized to suspend the police officers, but that the responsible authority, the rural SP had been 52

Amit Guria

On questioning that why that barricade was uprooted, the policemen attacked with the butt of a rifle and thrashed him (Amrit Guria). He also stated that the police officers subsequently urinated on him and stole away his money (Rs 765).


Tapkara firing

informed and was estimated to arrive in two hours time. According to many witnesses, the MLA and his assistants had just left the police building in order to transact a telephone-call when shortly afterwards shouting from the police office was heard that they had been given an order to fire (“Aadesh mila hai, inko maro” – “We received the order to shoot”). Suddenly, policemen started firing into the crowd. The firing continued for about half an hour and eight people lost their lives: they numbered seven Adivasi and one member of the Muslim community, and over 30 people were injured, mostly seriously. The police statement later claimed that they had been obliged to open fire as an act of self defence against violent demonstrators, but an independent commission INSAF, headed by a retired judge of Delhi High Court came to the conclusion that the shooting into the crowd had been arbitrary and without warning. It was not possible to clarify how the dead police officer was killed or by whom. Nor was it clear who was responsible for setting the police vehicles alight. The incidents of Tapkara caused nationwide disgust and strengthened the resistance of the people in the

53


Koel Karo area. Court-cases regarding the events of 2nd February 2001 are still in process, both against the policemen involved and members of the Koel Karo Jan Sangathan, who, for their part, are accused by the government of aiding and abetting violence.

On July 21st, 2010, the Governor finally completed the closing of the Koel Karo project, giving official sanction to the announcement made about seven years earlier. All offices of the project were closed, and all employees promised rehabilitory employment in other government agencies and offices.

54

Arjun Munda

On August the 29th 2003, the new Chief Minister of Jharkhand, Arjun Munda, announced the abandonment of the Koel Karo Hydel project. In an explanatory statement, the government declared that financial difficulties had spurred this decision. The costs of the project had risen from 20 to 140 billion Rupees since the release of the first project report in 1973.


“India has a surviving adivasi population of almost 100 million. They are the ones who know the secret of sustainable living. If they disappear they will take those secrets away with them. We need to protect the land and the keepers of our past who may really be the guides to our future.� - Arundhati Roy. 55


Topography

After researching about the Movement, I started looking for the topographic references. The Khunti area where the movement started is now a naxalite area. Thus not going deep into the forest, I collected the pictures of the area either from the exteriors of the forest or from internet. Also that the film is not based but inspired from the movement i got a chance to explore a lot in terms of topography. There are lots of mountains in Ranchi. Thus after clicking the photographs and studying it later, I tried to incorporate the topography that can enhance the narrative in its visual form.

56


57


58


59


60


61


62


The Earth is the biggest employer on the planet: 75 per cent of the wealth of the people of the global south is in land.

63


Stories

Barons of the soil. “Bang Bang Bang, swoowsh, spark, thaak, thak, thak….” an army scientist was making something new in his ammunition laboratory, with his small son sitting next to him and watching. There wasn’t any light apart from the sparks coming out of the welding machine. A little later the job was done and was complete. The lights went off. “Don’t worry; nothing is going to happen to you. Don’t worry”, the scientist said to his wife’s grave, dug in the center of the house that was surrounded with electric fence, barbed wires, land mines, missiles, radars, antennas and all sorts of weaponries. He and his son were ready with the arms and ammunitions, when they heard a loud thumping sound far away. The man peeped into his binoculars and was shocked. It fell down from his terrified hands. He picked up the gun and along with his 8 years old son aimed towards the sound. Both of them were terrified to see a very huge CONSTRUCTION machine coming towards them. A machine that looked as if it was made of bulldozers, 64

road rollers, cement mixers, cranes, bricks, sand, pillars and the skeleton of all those poor laborers. The machine was jumping. It danced and danced over the land, barren or non-barren, muddy or dry, and in a little while created a new piece of art, a new building, a new factory, a new industrial plant and what not. The whole earth now was getting covered with a layer of buildings and dams and roads, and the earth now was looking nothing more but a huge shiny metal ball in the galaxy. The man took a deep breath and loaded his gun- “CLING-KLAAK”, the machine stopped dancing, turned around the house where the man and the small kid were making a desperate but waste attempt to save their land. The machine laughed and jumped up high in the air to dance over their land. The man and the kid pressed their triggers; bullets started flying in the air, missiles were launched, sirens honked, radar got activated, laser beams and very ammunition hit the machine. The machine fell on the ground. There was a silence for a while, the machine got up and walked towards them. They doubled their

firing. The machine moved ahead and slipped backwards, moved a little more ahead and slipped a bit backward, when suddenly their ammunition got over. There was a long silence amidst the dust and the smoke. The machine smiled and jumped up high again. The man, left with nothing, took a small knife and leaped towards the machine. The machine had almost chopped the man into pieces, when the child shouted- “PAPA”… The boy fell off the stair case he was sitting on- panting heavily. The dream had drenched him into sweat and tears. Amongst the broken bed, an old chair, a briefcase, and other small packed households, that were ready to be sold, the kid had his science text book clung tightly in his fist. A big drop of tear poured down his cheek when he saw his farmer dad give away his house and land to a big fat real estate businessman. There flickered the image of the old ruptured house and a new shopping mall on the sunglasses of the businessmen. The boy kept on staring at his mother’s grave. And there was nothing else he could have done.


The last earthworm “…Our land is blowing away as the sand blows away in the storm, our mother is in danger, we have to protect our land…” Birsa Munda was shouting on the radio, when a kid slammed open the door and ran towards his father who was watering the only single plant kept on his window. The boy 10 to 13 years old was very happy to see his pet earthworm dance and somersault in the soil of that flowerpot, as his father poured water over it. The man, 45 years old, asked his kid, in not so curious voice, about what he was taught in the school that day. The kid, too interested and occupied in cuddling and playing with his earthworm, said that how enthusiastically the teacher taught them about industrialization and how beautiful it’s future aspects were. But there was no sign of excitement on the face of his father. The kid spoke all about how interesting and heroic deeds the bulldozers and then cranes did, but the man didn’t respond to all this. The kid kept on blabbering until he was interrupted by his father’s loud shout. The man yelled at the kid that the same bulldozers and the cranes were coming to blow up their

house and throw them away as some “badaa baaboo” wanted to do so. The kid was terrified; he was shocked to hear and wondered why his heroes had to do that? They had to leave their house.

the box. There were few stones, various colored powder and spices, few idols of god, bow and arrow and a photograph of Birsa Munda and lot many similar things. The man was very nervous and hurriedly picked up his wife’s photograph that was hanging on The kid without questioning packed his stuffs the wall, placed the boy along with his pet and picked up his pet along with the pot, inside the trunk, and picked up the bow and when in that sheer silence, siren and rattling arrow, and said to his kid that this trunk is of cranes and bulldozers could be heard. their culture, their “Parampara”. The rattling The man got anxious. He ran all around the of the machine was more audible now. The house. He went to the corner of the room, and man without losing a moment dropped the threw away the utensils, that were kept over lid of the box saying to his kid “you will be a platform. The boy started crying to see his safe here, noting will harm you…” and tried father do this. The man started removing few to hide the trunk, and ran out of the house. bricks from that platform until a huge box was The kid was unable to understand what was seen. The boy stopped crying. He was amazed happening. He was locked inside the box. He to see a secret box in his house. The man tried, couldn’t see any thing. All that he could do and tried hard to open it, failed, tried again, was listen to the fight and quarrel of his father and somehow opened the lid of that trunk. outside. He started interpreting the cranes Amidst the dust that came out of the lid the and the bulldozers as the bad guys now. In his kid was curious to see the bright light that interpretation he saw that how the machines came out from within the box. He went there (that represent different companies) fought to see what was there inside it but was left amongst each other to build on the last piece confused. Curiously he asked his father about of land left, and how they would be beating his 65


father. He could listen clearly that his household stuffs were being thrown out, when suddenly someone opened the lid. They were the assistants of the real estate businessman. They were scary looking creatures. The kid shouted and jumped out of the box and ran towards his father. He was numbed to see that the businessman sitting out there was very much like the same monster machine to what he interpreted inside the box. The businessman was playing some board game. When he saw the kid, slyly he smiled at him and lured to play along. He was playing some sort of scrabble that had no letters but two colors black and green. He very casually picked up black cubes and placed over the green ones randomly and as he did so, he laughed like a mad fox. He offered the kid to play and clearly his intentions were not good. He was dreaming to see the kid as a beggar who would fetch him some money, when suddenly, he was interrupted by the assistants who confessed that they were unable to move that huge box, the “Paramparaa” box. While the kid was busy playing with the scrabble, the 66

businessman and other people forced the farmer to sign the legal notice paper and put some money into the farmer’s hand. The businessman then limped towards the kid to take him along with him. The farmer begged on his knees to let go his child. Suddenly the businessman stopped to see what the kid had made out of the scrabble. He said in an unconcerned voice, “Aah… folks, look, the kid has made something,” and laughed out loud saying that “baccha to artist hai”. The farmer was still pleading to the businessman, he threw all the money that he gave him and took the kid by his hand and ran as fast as he could. The kid kept shouting “papa my pet, I left the earthworm there” but the man didn’t stop. He ran till he was no more seen. The businessman and his assistants stood laughing. The businessman picked up his scrabble and every one looked curiously at what the kid had made. They all wondered what it meant. The kid had rearranged the scrabble to make “yin and yang symbol.” They still wondered what it was but carelessly and casually said to each other “lets not stop.

Miles to go.” And they left, kicking the pot on the road. The flowerpot had broken and the earthworm had no soil to dig in. He tried and tried hard to dig on the plastered road but couldn’t until he deliberately fell into a gutter nearby, and no one did ever know what happened to the last earthworm. And yes about the “trunk”. Nobody could move it, its still their. But now it’s showcased as a museum prop, and it’s not free, people have to pay tickets too see that, and it seems that every one is pretty much fine with that.


Koel aur Karo Year 2061- “Earth short on non-renewable resources. Today onwards there would be a power cut for more than five hrs...” These headlines were being telecast on the news channel, when Sunny came running from inside the room and snatched away the remote control from his father’s hand. It was time for his favorite T.V cartoon show. But suddenly the electricity went off, and everything came to a still. “Why does this happen every time I come to watch a show…?” Sunny shouted almost instantly with the power cut. He was upset because he missed his cartoon. He took the football and went down. He and his father had recently shifted to this new apartment. He threw the ball in anger that went to hit one of the flowerpots lying far away in the courtyard. The flowerpot broke into pieces and the soil spread on the tiled floor. Suddenly a man in his 60’s, who was watering those pots, came running towards it. He was murmuring something under his breath. He was angry. He had tears in his eyes. He was the caretaker of that apartment.

He shouted at the kid for breaking the pot. Sunny felt sorry for his deeds and went to help the old man. He casually asked the man –“what’s the need to cry for a broken pot, we can get another one!” To this the man replied“Its not the pot, it’s the plant and the soil that I am worried for. There was a time when people use to sacrifice their lives for forest and land. But you would never be able to understand how important these are.” Sunny questioned -“Sacrifice their lives? Are u mad? Why would any one sacrifice their lives for land and Fo…for…foressss..” “ FOREST, It’s called FOREST.”- Said the old man. “Ya Ya that’s what, a forest” -sunny replied. The old man smiled with pity and said -“There lived people on this planet who worshiped the forest and the land.” “HAAN?? How did they look? - Asked sunny. “Do you want to listen to a story? The story of a man and his forest brother and” how he saved his brother from a huge monster?

“Monster? Yes of course”- sunny replied with excitement. So the old man started narrating the story“Long ago…there lived a huge machine, that moved all around the earth and created buildings and factories, and it is said that wherever he found land, he turned it into concrete. Somewhere on this earth two rivers flowed; KOEL and KARO. People from the nearby villages were highly dependent on the water from these rivers. The water fulfilled the daily needs and thus was an inseparable part of their lives. The machine wanted to build two huge dams on that river, and if the dam were built, more than 100 villages would be submerged and 1 lakh people would be homeless. When the people came to know about the machine’s evil plans, they were scared. Under the huge banyan tree they called for an urgent “panchayti sabha”. The entire village had gathered at the center of the village to find out a solution for this problem. The place where they used to have this meeting was very sacred to them. Next 67


to that old banyan tree there was a huge rock, which they called – “The Shaheed Smaarak”, the martyr’s column. Beneath that rock were buried the famous warriors of that village.” There was a kid, just like you. He was the son of the village headman. He was very determined to not leave his land. Do you know why?”“Why?”- Sunny asked curiously. “His mother lived in that land. She died long ago, and was buried beneath the same rock.” The man stopped narrating. “Then, then what happened? Did the monster build the dams?”“No, the villagers didn’t let him construct those dams.” “How?” They all used their super power…” “SUPERPOWER?” “Yes, superpower, the power of UNITY. Few people along with the village headman decided to engage the machine in their talks while the others would cover themselves in hay and crawl closer to the monster. And while the monster was engaged, the villagers would crawl inside him, like ants, damage his mechanism and break all the wires. 68

So when the machine came near the river, the village headman along with few people stopped him. The machine tried to lure them by saying that he would build an extra apartment, a hospital and a school for them, if they let him make the dam. He said he would also shift them to another beautiful place. To this the headman said a very subtle truth which hurt the machine that made him angry.” “Achha…what did he say?” He said-“ the hospitals, the schools and the apartment you will build, will be too costly for us to use. We worship our land and consider the forest as our brother; we have our ancestors buried in this land. Would it be good to leave our people who taught us to live?” The machine got furious and stepped forward to kill the headman. By then the villagers had crawled inside the machine and broke all the wires and destroyed him, but…” “But?” “But it was a bit late, the monster had killed those people. They sacrificed their lives for their land. They too were buried near the same rock.”

The man hadn’t finished his story when the power (electricity) came back, and Sunny ran back to his house. Till then the man had collected the remains of the pot. He got up and went inside his room that was provided to him at the basement of the apartment. The room was very dark. It was too costly for him to afford the electricity. He lit up a diya, and closed the door from within. He bent down in search of something. It was a latch. There was a secret door on the floor. And from that door was a long spiral staircase that went down into the darkness. The man descended slowly and kept on moving until he came to a tomb. There were 8 other similar tombs. These were the same graves and it was the same martyr’s block, the man was talking about in his story.


Koel-Karo Pankisto, 15 years of age, the village headman and the only resident of a village of Khunti, Ranchi was planting some plants. There were no humans residing in that village. He along with some mice was working on the fields when suddenly an information board came flying and got stuck in the ground. The board said “Koel-Karo Hydroelectric Power Plant”. Pankisto was not a literate kid, so he couldn’t understand the meaning. He started working again in his fields when suddenly the ground started shaking. Wondering why it was happening, he looked around and found that a huge creature made up of cement mixer, road roller and back hoe loader, was far away digging the ground and eating and in the process was pooping out buildings, factories etc. Seeing this, the kid shouted to called the machine. The machine listening to the voice stopped for a while and came near to the kid. As he came near, the kid asked him what he was up to? The machine with a motive to play with the kid showed him a mango, wondering he would accept and get occupied with the same. Thus the machine would start off with

his left over work. But to machine’s surprise, the kid denied the offering. The machine then offered him other incentives like balloons chocolates and other small things. But the kid was not interested in his offerings. The machine now started offering him little bigger things like a bungalow, a flat, a house, a multistoried building etc. Each time the kid said NO. The machine now was interested in playing with the kid. Wondering what the kid would like to have, The machine started showing off magic and offered him factories, roads, etc. But still the kid was not interested in his offerings. The machine now was getting angry and irritated with the regular disapprovals. An idea hit the machine and pointing to the river flowing nearby the machine offered him that he would make a dam for the kid. The kid now understood what all was going inside the machine’s brain. He, speculating the future implications of the dam that there would be shortage of water and he along with all the mice would die, asked the machine to

wait for a while so that he could think over his offerings and turning back to the machine he said something to one of the mice. Turning back again to the machine, the kid said NO. The machine now was really irritated with the kids attitude and started offering him all kinds of incentives like rabbit, wine, chicken etc. And each time the kid’s answer was no. Being fed up with the game, the machine took out his canon tank and aimed the kid. Seeing this the kid got worried and afraid. And the moment the machine was going to fire a canon ball, something happened to him. Sparks started coming out of the machine and it started dismantelling. The mice had sneaked inside the machine and cut off the power supply. The machine was now not able to work. Thus the machine ran out of the place. Many years later the machine came again, but this time the kid was prepared and using the same canon tank that the machine then left threatened the machine. The Machine now seeing that there is no scope for working on that ground, flew up to the moon. 69


Koel-Karo (final) The moon was big & bright and it was a summer night when nature and the animals had gone to sleep. When the owls had began their hunt, Pankisto Guria and his pet mouse Piklu started collecting mangoes form the old ancient tree their fore fathers had planted. The tree had been providing food to a lot of generations undiscovered. Pankisto had a catapult that his father had made for him. He placed Piklu into that and flew him to fetch the food. Piklu went empty handed and came down with mangoes. Sometimes one and some times five and dropped it into his burrow. But after a while few mangoes kept on vanishing. He searched all around but couldnt find any. Something was wrong. Agitated he brought few broken sticks and along with Pankisto started fencing his house. He was sad and upset and while he was fencing, his house started shaking. The old tree started shivering. The nature and all the animals woke up form their peaceful sleep. Was that an earthquake? No 70

Something huge had fallen. It sounded as if a hole mountain had collapsed. A volcano had erupted. It didn’t take a long time from them to find out the reason. A huge alien kind of creature was standing in front of them. It laughed at Piklu and his house, and showed his magic. He dig the ground on which he was standing. The land where there were lot of farms and trees. Collecting the soil in his palm he raised his hand and ate it through his belly and after a while his belly started rotating. He made a loud fart noise and pooped out a small house. A house a little bigger than that of Piklu’s. Listening to the funny sound of the fart, Piklu started laughing. The machine got angry that how could a small creature like him can laugh at the magic of such a great machine. So he dug the ground again and dropped a larger house. Again with the loud disgusting fart sound, Pankisto and Piklu started laughing. The machine was now getting furious. He dug and dug and ate until his stomach would have burst. His belly was full and started to rotate

again. The machine waited for a while and started farting. He farted and farted till the whole sky was filled with smoke. Pankisto and Piklu were enable to see what was happening. When the dust settled, they didn’t laugh, they were scared now. The machine had built a hole city. He was standing proudly amongst his creation. Piklu couldn’t resist the awful smell of machine’s fart and puked. Pankisto couldn’t stop laughing at the situation which made the already fierce-full machine into a terrible monster. He leaped towards them, but suddenly his alarm started to ring. He leaped again and the alarm rung again. There was a river flowing nearby and as the machine leaped forward, he had to cross the river and the moment he touched the water, a loud alarm rang. Agitated by this he waved his large hands into the air and shattered the hill into pieces. Pankisto and Piklu got scared. They ran for their lives and hid behind the pillar that was erected over their land many years ago.


The machine was beating his chest and behaving like a furious gorilla. He punched the ground again. The hill started to crack and it destroyed Piklus house. Piklu started shouting at the machine. The punch was so hard that the crack went straight into the pillar. Piklu and Pankisto were scared and stood still. The Pillar started to collapse and from that pillar came out something they had never seen. The machine was shocked. Pankisto and Piklu were still numb. It were the spirits of the dead for whom the pillar was made. They all went into the sky and united into one black huge spirit. The spirit then flew all around the sky and the farmland and dived into the river. Everything became silent and still. The machine stealthily peeped into the river and water to see what was happening and as he peeped, the spirit burst out of the river. It had lots of water in his mouth. It went and covered the machine form head to toe. The machine was scared and was shivering to see something bigger than him. The spirit

was wobbling over the machine as a huge water bubble and bursted over his body. The whole farmland and the mountains started to echo with erie sound of the machine’s alarm. The lustrous body of machine now started to become rusty. He tried to move his hand and legs but couldn’t. His joints were jammed due to the rust. Pankisto picked up his catapult and placed Piklu into it and pulled the strings as much as he could. Piklu flew high up in the air and dove straight into the machine’s body. He sneaked inside it and cut all the wires. The machine fell onto the ground. Pankisto started to dance on the machine’s fall but stopped abruptly to wonder what might have happened to Piklu. Amongst the dust came out Piklu who had wires in his hand. He climbed up to the hill. He was so tired that he fell on the ground and took a sigh of relief. His stomach grumbled. Suddenly form the broken pillar a hand the spirits came out and gave Piklu his Mangoes that kept vanishing in the air. 71


The title

Reviewing the titles of all the stories that I made till now, I concluded that the most important part of the film; its title, is not being well handled. The title is the unique selling point of the film, and that the beauty of the title lies in being somewhere between abstractness and obviousness. The earlier one like “The barons of the soil” was too direct and obvious. Similarly the next one, “The last earthworm” was too abstract and was in very many ways not relating to the story. Hence when it was decided that the film should in every way be dedicated to the movement, the title Koel-Karo seemed to be befitting the cause. Also the place where it started, the struggle was popularized under the name of “Koel-Karo Movement” or simply “Koel-Karo”. So with the motive of making people aware about the incident, it deserved that the people should known it by its original name.

72

The Last Earthworm KEOL AUR KARO


73


74


Script writing

A screenplay is a script that is used for a film or movie that includes dialogue, but also character and set descriptions. A screenplay or script is a written work by screenwriters for a film or television program. These screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions, expression, and dialogue of the characters are also narrated.

a “shooting script”, each scene is numbered. The standard font for a screenplay is 12 point Courier. The major components are action and dialogue.

A beat-sheet is a document used in screen-writing to outline the major dramatic moments, the beats of a screenplay or movie.

A slug line is unique to the screenplay and states numerous things about a scene. Often called a Master Scene Heading, it occurs at the start of every scene, and is usually made up of three parts. Part one states if the scene is set inside (interior) or outside (exterior). The abbreviations INT. and EXT. are used. A period always follows each abbreviation. Part two states the location of the scene, such as JERRY’S APARTMENT, JANE’S CAR, or RESTROOM. Part three refers to the time of the scene. Day or Night are normally used, but Dusk, Dawn, Late Night, Early Morning and others can be used if necessary. The format of the screenplay is structured in a way that one page usually equates to one minute of screen time. In 75


Koel - Karo By Mohit Madhukar

76


Fade in: Ext. Martyr’s stone at the hill top. Night. CAMERA pan downs at the martyr’s stone showing the names written over it. A mouse flies in front of the stone. Cut to: Ext. Mango branches, Night. The mouse falls/jumps on a mango and cuts it with his teeth and falls down. Cut to: Ext. Base of the martyr’s stone, Night The mouse falls with the mango and drops it in a burrow made in the ground. The mango falls in the burrow and goes under the ground and falls on a stack of mangoes already there. Cut to: Ext. Martyr’s stone at the hill top. Night. A kid with a catapult trying yo aim on the mango. The mouse comes and sits on the catapult. Cut to: 77


Ext. Mango branches. Night The mouse flies and falls/jumps on the mangoes hanging on the branch and cuts two of them and falls with two mangoes. Cut to: Ext. Base of the martyr’s stone, Night The mouse falls with the mango and drops it in same burrow. One mango falls in the burrow But second one vanishes in an eye blink. The mouse searching all around the stone but is not able find any.

the the is to

Cut to: Ext. Mango branches. Night The mouse falls again and cuts three mangoes this time and falls with all three of them. He drops n of the mangoes but rest of the two mangoes vanishes again. He starts shouting and yelling at the situation. Fade out. Fade in: Title appears on the screen.

78


Fade in: The kid and the mouse are fencing the mouse’s burrow when suddenly the ground starts shaking and the tree behind starts shivering with a loud noise of “Baddaam”. The kid and mouse start looking around when they see a huge creature made up of metallic body is standing in front of them laughing at the mouse and his house. Character sketch: The machine with the metallic body is made up of three construction equipments. The road roller, the cement mixer and the backhoe loader (crane). The legs of the machine is made up of the road roller and the hands are made up of the crane and the stomach is made form the cement mixer. So the machine digs the ground from his hand, drops it in his cement mixer. His stomach then starts spinning (similarly as the cement mixer does) and from and outlet poops out a fully constructed building. Ext. Hill top. Night. The mouse starts shouting at the machine. Cut to: Ext. The farmland. Night. The machine asks the mouse to watch he is doing. He digs up the ground where he is standing. Picks 79


up the dug ground in his arms and drops the raw materials in his stomach. He spins the stomach for a while churns it and poops out a fully constructed building with a loud noise of fart. The impact of the building makes a loud noise of “Baddaamm�.

Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and the mouse are astonished and confused to see what is happening. They start laughing at the fart sound that the machine made while pooping the building out. Cut to: Ext. The farmland. Night. The machine is hurt to see that they are not appreciating his creation. He digs up more land now, puts it in his stomach and sins it for a while. Poops out a building bigger in size than the last one and farts again. Cut to:

Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and mouse starts laughing out loud again. 80


Cut to: The machine gets angry and starts digging the ground at a very fast rate. Spins his stomach, and starts farting. He keeps farting for very long time. The whole environment gets smoky and nothing is visible what is happening. Cut to:

Ext. Hill top. Night. When the smoke and dust settles, the kid and the mouse are astonished. Cut to:

Ext. The farmland. Night. The machine has built a whole city, and is standing proudly amongst the city. The whole farmland beyond the river is now converted to a city.

Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and mouse are covering their nose. The mouse is choking on the smoke and faints because of the same. The kid starts laughing at his fainting. 81


Cut to: Ext. The farmland. Night. The machine is now agitated and furious and shivering with anger. He moves forward to harm the kind and the mouse. But as he does an alarm rings up. He comes forward again and again it starts ringing. Cut to: Ext. The farmland. Night. As the machine moves forward its wheels goes into the river water which triggers up the alarm. There are few sparks coming out from the wheel. The machine starts beating up his chest like a gorilla, and punches the hill the kid and the mouse are standing on. He punches again. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The hill is cracking and the crack proceeds towards the burrow of the mouse. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and mouse are hiding behind the martyr’s stone and are terrified and watching the crack proceeding towards them. The crack passes through the burrow and destroys it. 82


Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The mouse on seeing his burrow and the food stored in it getting destroyed shouts at the machine. He is still shouting at the machine when the cracks start destroying the martyr’s stone. The kid and the mouse are scared till death. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The mouse looks at the stone and finds something coming out of the cracks. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The crack has reached the top of the stone and there are few creatures coming out of the stone. The are the spirits of the martyrs of the KoelKaro. The spirits fly up in the sky and unites in to one huge spirit and dives into the river. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and the mouse are scared. Thy had never seen any thing like that before. The are watching the machine. 83


Cut to: Ext. Farmland. Night. The machine himself is astonished to see the spirits and is unable to think what to do. Cut to: Ext. Farmland. Night. The kid and the machine Peeps into the river. The spirits are slowly coming up to the water level and with a great speed and bursts out of the river goes up again in the sky, comes down and wraps around the machine like a snake and swallows it form head till toe. The spirits boils over the body of the machine like an amoeba and bursts out as a balloon. The whole body of the machine is drenched in water. Cut to: Ext. Farmland. Night. The machine’s body is now rusting and the loosing its luster. The whole metallic skin is now getting rusty and is cracking. The machine is trying to move his hands and legs nut is not able to because the joints are now jammed. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Night. The kid and mouse are watching this and the kid has 84


got ans idea and the mouse is smiling too. The kid picks up his catapult and the mouse sits on the catapult like and air force pilot. Cut to: Ext. sky. Night. The mouse is shouting and flying in sky and jumps on the machine and enters into the machine from the slit. Cut to: Ext. Machine interior. Night. The mouse is standing in front of a bunch of wires. He picks up one of them. Cut to: Black frame. The sound of Khaat Khaat is coming. Cut to: Ext. Farmland. Night. The machine is standing motion less and his body shivers and stops abruptly. His yes become black and he falls down on the ground. Cut to: Ext. Farmland. Morning. 85


The machine is crumbled in to pieces and lying in the ground. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Morning. The mouse is climbing all the way up to the stone where the kid is standing. Cut to: Ext. Hill top. Morning. The kid is rebuilding the mouse’s house. The mouse comes and falls on the ground and takes a sigh of relief. A hand of the spirit comes out of the stone and drops three mangoes for him that went missing when he was dropping them in his burrow.

The end

86


87


storyboard

Storyboards are graphic organizers in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. A film storyboard is essentially a large comic of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand to help film directors, cinematographers and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. So basically, Storyboards are a way for the filmmaker to previsualize the film-story as a series of still drawings in order to chart visual flow and continuity as well as to plan for stylistic integrity and story clarity. Storyboarding is a blueprint and a way of visualizing the whole of the film.

88


89


storyboard of a sequence from the first story Shot 01

Pannel 01

Shot 02

Pannel 01

Shot 03

Pannel 01

Shot 03

Pannel 02

Shot 04

Pannel 01

Shot 05

Pannel 01

90


Shot 06

Pannel 01

Shot 07

Pannel 01

Shot 08

Pannel 01

Shot 09

Pannel 01

Shot 10

Pannel 01

Shot 11

Pannel 01

91


storyboard of the final story

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

92


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

93


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

94


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

95


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

96


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

97


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

98


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

99


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

100


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

101


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

102


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

103


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

104


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

105


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

106


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

107


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

108


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

109


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

110


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

111


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

112


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

113


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

114


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

115


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

116


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

117


Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

Shot No.-

Panel no.-

118


119


“On earth there is no heaven, but there are pieces of it.�

- Jules Renard.

120


121


animatics

In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called “animatics” to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence with a rough dialogue and/or rough sound track added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working effectively together. This allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage can avoid animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film. Animation is usually an expensive process, so there should be a minimum of “deleted scenes” if the film is to be completed within budget. 122


123


124


125


CHARACTER DESIGN

A good character is one that is both believable and memorable. A believable character is an ordinary character (in relation to the world that he lives in) who finds himself in extraordinary circumstances and reacts to those circumstances truthfully. A memorable character is visually appealing and has the ability to move an audience emotionally through the events of the story. “Your eye is drawn to a character and you appreciate what you are seeing.” You immediately identify with the character. The character can be beautiful or ugly, intricate or plain, good or bad. The character’s appeal makes you want to watch him and find out more about him. A good character is one that is right for the story. - (From the book “Ideas for animated short” written by Karen Sullivan and Kate Alexander.) Straight away starting with the caricature, referring and sketching a live photograph and then taking it to the caricature level helped me a lot to design the character. The main character, the protagonist(the kid), was same in all the stories. But still it changed to certain level as the story developed. The very first story that dealt 126

with a father fighting with the machine with guns that he had made, the kid’s caricature was very close to a real human being. There wasn’t any exaggeration, inhuman or animation aspects associated with it (as could be seen in the characters of the first row in the next page).


THE KID

127


The next story that dealt with the land acquisition and its future implications, changed the character in lot many ways. Since the story was dealing with future and that according to the story, the lifestyle of humans would have changed, entirely changed the characterization of the kid. The Kids in the year of 2060 would not look like or behave like the kids of the year 2013. So what all factors would have created the difference? The food habit, the environment around, like the air, the ground etc. How the humans would be breathing. Would they be using gas mask or not, because there are no plants and trees. What the temperature would be like? Will it be hot or extremely cold? Whether the humans would be wearing astronaut’s suits that will help them maintain the body temperature etc. Also that the kids would either be malnutritioned because there would be food security issues, or they would be suffering from obesity because people would be dependent on packaged food or simply nutrition pills. 128


129


130


131


Also another very important factor that was till now, being missed out was that the kid was not looking as a native of Ranchi on which the story is made. Since the last story that was dealing with a live issue and was revolving around the Munda people (indigenous people), the character had to visually look like them. So this character was taken further ahead and based on certain attributes of how a Munda kid look like, the final character was designed and was named as Pankisto Guria.

132


133


head structure of the kid

134


various characters made for differet stories

135


136


137


Pankisto guria (the kid) Pankisto Guria15 years of age is the village headman and lives in the Khunti district of Ranchi. The rest of the villagers are not humans but mice. He along with all the mice does farming and plants trees in and around his village. His grandfather and father were killed in a fight against the police and the government. Since then there are no humans residing in the village but since his father’s and grandfather’s burials are there on that land, he decided to stay on that land and take care of the same. Thus, since then he is living alone as the care taker of the village and along with his mice friends is ready to fight against the constructor machine that is coming to grab his land.

# f2e5b0 # c0af6a # a17c5c # 6e4d31 # 0b1d53 # 061338 # 000000

138


139


the constructor (machine) The constructor, i.e., the machine is made up of three different machines - The Cement Mixer, The Road Roller and the The Backhoe Loader. The Constructor represents the various multinational companies. It has no brains and is completely computerized and is channelized by someone very powerful, may be the politicians. In comparison to human beings, the constructor is very huge in size and is programmed in such a way that wherever it sees barren land or crop fields etc., it digs up that ground, eats it through its cement mixer inlet, churns the soil by rotating the cement mixer and then through its especially designed outlet, poops out constructed buildings.

# ffc000 # a03f32 #851c0d # 400800 # 000000

140


141


142


143


144


145


the mouse Piklu is Pankisto’s pet mouse. There are no humans residing in the village where Pankisto lives. All the humans have moved to different places in the world. The only residents of the village of Khunti are the mice and Pankisto himself. The mice along with the village headman are generally occupied in making the village a better place to live in.

# 515050 # 3b3b3b # 242424 # 000000

146


147


Spirit Spirits live in the martyr’s stone. No one had any idea about their existence until they showed up. When the people of Khunti died in a wrangle between the government and the locals, the martyr’s stone was built over their grave. Since then the spirits live in that stone as the guardians.

# 3b3b3b # ff0000 # 000000

148


149


height chart

150


151


Explorations for the other characters

152


The businessman

153


The Graphic Novel approach

A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word “novel” normally refers to long fictional works, the term “graphic novel” is applied broadly, and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is distinguished from the term “comic book”, which is used for comics periodicals. A graphic novel is a type of comic book, usually with a much more lengthy and complex storyline similar to those of novels, having many more pages and content than a comic book and often aimed at mature audiences (but not always). Taking up the graphic novel approach, helped me understand and improvise on the composition of the frame.

154


155


Treatment for graphic novel

stills from the graphic novel

Also another important aspect is the visual look for the film. The visual look is an augmentation to the theme and the mood of the film. I started off with compositing the frames as graphic novel panels and tried to come up with a certain style and colour pallet for the treatment of the film. So covering up all the film making aspects starting from story writing, script writing, character design, storyboard, animatic, animation, sound design till post production, I came up with certain visual look for the film. Thus here are some of the screen shots from the Graphic novel and film suggesting how the same looks like.

156


157

stills from the graphic novel


stills from the graphic novel

158


159

stills from the graphic novel


Treatment for the film

160


stills from the film

161


stills from the film

162


stills from the film

163


sound design

Sound design is the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio elements. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including film making, television production, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art, post-production and video game software development. Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously composed or recorded audio, such as music and sound effects. In some instances it may also involve the composition or manipulation of audio to create a desired effect or mood. A sound designer is one who practices the art of sound design.

Screen shots of sound design

Thus sound is the most important part of the film, whether it be a silent film (without dialogue) or Talkies (with dialogue). Music or sound adds an extra dimension to film. Thus with help of my batch-mate, Pallav, we came up with this piece.

164


Screen shots of sound design

165


post production

166


167


168


169


170


hurdles that came by Reviewing the whole of the process this film went under was great experience for me. Apart from the minor Technical issues, I think the major obstacles and hurdles that came in my way were the finalizing the story and the script. Since the film was dealing with a very major and sensitive issue of Land Acquisition and that the film at the later part of the process got inspired by and was based on a true incident, the major obstacle was that the film should hold its importance. It shouldn’t have been vague or in a way not able to justify the struggle of the indigenous people who fought for their land. Keeping all this in mind, and that it shouldn’t hurt a particular group of people’s sentiment and considering the fact of making rest of the world aware about the same, freezing the story, I guess took me lot of time.

171


172


Denouement Though I still cannot say that the film made is perfect in all the ways it should have been. There are still many aspects of film making that are yet not touched upon. Also that everybody’s perception is very different, I might not be able to assure that the film could be appealing to all groups of people. But the fact that whole of the process that came by while making the film added to my learnings of film making and as earlier said, I now, am at a better position to deal with a script at a much more matured level and can say that I now have understood what to tell, what not to tell, how to tell and most importantly when to tell something in a narrative. Also the change in the decision of making a film based on my childhood experience to experimenting with a live issue, helped me develop my film making sensibilities in a much more matured way.

173


174


175


176


Yin & Yang Yin and yang remains in harmony and balance. So should Land acquisition and land preservation be. 177


178


references

Tribal Land Issues in India: Communal Management, Rights, and Displacement Hari Mohan Mathur.

Development flows from the barrel of a gun – A documentary by AKHRA- Directed by Biju Toppo and Meghnath

Ideas for the Animated Short Finding and Building Stories by Karen Sullivan, Gary Schumer, and Kate Alexander.

Where earth worms struggle for a piece of soil Wira Pdika Earth Worms, Company Man.

We’ll not Give up Even One Inch of Land! - Dayamani Barla1, medico friend circle bulletin.

Walking With The Comrades Gandhians with a Gun? -Arundhati Roy.

IPT Report- An indipendent enquiery of the police firing at Tapkara& resistance to the KoelKaro Project, Jharkhand.

http://life.time.com

Gaon Chodab Nahi - K P Sasi

http://espressostalinist.wordpress.com/

Farmers’ suicide and debt waiver an action plan for Agricultural development-Dr. Narendra Jadhav.

The Koel Karo Hydel Project – an empirical study of the resistance movement of the Adivasi in Jharkhand / India- Martina Claus Sebastian Hartig University of Kassel / Germany.

Acquisition of land for ‘development’ projects in India, A road ahead-Kelly A Dhru.

http://www.oaklandinstitute.org/land-grabbingall-name-food-security

www.google.co.in

http://www.examiner.com/article/free-tradeshould-be-free http://newsythoughts.wordpress.com/2009/11/24/ operation-green-hunt-fuelled-by-corporateinterests 179


180


Acknowledgments

First of all I would like to thank my guide Sekhar Mukherjee for his guidance and support throughout my film. I am very thankful to my friends and batch-mates without whose critique and encouragement, this film and this document would not have been possible. I would also like to thank Mr. Pradyumna Vyas, Director, NID, Mr. Vijay Singh Katiyar, Chairperson (Education), NID, and Dr. Vijaya Deshmukh, Registrar, NID and all the faculties of Visual Communication Department, NID. Without their constant support, the making of this film would have been very difficult. Above all I would like to thank my parents for believing in me and my over ambitious project.

181


Mohit Madhukar Visual Communication Design (Animation film design). Graduate Diploma Programme in Design (2008). National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, 380007.

Contact details: ph- +91 95377 46906 e-mail- mohitmadhukar009@gmail.com 182


183

Koel Karo Documentation  

Documention of the complete process of making of the Koel Karo graphic novel and its trailer. Starting from the concept generation to the fi...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you