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SILENCE protects the  perpretrator BREAK  IT SASARAN 72 FULL.indd 2

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SANTAI

TOKOH

18 20

130 136

MUZIUM SASTERA MELAKA PRINTING INDUSTRY

SENI 39 41

SEJARAH TULISAN JAWI INSTAGRAM

122

FORMATION OF EU

SAINS & TEKNOLOGI

BEDAH BUKU

46 54

146 150

AIR MATA BIRU SUPERMOON

62

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SYED MOKHTAR GOLONGAN LITERATI

THE INTERNATIONAL JEW BOOK REVIEW

64

66

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ISU 70 -‐ 93

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Penaung Penasihat & Perunding Ketua Pengarang

Prof Dr Azizul Halim Yahya Mohd Amirul Akhbar Mohd Zulki i Ahmad Wared Mokhtar

Timbalan Ketua Pengarang

Mohd Fharkhan Abdul Ghapar

Pengarah Gra k

Muhammad Hasif Mohd Jelani Saiful Asyraf Saparuddin

Editor Bahasa Inggeris

Raja Nadhirah Raja Hasnan Ruzanna Aniza Maulad Ahmad Nasruddin

Editor Bahasa Melayu

Ayu Syahira Zaili Fatin Nurulshahirah Maaris

Ketua Pembaca Pruf

Azizah Adib Rahim

Pembaca Pruf Bahasa Inggeris

Nur Firzanah Mohd Kamil

Pembaca Pruf Bahasa Melayu

Haifa Ha zah Mohd Nasir

Editor PSA

Hawa Rizwana Ahmad Redzuan Estelle Eilish S.George

Editor Kritikan Media

Muhammad Akmal Radzuan Noormaizura Zainal Abidin

Editor Ulasan Buku

Nor Amalina Damanhuri Aiman Rizkyka Adilah Mohd Khalid

Setiausaha

Noor Alia Md Lani

Bendahari

Nurli Nasuha Mohd Adzman

Wartawan

Ahmad Barr Zainal Abidin Ali Ashraf Fadzilah Alyaa Liyana Mazlan Amira Badrul Aziz Amirul Aiman Hamsuddin Jeredeana Fiona Lajanty Mohamad Firdaus Alauddin Muhammad Farhan Mohd Bakhtiar Muhammad Naim Muhamad Ali Nabilla Eiman Ahmad Shukree Nik Elie Nurfatihah Nik Ayob Noor Intan Suhana Che Omar Nur Anis Farhanah Abd Malek Nur Farisa Nerina Rosli Nurul Izzati Azhar Nurul Izzati Mohamad Arisi Sha zam Md Dzahir Siti Fatimah Abd Nasir Siti Madihah Abd Ab Aziz Siti Sarah Aisyah Abdul Rahman

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Majalah SASARAN edisi ke-72 adalah majalah makmal yang diterbitkan oleh pelajar semester 5 jurusan Ijazah Komunikasi dan Pengajian Media (kepujian) Kewartawanan, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). Majalah ini bukan untuk tujuan komersial. Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Mana-mana bahagian penerbitan ini tidak boleh dikeluar ulang, disimpan di dalam sistem dapat kembali, atau disiarkan, dalam apa-apa jua cara, sama ada secara eletronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman, atau lain-lain, sebelum mendapat keizinan bertulis daripada penerbit. Sidang Editor berhak melakukan sebarang penyuntingan ke atas tulisan yang diterima selagi tidak mengubah isinya.

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T

idak dinafikan kini Malaysia sudah mencapai satu tahap

termasuklah isu sentimen perkauman, isu siapa jahat dan

kemajuan dimana teknologi menjadi batu asas dalam

siapa baik. Persoalanya, daripada siapa maklumat itu

kejayaan seseorang. Teknologi kini dilihat sebagai satu

datang dan adakah si pemberi maklumat itu benar-­benar

keperluan dan tidak lagi kehendak. Ibarat seperti makanan dan minuman untuk manusia. Jika tiada teknologi, generasi

mempunyai kredibilit untuk dipercayai setiap kata-­katanya. Ini yang perlu difikirkan, seringkali kita berkata dan

kita seakan hilang arah umpama tersesat di tengah lautan.

memperjuangkan soal kebebasan berkuasa secara total

Tambah lagi dengan kemajuan internet berkelajuan tinggi

kepada media. Namun, jika kita lihat sendiri dengan hanya

serta media sosial yang tiada sempadan dalam memperoleh maklumat.

pengguna itu yang menjadi “whistle blower” mampu menghuru-­harakan sesubuah institusi negara, bayangkan

Namun, teknologi tanpa sempadan ini menyebabkan

jika

total

kebebasan

bersuara

ini

diberikan

kepada

semua penggunanya kini berdaya untuk menyampaikan dan berkongsi sesuatu maklumat kepada semua pengguna lain

media. Sebuah institusi yang ditubuhkan memang untuk menghebahkan berita kepada orang ramai. Ia tidak hanya

tanpa perlu menyelidik akan kesahihanya. Tidak berbicara

mampu menghuru-­harakan negara, ia sekali gus mampu

tentang kebebasan bersuara kepada media, namun ia lebih

merosakkan hubungan antara luar negara.

kepada kebebasan bersuara kepada pengguna itu sendiri yang kini boleh dianggap menjadi “whistle blower” yang

Kesimpulanya, mampukah kita untuk menghadapi era dimana semua orang boleh mengatakan apa yang mereka

tidak dinafikan mampu menghuru hara kan negara.

ingin katakan tanpa ada kawalan dan ketakutan. Adakah

Sering kita persoalkan tentang liputan media yang

kita akan mampu menerima segala kritikan terbuka tanpa

dimanakan kebebasan mereka untuk menulis disekat atas factor “gatekeeper” dalam sesuatu institusi. Kita sering

batas atas dasar kebebasa bersuara secara total yang dimiliki.

merisaukan penulis berita kini tiada peluang untuk memberi

Tambahan lagi, adakah kita akan menjadikan negara

liputan yang sebenar-­benarnya terjadi. Namun, kita sering

penuh dengan budaya fitnah menfitnah. Kita harus sentiasa

terlepas pandang akan tanggungjawab kita sebagai pengguna dalam menyuarakan sesuatu pendapat.

mempertimbangkan setiap dasar dari setiap sudut yang berbeza agar kita sentiasa bersedia dalam menghadapi

Dilihat pada Pilihanraya Umum Malaysia ke-­13, pelbagai

segala akibat yang mendatang disebabkan dasar yang kita

isu dibangkitkan dalam meraih sokongan daripada orang ramai. Pelbagai jenis maklumat yang diperdebatkan

perjuangkan.

Ahmad Wared Mokhtar Ketua Pengarang

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M

enggalas tugas sebagai wartawan bukanlah mudah seperti yang disangkakan, lebih-­lebih lagi tugas

maklumat dan mendidik masyarakat tentang keburukan kegiatan jenayah.

sebagai wartawan jenayah. Bukan sahaja perlu

Sudah menjadi tugas wartawan untuk melaporkan dan

melaporkan berita jenayah secara beretika dan tepat, malah

merungkai sesatu isu seperti kegiatan jenayah. Wartawan

ramai yang tidak sedar wartawan jenayah turut berdepan dengan pelbagai cabaran hingga mempertaruhkan

jenayah bertidak sepeti seorang perisik – menyiasat dan membenteras kegiatan jenayah menerusi penulisan. Untuk

keselamatan dan nyawa sendiri dalam melaporkan sesuatu

mendapatkan maklumat dan membuat siasatan adakalanya

berita jenayah. Teringat pula kisah-­kisah pengalaman getir

wartawan jenayah perlu menyamar. Tugas belakang tabir

salah seorang wartawan jenayah terkemuka negara, Mazidul Akmal Sidek ketika beliau bertugas sebagai wartawan

inilah orang ramai tidak ketahui. Ramai yang tidak menyedari. seorang wartawan jenayah terpaksa menyamar dan

jenayah. Beliau sendiri pernah berdepan dengan dugaan

membahayakan diri pergi ke tempat-­tempat yang disyaki

ketika bertugas mencabar antaranya terima surat-­surat ugutan dari kumpulan gangster dan diekori oleh individu yang

menjalankan kegiatan jenayah seperti kelab-­kelab malam, bangunan usang, rumah pelacuran dan lorong-­lorong gelap.

tidak dikenali. Bahaya dan risiko ini telah menjadi makanan

Namun, adalah dilema bagi setiap wartawan jenayah ketika

bagi setiap wartawan jenayah.

bertugas, demi melaksankan tugas mereka, sanggupkah

Ternayata menjadi wartawan jenayah ini bukan tugas mudah, malah dipandang tinggi oleh wartawan lain.

mereka menghadapi segala risiko? Persoalan yang selalu beramian

Wartawan jenayah banyak bekerjasama dengan pihak

wartawan jenayah adalah berita atau nyawa? Untuk

berkuasa seperti pihak polis misalnya. Dua pihak ini saling

memahami tugas dan cabaran yang ditempuh oleh petugas-­

melengkapi dimana pihak berkuasa memounyai kuasa untuk membenteras dan wartawan bertindak sebagai pemberi

petugas media ini, edisi majalah Sasaran kali ini menyingkap isu-­isu berkaitan wartawan,media dan jenayah di Malaysia.

diminda

seorang

Mohd Fharkhan Abd Ghapar Penolong Ketua Pengarang

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SANTAI

BUKU INDIE

DI MALAYSIA Teks: Siti Fatimah Abd Nasir Amalina Damanhuri

P

erkembangan pesat industri buku alternatif tempatan atau lebih popular dikenali sebagai buku “indie” sejak akhir-­akhir semakin menjadi kegilaan para pembaca khususnya kepada generasi muda masa kini. Karya-­karya yang dihasilkan oleh penerbit buku indie seperti FIXI, Lejen Press, Terfaktab dilihat semakin melonjak naik dan secara langsung dapat memupuk dan menyuntik minat membaca dalam kalangan generasi muda yang kian pudar. Pernah suatu ketika dahulu, banyak artikel dan kenyataan dikeluarkan mengenai rakyat Malaysia yang tidak gemar membaca buku sehinggakan wujud kempen budaya membaca. Hal ini menjadi dorongon kepada penulis-­ penulis muda dan penerbit buku indie untuk mengeluarkan novel dan cerpen yang berkonsepkan urban dan kontemporari mengikut kehendak dan selera generasi muda. Mengikut sejarah, kemunculan perkataan “indie” berasal daripada perkataan bahasa inggeris iaitu singkatan daripada perkataan “independent” yang bermaksud bebas, merdeka dan tidak bergantung kepada orang lain. Di negara kita sendiri, perkataan indie telah digunakan secara meluas di dalam karya-­karya penulisan fiksyen, novel, cerpen, lagu mahupun di dalam percakapan generasi muda masa kini. Penerbit-­penerbit buku indie masa kini kelihatan giat bersaing antara satu sama lain dalam menghasilkan buku-­ buku yang berani dan luar biasa supaya dapat menarik perhatian anak muda yang kurang membaca untuk mula rajin membaca buku. Karya yang dihasilkan oleh buku-­buku indie juga mempunyai

Buku indie masa kini telah menarik ribuan pembaca terdiri daripada golongan muda disebabkan gaya penulisannya yang "sempoi" itu.

...sesetengah pihak berpendapat bahawa penerbitan buku indie tidak mengikut piawaian penulisan yang betul dari segi penggunaan bahasa, ayat dan jalan cerita yang terlalu bebas.”

pelbagai jenis genre seperti karya mistik, seram, cinta, komedi dan fantasi yang membolehkan pembaca untuk memilih bahan bacaan mengikut minat dan cita rasa masing-­masing. Namun, disebalik karya yang

dihasilkan oleh penerbit buku indie ini, ada sesetengah pihak berpendapat bahawa penerbitan buku indie tidak mengikut piawaian penulisan yang betul dari segi penggunaan bahasa, ayat dan jalan cerita yang terlalu bebas. Maksud bebas di sebalik karya yang dihasilkan oleh penulis-­penulis buku indie lebih kepada kebebasan dalam meluahkan idea dan pandangan terhadap sesuatu topik. Kebanyakan kisah yang ditulis dan dibukukan lebih kepada pengalaman hidup mereka dan mereka berasa perlu untuk berkongsi pengalaman tersebut kepada pembaca. Penulis-­ penulis ini memilih kaedah alternatif penulisan indie kerana mereka tidak mahu dikongkong oleh sistem atau budaya serta berasakan perlu untuk mempunyai kebebasan dalam berkarya. Namun demikian, di sebalik kebebasan berkarya yang dihasilkan, wujud penggunaan bahasa santai atau

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bahasa pasar dalam penggunaan tatabahasa serta mempromosikan budaya yang bertentangan seperti lucah, seks, bahasa mencarut dan sebagainya yang tidak sesuai dijadikan bahan bacaan kepada generasi muda. Mengikut petikan yang diambil daripada laman sesawang pengasas buku Terfaktab, Syazrul Aqram berkata, “penggunaan bahasa pasar yang banyak digunakan dalam sesuatu penulisan buku indie seeloknya dekat dengan bahasa yang digunapakai dalam masyarakat supaya dapat mendalami kandungan cerita atau mesej yang ingin disampaikan oleh penulis kepada pembaca. .. Jadi ternyata di dalam setiap karya yang dihasilkan oleh penulis indie ini, kita dapat lihat kesemua karyanya telah menjadi pilihan generasi muda masa kini kerana jalan ceritanya yang “sempoi” dan menjiwai hati golongan muda. Persoalannya di sini, adakah penggunaan bahasa pasar yang digunakan di dalam buku indie akan memberi kesan tidak baik terhadap penggunaan Bahasa Melayu dan mampukah buku indie seperti ini dapat terus bertahan di Malaysia dalam tempoh 10 tahun akan datang? Mengikut tinjauan yang dilakukan oleh wartawan majalah Sasaran, majoriti pelajar berpendapat bahawa “Penggunaan bahasa yang digunakan di dalam buku indie sebaiknya perlu lebih mengutamakan tatabahasa yang sewajarnya kerana bukan golongan remaja sahaja yang akan membaca

Penggunaan bahasa di dalam buku indie sememangnya mudah difahami tetapi ia tidak sesuai dibaca oleh golongan remaja kerana boleh memudaratkan penggunaan Bahasa Melayu -­ Syahirah Nasir, 17

Saya memilih untuk membaca buku indie kerana penggunaan bahasa yang digunakan adalah mudah difahami dan buku ini juga banyak memberi saya pengajaran di dalam kehidupan seharian -­ Mohd Haziq Kamarulzaman, 17

buku-­buku indie seperti ini, akan tetapi golongan kanak-­kanak juga cenderung untuk memilih buku ini sebagai bahan bacaan”. Golongan remaja adalah golongan yang paling gemar membaca buku indie kerana bahasa yang digunakan mudah difahami kepada semua peringkat umur. Walau bagaimanapun, mereka perlu bijak menggunakan bahasa dan ayat yang terdapat di dalam buku indie supaya tidak terbawa-­ bawa bahasa dan ayat tersebut ketika

menulis karangan mahupun di dalam percakapan seharian. Tidak semua buku indie memberi kesan yang tidak baik kepada pembaca, tetapi juga menerapkan unsur-­unsur baik seperti pengajaran kepada setiap jalan cerita yang ingin disampaikan kepada pembaca. Kebanyakan pelajar-­pelajar ini berpendapat bahawa buku indie ini dapat bertahan di Malaysia dalam tempoh masa yang lama selagi penulis mengekalkan keunikan menghasilkan sebuah karya yang hebat yang mampu menarik minat para pembaca khususnya. Seperti yang kita dapat lihat sekarang, ledakan populariti buku indie sememangnya memberi tarikan besar kepada golongan pelajar terutamanya. Juga masa depan buku-­buku indie di Malaysia tidak akan terjejas malah ia akan dapat bertahan sekiranya masih mendapat tempat di hati para pembaca di samping menerapkan unsur-­unsur positif di dalam cerita tersebut. mendapat tempat di hati para pembaca di samping menerapkan unsur-­unsur positif di dalam cerita tersebut.

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SANTAI

PERKEMBANGAN

Teks: Alyaa Liyana Mazlan Nik Elie Nurfatihah Nik Ayob

D

unia percetakan kini mulai mengalami proses kemajuan terutamanya dalam kalangan pembaca sejak bermulanya era perkembangan mesin cetak oleh Johannes Guttenberg pada tahun 1486. Mesin cetak ini merupakan yang pertama kali diperkenalkan di Eropah yang menggunakan cetak logam yang dapat digerakkan. Penghasilan teknologi ini meningkatkan proses produksi barang cetakan seperti buku dan majalah. Majalah adalah bahagian media massa dalam kategori media cetak. Majalah di Malaysia umumnya, mempunyai pembaca yang sedikit berbanding surat khabar. Ia mempunyai pasaran yang mengelompok dan merupakan kumpulan artikel yang digabungkan. Di dalamnya, terdapat gambar dan unsur visual yang

diterbitkan secara berkala. Majalah di Malaysia membahaskan sesuatu masalah dengan lebih mendalam berbanding surat khabar. Majalah dan surat khabar dapat dibezakan dari segi bentuk muka hadapan (cover) dan tempoh penerbitannya. Dalam era perkembangannya di Malaysia, pada peringkat awal majalah ditulis sendiri oleh penulis menggunakan dakwat serta melukis gambar. Kemudian, muncul penggunaan mesin taip atau ‘typewriter’ yang memudahkan lagi penghasilan majalah-­majalah Melayu tetapi penghasilan gambar masih dibuat secara manual. Pada akhir tahun 1890, muncul teknologi percetakan untuk ilustrasi yang mengalami perkembangan yang disignifikasikan dan gambar-­gambar di dalam majalah diterbitkan secara

meluas. Pelbagai genre majalah yang diterbitkan seperti pendidikan, fiksyen, hiburan dan sebagainya. Namun, pembaca di Malaysia lebih cenderung untuk membaca majalah bergenre hiburan. Tambahan lagi, industri majalah di Malaysia berkembang mengikut peredaran semasa. Ia didorong oleh dua faktor utama. Pertama, adalah faktor eksploitasi agama dan kedua ialah faktor perjuangan bersifat kebangsaan. Selepas Perang Dunia Kedua, berlakunya perkembangan media baru iaitu dalam bentuk wayang gambar atau filem yang menyebabkan masyarakat beralih minat kepada bidang hiburan. Masyarakat gemar membaca kisah artis Barat, Korea, Hindi atau Indonesia. Penerbitan industri majalah berubah dari bentuk agama kepada bentuk komersil hiburan.

Majalah-­majalah yang berunsurkan jenaka yang pernah berada di pasaran sebelum datangnya majalah fesyen, inggeris dan moden di Malaysia.

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Salah satu cara untuk menjana industri majalah di Malaysia adalah melalui pengiklanan di dalam majalah-­majalah. Pengiklanan dalam Majalah Persatuan Penerbit-­Penerbit Majalah Malaysia (MPA) telah mengetengahkan hasil kutipan pengiklanan di dalam majalah yang diterbitkan oleh syarikat-­ syarikat penerbitan yang ada di Malaysia di dalam laman sesawang milik mereka. Secara amnya, hasil kutipan didapati semakin menurun dari tahun 2012 hingga 2015. Namun begitu, hanya dua penerbitan majalah sahaja yang meningkat sedikit hasil kutipan pengiklanannya iaitu penerbitan Big Road Media (M) Sdn Bhd dan Utusan Karya Sdn Bhd. Bagi penerbitan Astro Publication Sdn Bhd, daripada 9 buah majalah yang diterbitkan, hanya 3 majalah yang mengalami sedikit kenaikan kutipan pengiklanan pada tahun 2015 berbanding dengan tahun 2014. Akan tetapi, kutipan pengiklanan majalah Oh My English tidak lagi disenaraikan di dalam carta kutipan pengiklanan pada tahun 2015 kerana majalah tersebut mungkin mengalami masalah kekangan masa atau sumber pembuatannya yang menyebabkan majalah tersebut tidak lagi dapat diterbitkan pada keluaran yang akan datang. Astro Publication Sdn Bhd kemudian menerbitkan majalah baru iaitu Style pada tahun 2015. Majalah penerbitan Big Road Media (M) Sdn Bhd merupakan majalah mengenai permotoran di dalam versi Bahasa Inggeris dan Bahasa Cina.

Malah, syarikat ini hanya menerbitkan dua versi majalah iaitu Top Gear (English) dan Top Gear (Chinese). Hasil kutipan pengiklanan majalah versi Inggeris meningkat daripada RM2,924,250 pada tahun 2012 kepada RM4,080,698 pada tahun 2015. Akan tetapi, hasil kutipan versi Cina pula menurun dari tahun 2014 ia mula diterbit. Majalah-­majalah daripada penerbitan Utusan Karya Sdn Bhd meningkat dari tahun 2014 kepada 2015. Menurut carta hasil kutipan ini, hanya dua majalah sahaja iaitu Mangga dan Hai yang tidak ditunjukkan jumlah

Peningkatan dan penurunan hasil kutipan pengiklanan ini bergantung kepada syarikat-­syarikat yang memerlukan tempat untuk mengiklanan produk-­produk mereka dan jumlah pembelian daripada semua golongan pembaca. Majalah yang berkonsepkan hiburan, pengetahuan dan hobi adalah yang paling diminati...”

kutipan pada tahun 2015 kerana dua majalah ini tidak lagi diterbitkan untuk keluaran seterusnya kerana hal-­hal yang tidak dapat dielakkan oleh pihak syarikat penerbitan tersebut. Namun, penerbit syarikat ini menerbitkan majalah bertajuk Insta, berkonsepkan hiburan semasa kepada semua golongan pembaca. Peningkatan dan penurunan hasil kutipan pengiklanan ini bergantung kepada syarikat-­syarikat yang memerlukan tempat untuk mengiklanan produk-­produk mereka dan jumlah pembelian daripada semua golongan pembaca. Majalah yang berkonsepkan hiburan, pengetahuan dan hobi adalah yang paling diminati dan paling menujukkan peningkatan dalam jumlah keuntungan serta jumlah pembaca lama dan baru. Oleh itu, syarikat-­syarikat penerbitan ini seharusnya lebih aktif dalam menyelesaikan masalah kekurangan iklan bagi menaikkan semula kutipan pengiklanan untuk isu majalah pada masa akan datang. Bahkan syarikat-­ syarikat besar yang ada di Malaysia sangat memerlukan ruang iklan bagi menarik perhatian pembeli untuk menaikkan keuntungan bersama. Maka, perubahan untuk menambahkan hasil kutipan pengiklanan harus diberikan perhatian yang lebih agar majalah-­ majalah ini tidak hilang ditelan zaman serta dilupakan oleh generasi-­generasi akan datang.

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SANTAI

16 TAHUN MERENTAS MASA

GERAK BUDAYA Teks: Ayu Syahira Zaili Muhammad Naim Muhamad Ali

S

ejak ditubuhkan pada tahun 1998, nama Gerak Budaya semakin mendapat tempat dalam kalangan pembaca yang menggemari buku-­buku bergenre kesedaran sosial dan kemanusiaan, perspektif kritikal dan alternatif, sejarah dan budaya Malaysia serta Asia Tenggara. Pengasasnya, Chong Ton Sin atau lebih mesra dipanggil dengan Pak Chong mengganggap Gerak Budaya merupakan salah satu perjuangannya dalam menyebarkan bahan bacaan yang bermutu dan mencetus pemikiran berdikari di kalangan rakyat Malaysia. Di bawah bumbung yang sama juga terdapat sebuah lagi syarikat penerbitan iaitu Strategic Information & Research Development Centre (SIRD) yang menghasilkan buku-­buku lebih akademik selain membuka ruang untuk seminar, forum, bengkel dan diskusi di dalam suasana yang lebih bebas. Ikuti wawancara Sasaran bersama Pak Chong dalam dunia penerbitan buku alternatif. Adakah Gerak Budaya (GB) mempunyai spesifik genre dalam penerbitan atau lebih dikenali sebagai penerbit buku bergenre apa? Ketika Gerak Budaya ditubuhkan, matlamat kami sudah jelas dan fokus. Kami menerbitkan buku-­buku bergenre social science, Malaysian study dan historical fiction. Buku-­buku kami tidaklah sepenuhnya akademik supaya lebih luas pembacaan. Mengapa saya memilih genre ini adalah kerana genre-­ genre lain orang dah buat. Genre social science ini kurang

Gerak Budaya sering dikaitkan dengan penerbitan buku-­buku yang kritikal dengan tujuan membina minda yang progresif. orang buat dan bagi saya penting untuk pembaca. Ilmu pengetahuan dapat membina masyarakat maju yang sihat, adil dan makmur. Secara tidak langsung saya menganggap ini sebagai tanggungjawab dan sumbangan saya kepada masyarakat. Revolusi bukan hanya dengan peperangan, tetapi revolusi minda itu lebih penting. Semenjak GB diperkenalkan, apakah perkembangan atau penambahbaikan yang telah dijalankan/dilaksanakan oleh GB? Daripada segi fizikal, pada permulaannya pejabat kami kecil sahaja. Kini kami telah mempunyai bangunan sendiri. Daripada segi

penerbitan, setiap tahun jumlah buku yang diterbitkan semakin bertambah. Lebih kurang 40 buah judul dalam Bahasa Inggeris, Melayu dan Tionghua kami terbitkan dalam masa satu tahun. Gerak Budaya pun semakin lama, semakin orang tahu. Manuskrip bertambah banyak dihantar, justeru kita mempunyai banyak pilihan. Itu pun satu tambahan dan lagi pula kita punya penerbitan buku-­buku, kualiti content, layout design, printing juga semakin meningkat sejak daripada awal penubuhan. Berdasarkan daripada itu kita banyak menerima pujian daripada pelbagai pihak.

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Selama 16 tahun ini juga, kita ada banyak hubungan dengan luar negeri seperti dari Amerika Syarikat, Singapore atau Indonesia untuk menjadi core publisher dan membeli copyright untuk diterbitkan di sini. Apabila kita membeli copyright dan menerbitkan buku luar negara di sini, harganya akan menjadi lebih rendah berbanding diimport dari luar negara. Gerak Budaya memang berhasrat menjadi core publisher dan membeli copyrights supaya dapat menerbitkan buku di sini. Selain daripada penerbitan, kita juga adalah pengedar. Kami penerbit, pengedar dan penjual. Dulu kita tak banyak buku dan jika mahu mengedar buku ke MPH atau kedai buku yang lain, mereka tidak memberi respond yang baik kerana kuantiti buku kita sedikit. Jadi apabila semakin banyak buku yang kami edar, walaupun bukan terbitan kami, kami dapat merebut peluang untuk masuk ke kedai-­kedai buku yang ada di Malaysia. Namun masih banyak kerja yang masih belum disempurnakan. Apa pendapat Pak Chong pula dengan syarikat penerbitan buku yang hanya menerbitkan buku hanya kerana minat dan bukan untuk mengaut keuntungan? Kamu tidak boleh cakap begitu. Ada penerbit yang mengaut banyak untung seperti yang menerbitkan buku sekolah. Aktiviti penerbitan boleh jadi menguntungkan bergantung kepada jenis buku atau genre apa yang kamu terbitkan. Semenjak GB ditubuhkan, adakah terdapat buku-­buku yang diterbitkan atau diedar oleh GB yang diharamkan atau ditarik semula penjualan? Itu sebenarnya nasib baik. Sepanjang penubuhan GB, belum ada lagi buku terbitan kami yang diharamkan, melainkan buku terbitan syarikat lain yang kami edarkan atau jualkan seperti ‘March To Putrajaya’, yang di-­self-­publish oleh penulis dan buku hasil karya Zunar. Kami disiasat dan buku-­buku tersebut ditarik balik. Selain pengharaman, terdapat juga gangguan seperti penyiasat yang mengambil buku jualan secara berlebihan atas tujuan penyiasatan. Buku-­buku tersebut dijanjikan akan dipulangkan semula seandainya tiada masalah namun buku-­buku tersebut kebanyakannya tidak dipulangkan

Gerak Budaya berani menerbitkan buku-­buku yang menyentuh isu-­isu sensitif;; tindakan yang jarang diambil oleh rumah penerbitan lain. semula. Seperti yang terjadi tahun lepas, di satu pesta buku, buku-­buku kami diambil untuk siasatan namun masih belum dipulangkan. Walaupun begitu, buku yang diharamkan, kalau waktu dulu, memang kita tak akan jumpa lagi di mana-­mana, namun sekarang, kita ada e-­book. Boleh dapat dalam internet. Jadi tak ada guna kalau kita haramkan. Kita masih mengambil langkah berjaga-­jaga juga. Buku-­buku yang akan diterbitkan, kami akan lihat dahulu isinya. Contohnya, kalau buku tersebut bersifat peribadi seperti mengutuk Perdana Menteri dan isterinya, kami tidak akan terbitkan atau jualkan. Namun, kalau buku tersebut mempunyai fakta yang kukuh, kami akan terbitkan atau jualkan kerana buku tersebut tidak berunsur fitnah. Apa pendapat Pak Chong mengenai buku-­buku yang diharamkan? Sebenarnya, ia susah untuk diterangkan tetapi pada pendapat saya, kalau buku itu berunsur lucah, ia patut diharamkan. Kalau rakyat kita mempunyai fikiran yang matang, buku apa pun tidak patut diharamkan tetapi kalau pemikiran belum matang, buku-­buku yang berunsur ekstrem dan nyata, saya rasa elok diharamkan. Buku seperti Shit oleh Shahnon Ahmad itu berkenaan politik, saya

rasa buku itu tak patut diharamkan. Katakan saya menulis buku, menulis tentang kebaikan Perdana Menteri, itu adalah kebebasan bersuara namun perlu dikawal. Kalau sebuah buku itu diharamkan, itu akan memudaratkan sebuah negara kerana telah menghalang kebebasan bersuara. Orang ramai tak tahu apa yang kita fikirkan dalam penulisan jika buku diharamkan. Pengharaman buku adalah tidak patut, seandainya kamu tidak suka dengan buku itu, kita boleh bincang atau kritik melalui penulisan buku juga. Apakah fungsi Strategic Information & Research Development Centre (SIRD)? Sebelum itu, GB dan SIRD adalah dua syarikat yang berbeza tetapi di bawah satu bumbung. Selain menerbitkan buku, kami juga ada menjalankan aktiviti ilmiah seperti forum, diskusi intelektual, dan sebagainya. GB adalah satu syarikat dan SIRD dibawah GB lebih kepada bersifat akademik dan ilmiah. Itu seperti meletakkan signature kepada brand penerbitan. Jika kita campur adukkan genre buku di bawah satu penerbitan, kredibiliti mungkin nampak sedikit goyah dan tidak dapat menarik minat para akademik untuk menerbitkan buku dengan SIRD atau GB. Pada masa depan, saya

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mengimpikan untuk menjalankan lebih banyak kajian jika kita mempunyai kewangan yang mencukupi. Semenjak SIRD diperkenalkan, apakah kemajuan yang telah dicapai atau dilaksanakan oleh SIRD? Pada pendapat saya, buat masa ini, belum ada kedai buku lain yang mempunyai fokus atau pengkhususan seperti kami. Boleh katakan, kami bangga dengan pencapaian itu. Jika dibandingkan dengan MPH, mereka menerbitkan banyak buku, pelbagai genre manakala kami lebih khusus kepada satu genre atau bidang. Itu daripada perspektif penerbitan. Dari segi kualiti buku, saya rasa itu juga membanggakan. Setiap bulan kita juga adakan diskusi di GB. Walaupun begitu, saya masih juga merasa kecewa dengan kebanyakan orang. Mereka memuji perkembangan saya namun belum ada lagi yang datang kepada saya untuk belajar dan bekerja sama-­sama dengan saya tentang selok-­belok industri ini. Pada mereka, orang lain boleh buat dan bukan dirinya. Saya rasa itulah kegagalan saya. Ada tak buku SIRD atau GB yang dipasarkan di luar negara? Sudah lama kita usahakan. Bertahun kita cuba dan cuba, namun masih belum dapat dipasarkan. Pihak perpustakaan luar negara ada menempah beberapa buku selain daripada Indonesia atau Singapura.

Bukan tidak ada langsung tetapi kuantiti sangat sedikit. Buku-­buku SIRD boleh ditemui di perpustakaan di Eropah tetapi kita tidak tahu mana mereka dapat buku itu. SIRD ada buat tempahan melalui online, dan kita sendiri tidak tahu ke mana buku kita telah sampai. Kami beli banyak buku daripada Indonesia. Saya banyak berurusan dengan Yayasan Obor, Komunitas Bambu dan Media Press Indo kerana genre dan buku mereka yang sama dengan GB dan SIRD tetapi buku Indonesia di sini tidak banyak laku kerana pembaca dapati Bahasa Indonesia sukar untuk difahami dan perkara yang sama kalau kita bawa buku Bahasa Melayu ke Indonesia. Pada pendapat Pak Chong, adakah SIRD mampu untuk mengubah industri buku di Malaysia? Ubah? Tidak. Lebih kepada mempengaruhi, mungkin. Kita lihat Dewan Bahasa, dahulu mereka sangat ligat dan bagus tetapi sekarang sangat lesu. Kami sedaya upaya untuk menambahkan jumlah buku tidak kira buku itu bahasa Melayu atau Inggeris asalkan kualitinya bagus. Ini bagi menambah semangat kepada syarikat lain. Selain itu, ini juga bagi mempengaruhi fikiran orang. Kita mahu menjadi ikutan dengan menerbitkan buku-­buku yang berkualiti tetapi tidak dapat diterbitkan dan dijual. Kami mahu menjadi contoh kepada mereka. Buat masa sekarang, kita

lihat ada penerbitan seperti Dubook, Fixi, Ilham, Terfaktab dan lain-­lain lagi, mereka sudah mula menerbitkan buku-­ buku culture, politik yang lebih kurang macam GB. Maksudnya ini sangat menggalakkan. Saya selalu cakap, kalau suatu hari nanti banyak syarikat seperti GB dari kalangan golongan muda dan lebih baik daripada GB, kita akan tutup. Kerana dahulu, saya buka GB kerana tiada orang nak buka kedai buku macam kita sekarang tetapi bila dah ramai buat, saya rasa tiada keperluan untuk saya beroperasi lagi. Saya boleh luangkan masa untuk menulis atau lain lagi. Sebat itulah saya rasa bertanggungjawab dan itu seperti satu tugas bagi kami untuk menerbitkan buku-­buku yang tidak dapat dijualkan kepada umum dan tidak dapat dikongsikan. Selain SIRD, ada program lain yang diperkenalkan oleh GB? Selain aktiviti penerbitan dan penjualan buku, kami juga seperti yang dikatakan tadi, kita adakan diskusi, forum dan kadang-­kadang kita jemput orang luar untuk kongsi pendapat dan sebagainya. Pada masa depan, kita mengimpikan untuk menganjurkan Malam Puisi dan sebagainya. Kita cuba untuk mencipta satu suasana sastera untuk orang muda dan melahirkan satu fikiran yang profesional dan kritis selain mematangkan cara berfikir mereka dan mampu membuat satu revolusi dalam masyarakat. Revolusi itu bukan satu kekerasan tetapi revolusi

Saya masih juga merasa kecewa dengan kebanyakan orang. Mereka memuji perkembangan saya namun belum ada lagi yang datang kepada saya untuk belajar dan bekerja sama-­sama dengan saya.” -­ Pak Chong

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mental dan kelakuan. Saya harap GB akan menjadi satu pusat budaya bagi golongan masyarakat. Kami juga ada membuka caravanserai, iaitu satu persinggahan orang dagang dari timur ke barat atau sebaliknya. Caravanserai ini untuk mereka berehat, makan, minum dan sebagainya. Di caravanserai ini mereka akan menemukan budaya dari pelbagai tempat. Caravanserai membawa maksud “a place where culture meets”, ia tidak semestinya perlu besar, ia boleh jadi satu tempat untuk pertukaran fikiran. Saya mahu GB menjadi satu tempat pertemuan. Pertemuan antara orang muda dan tua, atau daripada pelbagai budaya, tidak semestinya untuk membeli buku. Adakah GB mendapat apa-­apa sumbangan atau dana daripada mana-­mana organisasi? Oh... tidak. Itu yang paling penting. Itu pendirian kami. Kami bukan NGO tapi kami menjalankan aktiviti seperti NGO, Cuma lebih komersial. Kami tidak mahu terima apa-­apa dana atau sumbangan kerana tidak mahu orang melihat kita sebagai penyokong mana-­ mana pihak. Kami usahakan setiap wang sendiri. Kalau boleh hidup, kita teruskan, kalau tidak, kita tutup kedai. Seandainya kita mendapat tajaan, itu lain. Itu bukan perniagaan. Contohnya, kita adakan forum dan mendapat tajaan hotel atau sebagainya, kita akan terima tajaan itu. Akaun saya sangat jelas. Pernah terjadi tidak lama dulu, ada seorang muda menggunakan nama SIRD untuk mendapatkan sumbangan daripada luar negeri dan membuat independent media dan saya amat kesal dengan kejadian itu kerana saya yang berikan kebenaran tetapi GB tidak mendapat sedikit pun wang daripada hasil media tersebut. Kita tak nak terima sumbangan atau dana kerana apabila kita ambil duit orang, kita perlu juga dengar apa kehendak mereka. Jika mereka tidak memahami tujuan GB, itu akan menyusahkan kita. Apa pendapat Pak Chong tentang industri buku di Malaysia kini dan akan datang? Ini kita kena lihat industri buku apa. Kalau buku fizikal, ia satu industri yang tidak akan naik. Kehadiran internet

akan mempengaruhi jualan buku fizikal. Ini memang satu industri yang menghadapi cabaran besar. Bagaimana pula dengan content buku? Adakah semakin bagus atau semakin merosot? Tak boleh kata begitu. Setiap zaman itu berbeza keadaannya. Kalau zaman dahulu itu lebih menjurus kepada kondisi masayarakatnya. Tak boleh kata content sekarang sangat tidak berkualiti. Saya kata kita sekarang adalah masyarakat yang sihat dan maju. Masyarakat akan jadi lebih demanding. Penerbit buku perlu lihat kepada kualiti dan menjaga kualiti itu. Masyarakat tidak boleh menjadi orang yang mementingkan kebendaan kerana itu akan menjadi satu krisis dan saya khuatir kerana orang samakan dengan nilai wang yang mereka perolehi. Walaupun industri buku fizikal dilihat merosot, masih akan ada orang yang akan mencari buku fizikal dan tidak akan hilang, cuma kurang. Apa nasihat Pak Chong kepada penerbit buku yang baru hendak mencebur diri dalam bidang penerbitan? Nasihat pertama perlu ada semangat tinggi, tabah hati dan semangat juang. Kedua, perlu mementingkan content. Isi kandungannya perlu bersifat membina tidak kira buku itu bergenre apa, cinta, politik atau apa. Ketiga, kualitinya harus dijaga. Layout, design,

Gerak Budaya dan SIRD mensasarkan jumlah penerbitan manuskrip sebanyak 40 buah setahun daripada pelbagai genre. paper, printing. Kualiti tersebut mesti mahu meningkat. Pada sesiapa yang mahu membuka syarikat, akaun mesti rapi dan mempunyai pentadbiran yang baik selain mempunyai motivasi dan disiplin yang tinggi supaya dapat meneruskan perjuangan industri ini.

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SANTAI

MEMPERKAYA KHAZANAH KESUSASTERAAN NEGARA

Teks : Alia Md Lani

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egeri Melaka amat terkenal dengan peninggalan kisah sejarah semasa zaman kegemilangannya dahulu telah meletakkan negeri ini sebagai tempat yang perlu dilawati dalam kalangan pelancong terutamanya industri pelancongan dalam negara. Zaman kegemilangan Melaka yang berlatarbelakangkan pelbagai kisah dan kesan sejarahnya pastinya telah mengangkat Melaka menjadi pusat kebudayaan Melayu di nusantara, salah satunya. Pada masa yang sama, warisan sastera Negara pada peringkat awal juga banyak dihasilkan di negeri Melaka sendiri seperti Sejarah Melayu, Hikayat Hang Tuah dan Hukum Kanun Melaka. Ini menjadikan Melaka menjadi lambang kebangsaan bagi kebangkitan empayar dan tradisi kebudayaan di negeri-­negeri Melayu dan Malaysia pada amnya. Berikutan itu, Muzium Sastera Melaka telah ditubuhkan bagi mempamerkan segala kegiatan, karya-­karya dan tokoh-­ tokoh penulisan bagi menggambarkan khazanah tanah air dan warisan dunia Melayu yang sangat tinggi nilainya dan berharga buat kita warga Malaysia pastinya. Matlamat penubuhan muzium ini sendiri adalah untuk memastikan karya-­ karya agung penulis Melayu tidak hilang ditelan zaman selain sebagai menjadikan Muzium Sastera ini sebagai pusat penyelidikan dan informasi

tentang karya sasterawan negara dan penulis-­penulis lain. Selain itu, dengan penubuhan muzium ini, warisan budaya Malaysia juga dapat dipamerkan melalui sastera lisan dan tulisan dalam bahasa kebangsaan dan hal ini dapat memelihara khazanah budaya dan warisan sastera kebangsaan dunia Melayu. Bangunan Muzium Sastera ini unik bercirikan seni bina Inggeris dan telah dirasmikan pembukaannya pada tahun 1984. Muzium Sastera boleh

dilawati di sekitar kawasan Bandar Hilir, berdekatan dengan muzium-­muzium lain yang juga terkenal di Melaka seperti Muzium Rakyat, Muzium Samudera dan Muzium Istana Kesultanan Melaka. Secara spesifiknya, Muzium Sastera terletak di bangunan lama Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Melaka (PKNM) iaitu berhampiran dengan Bangunan Stadthuys. Antara perkara yang menjadi tarikan utama di Muzium ini adalah pada bahan-­bahan pameran itu sendiri yang

Muzium Sastera ini terletak berhampiran dengan Bangunan Stadthuys, Melaka.

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Muzium Sastera yang terulung di Malaysia ini memberikan penekanan kepada sejarah penulisan dan pengkaryaan bermula dari era awal penulisan, Cerita-­ cerita Rakyat, Sejarah Melayu, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hukum Kanun Melaka, Munsyi Abdullah sehingga ke tahap perkembangan Kesusasteraan Melayu Moden.”

terdiri dari lukisan yang menggambarkan peristiwa-­peristiwa penting berdasarkan petikan Sejarah Melayu dan bentuk-­ bentuk hukuman yang dilaksanakan menurut Hukum Kanun Melaka serta koleksi naskah manuskrip asal tulisan tangan dari seluruh pelusuk dunia. Koleksi manuskrip asal pelbagai jenis ini masih kekal sifatnya hingga ke hari ini dan pemeliharaannya nyata amat penting dalam mengekalkan khazanah sejarah yang tinggi nilainya. Muzium Sastera yang terulung di Malaysia ini memberikan penekanan kepada sejarah penulisan dan pengkaryaan bermula dari era awal penulisan, Cerita-­ cerita Rakyat, Sejarah Melayu, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hukum Kanun Melaka, Munsyi Abdullah sehingga ke tahap perkembangan Kesusasteraan Melayu Moden. Pada masa yang sama, penghormatan turut diberikan kepada penulisan berbentuk tradisional merangkumi pantun, gurindam, dondang sayang, cerita lagenda, nazam dan puisi di mana terdapat bahagian yang dikhususkan menceritakan asal usul dan keistimewaan penulisan berbentuk tradisional ini dengan terperinci bersama alatan-­alatan yang digunakan bersamanya. Bukan itu sahaja, Galeri Sasterawan Negara dan Penulis-­Penulis Melaka turut merupakan sebahagian tarikan utama untuk pelawat. Sudah pastinya, buku-­buku hasil karya sasterawan ini indah tersusun di rak-­rak kaca untuk dipamerkan buat tatapan mereka yang berkunjung.

Antara bahan-­bahan yang menjadi tarikan utama di Muzium Sastera Melaka ini. Keistimewaan lain yang ada pada muzium ini adalah muzium ini juga ada mempunyai rekod tokoh-­tokoh penyelidik mahupun penulis negara dari yang terdahulu sehinggalah kini, membolehkan kita mengenali tokoh-­ tokoh yang telah banyak berjasa dalam menyumbangkan idea pemikiran kritis mereka dalam bentuk penulisan, yang mampu membuat minda kita terbuka luas setelah membaca karya mereka. Muzium Sastera ini secara asasnya terbahagi kepada tiga bahagian, di mana pada tingkat pertama diklasifikasikan kepada bahagian sejarah perkembangan semasa, peranan Melaka dalam perkembangan sejarah dan bahagian khusus sasterawan negara A Samad Said. Ruangan tingkat bawah pula adalah bahagian untuk tradisi lisan, pegumpulan manuskrip asal dan penyelidikan, senarai tokoh-­ tokoh sasterawan terkini dan juga bahagian bergenre percetakan dan kewartawanan. Manakala bahagian ketiga muzium ini pula adalah ruang pameran hadapan, di mana kawasannya adalah di luar sekitar muzium ini sahaja. Bahagian ini mempamerkan bilik audio visual dan juga kegiatan persatuan bahasa dan sastera. Untuk menyaksikan sendiri kehebatan hasil-­hasil karya sastera lampau ini,

orang ramai digalakkan untuk datang mengunjungi Muzium Sastera ini dan melihat sendiri kehebatan yang ada pada muzium ini, yang pastinya akan membuat anda kagum dengan bahan-­bahan pameran yang ada. Itu lah antara kehebatan bandar Melaka, popular sebagai Bandar Bersejarah malah turut menyediakan produk pelancongan yang bersesuaian dengan gelaran tersebut, dengan menyediakan sejumlah muzium-­muzium untuk dikunjungi oleh pelancong dari dalam mahupun dari luar negara. Malah, Muzium Sastera inilah antara yang menjadi daya tarikan utama pelancong. Bagi mereka yang ingin mendapatkan informasi lanjut bagi melawat muzium sastera ini, waktu operasinya adalah dari pukul 9 pagi sehingga 5.30 petang dan caj sebanyak RM5 akan dikenakan untuk para pelawat. Untuk sebarang pertanyaan lanjut, anda boleh berhubung di talian 06-­ 284 1934 atau terus ke alamat muzium iaitu di Jalan Kota, Bandar Hilir, 75000 Melaka. Pastinya, dengan mengunjungi Muzium Sastera Melaka, pelawat akan merasakan seribu satu pengalaman baru dan merasai penghayatan sebenar keindahan kesusasteraan sebagai media kebudayaan kebangsaan sejagat.

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Text: Nabilla Eiman & Estelle Eilish

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orld Publishing Expo 2016 organized by experts of World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN-­IFRA) continues to be the most worldwide. This reputable event centralizes on all sided that is essential to publish news. These three days started from the 10th until 12th of October highlighted two conferences, Print World and Digital Media World. With more than 200 exhibitors attended, it gave the visitors a wide range of elucidation for a diverse section of news production, which helped them to congregate a global view on potential investments for their company. Apart from the conference, which came free when visitors bought their Expo tickets, guided tours were also included as guidance through the event on key industry topics for three days. Print World conference is divided into seven sessions where each emphasized on crucial topics. The first session moderated by WAN-­IFRA’s Chief Operating Officer, Thomas Jacob, is about transforming media companies. It displayed how media companies carried out the change, strategies that were employed and the outcome from it. There were three topics presented during this session. The first topic focused on transforming Styria Media Group in the digital world by Klaus Schweighofer, a board member of the Styria Media Group. The next topic by Kurt Sabathil, a Managing Director of Schwäbisch Media, concentrates on shaping the future of a regional publisher by using seven strategic main aspects in coping with the digital transformation of the local publishing business. Lastly, Gerold Riedman, Managing Director and Editor-­in-­chief of Vorarlberger Nachrichten discussed on how one transformation may not be sufficient for a media company.

The second session underlined the power of print innovation that draws the attention to creating a new business with innovations in the printing industry with Sabine Sirach, founder of Sirach Consulting as the moderator. For the first topic, Pedro Matos, a design researcher, go into detail on using designs as means of sustaining printed newspapers. Abeer Abdalla, a PR and Business Development for Al-­Jazirah Corporation explained how the respected company found the solution for printing via advertising. Digital printing technologies play a part to the expansion of the newspaper product and printing businesses. For this session, moderated by Luca Michelli, a board member of ASIG Service, showed how users are able to reap benefits from inkjet printing in the areas of customization, short-­run printing, and hyperlocal editions. Dario De Cian, General Manager of Centro Stampa Quotidiani (CSQ) presented CSQ’s incorporation of a digital ink-­jet press into a newspaper offset production plant as well as focusing on printing short runs. A case study on Jersey Print Plant was also presented in this session by Jack Knadijian, Managing director of HJ Consulting. Hans Jorg Maurer, the Managing Director of pme maurer GmbH, Germany presented on The Challenge for Lifespan Extension and Retrofit to enhance ROI. With the help of retrofit projects, publishers and newspaper printers get to extend the lifetime of their presses and mailroom systems. Apart from that, this project can help to enhance the return on investment. The press and mailroom extensions keep the production equipment up-­to-­date and boost the competitiveness of printing plants. International examples were also presented in this session.

This year’s expo was held at Vienna

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Attendees are given the opportunity to explore and learn as well as meeting new people There also exist challenges for lifespan extension in terms of technicality. A few things need to be considered if a press is longer in production than projected. It is needed for technology and process to go hand-­in-­hand in order to make the grade. On top of that, it is paramount that the technical conditions are kept manageable. In another session, Karl Malik, the Managing Director/CEO of PreMedia Newsletter in Germany talked about developing new print products. As we are aware of, the mailroom is transforming into a post-­print production center. With the aid of finishing, new products can be created. In relation to the previous session, Snehasis Chanda Roy, Associate Vice

President Manufacturing, ABP Pvt Ltd in India presented on the topic, Newspaper Today: A Flexible High-­speed Media that Effectively Eats into Digital Pie. Originally led by the Indian News Publishers, in recent years, a transformation in the look and feel of printed newspaper is slowly carving the future of this media. The credibility of printed words is combined effectively with the contemporary use of advertisement space in many unique formats, shapes, size, color, quality, customization and the use of various data. The conversion was feasible by the use of suitable high-­speed technologies, such as online glue stitching, UV curing system, innovative substrates, innovative inks, innovative formats, online applicators, inserters, high-­speed digital ink-­jet to

name a few. One of the last sessions was presented by Milou Klein Lankhorst, Editor of the Correspondent from the Netherlands, who talked about why newspapers should enter the book business. The Correspondent is an online journalism platform that plays a role as a remedy to the daily news grind. Because the industry sees things going wrong in newspapers and magazines worldwide, a publishing house and speakers agency has been set up as an addition to the platform where journalists create stories every day. Media outlets can learn and attain so many things from the book business.

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Teks: Saiful Asyraf Cabaran Awal

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barat kejadian air laut yang ada pasang dan surutnya, siri animasi di Malaysia seakan tenggelam ekoran kegawatan ekonomi pada tahun 1997 dan 1998 yang memberi kesan kepada seluruh warga penerbitan animasi tempatan pada waktu itu. Filem animasi Lagenda Silat yang ditayangkan pada 27 Ogos 1998 bagaikan tidak mendapat sambutan daripada penonton kerana hanya berjaya mengutip sebanyak RM 141,700 sahaja manakala nasib filem animasi Putih yang diterbitkan pada 2001 juga menerima nasib yang sama dengan kutipan sebanyak RM 392,020. Sejak daripada itu, dunia animasi tempatan dilihat suram daripada karya-­karya yang mampu mencetuskan fenomena dan kegilaan dalam kalangan peminat siri kartun tempatan seperti sebelum ini sehinggalah munculnya siri animasi Upin dan Ipin sekitar tahun 2006 terbitan produksi Les Copaque Productions (LCP) Sdn. Bhd. Berbeza dengan animasi Budak Kampung daripada karya Datuk Lat yang berkisar tentang kehidupan seorang budak kampung, siri animasi Upin dan Ipin pula mengangkat tema kehidupan seharian kanak-­kanak tadika dari pelbagai kaum yang tinggal di kampung, ternyata memberi satu evolusi baharu dalam memikat hati penonton tanpa mengira peringkat umur. Selain membawa penonton dalam realiti sebenar kehidupan kanak-­kanak dalam kepelbagaian kaum dan budaya di Malaysia, penghasilan siri Upin dan Ipin yang dibuat dalam bentuk 3D menjadikan ia bertambah istimewa. Paling menarik, siri animasi itu telah ditayangkan di 14 buah negara termasuk di Turki selain mencatatkan rekod

keuntungan tertinggi dalam laman perkongsian YouTube dari seluruh Asia Tenggara oleh Head of Global Content yang berpangkalan di Amerika Syarikat. Seiring dengan peredaran zaman, kualiti produk animasi yang diterbitkan semakin dipertingkat dan berubah menjadi lebih baik, malah kerajaan menerusi Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC) juga banyak memberi sokongan kepada penggiat animasi tempatan. Kelahiran Semula Animasi Malaysia Menamatkan zaman animasi 2D, kini filem animasi di Malaysia lebih fokus ke arah melahirkan filem-­filem daripada konsep 3D pula seperti Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula, Ribbit, Boboiboy: The Movie dan beberapa lagi filem animasi yang lain. Dimulakan dengan Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula terbitan Les Copaque, Siri animasi Upin dan Ipin yang difilemkan ini berjaya mengaut keuntungan sebanyak RM 6,314,526. Ianya dilihat sebagai nama yang sudah lama bertapak di Malaysia menjadi tonggak kejayaan kepada filem animasi ini sehingga berjaya meraih kutipan sebanyak itu. Seterusnya pada tahun 2012, filem animasi kembali menjadi pertaruhan kebanyakan syarikat penerbitan animasi. Antara filem animasi yang menjengah ke panggung wayang adalah Seefood terbitan Silver Ant dan filem War of the Worlds: Goliath yang bertemakan sains fiksyen. Kemudian, pada tahun 2014, KRU Studios yang juga merupakan salah sebuah syarikat yang mempunyai kelengkapan infrastruktur teknologi terkini di Malaysia telah menghasilkan sebuah filem animasi Ribbit yang mendapat

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BOBOIBOY Sfera kuasa bernama Ochobot telah memberikan Boboiboy dan rakan-­ rakannya kuasa yang membolehkan mereka menentang kejahatan daripada anasir dalam dan luar bumi.

EJEN ALI Kaca mata IRIS yang dimilikinya telah menjadikannya penyiasat atau ejen sebuah syarikat pembanteras jenayah terkemuka.

KELUANG MAN Seorang lelaki yang dikatakan sakit mental dan mempunyai kepakaran dalam silat bertukar menjadi adiwira dan membanteras jenayah di ibu kota.

kutipan sebanyak RM1,116,326. Siri animasi Boboiboy yang mula diperkenalkan di Malaysia pada tahun 2011 telah mendapat sambutan luar biasa daripada penonton. Mempunyai keunikan yang tersendiri, Boboiboy berjaya memukau setiap lapisan umur untuk turut serta menonton di kaca

televisyen. Tidak hanya berhenti setakat itu, produksi Animonsta Studios telah menggerakkan tenaga kerjanya untuk menghasilkan filem Boboiboy The Movie sekitar tahun 2013 yang lalu. Hasil kerja dan berkat kesabaran setelah berjaya menyiapkan keseluruhan kerja pada

pertengahan Februari 2016, akhirnya Boboiboy The Movie memulakan tayangan sulungnya di pawagam bermula 3 Mac pada tahun yang sama. Animonsta berjaya memecah rekod Malaysia, tampil dengan filem animasi pertama dan kutipan kedua tertinggi di negara sebanyak RM17.48 juta. SASARAN Edisi 72 23

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A TRIBUTE TO JOURNALISM: CHASING THE NEWS FROM THE VERY FIRST NEWSPAPER TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF DIGITAL MEDIA SASARAN 72 FULL.indd 29

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Text : Ruzanna Aniza & Mohd Fharkhan

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ince its opening in 2008, more than six million people have visited the modern building located in Pennsylvania Avenue, aptly placed between the U.S. Capitol and the White House. Considered one of the most interactive museums in the world, the Newseum is a platform for visitors to learn the history and evolution of electronic communication -­ from the birth of radio technology of the present and the future. In 2016, the Newseum placed seventh in the list of ‘25 Best Museums in the United States’. THE STRUCTURE OF GREATNESS The seven-­storey interactive museum has a total of 15 exhibition galleries and 15 theatres. Some of the exhibits currently on display are ‘1966: Civil Rights at 50’, a tribute to Black Power movement, the 9/11 Gallery sponsored by Comcast, to honour the 2001 tragedy that hit New York City, a refugee-­themed display that features photographs by Annenberg Space, to name a few. The building, with an area of 643,000 square feet (60,000 m²)

is considered to be a building with unique architecture that exudes modernity, a contrast from the historical recordings that it features inside. The 90 feet (27 m) Newseum Atrium building is home to a dozen galleries with two broadcasting studios and interactive news. The Newseum has an oval-­shaped theatre named Walter and Leonore Annenberg Theatre, with a capacity to accommodate up to 500 spectators and an area of about 145,500 square feet (14,000 m²). The glass building also houses offices for the staff and workers of the Newseum in addition to having a high 2-­storey conference centre, which is located at the top of the building. The Newseum is also famous for its hydraulic passenger lift of the largest and highest in the world, with a capacity of 18,000 pounds which is capable of carrying up to 80 passengers with a travel distance of 100 feet, which includes 7 levels. There is a curved glass wall located on the ground floor, where the names of journalists killed while on duty carved, as a memorial to honour their sacrifices in the name of journalism.

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NEWSEUM: EDUCATING THE MASSES The Newseum has become one of the additional education institutions in the United States, wherein it offer classes and workshops that meet national learning standards. NewseumED, introduced in 2015, is a free online learning platform offered to teachers and students,that provides learning resources inclining on history, media literacy, civics and the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. The Newseum and its institute regularly organize thought-­provoking programs in order to produce a solution to a number of national and international challenges. It also acts as a neutral forum;; the institution is committed in fostering openness, simultaneously fighting for the future of journalism, media freedom,

investigation, the tension between national security and privacy, among others. SHOULD MALAYSIA NEWSEUM?

HAVE

ITS

OWN

The short answer: yes. Journalism is no easy feat. Every day there are threats towards journalists who are fighting to seek the truth and report it. Every day, there is a chance for journalists to be murdered, in the name of cover-­ups. Coupled with the fact that many Malaysians show distaste for newspapers, citing its biasness as a factor – along with their distrust towards journalists whom they believe don’t have integrity – there is no better time than now to build a Malaysian Newseum

that help educate the hoi polloi on the truth about journalism. Not only that, the prospective Malaysian Newseum can help demonstrate to the masses on how journalism in Malaysia has developed – from propaganda flyers and newspapers, to online news portals and breaking news livestreams via smartphone. A comparative nation, Malaysians have too often belittled Malaysian journalism when comparing it with how the Western Media operate. Hence, A Malaysian Newseum can help bring to light the seriousness of the profession, and spread the awareness on how honourable the profession is. There is a Malay proverb that rings, ‘Tak kenal maka tak cinta’, and the aptness of it is evident in this situation.

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eir fate is in your hands

Photo by : World Wide Fund For (Nature (WWF

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Words can hurt think before you text

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Teks: Alyaa Liyana Mazlan

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A

pakah benar tarian Mak Yong itu mempunyai kuasa mistik yang boleh merasuk seseorang? Banyak cerita-­cerita lagenda yang sering didengari berkaitan dengan tarian-­tarian tradisional melayu seperti tarian Mak Yong. Adakala kisah seperti itu banyak memberi amaran tentang hal-­hal khurafat atau yang bertentangan dengan isu agama. Menurut pandangan seorang anak seni yang bernama Zamzuriah Zahari atau lebih dikenali sebagai Zam, tarian Mak Yong ini sangat unik kerana ia merupakan salah satu daripada tarian melayu yang sudah hampir dilupakan. Tarian Mak Yong ini menggabungkan unsur-­unsur ritual, lakonan, tarian, muzik, vokal, instrumental, lagu, cerita dan teks yang formal dan bersahaja. Jelasnya lagi, tarian ini hanyalah sekadar hiburan dan ia tidak terkecuali dalam upacara perubatan. Namun, mengikut kepada sejarah lama, asal usul Mak Yong ini sebenarnya dari Negara Thailand, di mana tarian ini hanya dipersembahkan ketika musim menuai padi bagi menghormati semangat padi yang digelar ‘Semar’ sebagai tanda melahirkan rasa kesyukuran terhadap kebaikan dan kemurahan semangat tersebut dalam memberikan rezeki kepada mereka. Ketika tarian ini dibawa masuk ke Kelantan melalui pengaruh kekuasaan dan kesenian Siam, tarian ini hanyalah dipersembahkan dihadapan raja sahaja. Setelah ia berkembang ke

negeri-­negeri lain, tarian ini mula dipelajari dan dipersembahkan kepada khalayak ramai. Persembahan Mak Yong ini direka dengan nilai falsafah sendiri agar ia dipandang tinggi dan nampak penuh keistimewaan. Pemilihan cerita bagi tarian ini kini berunsurkan keislaman berbanding dahulu kerana kebanyakkan cerita yang digunakan di dalam persembahan ini pada suatu ketika dahulu diambil berdasarkan kepada Hikayat hindu Buddha iaitu epik Ramayana. Setelah ia diresapi dengan pengaruh Islam, seni persembahan ini berubah dari segi tari, persembahan, alatan muzik dan pakaiannya. Seni persembahan ini mengandungi unsur yang selaras dengan ajaran Islam demi mengelakkan dari kelalaian untuk mengingati tuhan. Ianya berlainan sama sekali dengan tanggapan orang ramai, di mana mereka mengatakan tarian ini mengandungi unsur-­unsur khurafat, unsur mistik dan juga unsur-­ unsur yang boleh menggugat keimanan seseorang terutamanya pelakon dan penari di dalam persembahan tarian Mak Yong ini. Walau bagaimanapun, bagi penonton yang menonton tarian ini, mereka dapat merasakan bahawa kebanyakkan penari-­penari ini seolah-­ olah dirasuk oleh Mak Yong semasa menonjolkan tarian ini. Zam yang tidak menyukai tanggapan negatif orang terhadap tarian itu mengatakan apabila mereka menjiwai watak yang

Persembahan Mak Yong ditarikan oleh anak-­anak seni untuk memaparkan keunikan tarian ini bersama-­sama cerita yang mempunyai nilai falsafah yang tinggi.

Alat-­alat muzik yang digunakan dalam persembahan Mak Yong.

Pemilihan cerita bagi tarian ini kini berunsurkan keislaman berbanding dahulu kerana kebanyakkan cerita yang digunakan di dalam persembahan ini pada suatu ketika dahulu diambil berdasarkan kepada Hikayat hindu Buddha iaitu epik Ramayana.”

dibawa di dalam tarian itu, segala pergerakkan dan mimik muka mereka bersatu agar watak yang dimainkan itu menjadi lebih bernyawa. Malah, ia tidak melibatkan sebarang pemujaan atau bacaan yang mampu membuatkan mereka berada dalam keadaan di luar kawalan. Hakikatnya, seni persembahan seperti tarian Mak Yong ini tidak ternilai harganya, dan keindahan yang tersembunyi di dalam persembahan ini haruslah dihargai oleh masyarakat masa kini. Persembahan tarian Mak Yong ini seharusnya diangkat dan dipopularkan ke peringkat yang lebih tinggi kerana ia merupakan satu wadah yang melambangkan hubungan antara kerajaan dengan rakyat.

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THE INDIGENOUS ORANG ASLI OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA Teks:Siti Fatimah Abd Nasir

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he name “Orang Asli” or referred as original people, natural people or the aboriginal. In Malaysia, orang Asli is the earliest population which lives since 5000 years ago along Peninsular Malaysia before the arrival of the Malay people. There were about 18 tribes of orang Asli here. Nowadays, orang Asli makes up about 13% of the country’s population and most of them live in and originated from the East Malaysian state of Sabah and Sarawak. Apart from East Malaysia, it is believed that most orang Asli come from China and Tibet. The orang Asli can be divided into three groups which consist of Semang (Negrito), Senoi and Proto-­Malay (aboriginal Malay). This division is almost

sociological but possesses to a similar cultural characteristic.

place to avoid any disaster at that place.

Despite being termed under one name, the orang is not homogenous subject and each of its tribe has its own language, traditional clothing, and unique culture which subject them as the source of interest to tourists and local people.

As for their houses, they live in small tribes in a jungle made from the leaves as a roof for their house. Other than that, the floor of their house was made of wood. In their life area, to build a house, it will take time about two or three hours depending on the structure of their house.

In 2000, the population of orang Asli is approximately 148,000 from which 60% of them still live in the forest and 40% near the coast. They didn’t live far from the river and always remains in one place until something big happens like a house death or their neighbors/natives contracting severe illness. Until that happens, they will not move to another

Historically, the orang Asli basically live in remote forest areas who engaged in trade with the Malays to exchange jungle source to produce salt, make knives and metal axe-­heads as well as blowpipes bamboo to hunt birds and little monkeys. Most orang Asli especially Negrito hunt in the jungle with blowpipes for

Two major tribes group of Orang Asli, Senoi and Negrito in Royal Belum Rainforest, Perak.

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Orang Asli childrens looking at the photographer through the window of the house. are made from the bamboo while their mouthpiece is made up from damar which is obtained from dipterocarp trees. While for darts, they made it from split leaf-­stalks of Arenga palm cone. The blowpipes are deadly within 20 meters.

As for the first group, the Semang can be found in the Northern territories of Peninsular Malaysia alongside with other isolated South East Asian and can be divided into six groups which are from Kintaq, Lanok, Kensiu, Jahai, Mendriq, and Bates.

Traditionally, the orang Asli is animist. They believed in the presence of spirits in various objects that can affect the community for better or for worst, but as the world modernized, many embraced monotheistic religion such as Islam and Christianity as a result of missionary present and state sponsored programs.

This group is categorized under the derisive title under “Negrito” because of their darker skin, frizzy hair and more towards African appearance and complexion. But other groups of orang Asli are more light-­skinned and have straight hair as compared to Semang group.

Until today, there were about 70% of orang Asli who still practices their traditional animist religion and about 10% were Christian and 15% to 20% are Muslim which has increased from year by year, especially to Proto-­Malay group.

The Semang also live in the jungle and they are semi-­nomadic tribes of orang Asli and just only a few of them are living in urban areas, engaging in both waged and high salaries job. Other than that, the Semang group is estimated to continue their hunter-­

gathering nomadic since 20’s century and they are believed to be related to other tribes which found in the Philippines. Caves and shelters built of bark and leaves are preferred by the Semang group. The majority of Semang people come from Papua New Guinea or East African. The Semang groups also know how to use fire to cook their food with the aid of crude instruments which are made from a stone. They will hunt for food and gather fruits as well as a forest product. Next, the Senoi group is the largest group which can be divided into six groups from Temiar, Semai, Mah Meri, Che Wong, Ja Hut and Semoq Beri. Their population is about 60,000 people. Historically, the Senoi group is believed to have migrated from Vietnam, Cambodia and Southern

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rity of them are living in Cameron Highlands. One interesting fact associated with the Senoi is that they have undergone a great deal of anthropological scrutiny of “Lucid Dreaming” which is the ability to shape a dream to suit the preferences of the dreamer. Other than that, the Senoi also believed by living aggressively and immersing themselves in pleasure by not practicing hedonistic can attain them a significant degree of mental control.

and Semelai. The majority of the Proto-­Malay groups dwell in island territories while some groups have settled along coastal estuaries. This group also had a very pronounced impact on the Malaysian history in fisheries sector because most of them live in the sea areas and their regular activity is behind their “Sea People or Orang Laut”.

their own rubber, oil palm and cocoa farm. The physical appearance of the Proto-­Malay is similar to Malay and they also spoke in the Malay language. Until today, most of them live along the Straits of Malacca and in Southern Johor. Some of them have adopted Islam and adapted into the Malay community.

The physical appearance of Senoi people is just like a real Malaysian but their skin is a bit dark. They speak various branches of orang Asli language especially Senoic and Semelaic language and also national bilingual language, Malaysian.

While perhaps, half of the orang Asli may live in the forest which may involve in hill cultivation, traditional hunting and gathering activities. Orang Seletar and Mah Meri live near the coast and many of them are fishermen. Other groups such as Jakun are mostly involved in agriculture industry while a few Negrito continue a semi-­nomadic lifestyle.

Apart from that, orang Asli today has run many farms and trade for their generation. Bananas, sweet potato, long beans, and cucumbers are the famous food for orang Asli. As for the orang Asli practices, during the wedding ceremonies among particular tribes, both bride and groom will have their teeth sharpened as a belief towards misfortune.

The Proto-­Malay groups are greatly renowned for their seafaring and agriculture prowess. This group had a history with the Borneo Austronesian groups for around 2,000 to 3,000 years ago. This group is divided into six groups which consist of Orang Selatar, Jakun, Orang Kuala, Orang Kanaq, Temuan

The lifestyle of orang Asli varies widely such as fishing. For them, fishing is a chief occupation of coastal communities such as from Orang Laut, Orang Seletar, and Mahmeri. Other groups including some Temuan, Jakun, and Semai communities are practicing a permanent agriculture and manage

By reading we can get information about orang Asli customs and belief. We can see that they still believe in animism and the presence of spirit. The world view of orang Asli is greatly influenced by nature such as mountains, hills, lightning and the universe. Such beliefs have given rise to certain rituals and

A family of Orang Asli is preparing for their food using their natural apparatus.

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TULISAN JAWI KEKAL DI TANAH BRUNEI Teks: Amalina Damanhuri & Izzati Arisi

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ulisan Jawi merupakan tulisan asal dalam sejarah perkembangan bangsa Melayu suatu ketika dahulu, terutamanya ketika penyebaran agama Islam semasa zaman kerajaan melayu lama sekitar abad ke-­15 hingga ke-­18. Perkara ini dibuktikan melalui penemuan artifak seperti batu bersurat, manuskrip lama dan batu nisan. Tulisan Jawi pernah dianggap sebagai nadi kepada perkembangan Bahasa Melayu kerana ianya bukan sahaja digunakan untuk urusan agama, tetapi juga sebagai tulisan rasmi dalam pentadbiran kerajaan dan perhubungan dengan negara-­negara lain. Sehingga ke hari ini, negara yang kaya dengan hasil minyak iaitu Brunei Darussalam merupakan antara negara alam Melayu yang masih memartabatkan dan memperkasakan penggunaan tulisan Jawi. Kepentingan tulisan Jawi di Brunei Darussalam Brunei Darussalam menjadikan tulisan Jawi sebagai salah satu sistem tulisan rasmi yang digunakan di negara itu dalam usahanya untuk memastikan kegemilangan tulisan itu tidak hilang ditelan zaman kerana ianya dianggap sebagai salah satu khazanah bangsa yang harus dipelihara. Tulisan jawi memainkan peranan penting dalam sistem pentadbiran negara Brunei kerana masih digunakan secara rasmi dalam urusan kerajaan selaras dengan surat pekeliling Jabatan Perdana Menteri Brunei bilangan 21/1988 yang menjadikan tulisan Jawi sebahagian

daripada negara.

peraturan

Selain itu, selaku negara pertama yang secara rasminya menggunakan hukum Islam di antara negara-­ negara Asia Tenggara, tulisan Jawi memainkan peranan penting sebagai asas dalam membentuk pembelajaran Al-­ Quran dan kehidupan seorang Islam di Brunei. Oleh kerana itu, sistem pendidikan Brunei telah Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah merupakan ketua negara memperkenalkan asas dan Yang-­Di Pertuan Negara Brunei. pengetahuan tulisan Jawi yang digunakan dalam Kurikulum industri kreatif. Sultan dan Yang Di-­ Pendidikan Bahasa Melayu dan Agama pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam di sekolah rendah. Pihak kerajaan menekankan agar tulisan jawi ini Brunei berharap dengan tindakan ini, dapat terus dipelihara dan dikekalkan pelajar-­pelajar sekolah mempunyai kepentingannya kerana kedudukan asas kemahiran Jawi ketika belajar tulisan Jawi itu sendiri, adalah menjadi bagi memudahkan mereka mengikuti tanggungjawab semua dalam pembelajaran Al-­Quran. mengembangkan penggunaannya. Dalam usaha untuk mengekalkan Keunggulan tulisan Jawi di Brunei tulisan Jawi di Brunei, setiap Darussalam bangunan-­bangunan kementerian, jabatan kerajaan atau swasta perlu Tulisan Jawi yang menjadi menggunakan tulisan Jawi dan mana-­ tulisan rasmi di negara ini kini mana premis juga menggunakan tulisan sebenarnya banyak memperlihatkan Jawi selain ia merupakan tulisan rasmi daya tarikannya kepada negara-­ di Brunei. Usaha ini adalah merupakan negara lain dan juga pelancong yang faktor untuk menarik perhatian berkunjung ke Brunei. Tulisan jawi ini pelancong kerana ia merupakan satu-­ menjadi khazanah negara Brunei satunya negara Melayu yang masih dan seterusnya dengan penguasaan mengekalkan tulisan Jawi terutamanya tulisan jawi secara kreatif dan inovatif di tempat-­tempat umum. Ini juga dapat dapat menyumbang kepada sektor dilihat pada papan-­papan tanda, di

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mana setiap perkataan dalam Bahasa Melayu akan disertakan dengan tulisan jawi. Tulisan ini menjadi nadi kepada perkembangan Bahasa Melayu di Negara Brunei Darussalam. Tambahan pula, tulisan Jawi ini memberi sumbangan yang besar kepada negara Brunei kerana tulisan Khat yang diilhamkan oleh penulis-­penulis khat dan kaligrafi Jawi mendapat pengiktirafan seluruh dunia seterusnya meningkatkan sumber pendapatan negara. Setiap kanak-­ kanak di Brunei akan didedahkan dengan seni penulisan Khat ini dengan tujuan untuk memupuk minat mereka seterusnya memberi pendedahan awal kepada mereka mengenai tulisan Jawi dan ini secara tidak langsung warisan itu dapat diteruskan dari generasi ke generasi yang akan datang. Keunikan tulisan Jawi menjadi keunggulan negara Brunei kerana tulisan Jawi merupakan kaitan yang dekat dengan Islam. Ini dapat dilihat dimana negara Brunei sangat menitikberatkan agama Islam dan akan memastikan setiap umat Islam mengamalkan budaya yang baik serta patuh pada ajaran Islam. Negara ini sewajarnya dijadikan contoh bagi sebuah negara maju dan kaya raya kerana masih memegang teguh pada

Antara papan tanda premis perniagaan dan papan tanda jalan yang menggunakan tulisan Jawi yang terdapat di Brunei. ciri-­ciri asli yang menjadi imej kepada agama Islam dan mengamalkan

prinsip yang sama dalam mentadbir negara mereka.

Negara Brunei Darussalam sebuah negara Islam berlandaskan motto "sentiasa berbuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah". 40 SASARAN Edisi 72

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NILAI ESTETIKA INSTAGRAM Teks: Fatin Nurulshahirah Binti Maaris

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nstagram berfungsi sebagai laman perkongsian gambar dan video harian. Namun, tidak lengkap nilai sesebuah estetik gambar yang dimuat turun itu jika tidak dikemaskini dan disunting terlebih dahulu bagi menghasilkan gambar yang cantik untuk mewarnai dan menarik perhatian pengguna Instagram yang lain.

Nilai Estetik Tidak Memerlukan Tema Setiap gambar yang dimuat turun tidak semestinya memerlukan penggunaan tema yang sama. Anda tidak perlu menghadkan seperti hanya memuatnaik gambar makanan sahaja. Bagi menjadikan gambar lebih menarik di Instagram, anda seharusnya bebas memilih nilai estetik dalam setiap gambar dan memberi pengaruh harian kepada pengguna Instagram yang lain. Anda berhak berkongsi gambar kesukaan anda! Selain itu, pemilihan warna estetik dalam penyuntingan seperti penggunaan warna terang, keemasan, malap, gelap atau warna warni adalah antara warna yang mampu menarik perhatian pengguna Instagram yang lain untuk singgah ke laman Instagram anda. Penggunaan warna yang sama dan konsisten seperti gambar yang sebelum, membantu menambah nilai estetik. Sebagai contoh seorang juru gambar Caroline Lee daripada @ teamwoodnote telah memilih warna-­ warna menarik iaitu penggunaan warna-­ warni bagi memberi impak ceria kepada hasil tangkapan gambar yang dilakukan di majlis-­majlis seperti majlis perkahwinan, gambar makanan mahupun “selfie”

Contoh penggunaan Instagram Grid, dalam menghasilkan sebuah identiti gambar yang lengkap

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SENI

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Penggunaan Teknik Penyuntingan Gambar Secara Konsisten Pastikan anda mengaplikasi teknik penyuntingan pada nisbah yang sama pada semua gambar supaya hasil gambar tersebut kelihatan lebih eksklusif dan mempunyai identiti tersendiri. Ini tidak bermakna anda perlu terhadkan penggunaan “filter” dengan hanya menggunakan satu “filter” yang sama. Hal ini ,dengan tidak menggunakan terlalu banyak teknik penyuntingan mampu menghasilkan nilai estetik serta mencipta karakter anda yang tersendiri pada setiap gambar yang dikongsikan di Instagram.

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3 5

Mudah dan Minimalist Cuba memudahkan jalan cerita yang ingin disampaikan. Foto yang baik dan mempunyai nilai estetik tersendiri adalah apabila dilihat sekali imbas, para pengguna Instagram dapat melihat subjek utama, dalam foto tersebut. Asingkan subjek utama dengan latar belakang dan dari unsur-­unsur yang tidak perlu ada dan tidak penting. Bagaimana ingin menghasilkan foto yang minimalist? Anda boleh mengikuti bengkel-­bengkel asas fotografi untuk maklumat lanjut.

Aplikasi Penyuntingan Gambar Berikut adalah antara aplikasi yang banyak membantu dalam kaedah penyuntingan foto yang membantu menyerlahkan nilai estetik sesebuah foto sebelum dimuat naik ke profil Instagram: VSCOcam merupakan aplikasi yang boleh dimuat turun secara percuma oleh pengguna telefon pintar Android mahupun iOS. Manakala aplikasi “Afterlight” merupakan aplikasi penyuntingan foto yang membantu dalam menapis foto supaya kelihatan lebih bersih dan kemas. Tidak ketinggalan Instagram juga mempunya aplikasi penyuntingan tersendiri. Pengguna mempunyai banyak pilihan aplikasi dalam penyuntingan gambar.

Nilai Estetik Instagram Grid Pastinya anda pernah melihat gambar yang dimuatnaik di profil Instagram seperti potongan foto “puzzle” yang disusun menjadi foto besar? Pemecahan foto kepada beberapa bahagian, lazimnya pecahan gambar tersebut terbahagi kepada enam hingga ke sembilan bahagian dan apabila disusun dan digabungkan akan terhasil sebuah gambar. Teknik ini diguna pakai dengan menggunakan aplikasi Instagram Grid. Bagaimanakah cara untuk menggunakan teknik ini? Muat turun foto satu persatu secara berurutan sehingga menjadi foto besar di profil Instagram anda. Hal ini anda perlu menggunakan aplikasi InstaGrid untuk mendapatkan hasil yang diingini. Selamat mencuba!

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“CLEAN” ENOUGH?

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SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI

Great  Barrier Reef

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Text: Maizura Zainal Abiddin

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ustralia's great natural wonder, the Great Barrier Reef is blessed with the breathtaking beauty of the world's largest coral reef and this Australia's most remarkable natural gifts consist of an abundance of marine life and because of its natural beauty, the Great Barrier Reef has become one of the world's most sought after tourist destinations. The Great Barrier Reef is one of the seven wonders of the natural world and you can understand why by viewing it from a greater distance. As the largest living structure on the planet, the Great Barrier Reef is incredibly rich and diverse so that visitors come to enjoy its abundant marine life as well as go snorkeling, scuba diving, helicopter tours, sailing, glass-­bottomed boat viewing, semi-­ submersibles and educational trips. However, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority earlier this year estimated 22 percent of coral died across the length of the reef due to heat stress. Scientists warn that as the planet warms due to climate change, the bleaching process of variety types of coral is expected to become more severe. ABC News reported on Great Barrier Reef, governments must spend more to save world heritage area while The Times UK stated that underwater heatwave destroys was swathes of barrier reef's coral. Moreover, The Guardian reported Great Barrier Reef scored D for health for the fifth year in a row. The Washington Post also reported on November 9, the death of coral reefs could be devastating for millions of humans and cause to economic disaster since it is the main source of income for certain people. The media outlets reports show how the Great Barrier Reef is dying shows that it is not that great to be called great barrier reefs. It is really devastated to know that beautiful creature and the barrier to any disaster now is slowly losing their attractiveness. The results confirmed the urgent need for a sustainable management approach to preserving existing biodiversity and to allow damaged coral to recover.

According to WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) Malaysia, areas with minimal damage can recover in as little as three to five years meanwhile areas with more significant damage will require longer, five to ten years or more. Coral bleaching occurs when the stressed coral host ejects the tiny marine algae also known as zooxanthellae which function to give its color and "energy' for it to grow and reproduce. Corals can regain their zooxanthellae and glow if the temperature returns to normal. When heat stress continues for eight weeks or more, bleached coral often dies and if the mortality rate on a reef is high it can take reefs years or decades to recover. Recently, Malaysia established the biggest marine protected area named Tun Mustapha Park occupies 1 million hectares of seascape off the northern tip of Sabah province in Borneo which is the region containing the second largest concentration of coral reefs in Malaysia. Marco Lambertini, Director General of World Wide Fund for Nature International said the establishment of Tun Mustapha Park will boost the conservation and biodiversity of this uniquely rich natural environment. However, the challenge now is to try and make it all work as the Coral Triangle and reefs around the world face unprecedented levels of coral bleaching and plummeting fish stocks, effective, replicable marine management models that work for both people and ecosystems will be critical and we cannot deny the governments must spend more money and funding was crucial to saving our heritage area. It does not only focus on Great Barrier Reef, but our very own coral reefs also affected by the warmer climate changes around the globe. The most important thing right now is how the Malaysian's authorities take the responsibilities and act an action to preserve our country heritage before it is too late. We do not want to cry over our very own coral reefs are bleaching and dying.

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MISTERI

AIR MATA BIRU DI

MIRI Teks: Muhammad Hasif Mohd Jelani

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SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI

Fenomena unik ini turut mencuri tumpuan pelancong dari luar negara.

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ekitar September tahun lalu, Borneo Post melaporkan kenampakan cahaya misteri berwarna biru di pesisir Pantai Trusan, Bkenu di Miri, Sarawak dan jolokan kepada fenomena yang menakjubkan itu disebut sebagai ‘air mata biru’ (blue tears). Difahamkan, fenomena itu pertama kali dikesan oleh seorang jurugambar tempatan bernama Albert Song. Cahaya misteri berkenaan kemudian dilaporkan turut kelihatan di beberapa lagi lokasi berlainan di daerah Miri seperti Pantai Lutong,Piasau Boat Club, Pantai Luak Esplanade, Beach Republic, Brighton, Taman Selera dan Pantai Beraya. Seorang lagi jurugambar yang juga ahli media, Jason Chang berkata, melalui pemerhatiannya ke setiap kawasan itu, Pantai Luak Esplanade adalah lokasi paling jelas dapat melihat fenomena itu. Bahkan ia dapat dirakam walau dengan kamera biasa. Pun begitu, Chang mengakui sukar mendapatkan gambar terbaik walaupun dia menggunakan kamera Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) kerana ia turut memerlukan skil fotografi. Chang merasakan dia berpuas hati kerana dapat merakamkan fenomena yang dianggap unik itu walaupun hasilnya kurang memberangsangkan

berbanding gambar Song. Terkini, fenomena itu dilaporkan sekali lagi kelihatan pada November lalu dengan bukti bergambar daripada seorang pemerhatinya, Chong Ee Vei. Hakikatnya, sekitar kawasan-­ kawasan yang disebutkan kini menjadi satu tarikan terutama kepada ahli sains dan jurugambar yang mahu melihat dan merakam dengan lebih dekat fenomena cahaya neon biru yang cukup mengujakan sesiapa yang memandang itu. Bahkan, ia turut menarik minat pengunjung luar negara terutamanya Brunei. Ramai yang sanggup datang dan mencari sendiri keunikan itu apatah lagi fenomena itu berlaku pada waktu malam. Sebenarnya, fenomena yang dimaksudkan dinamakan bioluminescence. Fenomena itu

Ramai yang sanggup datang dan mencari sendiri keunikan itu apatah lagi fenomena itu berlaku pada waktu malam.”

mungkin masih baru di Malaysia tetapi ia turut berlaku di beberapa lokasi di luar negara. Antaranya Gippsland (Australia), Pantai Manasquan (New Jersey), Teluk Mosquito (Puerto Rico), Teluk Halong (Vietnam) dan Ton Sai Krabi (Thailand). Melihatkan kepada keanehan ini, fenomena bioluminescence mengundang persoalan yang cukup menarik lebih-­lebih lagi kepada orang awam yang telah menyaksikan sendiri. Adakah cahaya berkenaan daripada haiwan laut atau sekadar satu lagi fenomena alam yang berlaku atas sifat semulajadi dan jika benar, apa pula penjelasan saintifik di sebaliknya? Bioluminescence sebenarnya ialah cahaya yang dihasilkan oleh organisma hidup akibat tindak balas kimia. Ia dapat dilihat hampir di keseluruhan habitat marin, daripada bahagian dasar laut hinggalah ke permukaan laut, sebagaimana yang dapat dilihat di sekitar daerah Miri. Hakikatnya, fenomena ini bukanlah satu kejanggalan kerana banyak hidupan laut daripada bakteria, plankton sehinggalah kepada ikan seperti jerung sebenarnya turut menghasilkan bioluminescence. Di Miri, spesis yang menyebabkan fenomena itu berlaku ialah phytoplankton sebagai satu tindak balas dengan oksigen di dalam laut.

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Menurut fakta dikeluarkan Servis Lautan Nasional Amerika Syarikat, phytoplankton adalah sejenis tumbuhan marin mikroskopik yang juga dikenali sebagai mikroalga. Kebanyakan phytoplankton yang bersifat terapung ini hidup di bahagian atas laut di mana organisma ini lebih mudah menerima cahaya matahari untuk tujuan fotosinstesis. Dua kelas utama phytoplankton dikenali sebagai ‘Dinoflagellates’ dan ‘Diatoms’. Phytoplankton kelas pertama iaitu ‘Dinoflagellates’ berbentuk seperti ekor atau cemeti disebut ‘flagella’ yang memudahkannya bergerak di dalam air. Ia turut memiliki cangkerang yang kompleks. ‘Diatoms’ walau bagaimanapun turut memiliki cangkerang tetapi ia terhasil daripada bahan berbeza dengan struktur bulat yang lebih keras. Memandangkan ‘Diatoms’ tidak memiliki ‘flagella’, ‘Diatoms’ cuma bergerak mengikut gelombang air laut. Sependapat dengan fakta itu, seorang jurugambar yang mahu dikenali sebagai Wong walau bagaimanapun percaya phytoplankton di Miri itu adalah daripada spesis ‘Dinoflagellates’. Alga ini menghasilkan cahaya neon yang

Katanya, pengunjung perlu mencari lokasi yang gelap dan meliarkan mata pada kawasan laut berkenaan sekitar 10 minit.”

Sejenis phytoplankton mengeluarkan cahaya.

yang

Cahaya terang dihasilkan sebagai satu tindak balas kepada pergerakan misalnya gelombang ombak. terang apabila kawasan air yang didiami makhluk ini terganggu akibat pergerakan misalnya gelombang ombak. Jawapannya barangkali bertepatan dengan antara tujuan bioluminescence berlaku pada kebanyakan organisma lautan. Salah satunya ialah tindak balas sebagai amaran kepada pemangsa. Dalam kes ‘Dinoflagellates’, gelombang ombak mungkin dianggap sebagai satu ancaman. Antara lain, bioluminescence turut digunapakai sebagai satu kaedah memerangkap mangsa oleh pemangsa lain sebagai satu cara komunikasi antara organisma dalam spesis yang sama. Pun begitu, harus difahami bahawa tidak lagi diketahui secara menyeluruh fungsi bioluminescence yang terdapat pada setiap haiwan kerana setiap organisma menggunakannya atas tujuan pelbagai dan berbeza. Sedar atau tidak, bioluminescence barangkali mungkin bukan lagi janggal pada kebanyakan kita yang pernah melihat kelip-­kelip atau kulat tanah kerana dua organisma daratan ini juga sebenarnya melakukan proses yang

sama. Ee Vei , yang baru menemukan fenomena ini di Miri pada November lalu ada mencatatkan tips sekiranya ada yang berminat untuk menyaksikannya sendiri. Katanya, pengunjung perlu mencari lokasi yang gelap dan meliarkan mata pada kawasan laut berkenaan sekitar 10 minit. Kegunaan lampu suluh haruslah hanya digunakan sebagai panduan untuk berjalan, bukannya menyuluh ke arah bioluminescence yang hanya akan menyukarkan pandangan mata kasar. Katanya lagi, pengunjung perlu rapat dan dekap ke bawah serta memerhati air laut dengan teliti ketika ombak bergelombang. Di situ, pengunjung boleh melihat titik-­titik bercahaya dan lihat gelombang berikutnya sama ada bercahaya atau pun tidak. Ee Vei berpendapat, pengunjung perlu bersabar kerana adakalanya gelombang itu boleh menjadi terang dan senang dilihat dan kadangkala sebaliknya. Apapun, fenomena ini pastinya berpotensi menjadi satu lagi daya tarikan yang wajar diberi perhatian.

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SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI

KITA BAKAL PUNYAI INSANG Teks: Muhammad Hasif Mohd Jelani

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ernahkah anda terbayang bagaimana fizikal manusia pada lima ribu tahun akan datang? Dengarnya mungkin tidak masuk akal dan hampir kepada rekaan fiksyen sains futuristik tetapi seorang pakar paleoantropologis, Dr Matthew Skinner dari Universiti Kent telah membuat ramalan ilmiah berkenaan evolusi fizikal manusia pada tempoh lima alaf lagi dan salah satunya termasuk manusia bakal punyai insang. Melalui bidang kemahirannya, Dr Skinner selalu menjawab persoalan mengenai tumbesaran manusia, taksonomi dan sejarah evolusi bagi spesis primat yang masih wujud mahupun telah pupus. Justeru, pendedahan Dr Skinner sebagai seorang saintis berkenaan teori fizikal manusia mengundang kontroversi yang tidak kurang hangat diperdebatkan malah tidak kurang juga menjadi bahan jenaka terutama di laman-­laman sosial. Pendedahan Dr Skinner

yang dibuat Januari lalu adalah bersempena pelancaran tayangan dokumentari Extant Musim Kedua. Melalui pendedahan itu, Dr Skinner meramalkan tiga kemungkinan evolusi manusia berdasarkan tiga jenis perubahan iklim yang bakal menjadi habitat baharu manusia. DUNIA AIR Senario pertama perubahan iklim yang menjadi ramalan saintis-­saintis sebelum ini ialah ‘Dunia Air’ yang terhasil akibat pencairan ais. Hal ini menyumbang kepada peningkatan paras laut secara drastik sehingga tiada lagi daratan. Pada zaman ini, manusia diramalkan mempunyai tangan dan kaki yang berselaput untuk memudahkan manusia berenang dan mata menyerupai mata kucing yang akan membantu penglihatan yang kabur dalam pencahayaan yang kurang di bawah laut. Bahkan, bahagian mata juga akan

memiliki kelopak dengan nictitating membrane iaitu satu lapisan yang secara fitrahnya bertujuan mengekalkan kelembapan juga melindungi daripada kotoran, sebagaimana dimiliki spesis burung, reptilia dan sebahagian mamalia. Manusia juga dijangka akan mempunyai lebihan lemak dipanggil ‘baby fat’ yang peranannya adalah untuk manusia bertahan untuk tempoh yang lama hidup di dasar laut yang dalam. Lebih menakjubkan, Dr Skinner tidak menolak kemungkinan manusia juga akan mempunyai insang artifisial seperti ikan yang membantu manusia bernafas juga mengekstrak oksigen daripada air. Bukan bertujuan untuk menakut-­ nakutkan tapi ketika ini paras air sebenarnya sedang meningkat dengan mendadak akibat pencairan ais di Greenland, menurut pasukan saintis pelbagai negara.

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Beginilah rupa manusia yang diramalkan Dr. Skinner pada 5 000 tahun akan datang. PLANET ASING Senario kedua ialah berkenaan habitat manusia yang barangkali akan mendiami planet lain sebagai satu langkah survival peradaban manusia, sebagaimana yang dilihat dalam kebanyakan karya fiksyen sains hari ini. Selain tempat tinggal, survival manusia semestinya termasuk aspek makanan yang mana menjurus kepada teori manusia akan bergantung kepada makanan dalam bentuk cecair atau pil. Logiknya, bahagian mulut akan menjadi lebih relaks sekali gus mengakibatkan penstrukturan rahang yang lebih kecil dan jumlah gigi yang mungkin berkurang. Tangan manusia juga akan menjadi lebih panjang manakala kaki akan menjadi lebih pendek kerana untuk merendahkan pusat graviti manusia. Hal ini disebabkan kebanyakan planet mempunyai graviti yang lebih rendah berbanding Bumi.

Keadaan ini akan mengakibatkan manusia memiliki wajah yang lebih lebar dan hidung yang lebih besar kerana bahagian nasopharinx yang terdapat di belakang hidung akan memainkan peranan dengan lebih kerap iaitu memanaskan udara.”

ZAMAN AIS KEDUA Senario terakhir adalah ketika bumi dilanda Zaman Ais Kedua yang akan mencatatkan penurunan suhu

bumi yang mendadak. Keadaan ini akan mengakibatkan manusia memiliki wajah yang lebih lebar dan hidung yang lebih besar kerana bahagian nasopharinx yang terdapat di belakang hidung akan memainkan peranan dengan lebih kerap iaitu memanaskan udara. Kurangnya cahaya matahari pula bermakna kurangnya sumber vitamin D. Justeru, manusia diramal akan memiliki warna kulit lebih pucat dengan rambut yang memutih untuk menyerap lebih cahaya. Seperti kebanyakan mamalia yang hidup di kutub, manusia juga diramalkan memiliki bulu badan yang lebih lebat bertujuan memanaskan badan pada keadaan sejuk melampau. Harus diingatkan bahawa ramalan-­ramalan ini bukanlah daripada orang kebiasaan melainkan daripada seorang saintis yang bertauliah. Maka, ramalannya boleh disifatkan ‘mungkin terjadi’ daripada ‘tidak mungkin terjadi’.

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Walaupun ada yang beranggapan bahawa ramalannya adalah ‘luar biasa’ hakikatnya manusia sentiasa dalam proses evolusi sebagaimana manusia hari ini daripada generasi primitif ribuan tahun lalu. Perkara ini sangat berkait rapat dengan survival manusia untuk meneruskan kehidupan walau dalam apa cara dan keadaan sekali pun. Menariknya, tanda-­tanda evolusi bukan sahaja dapat dilihat daripada manusia normal bahkan dalam kes-­ kes terpencil ada ‘kelainan’ yang berlaku pada individu tertentu misalnya penyanyi Amerika, Kesha dilaporkan dilahirkan dengan ekor sepanjang satu inci namun telah dibuang melalui pembedahan dan pelakon Hollywood, Mark Wahlberg dan penyanyi Lilly Allen pula dilahirkan dengan tiga puting dada atau nama saintifiknya supernumerary nipple. Namun begitu, sejauh mana kenyataan ramalan Dr Skinner hanya masa dan generasi akan datang mampu mengetahui -­ atau menjadi sebahagian daripada realitinya.

Perkara ini sangat berkait rapat dengan survival manusia untuk meneruskan kehidupan walau dalam apa cara dan keadaan sekali pun.”

Kesha, Mark Wahlberg dan Lily Allen antara yang memiliki keunikan dari segi fizikal mereka.

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What’s up with Mala Text: Mohd Fharkhan Abd Ghapar

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alaysia is located near the equator, between latitude 1°N -­ 7°N and vertical line 98°E -­ 119°E, is a tropical country generally having a hot and humid weather all year round. The average annual rainfall level of the country is high – between 2,000mm and 4,000mm a year, compared to neighbouring countries with temperate and cold which has an average rainfall of less than 2,000mm. The country’s daily temperature is almost uniform throughout the year with an av-­ erage reading of about 32°C maximum. However, each year, the weather will change according to the season based on the wind flow pattern to our country.

The Wind Movement Effects The occurrence of the surface warming unevenly between the northern and southern hemispheres of the earth affects the wind movement globally. This occurs because the sun is the main source of heat to the Earth. It’s position is constantly changing throughout the year due to the Earth’s tilted at an angle of 23.5° on its axis. Earth actually moves around the sun in the orbit and com-­ plete one round for 365 days, which is equivalent to a year. Annually, on March 21st the sun gradually be moved to the northern part of the earth causes the daytime in countries that are there will be longer than the nights. As a result, more heat will be concentrated there to make the area warmer than the southern part of the earth. Around June 22, the position of the sun is vertically above the Tropic of Cancer, which is located at latitude 23.5° north. This marks the beginning of summer for the countries that are in the Northern Hemisphere where in contrast, countries in the Southern Hemisphere will experience a night longer and receive less solar heat, which leads to the occurrence of winter at the same time Earth’s heat in the north will lead to the formation of atmospheric low-­pressure area, while in the Southern Hemisphere cooler will form a high-­pressure area. Significant pressure difference between the two regions of the earth caused the movement of atmospheric high pres-­ sure area to the low, from south to north. Wind movement direction will deviate slightly from the ef-­ fects of earth movements that always rotate in an anticlock-­ wise direction around its axis at a rate of 1,670 kilometres (km) per hour which is equivalent to one complete round that took about 24 hours. Given that Malaysia is located in the middle of the path of the wind (between May and September) which blows from the southwest, that causes the nation to experi-­ ence a period of southwest monsoon. During this season, the weather in Malaysia is often quite hot and has less rainfall than

“December 2014, the country was shocked by the extreme flood events which ten times worse from the monstrous monsoon season in 1926 and 1967” the coastal areas of the northern states of the peninsula and the west coast and northern Sabah. However, neighbouring countries such as Indonesia and Thailand also experience the same weather. This situation could lead to dry weather and forest fire that may produce fumes of transboundary haze. The weather can be extreme if they occur together with the El Nino phenomenon, as in 1998 and 2005. During the south-­ west monsoon , tropical cyclone activity in the western Pacific Ocean is very active. The Sun will begin to gradually shift to the south of the earth after June 22nd. In this way, we will once again experience the phenomenon of the equinox – when the sun crosses and is located vertically above the earth’s equator, which usual-­ ly falls on September 23rd each year. In the Southern Hemi-­ sphere, the daytime is longer than the night and the Northern Hemisphere will experience cold winters with a longer night than day. This results in Malaysia will receive wind from the northeast, which is the period in which the country is experi-­ encing the Northeast Monsoon or rainy days. Weather condi-­ tions at the beginning and middle of the season is very humid with relatively strong winds, especially in the east coast and most of Sarawak. This season is also often associated with the massive flooding that can result in property damage and loss of life.

The uncertain weather by the end of year In December 2014, the country was shocked by the ex-­ treme flood events which ten times worse from the monstrous monsoon season in 1926 and 1967. In humid weather, the country also experience a lower temperature than the prev-­ alence in the season following the movements of the winter wind from Mainland China to Malaysia. However, the weather conditions become drier and hotter in the final phase of the monsoon. In addition to severe weather that occurred in the south west monsoon and the Northeast, the country also suf-­

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SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI

alaysia’s weather? fers from bad weather at the time of the transitional season between the two monsoons, namely Septem-­ ber until early November when the southwest mon-­ soon shifts to the Northeast and part of March to early May when the southwest monsoon season now turn to the Southwest. During the monsoon, the situation is calmer with winds blowing from different directions and the po-­ sition of the sun is vertically above the country. This condition causes the atmosphere to be very unstable, which can lead to the formation of cumulonimbus cloud. This cloud type is categorized as the most dan-­ gerous clouds. These clouds typically produce heavy rain for a short time and is always associated with flash floods. In addition, the presence of clouds is also accom-­ panied by a howling wind with lightning and thunder that may result in property damage and loss of life. Occurrence of heavy rain and thunderstorms during the inter-­monsoon is usually concentrated in the states west coast of Perlis to Johor. Other adverse weather phenomena that are common during the monsoon transition period include the formation of hail and a tornado trunk water. Thunderstorms result from cumulonimbus cloud which is relatively small in size, between 1 and 10 kilo-­ metres wide, compared with other weather phenom-­ ena, such as tropical cyclones, the hurricanes and drought. However, it is very dangerous, especially for flight operations and daily activities. This phenomenon usually produces strong winds, lightning and thunder and heavy rain that lasts from half an hour up to sever-­ al hours, depending on the intensity of the storm. This situation may lead to flash flooding, fallen trees and landslides. Understanding the characteristics and the cycle of our country’s weather is vital and important for Malay-­ sians by acknowledging the annual cycle of the lo-­ cal weather, Malaysians more prepared and ready to face any consequences of the weather. Precautions can be taken and who knows, despite negative im-­ pacts of bad weather, one can find a silver lining and make used of it.

Malaysia face transboundry haze every year

Massive flood striked East Panisular Malaysia back in December 2014

*the article was taken and edited from The Malaysian Meteoro-­ logical Department (MetMalaysia)*

El Nino phenomenon cause water depreciation in most dams in Malaysia in June 2016 SASARAN Edisi 72 53

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SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI

SUPER

MOON: Text: Nur Anis Farhanah Abd Malek

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ast and present, the moon has been a spectacular sight for us to imagine and explore more on the space that is miles far away from us. Even at its original size, it is enough to mesmerise our sight. But, what happened if the Moon is to be larger than its original size? This phenomenon is called as Supermoon. Supermoon is not an astronomical term, its original term is full or new moon. The founder of this astronomical term for Supermoon was coined by an astrologer, Richard Nolle in 1979. However, the important thing is how can the Supermoon occur at some times and no other time? Moon’s orbit around the earth is elliptical whereby the orbit is slightly like an oval shape. So, sometimes it can be nearer to the earth and at times it is normal. The term for such occurrence is perigee (when the moon is nearest to earth in orbit) and apogee (when the moon is farther from earth). Thus, regarding the Supermoon phenomenon, it occurs when moon is 90 percent closest to earth in a given orbit and at the same time the earth, moon and sun are in a straight line during the moon orbits the earth. Scientifically,

this situation is called as perigee-­syzygy that describes the earth-­full moon-­sun condition. In 2016, the world has witnessed three Supermoon phenomena that have occurred on October 16, November 14 and December 14. However, on November 14, the moon is in its closest point to earth for two hours perigee in the 21th century since 1948. November 14’s Supermoon is not the only one that at its closest point, but what had been spotted in 1948, it was 70 years ago. Also, the Supermoon will not be any closer until November 25, 2034. The perigee Supermoon can be 14 percent bigger and 30 percent brighter as what happened in November 14 this year. On top of that, Supermoon is irrefutable stunning but there is also ‘moon illusion’ term. Moon illusion occurs when the Supermoon is near to the earth;; it can be unnaturally bigger when viewed from trees or buildings. Moon illusion may happen as well when it is at low-­hanging condition making it seems easily reached by hands. Despite of its remarkable and stunning sight-­serving, it also ensures its own effects. During the phenomenon of Supermoon, the sun’s and moon’s

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“ gravitational effects are coalesced and may affect the gravity system in earth. The gravity in the earth is affected as its tides will play its role then. Tides in an understandable term mean the rising and falling of the sea which displays how the Supermoon would affect the earth. Nonetheless, its gravity result will not affect human body as it upshots the ocean. When this occurs, the gravitational effect as a result will slightly stretch the earth where this is called as differential gravitational effect. For the earth surface is quite rigid, hence the gravitational effect will not influence much, but the ocean does. That is why, when the full moon occurs, the ocean level will fluctuate. Malaysia is also not exceptional. In a Malaysian newspaper’s News Straits Times on November 14, 2016, that day spotted a larger-­than-­usual Supermoon. The Meteorological Department warned the low-­lying areas to be prepared as the phenomenon might cause king tides which leads to flood. It also showed that the coastal areas of western Sarawak and Port Klang might experience king tides. For Malaysia is

Apart from its incredible features and phenomenon, there are also some interesting facts about Supermoon that we should know...”

surrounded by mostly sea and ocean, precaution should be taken to avoid unwanted incidents. Apart from its incredible features and phenomenon, there are also some interesting facts about Supermoon that we should know. Firstly, Supermoon will look stunningly bigger during winter. On the Northern Hemisphere, the earth is closer to the sun. Thus, the powerful gravitational effect of sun will pull the moon closer which makes it looks even bigger. Therefore, be in winter to witness the even-­larger Supermoon! Secondly, to add more spectacular sight during the moon illusion, then enjoy it during the moonrise. This is because, at this moment, the moon will be nearer to the horizon which makes its appearance larger and brighter than the usual super full moon at the higher up sky. Last but not least, including the tidal effects, the Supermoon, thanks to God so far will not cause disaster to us. Even it undeniably might cause some gravitational effects on earth;; however we still can take a deep breath, relaxing on a laid back bench while enjoying the stunning eyesight of Supermoon.

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Collection of 2016 Supermoon phenomenon that succesfully captured around the world. Despite all the scientific facts, the Supermoon mythology is not exceptional. During the ancestors’ time, they always relate the phenomenon with weird and wicked behaviour of human and even animals. According to the lunar theory that is relatively associated to the moon motion, it is assumed that the new moon cycle has effects on human behaviour whereby they tend to be lunatic. Even though the myth of Supermoon seems funny and illogical, but, there are evidences that denote such myth might be true. In a publication of National Criminal Justice Service, it comprises a data analysis of human behaviour. Concerning to that, the lunar astronomy recorded that the Supermoon phenomenon may influence human as it indicates bizarre results. This is supported by a study of 5 years period of time from a record of police in Florida that recorded numerous numbers of homicide and assault around the Supermoon phenomena. All in all, regardless of its causes or myth, we as human who live in this unexpected and mysterious world, we have to embrace every tiny thing that transpires around us gratefully and be thankful to God for the enormous and exceptional opportunity to witness all the unforeseen events that has taken place.

The perigee-­szygy (extra large moon-­earth-­eun) condition of Supermoon phenomenon.

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PULL OVER to  a  safe  place Photo  by  :  Pinterest

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LAPORAN KHAS

KOLOKIUM KRITIKAN MEDIA KE-­35

TUAN MOHD ASRI TUAN HUSSEIN

ASP FOO CHECK SENG

DR. NOOR SULASTRY YURNI DATO' AHMAD

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KOLOKIUM KRITIKAN MEDIA

Teks: Haifa Hafizah binti Mohd Nasirr & Aiman Rizkyka Adilla

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Kolokium Kritikan Media 35 mendapat reaksi positif daripada para pensyarah dan pelajar yang hadir

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ajlis Kolokium Kritikan Media yang saban tahun dianjurkan oleh pelajar semester lima Fakulti Komunikasi dan Pengajian Media merupakan yang ke-­35 pada 7 November lepas. Kolokium kebiasaannya mengupas isu dari aspek masyarakat dan negara. Pada semester kali ini tajuk Wartawan, Media dan Jenayah telah diangkat sebagai tema. Bermula dengan ucapan perasmian daripada Prof Dr. Mokhtar bin Muhammad, beliau berkata isu mengenai wartawan dan jenayah merupakan isu penting yang perlu diberi perhatian kerana ia memiliki kesan yang amat meluas bukan sahaja melibatkan institusi media dan pengamalnya, malah mempengaruhi suasana politik dan antropologi termasuk masyarakat di negara kita. Seperti diketahui umum, profesion sebagai wartawan hari ini sangat mencabar berbanding dahulu. Bidang kewartawanan hari ini bukan sahaja berdepan cabaran dari sudut pelaporan, tetapi antara keutamaan

yang dititikberatkan adalah dalam memastikan berita yang disampaikan mampu diperoleh dalam waktu yang pantas, tuntas dan tepat. Keadaan yang wujud ini menyaksikan keperluan dan aliran hubungan secara langsung di antara institusi media dengan pihak berwajib. Jika dilihat dalam konteks kolokium kali ini, kerjasama yang diberi oleh pihak Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM) dalam perkongsian intipati perihal jenayah telah membuka minda pengunjung dalam memperolehi sumber-­sumber yang merujuk kepada jenayah. Kesahihan maklumat berkaitan jenayah wajib diperolehi daripada pihak PDRM dan bukanlah hanya merujuk kepada viral yang disebarkan di media sosial sahaja,� kata Prof Dr. Mokhtar. Selain itu, wartawan hari ini perlulah memiliki kompetensi yang bukan hanya berpaksikan pada kekuatan penulisan berita biasa, tetapi juga memiliki kepakaran dalam mengatur, menganalisis, dan mempersembahkan berita jenayah

yang memiliki kesan kepada masyarakat Kolokium kali ini adalah bertepatan serta kena pada masanya kerana ia memberi maklumat yang komprehensif mengenai sumbangan yang dilakukan oleh pengamal media dan memiliki kesan secara langsung kepada masyarakat dan kestabilan negara. Media sosial juga sememangnya menjadi platform penting dan utama dalam bidang kewartawanan kerana ia mempunyai capaian maklumat yang diperoleh daripada pelbagai sumber sekaligus secara tidak langsung membantu dalam aspek pelaporan berita. Hari ini media memainkan peranan penting dalam mendidik masyarakat khususnya sebagai agen penyampai informasi dan maklumat. Kerjasama yang wujud antara media dan pasukan keselamatan seperti PDRM adalah sangat diperlukan terutama dalam proses penghasilan berita berkaitan dengan aspek jenayah, Proses yang terlibat perlulah jelas untuk difahami agar tidak menjejaskan sesuatu siasatan yang sedang dijalankan.

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KHAS:

KOLOKIUM KRITIKAN MEDIA KE-­35

Abu Huzaifah, pelajar Kewartawanan Sebagai fokus utama perbincangan di sepanjang sesi pembentangan kolokium ke-­35 kali ini, yang berlangsung di Institute Business of Excellent (IBE), dengan mengangkat tema “Wartawan, Media dan Jenayah”. Kami sempat membuat tinjauan dari sidang hadirin yang hadir serta menemu bual beberapa orang wakil peserta untuk mendapatkan maklum balas dan sudut pandangan mereka mengenai Kolokium Kritikan Media pada kali ini. Menurut, Abu Huzaifah, 21 menyatakan bahawa pengisian kolokium pada kali ini dapat membuka mata para pelajar terutamanya berkenaan dengan karier wartawan yang melibatkan jenayah. Ini kerana masyarakat masih lagi berfikiran dangkal terhadap isu berkaitan jenayah. “Jenayah membawa padah, seperti yang kita sedia maklum apabila kerja bersangkutan dengan jenayah pasti berbahaya dan berisiko tinggi. Namun bagi bakal-­bakal wartawan di Malaysia ini, mendapatkan sesuatu berita itu sememangnya tugasan mutlak mereka. Namun beberapa faktor penting perlulah diambil kira, seperti kesanya kepada masyarakat. Jika nilai sesuatu berita itu penting buat orang ramai, maka ianya menjadi keperluan bagi wartawan untuk melaporkanya. Konsep “greatest good, for greatest number.” Wajar diaplikasikan jelas Abu. Tambah Abu, jika diberi peluang, beliau sangat berminat untuk menjadi wartawan jenayah. Selepas pelbagai input yang dikongsikan para pembentang pada hari ini,

Noor Nasrin, pelajar Kewartawanan

Ini adalah diantara kolokium yang terbaik yang pernah saya hadiri, syabas dan tahniah saya ucapkan kepada para pelajar jurusan kewartawanan semester lima, fakulti komunikasi dan pengajian Media, UiTM Shah Alam.”

beliau berazam akan mengenggam peluang tersebut dengan sebaik mungkin. Hal ini kerana, beliau memang suka akan cabaran dan kerjaya sebagai wartawan jenayah memang sangat menepati citarasanya. Selain itu, Noor Nasrin, 22 “Panel yang hadir pada hari ini sungguh ‘energetic’ dan bijak memanipulasi keadaan supaya tidak bersifat terlalu ‘rigid’ atau bosan. Daripada awal sesi kolokium ini memang saya tidak merasa mengantuk dan lebih fokus terhadap topik-­topik yang dibincangkan”. Tambahnya, “sebelum menghadiri sidang perbincangan, beliau memang peka mengenai tajuk kolokium yang bakal dibincangkan, tetapi tidaklah begitu memahaminya secara mendalam. Namun setelah mendengar penjelasan lebih lanjut yang dibincangkan oleh ahli panel dengan begitu berkaliber sewaktu sesi pembentangan, beliau dapat menggarap banyak input baru

Rahman, pelajar Antarapersonal yang menarik.” Tambahan pula perbincangan kali ini berkait rapat dengan kursus yang dipelajari nya iaitu bidang kewartawanan Rahman, 21 merupakan pelajar jurusan Komunikasi Antarapersonal berkata beliau telah hadir ke kolokium ini sebanyak tiga kali setiap kali ia dianjurkan Ketika beliau masih berada di semester pertama lagi, sepanjang tiga kali menghadiri kolokium, dan kolokium pada kali ini adalah antara kolokium yang terbaik yang pernah dihadiri olehnya. Daya tarikan panelis yang hadir adalah lain daripada yang lain seperti Dr.Noor Sulastry (UM), DSP Foo dan Tuan Asri. Rahman berpendapat bahawa DSP adalah sangat berpengalaman dalam mengendali isu-­isu berkaitan jenayah juga dalam pembabitan dengan orang-­orang media kerana sering berhubung dengan wartawan. Begitu juga dengan pendedahan yang diberikan oleh Tuan Asri mengenai cabaran untuk menjadi seorang wartawan media secara keseluruhanya, ramai yang pada hari ini tidak tahu mengenai risiko yang perlu ditangani oleh seorang wartawan dalam menyediakan penyampaian maklumat berbentuk berita kepada masyarakat. Rahman turut mengucapkan syabas dan tahniah kepada pelajar semester lima yang berjaya menganjurkan kolokium yang begitu menarik pada kali ini dan berharap agar kolokium ini akan terus dianjurkan setiap semester dengan pendedahan yang lebih lanjut lagi.

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KHAS:

KOLOKIUM KRITIKAN MEDIA KE-­35

KITA KENA MEMPUNYAI MINAT MENYELURUH

Teks: Siti Madihah Ab Aziz Jeredeana Fiona Lajanty

T

uan Mohamad Asri Tuan Hussein adalah penulis kanan akhbar Harian Metro dan telah berkhidmat selama 23 tahun. Beliau telah memenangi anugerah Laporan Antarabangsa Terbaik di Anugerah Institut Akhbar Malaysia dan Ahli Makhota Wilayah pada Hari Wilayah Persekutuan. Beliau yang kini bertugas sebagai Ketua Editor masih lagi menulis artikel terutamanya melibatkan kerja menyamar yang seringkali berbahaya. Dalam ucapannya ketika Kolokium Kritikan Media ke 35, beliau

mengucapkan mengenai hidup seseorang wartawan yang sering kali menyamar. Katanya, seseorang wartawan bertugas di luar negara atau kawasan berisiko tinggi akan diberikan isuran. Manakala kerja menyamar pun ada banyak permasalahan, kita kena pastikan kerja penyamaran tersebut selamat sebelum kita menberi tugasan itu . Wartawan kena beri perhatian yang menyeluruh. Ini bukan demi cerita tetapi kalau mati, ini dikira pahala. Ini cara berkerja, seseorang kena ada minat dan memahami apa yang dia buat, dia akan seronok. Kalau seseorang itu tidak faham maka dia tidak

mempunyai minat. Kerja menyamar bukan untuk glamor tetapi ikhlas untuk pengalaman dan setakat ini kerja beliau dan wartawan dibawahnya dipermudahkan. Dalam bidang ini perlu banyak pengalaman dari sana kita akan dapat sumber cerita. Seseorang wartawan yang menyamar perlu bersedia secara menyeluruh. Wartawan bukan penyelamat, hanyalah orang tengah yang memberi bahantara kepada pihak atasan. Ini tidak bermaksud semua cerita yang dipaparkan akan diambil tindakan oleh pihak atasan, namun itu bukan alasan untuk mengendahkan sesuatu isu.

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Namun, dalam isu menyamar Tuan Asri menasihati bahawa ini semua bergantung kepada niat, sikap dan berkat. Beliau berbincang pula mengenai kerjayanya di Metro. Sejak penubuhan Harian Metro dibawah Kumpulan New Straits Times, ia membawa identiti berbeza sebagai akhbar bahasa melayu berbentuk tabloid kedua selepas Berita Harian. Sebelumnya, Harian Metro terkenal dengan liputan berita sensasi berkenaan selebriti dan isu-­isu hangat sosial. Namun, persepsi masyarakat yang menganggap Harian Metro sebagai tabloid murahan sukar diubah sedangkan Harian Metro kini berdiri di satu tahap yang berbeza dan mampu dibanggakan. Liputan-­liputan khas berkenaan isu kemanusiaan terutamanya di zon perang banyak mendapat pengiktirafan bertaraf dunia. Bukan semua wartawan mampu membuat liputan khas yang menuntut keberanian dan kesabaran yang tinggi dan hanya beberapa orang terpilih untuk menyertai meja khas di bawah Harian Metro dan mereka hanya dipilih

Kita sentiasa cuba berubah. Dari berita sensasi kita sudah berjaya mendapat a n u g e r a h antarabangsa dan kini mampu m e m b u a t liputan berita antarabangsa.” -­ Tuan Mohamad Asri Tuan Hussein

berdasarkan kelayakan dan kriteria khas yang diperlukan. Meja khas memerlukan seseorang dengan minat dan keberanian untuk mencuba banyak benda baru dan berisiko dan ia bukan dimiliki semua orang. “Kita sentiasa cuba berubah. Dari berita sensasi kita sudah berjaya mendapat anugerah antarabangsa dan kini mampu membuat liputan berita antarabangsa,” kata Tuan Asri dalam temuramah. Walaubagaimanapun, pembaca kini sudah kurang memilih media cetak sebagai pilihan dan lebih tertumpu kepada media sosial. Jadi tidak hairan jika pembaca masih belum sedar evolusi yang telah dilakukan oleh Harian Metro. MetroTv yang telah diperkenalkan sejak 2 tahun yang lalu merupakan salah-­satu perkembangan baharu yang dilakukan oleh Harian Metro yang menyampaikan berita melalui digital dan bukan tertumpu pada media cetak semata-­mata. Laman berita atas talian juga telah diperkenalkan sebagai menerima perubahan baharu dalam pencambahan media untuk memenuhi keperluan semasa.

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PENGALAMAN

MALAYSIA MEDIA DAN JENAYAH

Teks: Nur Anis Farhanah Abd Malek Noor Alia Md Lani

K

olokium Kritikan Media ke-­35 telah berjalan lancar dengan kehadiran panel-­panel jemputan bagi mengangkat isu ‘Wartawan, Media dan Jenayah‘. Kolokium kali ini bukan hanya mengetengahkan pendapat daripada pengamal media dan ahli akademik, malah mengutarakan pandangan dari pihak polis. Oleh itu, pihak penganjur menjemput DSP Foo Chek Seng, DSP Kor Suksis, Jabatan Pencegahan

Jenayah dan Keselamatan Komuniti, Polis DiRaja Malaysia, Bukit Aman bagi membentangkan topik yang diberi iaitu PDRM Institusi Media Jenayah: Pengalaman Satu Malaysia. Dalam mengetengahkan dan mengupas topik yang diberi, beliau lebih memfokuskan bagaimana pihak berkuasa seperti PDRM menggunakan platform media dalam interaksi bersama masyarakat. Beliau yang juga bekas penyalaras KOR Suksis Universiti Malaya (UM) berkongsi bahawa media merupakan medium yang pantas dalam PDRM menyebarkan maklumat dengan segara dan terkini.

KHAS:

KOLOKIUM KRITIKAN MEDIA KE-­35

Oleh itu, pada 2009, secara rasminya institusi PDRM membuka akaun Facebook dalam menyebarkan berita jenayah terkini terutamanya bagi mereka yang tidak melanggan surat khabar atau membaca berita secara atas talian. Tambah beliau pada kolokium yang diadakan di UiTM Shah Alam, platform media sosial bukan sahaja digunakan bagi berkhidmat untuk masyarakat, malahan ia juga digunakan untuk berinterasi dengan perdana menteri Malaysia iaitu Datuk Seri Najib Razak secara terus bagi menyelesaikan sesuatu perkara dengan lebih efisien.

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Foo turut menekankan bahawa penyebaran maklumat bukan sahaja bertumpukan kes jenayah semata-­ mata, malah modus operandi dan langkah-­langkah yang perlu diambil juga turut diterapkan. Apabila ditanya adakah pendedahan modus operandi juga turut mampu memberi idea dan pengetahuan baru kepada penjenayah, beliau menegaskan bahawa keselamatan masyarakat secara keseluruhan adalah lebih penting. Beliau menambah jika hal ini dapat memberi kebajikan kepada semua, ia tidak salah. Malahan, penjenayah juga tidak akan menggunakan ‘pattern’ modus operandi yang sama jika masyarakat sudah tahu taktik mereka.

disebabkan itu kerjasama antara PDRM dan wartawan diperlukan. Namun, wartawan juga memerlukan pihak polis bagi mendapatkan permit untuk mengaut berita jenayah. Pada kolokium tersebut juga, beliau turut mengutarakan rasa kagum terhadap usaha wartawan jenayah dalam mencari ‘beat‘ untuk sesuatu isu yang mampu membahayakan nyawa mereka. Beliau menambah ramai wartawan Malaysia yang terkorban dalam misi mencari berita untuk disebarkan kepada masyarakat tempatan. Ini selaras dengan tema yang digunakan untuk kolokium ini iaitu “Berita Atau Nyawa”. Di samping mencari berita, ia juga mampu mengundang nyawa si wartawan.

takut. Realitinya menurut DSP Foo, dunia sebenar bukanlah seperti yang dilihat. Misalnya, ramai yang mempertikaikan tiap tahun kadar jenayah dikhabarkan turun, namun, berita jenayah sering dikongsi di laman-­laman sosial. Menurut beliau, walaupun PDRM kerap memberitahu informasi yang benar, masyarakat lebih percaya akan persepsi mereka daripada realiti. Disebabkan itu, beliau berpendapat imej menggambarkan situasi sebenar. Ini yang dibentangkan beliau dalam membidas segelintir masyarakat yang lebih gemar disekat oleh pendapat dan pandangan mereka sendiri daripada percaya akan fakta. Beliau memberi contoh

" Banyak maklumat yang disebarkan di laman sosial atau aplikasi WhatsApp tidak benar dengan menggunakan PDRM sebagai sumber. Oleh itu, jangan mudah percaya akan maklumat yang disebarkan dan periksa dahulu dengan pihak kami "

Walaubagaimanapun, terdapat segelintir pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab gemar memalsukan dan mereka-­reka maklumat yang tidak benar dengan menggunakan nama PDRM. “Banyak maklumat yang disebarkan di laman sosial atau aplikasi Whatsapp tidak benar dengan menggunakan PDRM sebagai sumber. Oleh itu, jangan mudah percaya akan maklumat yang disebarkan dan periksa dahulu dengan pihak kami“, tegas beliau. Dalam kolokium yang diadakan pada Sabtu, 12 November 2016, DSP Foo turut berkongsi bahawa wartawan dan institusi PDRM lebih banyak menjalinkan hubungan kerjasama bagi PDRM mendapatkan ‘lead‘ untuk setiap isu berkaitan jenayah. Beliau mengulas lebih lanjut bahawa tidak dapat dinafikan wartawan lebih dekat dengan rakyat dalam mengorek isu-­isu jenayah,

Selain itu, Foo turut menyatakan bahawa kebanyakan berita jenayah yang dikongsikan dalam media lebih banyak mendapat perhatian masyarakat. Beliau menegaskan bahawa soalnya bagaimana media menggambarkan situasi tersebut mampu mempengaruhi pandangan masyarakat terhadap situasi dan kadar jenayah yang berlaku. Hal ini berkait rapat dengan sama ada mereka cuba untuk meraih keuntungan atau perhatian yang lebih berpihak kepada mereka atau membantu masyarakat sedar akan isu jenayah terkini. Dalam dunia yang sarat dengan media sosial, masyarakat lebih bebas dalam menerima, mencari dan memberi maklumat terutama berkaitan isu jenayah. Oleh itu, disebabkan isu jenayah misalnya lebih banyak diterima oleh masyarakat, mereka melihat dunia ini penuh dengan jenayah dan kekejaman menyebabkan mereka

pada demonstrasi Bersih yang diadakan, ramai beranggapan bahawa Bersih disertai ramai orang dan memberi gambaran bahawa ramai menentang kerajaan. Di sini media sosial PDRM menjalankan tugas mengambil foto kejadian untuk menggambarkan situasi sebenar dan jelas menunjukkan sebaliknya. Menurut beliau, ‘pictures speak thousand words’. Akhir sekali, beliau menegaskan bahawa dalam dunia pembangunan teknologi yang semakin pesat ini, segala berita yang dikongsi dalam laman media sosial haruslah diperiksa terlebih dahulu sebelum 100 peratus menerima maklumat tersebut. Dalam pada itu, beliau turut menegaskan bahawa kesenangan yang diperolehi pada hari ini tidak boleh dikecapi jika bukan dengan jasa pejuang-­pejuang negara.

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edia khususnya media baru, memberi pengaruh yang besar terhadap sesebuah masyarakat berdasarkan kekuatannya melalui satu ideologi yang sama. Program pencegahan jenayah di Malaysia, melalui laporan-­laporan yang diterbitkan oleh media atas tujuan meningkatkan kesedaran masyarakat tentang sesuatu jenayah berada pada tahap yang terbaik. Hal ini, turut berkaitan dengan pendedahan terhadap bahana jenayah pada peringkat usia yang awal melalui sistem pendidikan yang efisyen.

Teks: Aliff Ashraf & Raja Nadhirah

Ekoran daripada program Kolokium 35: Wartawan, Media dan Jenayah, Pakar Antropologi dan Sosiologi Dr. Noor Sulastry Yurni menekankan bahawa kualiti sesebuah masyarakat berkait rapat dengan sistem pendidikan, yang mana pendidikan memberi peranan dalam pencegahan dan penyelesaian sesuatu jenayah. “Program pencegahan jenayah juga banyak diadakan di sekolah. Kanak-­kanak seawal sekolah rendah diberi pendedahan mengenai jenayah yang sentiasa berlaku dalam kalangan

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Mengambil iktibar daripada tragedi Arab Spring yang mana revolusi arab tercetus hanya melalui perkongsian dalam laman media sosial sahaja.

usia mereka dan bagaimana untuk mengenal pasti jenayah,” jelas Sulastry. Walau bagaimanapun, kesedaran tentang jenayah ringan seperti gangguan seksual khususnya dalam bentuk lisan mahupun tanpa hubungan fizikal masih rendah dalam kalangan masyarakat. Selain jenayah yang berbentuk sentuhan fizikal, jenayah cyber atau cybercrime merupakan sebuah jenis jenayah baru yang menjadi kebimbangan walaupun perkara ini berlaku tanpa sebarang perilaku berkaitan sentuhan fizikal.

Mengambil iktibar daripada tragedi Arab Spring yang mana revolusi arab tercetus hanya melalui perkongsian dalam laman media sosial sahaja. Dr. Sulastry berpendapat bahawa perkara sedemikian tidak mungkin terjadi di negara ini kerana situasi politik di Malaysia masih berada di tahap stabil jika dibandingkan dengan negara-­ negara timur tengah. Dalam konteks situasi politik di negara ini, Sulastry menerangkan bahawa rakyat Malaysia masih memilih demonstrasi jalanan untuk menunjukkan perasaan atau rasa ketidakpuasan hati terhadap sesebuah badan kerajaan mahupun terhadap Perdana Menteri sendiri di atas sesuatu perkara dan terutama sekali apabila Datuk Seri Najib Razak kononnya dikaitkan dengan isu-­isu penyelewengan 1MDB dan sebagainya. Tambahan pula, demonstrasi di Malaysia menjadi bukti bahawa situasi negara ini masih berada pada tahap yang terkawal. Jika ingin dibandingkan di negara-­negara jiran seperti Thailand, Filipina, mahupun Indonesia, tahap penunjukkan perasaan dilakukan

secara radikal sehingga tercetusnya pemberontakan bersenjata, pertumpahan darah dan akhir sekali penggulingan kuasa. Dari segi waktu pula, rakyat Malaysia lebih gemar berdemonstrasi pada hari Sabtu atau Ahad di mana lazimnya mereka tidak bekerja pada hujung minggu. Perkara ini menunjukkan kekuatan semangat demonstrasi itu sendiri tidak begitu kukuh kerana penunjuk-­penunjuk perasaan ini masih tidak berani untuk mogok bekerja dalam menunjukkan perasaan. Akhir kata, untuk mencapai pembangunan yang mapan dari aspek negara atau pemikiran, penting sebagai rakyat sesebuah negara untuk bersepakat menentang segala perkara yang menjurus kepada kecenderungan jenayah baik dari segi fizikal, lisan, alam maya dan juga dalam perhimpunan menunjuk perasaan. Setiap langkah atau kelakuan yang timbul dari setiap individu boleh menyebabkan diri terjerumus ke lembah jenayah tanpa disedari.

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Text : AZIZAH ADIB RAHIM NIK ELIE NURFATIHAH NIK AYOB

R

ecently, many cases involving cyber crooks fill the pages of newspapers. Cybercrime grows rapidly that it leads to global issues. This intelligent crime is conducted by cyber crooks who do crime by means of internet and computer in virtual world. They have became more sophisticated with advanced modus operandi. A British, Oliver Webb expressed her anger via Twitter when her mother’s Amazon account was hacked by scammers. They placed pricey orders and expensive goods which are PlayStation 4 and iPhone at her Amazon account. When the account holder tried to cancel the order, they said they could not and delivered the devices to the crooks instead. In the meantime, Russian cyber crooks managed to hack a software system running on hundreds of cash registers worldwide which exposed the consumers’ credit cards details to

vulnerabilities. It has been reported by KrebsOnSecurity that the Russian cybercrime gang is suspected to gain $1billion from their illegal activities at various institutions like banks and hospitality firms for the past few years. Malaysia is not exceptional in facing this new challenge of rapid revolution of the internet. In Kuala Lumpur, a woman lost 1.3 million when she banked in her money to five different personal accounts in Malaysia. This happened when the victim trusted the scammer even though they have never met and have only known each other through social media. According to Chief Executive Officer of CyberSecurity Malaysia (CSM) Dr Amirudin Abdul Wahab, an average of 10,000 cases are reported each year involving online scams and hacking information systems of organisations. This worrying statistics should be put to halt by working hand-­in-­hand

with all involved. The very first step to curb this issue is that citizens should be knowledgeable about the modus operandi used by the scammers. MODUS OPERANDI 1) Try your luck According to Universiti Sains Malaysia Criminologist and Psychologist, Dr Geshina Ayu Mat Saat, this fraudulent method requires monitoring and interception from time to time. The scammers would gain access on the victims’ account without their knowledge and will only be noticed after the account is completely dried or when they are busted. 2) Befriend with targeted victim Looking back at the case of the woman in Kuala Lumpur who lost 1.3 million, it started when she befriended a man who claimed he owns a spare parts shop in Britain. Weeks later, emails by emails, she felt comfortable with him and willing to help the perpetrator when he said his goods got stuck in Custom Department and need money to clear things out. That is when the women is deceived. 3) Send email winning lottery These scammers would send email saying that the victim won a lottery and the victim is told that a diplomat would come over to hand the money. Not long after that, someone claiming to be diplomat calls the victim and asks him to transact a large amount of money to facilitate the transfer of the funds to Malaysia. It ends when the lottery money never come.

Cyber crooks can be people around us, who know us personally.

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Cyber crooks do not attack physically but the causes are menacing. 4)Space set up fake gaming site The website is set up to steal information from Internet surfers and all details between the gamers or virtual gaming items. In Malaysia, there are five cases reported by Cybersecurity Malaysia, an agency under Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry. The gamers often take an easy way out which is to buy from cyber crooks although they have to spend more money. According to Cyberscurity Malaysia vice-­president, Adli Abdul Wahid, the number of phishing sites detected in Malaysia rose from 634 cases in 2009 to 1,426 reports lodged as per last year. SOLUTION 1) Law enforcement The best solution to curb this issue is to use law as a guideline and is intended to prevent any violation that has been set by the government. In Malaysia, cyber laws consist of Computer Crimes Act 1997, Act Digital Signature Act 1997 and 1997 Telemedicine are used to address issues specific legislation against cybercrime as well as law-­related with the cyber world of the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. Offenders would be fined or even sentenced to

prison. Responsible bodies should put a spotlight on these criminals with laws to gain awareness from the society. 2) Track the scammers with computer forensics The authority should train more computer forensics in this new modern world. They can be used to do investigation, analysis to find evidence that can lead the scammers to the punishment of law. In fact, this field has long existed but the role has only been specified now. Developing countries like Malaysia requires forensics experts to assist the process of tracking the scammers. It is also to ensure smooth development in the field of computing ethic’s-­abiding. 3) Cooperation between countries and globalise Malaysia should introduce and carry out a continuous plan to detect cyber criminals. Governments of Southeast Asian countries must warn scammers and announce this plan through Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). They can also share the information and technologies to prevent this crime from worsening. 4) Role of the media

Information technology users are increasing day by day and a number of people choose social media to access information. With this advantage, media is obliged to play their vital role by spreading real cases that happening all around. Some people might not notice the serious crime conducted by these genius black hats as it does not happen to their relatives or people around them. Hence, this is when the crucial role of the media comes in. In conclusion, cyber crook is also a social issue as it deals with human behaviour. However, this is difficult to prevent because of difficulty in identifying the criminal. Nevertheless, the government’s efforts to curb this behaviour can be seen with the enforcement of laws such as the Printing Press and Publications Act 1984. Other than that, all communities whether the government and public should work hand in hand to overcome this crime. The continuous efforts and ideas to curb cybercrime by the society, government and authorities are essential to deal with this issue from being a thorn in the flesh that would have a negative impact not only to the victims, but also to other individuals.

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IT JUST SMELLS FUNNY Text: Raja Nadhirah Raja Hasnan

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WHY AND HOW PRINT MEDIA IS STILL RELEVANT

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s print dying? Will it die? Is the market for paid news failing? Is the new media sufficient as the sole news provider, shall the business model for print newspaper collapses? What are the possible business models for online news? The very fact that we have these questions being asked shows how much things have changed, but a change is not necessarily bad. The change in the print industry does not translate to the end of it. Print is not dead, it is simply evolving. There have been so much talk about the print industry being dying that the people are beginning to believe it, when in reality is not so. Granted, the last decade has been a gloomy time for the print media. The circulation and readership of newspapers have undergone a steady fluctuation. Mohd. Safar Hasim, an academician from National University of Malaysia (UKM) has described the said phase of the newspaper industry as “a decade of mixed fortune”, with the newspaper circulation increasing and decreasing over the period of time. The print industry may drop considerably, owing its decline in circulation or readership or both to economic downturn or the digital era where information is at the tip of one’s fingers, but it will take a lot more than that for it to die. There are too many publications that serve to cater too many market segmentation and market niches. The reality is that New Straits Times, New Sunday Times, Berita Harian, Berita Minggu, Harian Metro and Metro Ahad make up 63% of the market share. Shall the future circumstances witness the collapse of any of these newspapers, there may be fewer survivors but the survivors may increase their share. For, at least, the foreseeable future, print cannot be counted out. What does it take to produce a print that the people flip through, skim and sometimes buy (other times not)

at newsstands? More efforts than you think. The obvious answer behind the change in the print industry is the rise of digital media. Back in the heyday, the print media is the public’s only source of information. Everyone gets their news from the newspapers. The little genius boy, the son of a clerk and a housewife from a suburban area, who can do a Form Five mathematics even before entering primary school. Now that digital media has come into the frame with it pervading into every aspect of our lives, the role of both the print and

What does it take to produce a print that the people flip through, skim and sometimes buy (other times not) at newsstands? More efforts than you think.”

digital media becomes redundant. The country genius boy? He is a YouTube vlogger now. Information is provided at a cheaper and (more importantly) faster rate than the print media can ever hope to. This is where the print media is revolutionized to compete and continue thriving. When speed is at the forefront of a news provider, much is at stake, some of which include credibility and verification. The print industry has to do a major rethink of how technology should be embraced so as to bring benefits towards the print media. In the revamp process, the industry has to take into account how the change will not affect monetization, it cannot lose

out on advertisers and readers. Hence, e-­paper comes into the frame. The composition of today’s newspaper audience is less likely to be reading print, particularly print only and not online. Researchers have found a definite surge in the number of people reading online. Our newspapers now create a better reading experience than ever – with the interactive website embedding photos, videos and hyperlinks, helping users to navigate through the site smoothly. The newspapers have also embrace technological change with digital platforms, that is e-­paper. E-­paper retains the traditional look and feel of a newspaper, whilst being accessed through websites and smartphones. The most imperative element of e-­paper is its ability to enhance the timeliness of newspaper. It is a win-­win situation for the print – cheaper and faster. However, print is here to stay. Simply because people react better to physical media – the stories served on actual paper, the feeling of flipping the pages, licking fingers for each page turned, and even the mark of black ink on one’s hands. The new media do not really destroy the print media, but rather it evolves the print media to complement the new media. While this has become a very challenging time for the print media successors in looking for new ways to improve the print industry business, the print media are still very much around. Malaysians love their newspapers – and they have plenty of choices. Each segment of audience still wants its printed newspaper in the morning every day. The circulation and readership figures are there to confirm the story. To answer the question, whether the print is dying, it is most certainly not. It is merely transforming. Long live the print.

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Teks : Saiful Asyraf

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ES buli siber yang direkodkan oleh pusat bantuan Cyber999 di bawah kendalian Cyber Security Malaysia menunjukkan peningkatan tiga kes dalam tempoh sama berbanding tahun lalu. Setakat Julai 2016, sebanyak 273 kes telah dicatatkan. Pada tahun lalu, 442 kes direkodkan manakala pada 2014, kita menerima 550 laporan berhubung kes buli siber. Jika tidak dibendung dan pengguna Internet pula tidak mempunyai pengetahuan mengenai kepentingan keselamatan siber, maka insiden seumpama ini akan berleluasa, menjadi bertambah rumit dan boleh mengundang kepada insiden yang lebih serius.

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Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif, CyberSecurity Malaysia, Dr. Amirudin Abdul Wahab berkata, peningkatan aktiviti buli siber agak membimbangkan namun ia masih terkawal dan harus diberi perhatian oleh semua pihak. Buli siber boleh mendorong kepada perbuatan buli secara fizikal jika tiada langkah-­langkah pencegahan dan pengawalan diambil oleh mangsa buli. Kesan utama buli siber adalah secara mental dan emosi. Mangsa buli siber boleh menghadapi ketakutan dan kemurungan akibat daripada perbuatan buli yang dihadapi. Antara kesan lain yang ketara dihadapi adalah hilang keyakinan terhadap diri sendiri sehingga menyebabkan mangsa lebih suka untuk menyendiri. Selain itu, mangsa akan sentiasa berasa takut dan gelisah untuk berhadapan dengan masyarakat dan orang ramai, murung, mudah marah terhadap sesuatu perkara malah kecenderungan untuk membunuh diri juga sering berlaku implikasi daripada tekanan emosi yang melampau. Buli siber tidak terhad kepada menghantar atau membalas mesej kepada mangsa secara sengaja, namun tanpa disedari terdapat ramai pengguna laman media sosial sebenarnya cenderung menjadi salah seorang pembuli siber. Komen-­komen yang negatif, mengedit gambar mangsa untuk mengaibkan atau bermacam lagi tindakan yang berunsur negatif boleh mengundang kepada gejala buli siber. Kesedaran mengenai kepentingan keselamatan siber termasuk etika sewaktu melayari Internet perlu ada pada setiap pengguna Internet

memandangkan modus operasi buli siber adalah sama dan boleh berlaku di mana-­mana. Ia merupakan satu perbuatan yang dilakukan melalui Internet dengan menggunakan gajet teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT) seperti telefon pintar, komputer atau komputer riba.

Mangsa akan sentiasa berasa takut dan gelisah untuk berhadapan dengan masyarakat dan orang ramai, murung, mudah marah terhadap sesuatu perkara malah kecenderungan untuk membunuh diri juga sering berlaku implikasi daripada tekanan emosi yang melampau.”

Didik tangkis buli siber Kajian pada 2015 mendapati, kebanyakan orang mampu mengenal pasti kegiatan buli ini dan mengetahui bahawa ia boleh dilaporkan kepada pihak berkuasa. Berhadapan dengan tekanan rakan sebaya secara dalam talian, majoriti remaja terutamanya di Malaysia dilihat mampu menggunakan kaedah menyekat atau menukar status kepada ‘privacy’. Pada masa sama, mereka juga mengetahui saluran yang betul untuk membuat aduan sekiranya berhadapan dengan buli siber, antaranya kepada guru, ibu bapa dan pihak berkuasa adalah sangat relevan. Bagaimanapun, masih

ramai yang mengambil tindakan berdiam diri dan hanya berharap kegiatan buli siber berhenti begitu sahaja. Maklumat terbabit berdasarkan laporan kajian Digi CyberSAFE yang dijalankan di seluruh negara pada 2015 oleh syarikat telekomunikasi Digi Telecommunications Sdn Bhd , dengan kerjasama CyberSecurity Malaysia dan Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, mendedahkan remaja di negara ini lebih sedar mengenai sikap sosial yang boleh diterima ketika melayari Internet dan lebih terbuka mengikut peraturan telah ditetapkan. Buli siber merujuk kepada komunikasi secara elektronik yang dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk membuli. Sehubungan itu, ia menunjukkan pendidikan menangkis buli siber amat diperlukan untuk menghalang kadar buli yang semakin meningkat. Antara langkah diambil ialah Hari Hentikan Buli Siber 2016 dengan sebaran mesej #SCD2016 yang dilancarkan oleh Yayasan Cybersmile. Di samping itu, dalam usaha melindungi kanak-­ kanak daripada jenayah buli siber, Telenor Group memberikan panduan kepada ibu bapa untuk melindungi keselamatan anak mereka daripada menjadi mangsa buli siber. Melalui panduan itu, ibu bapa ditekankan mendidik anak-­anak mengenai penggunaan Internet yang betul. Antaranya untuk tujuan pembelajaran dan mencari maklumat, berhubung dengan orang lain, hiburan dan peluang mendapatkan pekerjaan serta pendapatan.

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Teks: Izzati Arisi What is cyber bullying? Cyberbully is the action of bullying using an electronic device such as smartphone, computers, and tablets as well as the communications like the social network, text messages, chat, and websites. Cyberbully also including makes fun of someone, mistreats, intentionally spread bad words and repeatedly harasses them on social media, which basically it happens through online and the Internet. Why is cyber bully happening? Cyberbully happens because the individuals think that their victim deserves to be hurt ;; to feel the pain that the victim can never imagine. In addition, it is also because of something goes viral catalyzes this misdemeanor. In other words, the action of sharing through retweets makes the culprits’ work easier. For instance, a humiliating picture of a victim, posted by a person can trigger negative comments and hatred from the public. Furthermore, spam or unwanted emails is another type of cyber bully. Sometimes, the victim even does not know the sender of the messages and the threats that the victim receives from Instant Message (IM). These junk emails do not only clutter the receiver’s inbox but also sent to threaten the victim email and chat box of social media. Statistics of Internet users In 2015, the Ministry of Communication and Multimedia Malaysia reported that active social media users were increased from 16.8 million to more than 20.1 million. The Deputy Ministry of Communication and Multimedia Malaysia said that most users Internet as the platform for playing video games, search information through the search engine and internet banking. He added that cyberbullying issues are caused by individuals who like to share their personal details especially on social media which have been misused by delinquent individuals under negative or bad intention. He also said that 1,263 websites have been banned as for variations faults under the law of Multimedia. The case of cyber bullying

SMK Hajah Laila Taib were accused of criminal intimidation and causing injuries to a 15-­year-­old female student from the same school. They pleaded guilty in the Magistrate’s Court of Kota Samarahan and sentenced to undergo rehabilitation in three separate Tunas Bakti School for two years. The news in social media continues to heat up social media users kept on pointing fingers and sharing their thoughts and opinions on that particular issue. Although they were found guilty, but there are still few users of social media who continue to judge them. Stop cyber bully! Some tips to cyber bullying. First, don’t respond if someone tries to bully you, do not give any attention to the culprit when they want to take over you. Ignore them. Secondly, talk to your parents or your counselor at school. Report to them if anything disturbs you or someone tries to attack you virtually. Third, it is advisable for you to block the bully. If the harassment comes in the form of instant messages, texts, or profile comments, do yourself a favor: Use preferences or privacy tools to block the person. Then, don’t bully others, try to put yourself as the victim of a bully, then you will feel how it is. Next, befriend to everyone. You are the one who should be a helping hand to anyone in trouble but doesn’t put yourself in trouble!.

THINK BEFORE YOU POST #YouCanDoIt

In 2014, the winner of Asia’s Next Top Model, Sheena Liam was censured by the fan of the program especially from Philippines as she has defeated two other models that are from Philippines. The fans abused her mentally with sarcastic comments and obnoxious remarks at her photo in Instagram. Another bully case involves the school students who were bullied by three other students known as ‘Gadis Pailang’. The actions have been recorded and became trending on social media. Three school students that were known as ‘Gadis Pailang’ . The incident occurred in April 2014, but the video had gone viral in June 2014. All three 16-­ year-­old of

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KEBEBASAN MEDIA DI ASEAN MERUDUM Teks:

Mohd Fharkhan Nabilla Eiman Muhammad Farhan

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edia dan kebebasan merupakan dua elemen yang saing berkait rapat malah kebebasan termaktub dalam Deklarasi Hak Asasi Manusia Sejagat 1948 dan amat dititikberatkan oleh Pertubuhan Bangsa-­Bangsa Bersatu (PPB). Kebebasan media atau “press freedom” sentiasa menjadi perdebatan yang tiada penghujungnya. Kebebasan media secara teorinya bermaksud hak untuk mengekpresikan pendapat, kritikan, berita, maklumat secara mutlak tanpa disekat mana-­mana pihak. Konteks dan fahaman kebebasan media ini berbeza dan bergantung kepada sesebuah kerajaan dalam sesebuah negara. Misalnya, di Amerika Syarikat, media di sana mendapat kebebasan secara maksimum dan tiada sekatan yang menghalang tugas mereka. Namun berlainan pula dengan situasi dia negara-­negara rantau Asia, yang mana media disemua negara ini, dikawal oleh undang-­undang yang tetapkan oleh kerajaan masing-­masing.

Status kebebasan media Menurut laporan yang dikeluarkan oleh sebuah organisasi bukan kerajaan, Freedom House, kebebasan akhbar di laman sesawang di Malaysia mula merosot pada 2016 disebabkan oleh tuduhan kes rasuah yang di hadapi oleh pemimpin negara menyebabkan kerajaan buat pertama kalinya menguatkuasakan halangan kepada para pengguna media yang menempelak tentang isu-­isu yang berkaitan dengan pentadbiran negara dan akan dikenakan hukuman yang berat jika di dapati bersalah melakukannya. Menjadi impian kerajaan untuk menggalakkan penggunaan internet melalui dasar-­dasar untuk membangunkan akses internet yang murah dan telefon bimbit mampu milik kepada masyarakat di kawasan luar bandar. Akibat daripada penyalahgunaan internet yang dilakukan oleh pengguna internet yang dianggap semakin berani mencabar kerajaan menyebabkan mereka terpaksa mengambil tindakan drastik dengan mengetatkan undang-­undang bagi mengawal media di Malaysia. Kebebasan akhbar di Indonesia juga mula menurun apabila kerajaan melakukan sekatan terhadap laman-­ laman sesawang yang mempunyai unsur-­unsur negatif yang keterlaluan. ini dilakukan bagi menjaga isu-­isu keselamatan negara dan juga budaya setempat. Penguatkuasaan akta fitnah juga menyebabkan kebebasan media di sana semakin mengecil. Selain itu, sudah tiada lagi kebebasan media di bumi Myanmar apabila kerajaan dan pihak berkuasa mula melakukan tangkapan terhadap individu-­individu yang cuba menyampaikan maklumat mengenai bantahan aman, isu Rohingya dan pilihan raya pada tahun 2015. Kerajaan di bawah pemerintahan junta tentera mula menghadkan semula kebebasan media pada tahun 2014 walaupun sebelum itu telah mewartakan bahawa mereka telah memansuhkan sekatan terhadap media pada tahun 2012. Ini dilakukan bagi menutup mulut pengkritik-­pengkritik yang cuba mencabar kerajaan. Tiada perubahan kepada senario media di Singapura di mana secara keseluruhannya masih lagi bebas tetapi di bawah undang-­undang yang sama. Sejak dari tahun 2012, beberapa akta baru telah dikuatkuasakan dan undang-­

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Indeks kebebasan media sedunia bagi tahun 2016 (Sumber: Reporters W undang mahkhamah boleh dikenakan terhadap pengguna-­ pengguna media yang menyalahi undang-­undang. Selain itu pihak kerajaan singapura juga sentiasa melakukan pelaburan yang besar terhadap media sosial yang di miliki mereka. Ini bagi menyaingi media sosial yang di miliki oleh pembangkang. Selain Myanmar, kebebasan media juga tidak wujud di Thailand. Kepimpinan junta tentera di Negara itu menyekat pelbagai akses terhadap media dan mengawal serta melakukan sekatan berdasarkan undang-­undang. Atas keselamatan Negara, akta fitnah semakin dikuatkuasakan disamping undang-­undang bagi memelihara sebarang kritikan terhadap keluarga diraja di Thailand. Dimana jika kesalahan tersebut dilakukan boleh menyebabkan mereka dijatuhkan hukuman penjara sehingga 60 tahun di bawah akta lese mejeste. Sekatan terhadap media di Thailand bermula selepas junta tentera mengambil kerajaan dalam rampasan kuasa pada tahun 2014 sehingga hari ini.

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ASEAN

Reporters Without Borders)

Masa Depan Kebebasan Media di Negara-­negara ASEAN

Bagi masa depan untuk kebebasan media di Malaysia, ianya dilihat sukar untuk dicapai. Biarpun, Artikel 10 Perlembagaan Persekutuan memperuntukkan kebebasan untuk bersuara namun sekiaranya ia mendatangkan kemudaratan kepada negara seperti mengancam keselamatan negara, ia menjadi satu kesalahan dan boleh didakwa. Akta Percetakan dan Penerbitan 1984 pula memberi kuasa kepada Kementerian Dalam Negeri kuasa untuk membatalkan lesen sesebuah organisasi dari beroperasi jika di dapati melanggar undang-­undang. Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1998, juga memberi kuasa kepada kerajaan melakukan sekatan media. Manakala, Akta Hasutan 1948 memperuntukkan dimana sebarang percakapan, perbuatan dan penulisan bersifat kebencian, boleh menyebabkan tertuduh dipenjarakan selama 3 tahun. Undang-­undang sedia ada nyata telah menghadkan kebebasan pengamal media profesional di negara ini dalam melakukan kerja mereka. Namun, undang-­undang ini juga bukanlah tertakluk pada pengamal media semata, malah sesiap sahaja yang menyalahgunakan platform media, akan dihukum. Secara

amnya, media di Malaysia masih lagi di kawal. Bagi Indonesia pula, walaupun mempunyai kebebasan media, tetapi disebabkan oleh semangat patriotism serta obsesi agama di negara itu menyebabkan berlakunya limitasi terhadap kebebasan untuk bersuara. Disebabkan oleh kekangan budaya, pengguna laman media sosial di negara itu tidak boleh sewenang-­wenangnya mengeluarkan kenyataan apabila ianya menyentuh isu agama dan etnik minoriti di yang amat sensitif bagi rakyat Indonesia. Hal ini menyebabkan pihak kerajaan negara itu akan terus mengawal dan mengehadkan pengunaan media lebih-­lebih lagi media baharu di negara itu. Kebebasan media di Myanmar boleh dikatakan hanya sebagai kisah dongeng sahaja. Walaupun terdapat cubaan mengamalkan kebebasan media, tetapi atas kawalan tekat oleh undang-­undnag terhadap maklumat dan wartawan menjadikan ia hanya impian. Walaupun perlembagaan negara ada menyebut tentang setiap rakyat mempunyai hak untuk menyampaikan pandangan mereka tetapi ia perlu mengikut undang-­undang yang telah ditetapkan agar keamanan negara terpelihara. Pelbagai undang-­ undang baharu yang di perkenalkan oleh kerajaan bagi mengawal selia aktiviti media di negara itu. Ini sedikit sebanyak menyukarkan pengamal media di sana melakukan tugas mereka kerana sekatan oleh pihak pemerintah. Ini menyukarkan mereka bagi mewujudkan media yang benar-­ benar bebas. Begitu juga nasib media di Singapura, yang dikawal selia dengan ketat oleh kerajaan melalui undang-­undang sedia ada. Artikel 14 dalam perlembagaan negara Singapura, menyatakan yang rakyat negara itu boleh dan mempunyai hak untuk bersuara dan berhimpun secara aman tetapi ia boleh disanggah jika perkara tersebut menyebabkan dan mendatangkan ancaman yang besar terhadap keselamatan dan keamanan negara itu dengan akta ISA yang memperuntukkan tertuduh boleh ditangkap tanpa bicara serta tidak mempunyai tempoh tahanan. Situasi ini menyebabkan lesen syarikat percetakan dikawal sepenuhnya oleh pihak pemerintah. Walaupun Thailand merupakan negara kedua di kalangan negara-­negara ASEAN yang mempunyai akta terhadap penyebaran maklumat, tetapi kebebasan untuk bersuara pada masa hadapan negara itu mungkin sukar untuk direalisasikan apabila media di Thailand secara terang-­ terangan dikawal secara mutlak oleh pihak kerajaan. Selain itu kawalan yang ketat terhadap media serta penggunaan akta lese mejeste bagi menutup pengkritik-­pengkritik kerajaan menyebabkan berlakunya jurang yang besar terhadap kepimpinan kerajaan di kalangan 66 juta rakyat di Thailand. Rakyat di Thailand sedang bertukar kepada media alternative bagi mendapatkan maklumat, tetapi usaha itu sukar dilakukan apabila pihak kerajaan mengeluarkan akta baru bagi menapis penggunaan media di negara itu. Semestinya sukar untuk bertukar kepada media yang lebih neutral. Ternyata media di ASEAN disekat oleh undang-­ undang dan dikawal oleh kerajaan masing-­masing. Sekatan terhadap media perlu dikaji semula untuk memastikan pengamal media profesional dapat menjalankan tugas dan peranan mereka.

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Text: Aiman Adila,Aliff Ashraf, Amirul Aiman

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n 2015, it is recorded that 13 percent of the world population enjoyed the press freedom where the coverage of political news is controlled, the safety of journalists is guaranteed, state invasion of media affair is fewer, and the press is not subject to severe legal and economic pressures. Many factors had caused the decline of the freedom press globally. The existence of partisanship and polarization in a media environment as well as the degree of extralegal fear and physical violence faced by journalists are several explanations why this could have happened. These problems occurred mostly in Middle East countries such as Syria and Iran. The reason why press freedom is limited in these countries due to government and the militants who put the pressure on journalists and forced media outlets to take sides, whether to follow the government or to go against it. Another basis came from the Islamic State or extremist groups wanting to take control of journalists and media by attacking them. Apart from that, they too own the power to disseminate their narratives to the large audience through their own networks. Similar situation occurred in Europe when France received a shocking news on the murder of eight cartoonists and editors in the offices of Charlie Hebdo in January 2015. The incident has made France the second only to Syria for the total number of journalists killed during the year. The Press Freedom 2015 reported the biggest decline of press freedom in several countries in the world where some of the strongest democracies came under pressure from security-­minded governments and populist politicians. There

were several major developments in 2015 which caused press freedom to decline. Journalists covering organized crime and corruption in Mexico faced extreme levels of violence for more than 10 years, and the government has proven completely unable, or unwilling, to address the problem. At least four journalists were killed in 2015, and three more were killed—most likely in connection to their work—in the first two months of 2016 alone. Journalists in East and Southern Africa also suffered from a sharp increase in political pressure and violence in 2015. 57% out of 50 countries in Sub-­Saharan Africa are partly free, 40% of the countries are not free, and only 6% are free. Members of the media faced increased threats and attacks—including the abduction and disappearance of prominent local journalist Itai Dzamara—as well as continued arrests for libel that contradicted a constitutional court ruling on the issue. Ghana, already the main Free nation on the mainland’s terrain, suffered a status decay to Partly Free as an aftereffect of a few variables. Journalists experienced more attempts to the point of confinement scope of news occasions and confiscations of gear;; expanded savagery by the police, the military, political gathering individuals, and normal nationals, including the first murder of a journalist in over 20 years;; and proceeded with power blackouts that disabled media creation and appropriation. Journalists and commentators across much of South and Southeast Asia faced threats and deadly violence for raising controversial topics during 2015. ernationall.

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Worst of the Worst The Freedom of the Press 2016 reports stated North Korea as the most repressive country in the world as access to foreign and independent media is closely restricted. According to Freedom House report, North Korea holds the press freedom status Not Free. The country population is 24,983,000 and has the worst score of legal environment in the world as well as the score for political and economic environment. Under the penal code, whoever is listening to unauthorized foreign broadcasts, possessing dissident publications, or watching black-­market recordings of television programs will be charged with serious punishments, including hard labor, prison sentences, and even death. The Press Freedom in 2015 The question of press freedom is an issue mooted up by many media advocates across the globe. Speaking of this context, an analytical observation has been made in the year 2015 and it is found that the larger part of the world

which consists of Eurasia, Middle East, and North Africa do not practice a fully freedom for the press. In Russia as the regulations for the media to disseminate information are being tightened, the government under Putin even use the media to direct public discontent towards its never ending rivals like the United Kingdom and especially the United States of America claiming them in exacerbating Russia’s economic troubles and the security situation in Syria. Apart from that, the restrictions put on the journalists do not seem to be enough as these media practitioners are targeted for legal persecution in Azerbaijan. Some of the journalists claim that they faced administrative and physical harassment by the officials, as did their family members. All of the cases in Eurasia made up the declination in percentage of 77% not free among the 13 countries in the region and the most pressure these journalists receive is from the government officials themselves. The conflicts in the Middle Eastern countries

like Syria, Yemen and so on manage to get the world attention and promotes public debate about the issue.

The Freedom of the Press 2016 reports stated North Korea as the most repressive country in the world as access to foreign and independent media is closely restricted”

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which led to outlets closure and few advertising agencies being shut down.

PRESS FREEDOM VS. INTERNET PENETRATION VS. GDP PER CAPITA

However, the matter also marks the declination of press freedom in a country, for example Saudi Arabia. The press is not allowed to make any coverage about what happens in Yemen as they fear that the government officials might be condemned over the destructions caused by Arab-­led attacks in the country. Despite all of the restrictions, the news about the conflict still manage to reach the vast audience around the world. Different case happens in Tunisia in which many journalists are caught and charged for sympathizing terrorism. The country have long suffered from numerous terrorists attacks and due to a journalist who was caught for not disclosing the source of a photo of an attack he possessed. In Latin American countries, journalists face a more notorious risk in this field of job which not only come from government officials but also from organized crime families like gangs and the mobs. Although the federal have initiated a

protection effort for the media it is still not enough to guarantee their safety. From the previous murder of six journalists, Brazil is regarded as one of the most dangerous countries for journalists to work in. As for the United States of America, the power of media is somewhat being misused when during the 2016 presidential election Donald Trump spread his ignorant claim towards his opposition Hillary Clinton. Trump also taunted the media and journalists with inappropriate words and so forth. Despite the limitations towards the press, European countries made up the most percentage of free press of about 69%. The European countries should be the example for other countries in terms of the freedom of press. The only stories that dominated most of the news in Europe are only regarding refugee crisis and as well as violence. Apart from the Charlie Hebdo murder over insulation towards Islam, the barrier to press freedom is due to economical factor

According to Freedomhouse (2016), the most highest ranking countries for Internet Penetration Rate (IPR) in 2014 is United States, followed by Canada, Japan and some European countries (EU) such as Germany, France, Spain, Poland and United Kingdom. This category has free press freedom in the world. Meanwhile, South Korea also has highest IPR between other countries but unfortunately, the press freedom is partly free followed by Italy and Argentina. The worst IPR for press freedom is Saudi Arabia, Russia and Malaysia. These countries rank in the middle for the IPR, followed by Iraq, Thailand, Egypt and Uganda. For regional rankings in Americas, from 199 countries in the world, United States of America (USA) leadings first with global rank, 28 and have good status for Freedom of the Press 2016, Freedom in the World 2016 and Freedom on the Net 2015. Followed by Canada, that has the same status with USA with 21 for global rank.

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Another Americans country that has excellent status is Brazil and Argentina. This two countries share the same freedom but lack in one thing, they are partly free for the press freedom. Moving on to partly free parts, Columbia, Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela have same portion in Freedom of the World and Freedom on the Net. The worst county that did not agree with this freedom status is Cuba where it denies all the status. For Asia-­Pacific, the most leading countries with free status are Australia and Japan. They share same freedom in the press, in the world and in the net. For partly free, Indonesia is the solo country which dominate all the status. This country’s global rank is 96 out of the 199 countries in the world. Lastly, for the not free status countries are Myanmar, Thailand, China and Vietnam. Since these countries except for Thailand and Myanmar, they use communist system which only media propaganda blast to the citizens. The power of press freedom is not available since the leaders using full authoritarian’s power to control the press itself. In Thailand and Myanmar, the countries are ruled by military junta and the media also tighten not only for the Net, but also the press freedom. Moving on to Eurasia, no countries have all freedom status except for Armenia and Georgia where they granted access for the Net. From the data, Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Uzbekistan have no all of these either freedom for neither press nor the net. Making the thing become worst, their ranking in the world also very worrying. Leading by Uzbekistan which ranks 197 out of the 199 and Belarus at and France have all of these. While Italy and Hungary are only have freedom of the Net and freedom in the world, but partly free on the press. In addition, Turkey does not feel the freedom itself and only have partly free for the Net and freedom in the world. Unfortunately, the press itself is not free.

From the previous murder of six journalists, Brazil is regarded as one of the most dangerous countries for journalists to work in”

Brazil and Argentina share the same freedom but they are partly free countries the press freedom status. For the Middle East and North Africa, just like Eurasia, only freedom in the world status is achieved by Tunisia and Israel. The rest of countries are not excellent. For example, Morocco does not have freedom of press, but partly free for the Net and in the world. In other countries such as Syria, Iran, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United

Arab Emirates (UAE), there are no free status for these three categories. Looking at the European countries, majority of these parts have free status for the freedom of the press and freedom in the world except for freedom of the Net. Iceland, Estonia, Germany, United Kingdom The level of press freedom in Sub-­ Saharan African’s country is much worse compared to European’s country. Start with Ethiopia, Sudan and The Gambia. These countries are the landlocked places with no freedom status at all. Compared with Malawi and Nigeria, these two are little better with partly free for the press, the Net and have a good ranking in the world. In all countries in African’s state, South Africa is seemed neutrally for the freedom of the Net and freedom in the world. With free status, South Africa’s citizens can enjoy these two things except for the press which a little hard for the media’s people where the freedom of press is partly free. In conclusion, 2016 edition of Freedom of the Press consistently report with justice and successful even though there are some challenges for certain countries to struggle the freedom status itself. With cooperation’s from local and international nongovernmental organization (NGO), this party have various information from all over the world. With this report, people all around the world can see how journalists organization have to embrace themselves to face the reality of the fake world which struggling with many problems from the smallest to the biggest. It is crucial that this report have to be more balanced when talking about the country and most important thing, Freedom of the Press give an excellent information with all aspects either from political perspective to economical perspective.

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Freedom of The Net

ASIAN COUNTRIES

Text: Raja Nadhirah, Maizura Zainal Abiddin, Amira Badrul Aziz, Nur Firzanah

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owadays people increasingly rely on the Internet as an agent of socialization from which people access information and communicate it to others through social media such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp and others. The Internet is also a source of entertainment, enabling users to download music, video or files. Due to the increasing usage and people’s dependency on the Internet, the government around the world has imposed internet censorship in order to control or suppress of what can be accessed, published or viewed on the internet. The extent of Internet censorship varies depends on the country. As the Internet freedom around the world declines in 2016 for the sixth consecutive year, it is believed that two-­third or 67% of all Internet users live in countries where criticism of the government, military, or ruling family are subject to censorship. Most of the governments all around the world go after messaging apps like WhatsApp and Telegram as these applications can spread information quickly and securely. According to Freedom House, most social media users face unprecedented penalties as authorities in 38 countries made arrests based on social media posts. The usage of the Internet has created various phenomena on the internet. There are many viral and trendy things posted in social media such as the Mannequin Challenge, Running Man Challenge and Salt and Ice challenge which make people tend to follow the action. China Earlier this year, netizens in China are being attracted with the “Banana Eating” behaviour on the live streaming site. This behaviour has raised government concern as the behaviour is seen as being erotic and seductive. Therefore the government has taken action to ban banana eating

on live stream website and the action of eating a banana is considered illegal. The internet censorship in China is extreme and the government has imposed a wide variety of laws and administrative regulation. The Chinese government not only block website content but they also monitor the Internet access of the individuals. A Foreign content provider such as Skype, AOL, and Yahoo must abide by Chinese government regulation by having content monitors in order to be able to operate within mainland China. Singapore There is something that the country viewed as perfect in many eyes, Singapore, is lacking in – Internet freedom. The country may be a powerhouse in a lot of areas, but freedom on the Internet is unfortunately not one of them. How is Singapore partially free in the context of freedom on the Net? Out of the ten topics that are usually censored in other countries enlisted by Freedom House, Singapore only censors three of them;; criticism of authorities, blasphemy, and satire. Is Singapore not free enough then? In spite of Singapore enjoying a progressive development of communication technology infrastructure, the Singaporeans have a considerably poor access on what they are saying on the Net. The report said, “Even though digital connectivity has grown, the government remains wary of the technology’s potential for liberalizing political debate and enhancing democratic participation”. Media Development Authority of Singapore (MDA) is the organization responsible for the regulation of Internet in the country. It all boils down to media content – what you see on the Internet is what the body permits you to see.

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An enormous crowd assembled in Seoul, South Korea to demand the resignation of the nation's embattled presidnt, Park Geun Hye.

Myanmar The same situation is also happening in Myanmar whereby the internet freedom is limited. Myanmar has just shifted from the junta, the military led the government to democracy, the country listed as one of the countries that did not have any press freedom and freedom of the net. Suppressing laws like Electronic Transaction Law (ETL) and Telecommunication Laws has prohibited the people from becoming digital activists and expressing themselves on the net. The country does not experience the freedom of the net although the internet access is improving when the draconian law such as 2004 Electronic Transaction Law (ETL) has implemented to criminalize digital activism. Despite the law has undergone amendments, still, the number of journalists that were put behind bars did not decline. In early 2015, four journalists were detained when two of them went to cover student protests and another two reporters covering labor protests in Rangoon, and the news was published in both online and printed version. A case in 2014 remained unsolved, where a citizen journalist was fatally shot by the military. At least 10 journalists were detained and 19 were facing trial in 2014, thus making Myanmar ranked as the 10th worst jailer of media workers worldwide. Since the telecommunications law failed to repeal, more people has found

themselves imprisoned due to their investigations and criticisms on military matters. Most of them were detained under national security-­related laws and the country’s official secret act. It is very disappointing for people in Myanmar as their new Telecommunications Law introduced greater scope for abuse. Granting greater power to the government to intercept, irrespective of the means of communication, any information that affects the national security or rule of law thus making Myanmar give no rooms at all for their citizen’s privacy protection. South Korea South Korea boasts one of the world’s highest broadband and smartphone penetration rates and the internet service sector is relatively multiform and open to competition, while the mobile market could be subject to more state influence. Moreover, South Korea is one of the most wired countries in the world, for both usage and connection speed. Several factors have contributed to the country’s high degree of connectivity. Despite landmark ruling by the Constitutional Court in 2012, that stopped websites from registering users’ national ID numbers and allowed for more anonymous interactions. In the past five years, cyber-­attacks and online theft have exposed millions of South Korean’s personal details thus online privacy has been another prevailing issue for South Korea. For

national security reasons, police and the National Intelligence Service (NIS) have oversight on the access points, but the government is not known to implement restrictions on the internet or mobile access for political reasons. There are numerous of restrictions on the free circulation of information and opinions even though South Korean cyberspace is vibrant and creative. Filtering and deletion of content are particularly clear. Content that discusses such as praises or benefits communists North Korea orthat undermines the traditional social values of the country are blocked or deleted based on the recommendations of the Korea Communications Standards Commission (KCSC). Censored content is classified by categories including gambling. Other than that, illegitimate food and medicine, obscenity, violating others’ rights, and violating other laws and regulations also including in censored content South Korea. The last category includes websites containing North Korean propaganda or promoting reunification. With South Korea’s internet freedom status is stand still partly free during 2016 with internet penetration 90 percent in 2015, there are still arrested bloggers and ICT users for the violation and still restrict political and social content is blocked in their country even though their citizens are free to use any social media and ICT applications. SASARAN Edisi 72 85

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M

Text: Fatin Nurulshahirah Binti Maaris and Shafizam Dzahir

any journalists have been killed while on duty. One of the reasons why the journalist was murdered due to the political reason, reporting in chaotic countries or while there are investigating crimes. There are lots of cases that are considered unsolved and no judgment have been taken. Here, some of the spotlights countries where journalists are killed and the killers have been not punished. According to the largest reporter’s organization in the world, the Committee to Protect Journalists in an independent, non-­profit organization (CPJ) stated, Syria is the most dangerous country for media. This is because with 12 journalists recorded was killed in 2016. Apart from Syria, Iraq is the second most dangerous country, with reporter’s death, recorded achieve to 6 journalists killed. While Yemen 5 journalist killed and Libya and Afghanistan with 3 journalists

murdered in respectively national. Besides there was 100% male’s journalist killed by the year 2016 compared to the female’s journalists was none. While in International Federation of Journalist (IFJ) reports, there was a reporter from the United States killed, David Gilkey which is he was a Photojournalist for National Public Radio (NPR) and was killed on 5th June 2016 in Afghanistan according to the attack that happened in that country. Back to the previous year, according to CPJ in 2015, the total condemnations was 72 journalist killed cases. Where the local journalist killed was 92% while foreign journalists killed was only involved 8% people. In the record stated, male journalists killed was 89% compared to female’s journalist was 10% only. The journalist in an Arab region is the most killed in 2015 which is 37 murdered.

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As we can see in the name list of the journalist killed, the most journalist deaths were Muslims. Referring to the CPJ report, the total of denunciation journalists killed by the year 2014 was 61 deaths which the most journalist killed was males. 92% male journalists were murdered while 8% were female. Discussing the gender, based on the observed years (2014, 2015 and 2016), we can see that male’s journalist was the most killed and many other attacks against them during their duties. In order to recognize whether female journalist face inordinate risks and the percentage of female’s journalist killed, but the information about the overall gender split of media workers in those countries is needed. Unfortunately, there are still lots of unrevealed data and have not been published. According to the Committee to Protect Journalist (CPJ), their research gives valuable information on the latest attacks which is the percentage of

journalist deaths internationally have been murders while the rest is being reasoned to dangerous assignments or crossfire. In the cases of killed, the suspected source of the fire was most frequently political groups which are 30 percent, followed by government officials at 23 percent. On the other hand, each death was caused by a targeted killing of journalist whether it was spontaneous or premeditated indirect relation to the journalist’s assignment. As impunity is widely recognized as one of the greatest threats to press freedom, and international pressure to address it has mounted in recent years, with states including some of the repeat offenders on this list, beginning to respond. Six countries on the index such as Bangladesh, Brazil, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, and Somalia are convicted perpetrators of journalist killings in the past year, up from three

countries in the previous year’s report. In another positive development, more countries on this year’s index participated in Unesco’s impunity accountability mechanism, which requests information on the status of investigations into killed journalists. As in previous years, half of the countries on the index ignored this process. This year, only three states among the 13 index countries such as India, South Sudan, and Syria was failed to respond. In a nutshell, justice has not been achieved in any murder. As in rank order with the numbers of unsolved murders, they are Iraq stated the highest number 71, Philippines 41 , Somalia 24 , Pakistan 21, Mexico 21, Pakistan 21 and Syria achieved to 17 numbers of unsolved murders. These cases are considered unsolved when no decision been made. But not all killer are held to justice are classified as partial impunity and are not included in the tally.

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F

Meta-­Journalism can be the fastest way to search any information in the Internet

or most of the 20th century, the newspaper industry relatively stable. Many operated essentially as local monopolies, so they could make lots of money where around a 20 to 30 percent profit margin from advertising sales and circulation. Then the Internet came along and changed all of that. Since then, the entire news and journalism business has been in turmoil. This triggers the discussion among the media practitioners on how journalism is going to move through this disruption. In a way, the industry start to change into a different perception in delivering the news as they were focusing it on the new media context which is the build of a website or digital media to counter the drastic change of the old traditional media. In the America and European countries, this nation has changed rapidly into the new media for people to consume their news as they began to think online. The news also changes in a way to gather news people are more dependent on digital news. Using a news site for a news site is what we call it today. For that the developing of new way was essential and then came a new journalism foundation that we call as meta-­journalism. Meta-­Journalism is a way that uses the internet as its sensor. It takes data from news sources, social media, and trending searches to give a journalist demand articles on a given topic, which helps determine what topics are worth

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THE FUTURE OF JOURNALISM Text: Muhammad Farhan Mohd Bakhtiar and Amirul Aiman bin Hamsuddin

writing about. Social Media: Derived based on the frequency of new tweets being sent out featuring the keywords. This use the potential popularity of a topic based on expected reader engagement. Press Coverage: Derived based on how many news articles mention the keywords, weighted by frequency of publication. It used to measure the current supply of news stories on a topic. Search Popularity: Derived based on the data supplied by Google Trends on search popularity. This can be used to measure the current demand for news stories on a topic. Though in truth, this way also covers many stories on journalistic innovation such as new developments in data visualization, emerging business and advertising formats, the growing role of mobile devices in both consuming and producing journalism, the impact of Twitter, Facebook, and the ways news gets shared online. Which mean this was a new way for the journalist to work today. The Nieman Journalism Lab, based at Harvard’s Nieman`s Foundation, has created a programme called Fuego, which algorithmically determines what part of the Twitter world is talking about the future of journalism, and tracks and ranks the stories that people are discussing every 30 minutes. Fuego is one way to cope with the waning

Part of the Twitter world is talking about the future of journalism, and tracks and ranks the stories that people are discussing every 30 minutes."

gatekeeper function of editors. The cyber-­landscape also means that a YouTube video can go viral without any gatekeeper involved Web users simply share it laterally. That’s true for information generally, of winnowing through the tweets, blogs, and posts out there. Fuego attempts to cut through the noise to help those prospecting for knowledge. This good for newspapers and broadcast outlets that are adapting to the changed environment of their news operations industry for online. The Nieman Journalism Lab, based at Harvard’s Nieman`s Foundation, has created a programme called Fuego, which algorithmically determines what part of the Twitter world is talking about the future of journalism, and tracks and ranks the stories that people are discussing every 30 minutes. Fuego is one way to cope with the waning

gatekeeper function of editors. The cyber-­landscape also means that a YouTube video can go viral without any gatekeeper involved Web users simply share it laterally. That’s true for information generally, of winnowing through the tweets, blogs, and posts out there. Fuego attempts to cut through the noise to help those prospecting for knowledge. This good for newspapers and broadcast outlets that are adapting to the changed environment of their news operations industry for online. For the practicing journalist, work is now harder in some ways and easier in others. The ability to find that background information more quickly is a great boon but you’re probably going to have to tweet your story and share it on Facebook and take more responsibility for its marketing and promotion than you might have before. If someone asks you a question about your story on Twitter, you have the opportunity to respond and, depending on where you work, you might have the responsibility to respond. It’s a stressful but a good time to be a journalist.

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United States of America & Europe on Syria's Crisis Text: Shafizam MD Dzahir

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he hidden strength of their institutions, driving democracies governments of self-­confidence and conviction amid 2015. Front and center were the democratic world’s failure to present a unified and credible system to stop the murderous war in Syria and deal with the alyssum seekers crisis triggered by the war. Having neglected to bolster the direct restriction to dictator president Bashar al-­Assad in the contention’s initial stages, the United States of America and Europe are currently going up against with an emergency of worldwide extents. With its confusing interaction of regional forces, intermediary strengths, jihadist groups, and serious helpful needs, Syria speaks to the most complex challenge to peace and dependability in years, and so far the leader of the free world have missed the mark even as central democratic rule standards go under risk in their own nations. The surge of refuge seekers from Syria and other clash zones in 2015 incited a

befuddled and regularly terrible open deliberation among the part states of the European Union (EU). While a couple of European leaders, prominently German chancellor Angela Merkel and Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, were at first candid in respecting those escaping barrel bombs and psychological oppressor slaughters, others explicitly declined to acknowledge Muslim exiles on their dirt. Such antagonistic vibe turned out to be extremely intense after creating fear-­based terrorist attacks when the Islamic State militant gathering killed 130 people in Paris in November. Czech Republic President Miloš Zeman called those come from the Middle East an “organized invasion,” while Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán affirmed incorrectly that “all the terrorists” in the Paris assaults “are basically migrants”. Indeed, even in Germany, in spite of the administration’s inviting with a good attitude, neo-­Nazis and different xenophobes ambushed alyssum seekers and set fire to gathering spaces.

Other European governments moved to avoid obligation, utilizing wall with razor wire, draconian laws, and burdensome monetary requests to push the stream of migrant far from their edge.

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Essentially, the European foundation’s failure to deal with these new difficulties on top of the monetary misfortunes that started almost 10 years ago gave new driving force to the individuals who have since quite a while ago scrutinized the European venture and the liberal, all inclusive qualities that it speaks to. In France, for instance, Marine Le Pen of the conservative National Front discussed a split amongst ‘globalists and patriots,’ recommending that the standard, pro-­EU socialist and moderate parties were unclear and basically hostile to France. The United States did not confront outcast streams or terrorist assaults on an indistinguishable scale from Europe, however, it too is encountering a crisis of trust in its democratic institution and role for worldwide. While the American framework stays dynamic and open to the cooperation of minorities and settlers, its elections and administrative process have experienced an undeniably complex arrangement of gerrymandering and undue obstruction by rich people and special interests. Racial and ethnic divisions have apparently enlarged, and the previous

The United States of America and Europe are currently going up against with an emergency of worldwide extents. year conveyed more prominent thoughtfulness regarding police brutality and immunity, accepted private and school isolation, and financial inequality, adding to fears that class mobility, a linchpin of America’s mental self-­portrait and worldwide reputation, is in danger. With these worries as a setting, the political civil argument over immigration and national security in any event on the privilege went up against a furious,

hostile to Muslim tone, and Islamophobic hates crimes spiked, particularly after 14 individuals were executed in a terrorist assault in San Bernardino, California. Some chose authorities on both sides of the political range likewise provide a reason to feel ambiguous about America’s longstanding objective of supporting popular government abroad, contending that U.S. contribution just purposes shakiness.

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but no thanks, grammar Nazis

My problem with grammar snobs and why they should STFU Text: Raja Nadhirah Raja Hasnan

I

f – and only if – there exists a definition of grammar Nazi, the most accurate interpretation of the term could very well be a person who uses his or her perfect grammar and spelling to subtly mock or deride those who do not, to exhibit a sense of inferiority. A grammar Nazi whose fragile ego is fed by snidely looking down upon those who fall foul of the noble English language takes pride in their “ethically superior” intellectual standards. In other words, a jerk. A little disclaimer: I understand where grammar Nazis are coming from, because, admittedly, once upon a long time ago, I was one too – a self-­proclaimed grammar Nazi whose supremacy rides on “grammar elitism”. The Internet from which social media become an exclusive domain among the young generation provides an opportunity where grammar and spelling critiques skills are put to use. I used to rant on my social media, putting up statuses on the great catastrophe of the abuse of the English language. I, on an annoyingly constant basis, post about some people who say “its mean” when they mean “it means”. And then I would go and on, harping about people who do not know the difference between “they” and “their”. I found it hard to take people who did not take the time to go over their grammar and spelling seriously. Very gladly, not anymore. Gone were the days when I would casually correct people’s grammar and remain arrogantly clueless as to why people thought it was annoying to do so. I mean, a typo or a grammatical error can bring an entirely different meaning. I was trying to help, after all. Right? While correcting people’s language mishap and advocating proper use of the language for the greater good can be a little endearing, other times – well, most of the times – it bridges towards getting on people’s nerves especially at the expense of one’s public humiliation. It is exasperating how grammar Nazis desperately cling to the finer nits of language

use and there is nothing noble about flaming people with grammatical gaffes with sarky remarks. To grammar Nazis whose presence is amplified by social media itself, grammar mishap or alleged “abuse” of the noble language is passed off as a great modern tribulation. Behind every grammar Nazi – the English language sticklers who get riled up by miniscule slip up – is the problem with thinking you’re better, or worse, above anybody else. If a message has a great content, will you let a grammatical error or a typo get in the way? If you can clearly understand what a person is trying to convey even with errors, will you really fill your head with insignificance instead? Is it right to shut people down because of their lack of exposure to or understanding of the rules of grammar? After all that Enid Blyton and Harry Potter, Meg Cabot and Sophie Kinsella, Cecilia Ahern and John Green, my coloniser’s language rolls smoothly off my tongue. While it has not been difficult for me to master English, the case is not the same to other people. Unfortunately, for some of us, English language is not as accessible. Of course, grammar Nazis, this piece does not cease the importance of proper grammar and spelling. Don’t get me wrong, grammar Nazis, keeping people in check of their English skills is great. While it is all good, pointing out linguistic shortcomings to gain a twisted sense of superiority is the grow-­ up equivalent of elementary school playground put-­down. The tendency to equate intelligence with the ability to speak and write English is another by-­product of colonialism. The more I see grammar Nazis playing police – championing honourable adherence to rules – the less comfortable I am with the underlying mind-­set that seems to be driving it. Call people out for the substance, not the form. On why I quit being a grammar Nazi – I am exhausted of participating in the superficial illusion that one’s mastery of

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Pointing out linguistic shortcomings to gain a twisted sense of superiority is the grow-­up equivalent of elementary school playground put-­down.”

ISU

A cartoon depiction of how grammar Nazis work in real life. language is a leverage of one’s intelligence. Here’s a piece of advice – “When you read something, notice the withering tree by all means, but not at the expense of missing out on the entire forest”. As a reformed grammar Nazi myself, speaking to my peers – the grammar Nazis of the world – STFU. No, really.

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

'BUKAN NAK

SENSASI BERITA' 13 NOVEMBER 2016 Oleh: Siraj Mohd Zaini

S

hah Alam: Pendedahan modus operandi setiap kegiatan jenayah yang berlaku di negara ini dan dipaparkan menerusi laporan akhbar bukan sekadar untuk mensensasikan berita, tetapi juga meningkatkan kesedaran dalam kalangan masyarakat. Penulis Khas Kanan Harian Metro Tuan Asri Tuan Hussein berkata, penulisan laporan berita berkaitan jenayah lengkap dengan segala aspek termasuk modus operandi menjadi amalan petugas media supaya orang ramai sentiasa tahu mengenai teknik digunakan penjenayah kepada mangsanya. “Pemberita bertanggungjawab memaparkan setiap cara kegiatan jenayah itu dilakukan kerana masyarakat perlu tahu dan berwaspada supaya ia tidak berlaku kepada diri mereka. “Ia tidak bertujuan mensensasikan berita atau menjual surat khabar saja, tetapi pemberita juga bertanggungjawab membantu pihak berkuasa mengingatkan orang ramai,” katanya. Beliau berkata demikian ketika menjadi ahli panel dalam Kolokium Kritikan Media ke-­35 yang dianjurkan

Fakulti Komunikasi dan Pengajian Media Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), di sini, semalam. Turut menjadi panel dalam program bertemakan Wartawan, Media dan Jenayah itu ialah Pegawai Penyelaras Kor Sukarelawan Polis Siswa Siswi (SUKSIS) Universiti Malaya (UM) Deputi Superintendan Foo Chek Seng serta Pensyarah Kanan Jabatan Antropologi dan Sosiologi UM, Dr Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad. Matlamat utama program berkenaan bagi memberi pendedahan sebenar kepada penuntut mengenai aspek kewartawanan jenayah sebagai persediaan mereka menceburi bidang itu kelak. Foo berkata, meskipun laporan akhbar mendedahkan mengenai setiap modus operandi jenayah namun pertambahan kes jenayah meningkat jika ia tidak diambil perhatian. “Tidak perlu risau jika laporan menerangkan dengan terperinci bagaimana jenayah itu dilakukan dan apa tekniknya kerana orang ramai perlu berfikiran positif dengan sentiasa meningkatkan kawalan diri supaya tidak menjadi mangsa,” katanya.

Ia tidak bertujuan mensensasikan berita atau menjual surat khabar saja, tetapi pemberita juga bertanggungjawab membantu pihak berkuasa mengingatkan orang ramai.” TUAN ASRI TUAN HUSSEIN Penolong Khas Kanan Harian Metro

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

KEWARTAWANAN

BUKAN MUSUH

DEMOKRASI BERPARLIMEN 4 NOVEMBER 2016 Oleh: Wartawan Malaysiakini

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ianggap sebagai Tunjang Keempat, media dalam masyarakat demokratik sering dilihat sebagai penghunus pedang, berdiri mengawal kepentingan umum daripada salah laku golongan kaya serta berpengaruh. Sejak detik awal penubuhannya 17 tahun lalu Malaysiakini memainkan peranannya untuk misi ini. Ekoran kekangan ketat undang-­ undang dan peraturan mengawal media -­ yang menyebabkan hampir mustahil untuk menyebarkan pandangan berbeza daripada naratif rasmi -­ wartawan serta pengarang Malaysiakini memilih ruang siber. Sejak itu kami menyajikan rakyat Malaysia dengan berita dan pandangan -­ kebanyakannya tidak dapat dilihat di tempat lain -­ dan ia mengundang pujian, sekali gus kecaman. Malaysiakini sedang disiasat polis kerana didakwa cuba melakukan aktiviti "memudaratkan demokrasi berparlimen". Kami amat terkejut dengan tuduhan keterlaluan ini. Bagaimana laporan berita berdasarkan fakta disamakan dengan cubaan untuk memudaratkan prinsip demokrasi? Kami tidak pernah menghasut orang awam untuk menggulingkan kerajaan melalui kaedah tidak demokratik. Mengenai perhimpunan jalanan, Malaysiakini menyiarkan pandangan kedua-­dua pihak, sama ada yang menyokong atau menolaknya. Malah portal berita ini menggalakkan perbahasan serta percambahan idea. Dan jika rakyat Malaysia -­ semasa

membaca artikel dalam portal berita ini -­ bercadang menukar kerajaan melalui peti undi, atau menghalang pembangkang daripada berkuasa, itulah inti pati demokrasi, bukan? Daripada menjadi ancaman kepada demokrasi berparlimen, Malaysiakini lebih sering dianggap sesetengah pihak sebagai ancaman kepada kepentingan politik masing-­ masing, dan ini berlaku pada kedua-­ dua belah kumpulan politik. Sebagai contoh, Ketua Umno Sungai Besar Datuk Seri Jamal Md Yunos semalam yang berikrar untuk "meruntuhkan" sebahagian bangunan Malaysiakini. Beliau datang ke pejabat kami di Petaling Jaya dengan kira-­kira 100 penyokong, menuntut jawapan berhubung geran diterima portal berita ini daripada Open Society Foundations (OSF) yang dikaitkan dengan bilionair AS, George Soros. Jamal dan rombongannya berdiri di luar pagar bangunan Malaysiakini. Apabila bertemu dengannya, Jamal meminta kebenaran masuk dan kami bersedia memberi kebenaran kepada lima orang wakil baju merah. Mungkin menjangkakan kami menolak permintaannya, Jamal kelihatan terkejut. Beliau kemudian meminta masuk bersama 15 orang penyokong, tetapi kami akhirnya bersetuju dengan jumlah 10 orang. Dalam proses itu, kami menunjukkan kepadanya bahawa di sebalik kejian dan kenyataan kebencian serta pelbagai ancaman yang dibuatnya, kita boleh bersetuju untuk tidak bersetuju.

Kita tidak boleh -­ dan mesti menghalang -­ kumpulan yang memegang kuasa memaksa definisi demokrasi berparlimen serta memutuskan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan "memudarat" institusi itu."

Kami menunjukkan kepada Jamal bahawa kami amat menghargai ruang kecil demokrasi yang kita ada dan hanya melalui jalan itu kita boleh menyelesaikan banyak masalah kompleks yang melanda negara kita. Dan walau apa pun perbezaan kita, kita semua adalah rakyat Malaysia. Kita tidak boleh -­ dan mesti menghalang -­ kumpulan yang memegang kuasa memaksa definisi demokrasi berparlimen serta memutuskan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan "memudarat" institusi itu. Di sebalik gangguan dan ugutan, Malaysiakini akan terus melaporkan berita dan pandangan yang penting. Mari kita pertegaskan -­ kami tidak akan berganjak daripada misi untuk menyatakan kebenaran kepada penguasa dan dipertanggungjawabkan atas perbuatan mereka. Kami tidak pernah dan tidak akan berganjak daripada itu. Lagi pun ini adalah tugas suci mana-­ mana wartawan. Dan ia sudah pasti bukan aktiviti yang memudaratkan demokrasi berparlimen. SASARAN Edisi 72 97

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

MALAYSIANS WANT

LOCAL TV CONTENT 21 SEPTEMBER 2016 By: Laili Ismail and Beatrice Nita Jay

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ocal content on traditional media platforms remains the choice of Malaysians, despite the proliferation of foreign content on digital and online platforms. Media Prima Television Networks chief executive officer Datuk Kamal Khalid said the predominance of local content had set Malaysia apart from the rest of the world. “Whether it is Malay, Chinese or any other local language, it takes priority over everything else. For example, television ratings for a local football match between JDT (Johor Darul Ta’zim football club) and Terengganu would be three times higher than the top English Premier League match of the week,” he said during a plenary session titled “Are radio and television still relevant?” at the 2016 CPA Congress here yesterday. This, said Kamal, had protected the local media industry from competition from foreign content. “Local content rates highly and we invest in it to maintain our rankings. This shields us from the competition or divergence from traditional platforms,” he said at the plenary session moderated by Monash University Malaysia development and alumni external relations director Gavin Gomez. On the relevance of television, Kamal, said the term “television” itself had a broadened definition which included the delivery of content. “Technology has progressed tremendously.

“People have access to things like broadband Internet, and TV is now a content producer that allows consumers to view programmes from their mobile devices. “People have talked about how (subscription service) Netflix is like a TV channel rather than a platform because people subscribe to them for original content, (which means) they are no different than HBO or TV3 as it aggregates content as well.” Kamal also emphasized the flexibility of content and the importance of online platforms. “What is important is to create content that resonates with the public. “It doesn’t matter whether you distribute it traditionally or digitally. If it doesn’t work online, it will not work on TV. “This is counter-­intuitive, but as the saying goes, ‘the rising tide lifts all boats’.” Media companies, said Kamal, were still at the forefront of popular consumption and he advised these companies to be flexible. “We have to take into account digital natives, who are part of the generation that never knew a world without Internet. “These are the ones who will determine patterns of consumption going forward.” Astro Radio Sdn Bhd chief executive officer Datuk Jake Abdullah emphasized the importance of content over platform

We have to take into account digital natives, who are part of the generation that never knew a world without Internet." DATUK KAMAL KHALID Chief Executive Officer, Media Prima Television Networks

and breaking industry norms. “We need to break rules, spend a bit more, reach out to shareholders, invest more and take more risks. As long as we serve great content, consumers will come and this is the era for consumers.” On radio being deemed a traditional platform, he said, radio had become a content aggregator. “We have to re-­look at the word ‘traditional’. “Putting a face on radio is not applicable anymore. “We are purveyors of this ‘new radio’. “We also put our content across many platforms.” The premier event for accounting and finance profession connected more than 8,500 attendees across 13 cities and connected participants and organizations with thought leaders, policymakers, innovators and disrupters.

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

MEDIA ARUS PERDANA TIDAK MAINKAN

ISU PERKAUMAN 29 SEPTEMBER 2016

K

UALA LUMPUR – Media arus perdana dilihat bersikap lebih berhati-­hati dalam menerbitkan berita bersifat perkauman dan yang bertentangan dengan masyarakat Malaysia berbilang kaum bagi menjaga sensitiviti setiap masyarakat. Dekan Fakulti Sastera, Komunikasi dan Pendidikan Universiti Infrastruktur Kuala Lumpur, Prof. Dr. Faridah Ibrahim berkata, satu kajian terhadap berita pilihan pembaca yang beliau lakukan menunjukkan isu hubungan etnik berada pada kedudukan ketujuh daripada 10 isu penting. Katanya, kajian berkenaan yang dijalankan ke atas 352 responden di Lembah Klang mendapati hal itu berlaku kerana media arus perdana tidak melaporkan mengenai perselisihan antara kaum disebabkan tapisan dan pendirian pemilik media masing-­masing. “Sebaliknya, maklumat berkaitan hubungan etnik lebih banyak dibincangkan secara mendalam oleh penulis blog dan media alternatif yang lebih terbuka dan tidak terikat dengan apa-­apa polisi,” katanya pada sesi pertama Forum Media Kebangsaan 2016 anjuran Institut Akhbar Malaysia (MPI) di sini semalam. Sehubungan itu, beliau menggesa media arus perdana supaya lebih kreatif dan inovatif dalam melaporkan berita berkaitan hubungan etnik bagi memastikan laporan mereka menjadi

pilihan masyarakat, sekaligus memupuk perpaduan negara Mengulas mengenai dapatan kajian tersebut, Pengarah Institut Kajian Etnik di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Prof. Ulung Datuk Dr. Shamsul Amri Baharuddin berpandangan, kurangnya minat terhadap isu hubungan etnik kerana masyarakat lebih mementingkan akses keperluan hidup masing-­masing. Menurutnya apa yang lebih penting untuk masyarakat ialah jaminan masa depan keluarga mereka dan itu menyebabkan mereka tidak menumpukan perhatian terhadap hal-­ hal hubungan kaum dan kesannya kepada masyarakat. Katanya dengan adanya platform media yang kini sudah pelbagai, cara rakyat Malaysia untuk tidak bersetuju dalam sesuatu perkara kini sudah berbeza. “Namun, isunya sekarang adakah isu yang diluahkan mereka itu soal peribadi atau untuk kepentingan masyarakat. Garis pemisah antara soal peribadi dan masyarakat sukar untuk dipisahkan sehinggakan isu-­isu berkaitan ekonomi juga dijadikan isu etnik,” katanya kepada pemberita selepas tamat sesi pertama forum itu. Sementara itu, Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif MPI Datuk Dr Chamil Wariya berkata adalah kurang tepat untuk mengatakan media arus perdana tidak memainkan peranan dalam memupuk perpaduan antara kaum di negara ini.

Sebaliknya, maklumat berkaitan hubungan etnik lebih banyak dibincangkan secara mendalam oleh penulis blog dan media alternatif yang lebih terbuka dan tidak terikat dengan apa-­apa polisi." PROF. DR. FARIDAH IBRAHIM Dekan, Fakulti Sastera, Komunikasi dan Pendidikan, Universiti Infrastruktur Kuala Lumpur

“Saya rasa bukan media arus perdana tidak memainkan peranan dalam memupuk perpaduan tetapi masalahnya ialah ungkapan perpaduan itu sendiri. Perpaduan mesti ada dua elemen iaitu kesepaduan dan penyatupaduan. Dalam perpaduan ada kesepaduan dan dalam kesepaduan ada penyatupaduan. “Jika kedua-­dua elemen ini dapat difahami oleh media dan juga ahli politik, maka akhirnya perpaduan boleh dicapai. Tetapi jika sistem dalam masyarakat berdasarkan kepada etnik, saya percaya ini adalah tugasan yang berat jika media sahaja yang menyempurnakan tugasan memupuk perpaduan,” tambahnya.

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

PKIBM IKTIRAF

PERANAN MEDIA 30 SEPTEMBER 2016

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ENGHARGAAN. Persatuan Kebangsaan Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Swasta Bumiputera Malaysia (PKIBM) mahu kerjasama antara institusi pengajian tinggi swasta (IPTS) dengan media dijaga dengan baik dan diteruskan bagi memastikan maklumat dapat disebarkan dengan tepat. Presidennya, Amir Hamzah Md. Isa berkata, media telah memainkan peranan yang sangat besar dalam membantu perkembangan IPTS di negara ini terutama berita-­berita berkaitan pencapaian cemerlang yang diperoleh oleh sesebuah institusi pengajian tinggi.

“Ia juga dapat membantu negara mencapai matlamat meningkatkan mutu pendidikan tinggi negara kepada satu aras yang lebih tinggi,” katanya ketika berucap pada majlis Malam Anugerah PKIBM 2016 di Putrajaya baru-­ baru ini. Pada majlis itu, pelbagai agensi media termasuk KOSMO! Telah menerima penghargaan masing-­ masing di atas sumbangan yang telah diberikan dalam menyiarkan berita-­ berita berkaitan IPTS. Kesemua penghargaan itu disampaikan oleh Menteri Pendidikan Tinggi, Datuk Seri Idris Jusoh.

MEDIA TRADISIONAL

TERUMBANG-­AMBING 10 OKTOBER 2016 Oleh: Asyraf Muhammad CYBERJAYA -­ Kewujudan media baharu seperti Facebook dan aplikasi WhatsApp pada masa kini dilihat telah menyebabkan media tradisional berada dalam keadaan terumbang-­ ambing. Penasihat Eksekutif Editorial Kumpulan Media Karangkraf (Karangkraf), Datuk Abd Jalil Ali berkata, namun begitu, media baharu dan media tradisional perlu bekerjasama bagi mewujudkan suasana yang lebih baik pada masa akan datang. "Kita anggap media baharu ini sebagai satu cabaran tapi akhir-­akhir

ini kita tengok ia juga merupakan satu keperluan," katanya dalam Program Bual Bicara 1Media: Penyelesaian Transformasi Media Internet yang diadakan di Garden Residence, di sini, hari ini. Oleh sebab itu, Abd Jalil berkata, beliau berpendapat, laman media sosial merupakan akhbar baharu buat pembaca namun kredibiliti berita yang disampaikan melaluinya perlu dititikberatkan oleh semua pihak. Beliau berkata, setiap pengguna boleh mengakses mana-­mana portal atau web dengan mudah namun kesan

Ia juga dapat membantu negara mencapai matlamat meningkatkan mutu pendidikan tinggi negara kepada satu aras yang lebih tinggi." AMIR HAMZAH MD. ISA Presiden, Persatuan Kebangsaan Institut Pengajian Tinggi Swasta Bumiputera Malaysia (PKIBM)

terhadap pembacaan tersebut adalah sangat penting. "Sebab itu media baharu ini terbahagi kepada dua iaitu web yang menambahkan pengetahuan dan web yang dapat menjatuhkan kedudukan seseorang dalam sekelip mata," katanya. Dalam pada itu, Abd Jalil berkata, media cetak masih lagi mampu bertahan dan tidak akan mati hanya disebabkan oleh kemajuan gajet pada masa kini. Jelasnya, dari segi laporan dan analisis, masyarakat dilihat masih cenderung untuk memilih media cetak berbanding media baharu disebabkan oleh maklumat terperinci yang dibekalkan buat pembaca. "Jika ikut sejarah, masa era televisyen dan internet diperkenal sebelum ini, ramai yang berpendapat media cetak akan gulung tikar. "Namun jika kita lihat pada masa kini, media cetak masih mampu bertahan dan bersaing dengan media baru yang ada,"katanya.

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KRITIKAN MEDIA

SENSASI BERITA,

TAK PERLU GOPOH BUAT KESIMPULAN

26 OKTOBER 2016

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hah Alam: Penganjuran seminar khusus bagi meningkatkan kesedaran mengenai amalan meneliti dan menyelidik sesuatu berita serta tidak gopoh dalam membuat kesimpulan, amat tepat pada masanya ketika penyebaran pelbagai berita berbaur fitnah menerusi laman sosial, kian berleluasa. Timbalan Menteri Komunikasi dan Multimedia, Datuk Jailani Johari, berkata program sedemikian amat bermanfaat, apatah lagi jumlah pengguna internet di negara ini sudah mencecah 20.1 juta orang, termasuk 17.4 juta berstatus aktif. Berucap merasmikan majlis penutup Seminar Antarabangsa Wasatiyah 2016 Fiqh Tabayyun: Dalam Mendepani Cabaran dan Fitnah Media Sosial, di sini semalam, beliau berkata, ‘tabayyun’ ialah prinsip dan akhlak orang beriman. Prinsip orang beriman “Prinsip dan akhlak itu merujuk amalan meneliti dan menyelidiki sesuatu berita, tidak gopoh dalam membuat kesimpulan. Jangan sebarkan maklumat tidak sahih di media sosial kerana boleh berdepan tindakan undang-­undang. “Kalau dulu, hendak jadi wartawan atau mereka yang siarkan maklumat perlu ikut kursus, tetapi sekarang

mereka (penyebar berita palsu) seperti wartawan mi segera. Semua maklumat di hujung jari, maknanya mereka boleh jadi popular dalam masa lima minit,” katanya. Jailani berkata, sebanyak 13 kes penyebaran berita palsu atau fitnah sudah didakwa di mahkamah antara 2012 hingga 2015 oleh Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia (SKMM) mengikut Akta Jenayah Komputer 1997, Akta Hasutan 1948, Akta Fitnah 1957 dan Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1998. “Rekod Biro Aduan SKMM menunjukkan antara Januari hingga akhir September tahun ini, sebanyak 541 aduan diterima berkaitan penyebaran berita fitnah daripada 3,241 jumlah aduan keseluruhan. Jadi, penganjuran seminar berkaitan ‘fiqh tabayyun’ ini tepat pada masanya. “Kita juga mahu menasihatkan, jangan berkongsi mana-­mana maklumat yang boleh gugat keharmonian kaum dan agama seperti yang kita lihat setiap hari ada sahaja perkara disebarkan hingga viral. Kita tidak teragak-­agak untuk ambil tindakan jika dapat maklumat,” katanya.

Prinsip dan akhlak itu merujuk amalan meneliti dan menyelidiki sesuatu berita, tidak gopoh dalam membuat kesimpulan. Jangan sebarkan maklumat tidak sahih di media sosial kerana boleh berdepan tindakan undang-­undang." DATUK JAILANI JOHARI Timbalan Menteri Komunikasi dan Multimedia

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SEJARAH

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SEJARAH

Text: Mohd Fharkhan & Nabilla Eiman

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imur was a 14th Century Turko-­Mongol military leader used Islam as a means to strengthen and exert power. and one of the most remarkable men who ever lived. He This shows that Tamerlane was politically intelligent. conquered most of the Muslim world, Central Asia, and some Tamerlane had perfected the art of war and political intrigue. parts of India. He was also known by his nickname, Tamerlane, He is cunning and often faked his retreat as a decoy to a name that has stirred terror among the people of that time. ambush his enemies to destruction. He sent camels loaded Timur is remembered as a vicious conqueror who invaded with a blazing straw into the ranks of the war elephants of the cities of the Islamic world, piling up tower made out of the skulls sultan of Delhi. Tamerlane was famous for being undefeated of his enemies. However, despite his brutality and ingenious on the battlefield. He won many battles from Delhi to warlord, Tamerlane is scarcely known in the western world. Damascus, Siberia to the Mediterranean, which exceed Amir Timur – ‘iron in Turkic’-­ was born in the year both Alexander and Genghis Khan’s accomplishments as 1336 near the City of Kesh in Transoxiania. one by one the great cities of Asia fell before him. This Persian city is now known as Shahrisabz in Tamerlane’s father was an outstanding modern day Uzbekistan. Timur was not born from member of the Barlas Tribe, which had been royal descendants. He spent his early years in close to Genghis Khan’s Borjigin clan. Central Asia as a sheep-­stealer and joined Tamerlane idolized and looked up to in acts of thievery. It is said that during Genghis Khan and learned similar his mid-­twenties, Timur suffered severe methods to build and improve his empire. injuries on his right leg and right hand. He was also wise in terms of strategizing Legend has it that he may plans and propagandas to invade the have been shot by arrows when cities that he has targeted. He planned he and his group of brigands were years in advance for his campaigns and being chased by a shepherd. all efforts he made paid off in the end. Tamerlane’s ultimate goal was to Born a natural leader, Tamerlane rebuild the empire of Genghis Khan, fought under the rule of various Khans another vicious and brutal conqueror and Sultans during his younger years. people were killed who had died a century earlier. At Given his exceptional leadership skills, he the end of the fourteenth century, he was given command of a thousand soldiers rode through Asia like a firestorm, going for an invasion of Khorasan in north-­east Iran. from victory to victory, conquering the cities, This mission went successfully which in killing and torturing the inhabitants without mercy. the end, led to many other commands in the future. Enemies’ heads were decapitated, and he had When his leader, Kurgan died, the following struggle his princes erect a pyramid made out of 90,000 for power was ultimately interrupted by the invasion of skulls on the ruins of Baghdad, as a terrible and Tughlugh Khan from the Mongol Chagatai Khanate. The gruesome warning to those who dare to oppose him. head of the Barlas tribe took off from the invasion and Timur It is estimated that Tamerlane and his armies had killed at that time was chosen by the Mongols as his replacement. almost 17 million people -­ 5% of the global population Tamerlane became a tribal leader in his thirties at that time. Tamerlane referred to himself as ‘The and had a territory to defend against enemies. Sword of Islam’ and converted much of his empire to Despite his vicious, barbaric, and brutal character, the religion. However, there is no actual evidence of his Tamerlane was not all bad. He showed kindness and charity affiliation with the religion, and it is said that he may have to nobles and merchants which in return, had gained him

17

million

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many allies and of course, much power. Over the next few decades, Tamerlane and his armies had conquered many places from the south and west, including Persia. During his 60’s in the year 1398, Tamerlane was notoriously known as a legendary conqueror with the immense territory. As opposed to his other conquests, Timur had mercilessly killed the Pakistani and also Indian people, to establish barbarism as a holy war against the Hindu religion. In his later years, Tamerlane’s cruelty did grow. There is no factual evidence to this but legend has it that during his invasion of Baghdad (Iraq) in the year 1399 demanded each of his troops of soldiers to present to him two severed heads from the largely Christian population. While intending to continue to expand

his empire and conquer Ming China, Tamerlane fell ill due to the unusually cold weather in the winter of 1405. The doctors’ many attempts to cure him kept on failing and before long, it was clear that he was dying. Tamerlane died in February 1405 at about eight o’clock in the evening.

battle, blood and also power. The history of Tamerlane’s life is indeed interesting and also compelling.

The Chinese expedition was abandoned and his body was taken back to Samarkand to be buried there. Tamerlane’s tomb was said to be inscribed with the words “when I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble”. The author, Justin Marozzi has attempted to make Timur appear human in the book, with immense difficulty. Marozzi successfully depicted the terrifying dramas and wars during the medieval times where Tamerlane had demonstrated his love for

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SEJARAH

Text : AZIZAH ADIB RAHIM & NUR AMALINA DAMANHURI

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he Arab Uprisings significantly impacted not only the middle east, but also the entire world which witnessed how a dreadful war can be piqued from a mere social media. It clearly can be seen that the authoritarian regime underestimated the power of social media during that period in which they were caught

unguarded by the civillians. Facebook and Twitter revolution are highlighted during the war, marking the turning point in the dictatorship ruling. The social media had been fully utilized by the underground citizens not only to break the psychological barrier in the society, but also to awaken the collective support from people all over the nation

to stand and fight the injustice and opression that they have been suffering from. Arab Spring involves most of the countries in Arab, the timeline of which is depicted by the map in Arab World. However, the significant incidents in Arab uprising occurred in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria and Libya.

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The Arab uprising was triggered by a rebellion in Tunisia during the ruling of President Ben Ali in January 2011. The incident began in a small town of Tunisia when a policewoman confiscated Mohamed Bouazizi’s unlicensed cart and its goods. Azizi was asked to pay 10 dinar fine, however, he tried to pay 7 which is equivalent to of a good day’s earning. Unsatisfied, the officer ended up slapping, spatting and cursing at him. Azizi was so upset by the violation that he received from the officer and decided to lodge a report at the provision headquarters. However, the officers turned a deaf ear towards the complaint, in fact they did not even let him in to the building. Feeling miserable, Azizi went to a shop nearby and bought fuel. He went to the same building and lit himself on fire in front of the building. He was badly injured and was hospitalized. The next day, a crowd gathered in front of the building, shouting for Azizi’s name and the street riot started to become wild. They were screaming ‘We are

willing to sacrifice our lives for Azizi’ and ‘We should not be treated this way, we are not animals’. The most important device that everyone has during that time is smartphones and they endlessly recorded what was happening in every angle. They may not be professionals but they know how to record and upload the videos onto social media. The videos were disseminated to all parts of the world that it grabbed not only the attention of Tunisian but also Al Jazeera, an international TV broadcast. The continuous attacks from civilians via social media resulted in a series of riots and it only ended during the resignation of Ben Ali on January 14, 10 days after Bouazizi died. There were 2,200 tweets discussing and evaluating the leadership of Ben Ali when he resigned on January 2010. Social media which acted as the toolkit of the revolution managed to break through the shield of the government when 100,000 people overthrow the regime.

EGYPT

Social media acts as important tool kit to fight against the ruler.

TUNISIA

Bouazizi set himself on fire as a symbol of protest which triggered the Tunisian to stand against the corrupted government.

The revolution of social media took place in Egypt when 18-­days revolution was held to oust President Hosni Mubarak. Again, the social media is utilized to discuss on the contentious issues that could not be discussed in the mainstream media. Underground communities who share a similar interest in democracy of the country built an extensive connection through social media. A survey reported that tweets

on political change in Egypt increased dramatically from 2,300 a day to 230,000 from all around the world. In fact, there were 5.5 million views on the top 23 videos produced by the opposition sides online. After 30 years of ruling, Hosni Mubarak was overthrown after 18 days of revolution in February 2011. The civilian celebrated his resignation with chanting and tears after and embracing soldiers.

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SYRIA

The media is not used to serve the public good, but to protect any criticisms towards the president, Bashar Al Assad and his family instead."

Bashar Al Assad is allegedly responsible for the death of thousand of innocents since the civil war started five years ago. Syrian government learnt a lot of what had happened to Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak in Tunisia and Egypt, thus they have a regular check on online media as well. Many journalists and bloggers fled from the country as they are seemed as a threat to the governments. Those who decided to stay are risked to receive detention and physical attacks. Just like in most authoritarian countries, the conventional media in Syria is censored by the government. The media is not used to serve the public good, but to protect any criticisms towards the president, Bashar Al Assad and his family instead. They also control the flow of the information that the citizens are only exposed to limited information only. The uprising in Syrian began when children were detained by the officers for painting anti-­government graffiti at their schools in February 2011. On the same month and year, the government lifted the banning towards social media, underestimating its power in building solidarity among citizens to go against the government. Syrian took this as a golden opportunity to attack the government when the number of social media usage in Syria started to rise. The nightmare for the parents of the children did not end there when they found out their kids were beaten and tortured in the prisons. On 16th and 18th

March, protestors gathered in Damascus and Darra respectively, demanding for the release of the children. Security forces took a wrong step when they opened fire and killed at least four protestors. This resulted to a rally joined by thousands of people. The youths were then set free nevertheless;; the videos in Youtube and the demonstrations that were taken beforehand were already viral across the globe. Two weeks later, series of anti-­government protest were held immensely. The role of social media in Syria uprising is unclear compared to Tunisia and Egypt as the Syrian government keep a sharp lookout on social media. Nonetheless, Syrian American Council hosted a Google Hangout with Syrian activists on February 2013. The activists named Osama and Kenan Rahmani highlighted how the social media is utilized by the activists to reach international communities, as a medium of communicate between underground activists and also to plan and coordinate before conducting a protest. They further added that reporting from the activists are very crucial when traditional journalists could not get in and see the real situation. This led to the mainstream media reporting wrong information. Conversation between the Syrian American council and the activists in

Syria verify us and prove to us that social media does has its own vital role in Syria during Arab uprising. From the civil war tragedy that took place in most of the continent of the Arab World, social media acted as a very crucial tool to the civilains. The leaders had no idea what to expect from social media that they were ‘gripped’ off guard. Considering the period of Ben Ali ruling, it does not take much time for Tunisian to oust him with the major help of social media. Almost a similar plot occurred to Morsi in Egypt, triggered by the revolution of Tunisian, Egyption Revolution took place not long after. However, Bashar Al Assad in Syria and Gaddafi in Libya learnt their lesson from the incidents in Tunisia and Egypt when both of them banned social media and restrict the mainstream media. It is tougher for the civillians to strive against the government, yet Gadaffi was ended seized and killed. But, Al Assad managed to defend his power when he is still ruling Syria until present. Social media reveals its power after Arab spring, proving to the world fighting against unjust and cruel leaders do not merely need weapons. With social media, they managed to topple down the leaders who majority of them govern the countries for a very long and intense decades.

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SEJARAH

ROLES PLAYED BY JEWISH INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE FORMATION OF THE JEWISH STATE lEON PINSKER, MOSES HESS, ISRAEL ZANGWILL

Teks: Aliff Ashraf & Aiman Adila

T

he history of Jews began over thousands of years ago from the time of the prophets sent down to the people. Although some might claim that the religious context should be put out of the Jewish history, the statement is merely unacceptable since this ancient community has a firm belief in their Messianic prophecy. Historically, the origin birthplace of the Jews was undeniably the land of Palestine. Since the time of prophets Musa, Daud, Sulaiman, and Yahya (peace be upon them) the Jews had been populating the land until after the time of prophet Isa (peace be upon him) these Jewish people were chased out of their homeland by the Romans causing them to live in exile out of Palestine. Hundreds of years later, Palestine fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and after the exile of the Jews, the Arabs had been inhabiting the land. Years passed on and the British empire advanced into Palestine seizing the land from the Turks. At this moment, the Jews who were living in exile experienced great oppression by the National Socialist Party or better

known as Nazi in Germany. This Nazi uprising drove the idea of modern anti-­Semitism which led to the Jewish people’s rights being ripped off. There was a term called The Jewish Problem in which the Germans considered the Jews as parasites living in Diaspora. The Germans perceived the Jews as lazy and cowardly besides than saying that they will destroy the image of Germany. These Jewish people were then treated so bad no human being should deserve. Furthermore, under the new law called as the Nuremberg Law, numbers of restrictions were given to the Jewish people. Jews were not allowed to work as civil servants, to have businesses, to acquire or sell jewelry such as gold, silver and so on. They were not even allowed to drive.

killed that the Nazis used them to work in industrial sites by force. Such strong anti-­Semitism in Germany was one of the events that played a major role in making the Jews so eagerly wanted to have a homeland, to put it into other words, Palestine.

After Adolf Hitler took full control of Nazi, the campaign against the Jews was done in full swing. Jews were brought out of their houses into ghettos which the Nazis set up purposely to exterminate them in mass genocide in which the women and children were not excluded. However, any Jews who seemed young and strong would not be

In the effort of achieving a dream of a statehood, a number of Jewish people emerged in different part of europe whom were best known as intelligentsia in order to make the dream becomes reality. Among them are Leon Pinsker, Moses Hess, and Israel Zangwill.

Driven by oppression and exclusion, a number of Jews began to immigrate into Palestine. Initially, the Jews immigrated into Palestine in a small scale but in 1917 a declaration known as the Balfour Declaration caused a massive immigration of Jews into Palestine. The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent from Arthur James Balfour, a British Foreign Secretary to Walter Rothschild, British Jewry leader as a symbol of British support of establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.

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LEON PINSKER After the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, the anti-­Semitism broke out again in Russia. Alexander III, the successor of his late father blamed the Jews for the assassination which at the same time spread the hatred towards these Jewish people. Numbers of pogroms took place during his rule and when the Jews felt helpless, this was the time a Jewish intelligentsia came to give new hope for his people. Born in Poland on December 13, 1821, Leon Pinsker came from an orthodox Jewish family before leaving them to study at Moscow University and became a doctor during the Crimean War. Pinsker was also a renowned doctor back in his city apart from a member of the intelligentsia. A devoted countryman, Pinsker had so much love for Russia. He considered the country as his own although he knew that Russia is not his homeland. However, all of his devotion to the land he calls home perished amid the hatred the people have for the Jews. Pinsker then realized that Jews can never belong to Russia or any other countries but to have their own country instead. In 1882, Leon Pinsker produced an essay titled as Selbstemanzipation (self-­ emancipation) promoting the Jews that emancipation itself is not enough to liberate them from oppression. In conjunction with the essay, Pinsker traveled to Eastern Europe to spread his ideology and this effort resulted to a rejection. The Jewish people at this moment believed in emancipation and assimilation through enlightenment. By enlightenment, the Jewish people had to either convert to Christianity or join a German-­Jewish reform group. These are the things that Pinsker disagreed with. He condemned the Jews who join the reformation and who were against his effort of achieving a homeland. To put in simple words, auto-­emancipation that was idealized by Leon Pinsker promoted the Jews to liberate themselves on their own without having reliance to emancipation brought by the Europeans.

Apart from that, the Jews did not realize that they were being secularized by the Europeans through emancipation. Many Jews had lost their self-­identity when emancipation came to effect. During the time of Alexander II, the emancipated Jews had lived like the Europeans without any longer holding onto their faith or Judaism. Emancipation during the time of the Tsar even had a hidden agenda. The upper-­class Jews enjoyed a prosperous life while the lower class Jews were left poor. Even the Jews ignored one another. Without noticing it, the Europeans were exploiting them even through emancipation. Although the failure in spreading his idea in Eastern Europe, many Jews consisting the intellectual ones started meeting s e c r e t l y across Russia regarding L e o n Pinsker’s mission of auto-­ emancipation. Leon Pinsker also stated that Jews without homeland are like the living dead scattering in foreign lands which undeniably became an eye-­opener for Jews to reconsider Pinsker’s mission. Three important influences affected the development of pre-­ zionist philosophy were that Jews believe their status as God’s chosen and eventual end of Diaspora, to escape restrictions and as well as emancipation is not believed to be the permanent solution for the Jews to be liberated. Among the early Zionists organizations, Hovevei Zion was founded in 1881 by a conference of people which made Leon Pinsker as the leader. This was a forerunner of the modern day of Zionism that exists in the 21st

century. Hovevei Zion has a meaning of the lover of Zion existed in response towards Pinsker’s mission apart from the violence and pogroms happening in Russia in the time of the Tsars. Ever since, the formation of the organization, many Jews had been immigrated covertly into Palestine to escape the violence in Russia. The Hovevei Zion is an example of a movement that shows the determination of the Jewish people in fighting against oppression which then triggered to a more organized Zionism spirit initiated by Theodore Herzl in the latter years. Hertz when reading Pinsker’s essay found that Selbstemanzipation as “dumbfounding” and claimed that Pinsker’s piece of an essay was much more astonishing than

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MOSES HESS Another intelligentsia who played an important role in the formation of Jewish State is Moses Hess. Moses received Jewish religious education and studied philosophy at the University of Bonn but reported that he never graduated. Hess is a proponent of socialism and Zionism and used to be a friend as well as a collaborator with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Moses sees the struggle of races or nationalities as the prime factors of history. He witnessed the rise of Italian nationalism and the German reaction to it and then arrived at the idea of Jewish national revival. Moving from the slavery into the freedom, Jews believed that they would achieve nationhood by an act of allegiance to God’s rule. At first, many Jews have struggled with the question of whether the assimilation of European culture and values is par with their Judaism teachings. They worried about how they could maintain a Jewish identity while assimilating European culture. After a while, the Enlightenment idea was certainly a failure to the Jews. Moses Hess came into the picture in answering and solving the Jewish question of how they could be free from the oppression and demand the special emancipation or the same status as Christian’s in the state. Hess’ patriotic feeling of Jewish began after the Damascus affair in 1840 which denotes the arrest of thirteen prominent members of the Jewish community of Damascus who were accused of murdering a Christian monk for ritual purposes. He then mainly self-­proclaimed that it was an “absurd accusation” of the Jews. Rome and Jerusalem published by Hess in 1862 is one of the most important manifestos of early Zionism and a prove that Hess had played a role in the existence of thoughts which leads to the settlement ideologies of today as well as to the formation of the Jewish State. In his work Rome and Jerusalem, Hess thrived to create the new birth of the Jewish people by “concentration in their homeland”. Moses knnew that the Germans would not be tolerant of the national aspirations of others and would be particularly intolerant of the Jews. He also saw the unification of Italy as a

hope for unification in Germany and that the “Jewish question” would be the “last national question”. During that time, Hess identified the assimilation process is not a solution to the rebirth of a Jewish nation, but rather leading to the downfall of Judaism. To assimilate European culture among Jewish people, they will slowly distinct from the original teaching of Judaism and values of Jews culture. The only thing left was the civil union marriage and the entry of a non-­denominational marriage. His book, Rome, and Jerusalem calls for the formation of a Jewish socialist community in Palestine as well as the emerging national movement in

Europe. As a socialist, Moses Hess dreamed of a society in which it absolutely didn’t matter which race or religion someone belonged to. At first, the emancipation of the Jews, in Hess’s opinion, would go hand in hand with the emancipation of society. Unfortunately, he changed his mind two decades after the 1840s to find a solution to the “Jewish question”. During his emigration to Paris, he studied natural sciences and anthropology and became aware of the connection existing between the racial and the emergence of the

modern nation-­state movement in 1859, when the Austro-­Italian war began. From his studies, he then concluded that the death of race dominance would lead to the revival of peoples, even that of the Jewish people. The liberation of Jerusalem would occur hand in hand with the liberation of Rome. He believed the idea of Jewish nationality should not be separated from their inheritance teachings, the Holy Land and the Eternal City, the birthplace of the faith in the holy unity of life and in the future intercourse of all people. Rome and Jerusalem are considered as Jewish people’s treasure as it discusses all kind of problems in the greatest areas of philosophy, theology, astronomy, physiology, and biology. The most important thing which mostly had been highlighted in this book is the solution to the Jewish problem which would be the formation of Jewish State. Hess’ standpoint was a blitz on how Jewry saw itself in a favour of acculturation and assimilation. Moses Hess is the founder of Israeli National Socialism and the inspirer of the kibbutz (farm community) movement. His work showed how the Zionist movement drew upon Hegelian thinking to develop a consciousness of the Jews as a historical people on the world stage. The issue of Semitism, a hostile to Jewish feeling in the Leftist camp, which moved Hess to create the national resurrection of the Jewish individuals. Hess stated that it was a wrong way of Jewish doing when they rejected their heritage and instead fight for developing counter-­movement to the policy of assimilation, one of the attempts to return to Judaism and this could be found in a revival of Hebrew literature and historiography. The ultimate goal that Hess envisioned reconciliation of racial differences, equality and the harmonious cooperation of all races. The mission of Hess took place in “Jewish race” has played a vital role in the history of the world during the pre-­Jewish State as well as in the future of Jewish development. Hess was also convinced that the national rebirth would lead to social and human needs.

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The Past: Our cradle, not our prison;; there is danger as well as appeal in its glamour. The past is for inspiration, not imitation, for continuation, not repetition -­Israel Zangwill-­

ISRAEL ZANGWILL Israel Zangwill, who is an English Jewish writer and a political activist. He graduated from the University of London in 1884 with honors in English, French, and Mental and Moral Science. He began his career as a journalist and humor writer. Zangwill was the one who introduced Theodor Herzl to potential supporters among Anglo-­Jewry in 1895 and he was a leading British Zionist until Herzl’s death. In 1905, he believed that Jews need to be rescued and knowing that Herzl himself had explored sites other than Palestine for a Jewish homeland, Zangwill formed the Jewish Territorial Organization (the ITO), the goal of which was to establish a homeland for the Jews wherever one could be found. The ITO considered territories in the north and east Africa, Australia, Mexico, Canada, and elsewhere, but none were, in the end, viable options. Zangwill’s greatest ITO success was in working with Jacob Schiff on the Galveston Plan, which brought 10,000 immigrants to the United States between 1907 and 1914. Around the time of the Balfour Declaration, in 1917, Zangwill returned to the Zionist fold but warned that the Jews needed a homeland with autonomy, not simply a place of refuge under the British or other rules. Seeing the Arab presence in Palestine as an challenging obstacle, and recognizing that Arab resettlement could not be done peacefully or practically, Zangwill ultimately continued to advocate territorialism and in 1923 alienated many Jews when, in an address to 4,000 at Carnegie Hall, he criticized the Zionist leadership and declared “political Zionism is dead.” He published the play called,

The Melting Pot which established the ideology of the United States as a melting pot in contradistinction to the assimilatory ideology of Anglo-­ conformity. In this play, Zangwill focuses on the love triumphs between David Quixano, a Jewish family migrant who have fled the pogroms in Russia to New York and Vera Revendal whose father, named Baron, who encouraged the pogrom in which David’s family was killed. In the Melting Pot, he wrote about what David Quixano had asked his uncle why, if he objects to the dissolving process, he did not work for a separate Jewish land…he urged that

the conditions offered to the Jews in America are without parallel throughout the world. Zangwill saw the United States as the product of immigration and accepts social amalgamation process. At the same time, he rejects the power relation inherent in the nineteenth-­ century assertion which minority groups should give up their identity and take on the dominant national culture. What Zangwill did as a solution is an intermingling of cultures on an equal basis. He believed of the Jewish power that is the right to be treated equally, in a settler state, where in his perspective, every group should have the right to participate in the production of a new culture and, by virtue of intermarriage, ‘a new race’. He was supportive of Zionist desire to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine but was more concerned that the Jews should have a place of their own somewhere. At the Sixth Zionist Congress in 1903, Zangwill supported Herzl’s proposal to examine the British offer of land in East Africa known as the Uganda plan, while at the Seventh Zionist Congress in 1905, Zangwill and a small group split to form the Jewish Territorial Organization, of which Zangwill became a leader. Zangwill believed that in this modern country Jews have the opportunity to be accepted, to divest themselves of their exclusion, their pre-­Enlightenment religious-­cultural view of the world, and their oppression, and to become part of a new, regenerated, thoroughly modern people. He thought Jews could take an alternative route and strive for a country of their own. This, though, he fears, may be too hard for them. SASARAN Edisi 72 117

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SEJARAH

Teks: Noor Maizura Zainal & Shafizam Dzahir

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I

slam di Eropah terutamanya di negara Sepanyol merupakan simbol zaman kegemilangan Islam dimana tercetusnya variasi perkembangan intelektual. Boleh dikatakan, semasa pemerintahan Islam yang berpusat di selatan Sepanyol merupakan titik tolak bermulanya zaman celik bagi masyarakat dunia. Kehadiran orang Islam atau masyarakat Arab di Sepanyol ketika peristiwa Perang Salib menyebabkan pertukaran budaya antara mereka. Sepanyol merupakan tempat utama bagi Eropah dalam menyerap peradaban Islam dari pelbagai aspek termasuklah hubungan politik, sosial, ekonomi dan peradaban antara negara. Masyarakat Eropah menyaksikan kekuasaan Islam jauh meninggalkan negara-­negara jiran terutama dalam bidang ilmuan dan sains. Antara faktor pendukung kemajuan Islam di Sepanyol adalah, dari aspek kemajuannya yang ditentukan oleh pemerintah yang kuat dan berwibawa serta mampu menyatukan kekuatan-­ kekuatan umat Islam, seperti Abd al-­ Rahman al-­Dakhil, Abd al-­Rahman al-­Wasith dan Abd al-­Rahman al-­Nashir. Keberhasilan politik di bawah kepimpinan mereka adalah merupakan tunjang dari kebijaksanaan penguasa lain yang melopori kegiatan ilmiah dan adanya toleransi yang ditegakkan oleh penguasa terhadap penganut agama Kristian dan Yahudi. Kegiatan ilmiah dan pembangunan institusi pendidikan seperti masjid yang juga berperanan sebagai pusat penyebaran ilmu selain daripada tempat beribadat menjurus kepada terbinanya perpustakaan pertama dan terbesar dunia. Bibliotheca Alexandrina Egypt ataupun Perpustakaan Iskandariah Mesir ini bertahan berabad lamanya dan memiliki koleksi sehingga 700 000 gulungan papyrus dan jika dibandingkan dengan Perpustakaan Sorbonne di abad ke-­14 hanya memiliki koleksi 1700 buah buku. Pada waktu itu, para pemerintah Mesir begitu bersemangat memajukan perpustakaan dan menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Selain itu, mereka sanggup membelanjakan harta kerajaan untuk membeli buku daripada setiap pelosok negeri dan memerintah untuk menggeledah setiap kapal yang

masuk untuk mendapatkan naskah buku. Ini menunjukkan bahawa, pemerintah Mesir pada ketika itu, yang begitu sayang akan ilmu pengetahuan sehingga pemerintahan mereka dipengaruhi dengan kecintaan terhadap ilmu. Dalam hal ini, tanah jajahan juga tidak terkecuali terkena t e m p i a s dalam memperluaskan penyebaran ilmu dan pendidikan kepada setiap masyarakat

sehingga terbinanya perpustakaan -­ perpustakaan di Eropah. Terbinanya perpustakaan hasil daripada pemerintahan Islam di Sepanyol merupakan mercu tanda perkembangan ilmu di benua Eropah dan merubah peradaban dunia terhadap institusi pendidikan. Cordova merupakan bandar terakhir di bawah penguasaan Islam sebelum Andalusia jatuh sepenuhnya ke atas golongan Kristian. Faktor utama kejatuhan Islam di Sepanyol kerana kelemahan pemerintah yang sanggup menggadai prinsip untuk menaiki takhta Islam di Sepanyol walaupun telah mencatat satu lembaran budaya yang sangat menakjubkan dalam bentangan sejarah Islam. Sumbangan jajahan dan kesan seni pemerintahan Islam masih lagi wujud dan dapat dilihat dalam pembangunan Eropah pada masa kini dan tidak dihapuskan kerana sentimen Islam yang terukir segaris dengan sejarah pembangunan Eropah yang unik. Jelaslah bahawa pemerintahan Islam memberi kesan yang mendalam terhadap sejarah Eropah dari segi politik, ekonomi dan tidak terkecuali dari aspek. Penaklukan Islam pada zaman gelap Eropah telah memberi sinar baru bagi masyarakat Sepanyol sehingga kembali bangkit dan meneruskan legasi serta tinggalan Islam selepas mereka menakluk tanah mereka kembali.Sumbangan jajahan dan kesan s e n i pemerintahan I s l a m masih lagi wujud d a n dapat dilihat d a l a m pembangunan E r o p a h pada masa kini dan tidak dihapuskan k e r a n a sentimen Islam yang terukir segaris dengan sejarah pembangunan Eropah yang unik.

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More than a year later, Mohamed Morsi took the vacant president’s office in June 2012 after he was elected in presidential election. A year after that he was deposed on 3rd July 2013 due to economic crisis, energy shortage, lack of security and diplomatic issues. His focus on giving power to his political party, Muslims Brotherhood increased the unrest day

by day. The removal of Morsi is done by massive protests called coup d’etat which means ‘blow the state’ led by Egyption Armed Forces’ chief, Abdel Fattah el-­Sisi. El-­Sisi took the office when he won the presidential election and he is declared as President of Egypt on 8th June 2014 until present.

LIBYA

Women are not exceptional voicing out their dispproval towards their leader, Gaddafi in Libya. The Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution which occurred in Libya is the consequence of Arab uprising. The people of Libya, called anti-­ Gaddafi, were inspired by the Tunisians and Egyptians to protest against their government ruled by Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-­Gaddafi, who had controlled Libya for over 42 years. The dispute began with a series of rallies and riots. About four days after the oust of Tunisian former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Gaddafi in his speech condemned the revolt in Tunisia and urged Tunisia to adopt Libyan model of government as he mentioned that the model “marked the final destination for the people” quest for democracy. The conflict worsened as the number of people joining the protests increased. Ghadaffi vowed to hunt those involved and killed them to ‘clean’ the revolt. Libyan also used social media as the main medium to oppose Gaddafi and his

government but the percentage of the social media usage is slower than other countries. The Facebook penetration records a small increase from 4.3% on the first quarter in 2011 to 6% -­ 7% in the first two months in 2012. The usage of social media is not rampant in Libya due to tight restrictions by the government. Libya remained ‘among the most tightly controlled media in the world.’ On social media, the civil war began on 17 February when anti-­Gaddafi forces were attacked by security forces as Gaddafi sent troops and tanks to break up the insurrection during the protest in Benghazi. The violent protest continued for the next few days as it extended to other cities in Libya including Benghazi. During this time, the Libyan state media maintained the news blackout but opposition groups used social media such as Facebook and Twitter to send out reports and images of protests and confrontations. More protestors were killed but Gaddafi’s regime imposed the

media blackout made it impossible for the world to verify it. Gaddafi went into hiding after protestors surged into his fortress compound in Tripoli. The situation worsened and he failed to defend one of his two last strongholds, the town of Bani Walid. On 20 October, Gaddafi was captured and killed as anti-­ Gaddafi took his hometown Sirte. Three days later, Libya was announced by the National Transitional Council (NTC) to be officially liberated from Gaddafi’s four decade rule and there will be election within the next eight months. Even though the role of social media is still ambiguous and uncertain in becoming the major contributor of civil war, it was still used by the Libyan during the bloodshed. To illustrate the example during the first three months of 2011, hashtag Libya ‘#Libya’ is the top trending hashtag in Twitter. 64 thousands of active Twitter users were also detected in Libya.

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SEJARAH

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Text: Nur Firzanah Binti Mohd Kamil Nor Amira Binti Badrul Aziz

W

orld War II impacted the world in unspeakable ways, thousands were killed, buildings were destroyed and history was made. Then a new era began, the rise of two great powers the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA). These great powers have teamed up during the World War II but then, there can never be two powers to be on the world stage. This was the competition that triggered the Cold War. After a massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan was rebuilt through the American Marshall Plan but Eastern Europe had fallen into the hands of the Soviet Union after they rejected the plan, thus Europe dividing Europe into the US-­led Western bloc and the Soviet -­led Eastern-­Bloc. The Cold War has dominated

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the Eastern and the Western Europe and protests against the Soviet Communist Regime caused the killing of Hungarians after they were put down by the Soviet tanks. A need for peace and unity among the European countries encouraged Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, to come up with European Coal and Steel (ECSC), with a purpose to unite France and Germany from having any conflicts that resulted from the World War II. The ECSC was also an effort to foster the European economy, reconstructing their economies, trading steel, and coal within the countries in order to make them become economically interdependent . This eventually led to the formation of ECSC, which has integrated the European countries both economically and politically.

On 9th May 1950, Robert Schuman came up with a plan to engage deeper cooperation between the first six founding countries of the ECSC to include Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. That day has been recognized as Europe Day and is celebrated on every 9th May of each year. To establish the ECSC, together the six founding countries signed the Treaty of Paris in 1951. In 1958, another treaty was signed, called the Treaty of Rome which gave birth to European Economic Community (EEC) after their effort to strengthen their economy within the six countries turned into a fruitful success.

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SEJARAH It took almost a decade for the European countries to rebuild their nations after the World War II. Later in the 1960’s, it was a period of the European economic growth. The first six countries in the EEC stopped charging customs duties and high tariffs when they trade with each other. Moving from coal and steel, they began controlling the food production, giving everyone enough food supply. That is where they also started to focus on agricultural production. The first enlargement of the EEC occurred in 1973, developing from six countries to nine countries became the members of the community. Ireland, Denmark, and the United Kingdom joined on 1st January 1973. Despite the end of World War II, there was crisis in several parts of the countries which also affected the European economy and energy crisis such as the Arab-­Israeli war, the falling of Salazar’s dictatorship in Portugal and Spain’s General Franco’s death in 1975. To solve the crisis, the community regional policy started to distribute large sums of financial to aid to poorer areas so there will be job opportunities and infrastructures. It was the initiative of the European parliament to enlarge its influence in the community affairs, and for the first time ever in 1979, all citizens can elect their members directly. When manufacturing activities that led to economic expansion also led to pollution, the European countries took the matter seriously and adopted laws in protecting the environment, introducing the “the polluter pays” policy. The development of the community continued when Greece became the 10th member of the EEC in 1981, followed by Portugal and Spain five years later. In 1986, another treaty was signed, called the Single European Treaty, a six-­ year program aimed to solve problems with the free flow of trade across the community borders creating a ‘single market’. Although Germany is listed in the six founding countries of the community, the country did not achieve the ultimate peace since they were divided into East Germany and West Germany. The fall of the Berlin Wall reunited Germany after 28 years of separation in October 1990 which brought to the end of communism across the West and East Europe. The Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993, where a new name was introduced replacing the EEC, as many

countries in the Europe has united, the new name is called the European Union or simply, the EU. More countries joined the EU in 1995 starting with Austria, Finland, and Sweden. People started to be aware of the environment and how Europeans can work together regarding security and defense matters in the 1990’s.Two treaties were signed, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999. Today, the EU is seen as a strong nation, with many efforts to save most of the European countries from sinking due to the economic crisis and maintaining peace across European countries, the EU was awarded the Noble Peace Prize. For more than half of the century, the EU has served Europe with peace, stability, and prosperity and helped the European dev e lopmen t until the present day. T h e EU now consist of 26 countries, whereby 22 members h a v e signed the Schengen agreement, an agreement that abolishes passport or border control at their common borders so the citizens from other EU countries can freely travel without having their passport checked. They can even work wherever they want across the EU countries which signed the Schengen agreement. The United Kingdom and Ireland voted out from the EU on 23rd June 2016. In two years time, Ireland and the United Kingdom will not be the members of the EU any longer, with the majority of the citizens in these countries have voted out. 51.9 % voted out and the rest 48.1 % voted to stay. David Cameron, the United Kingdom prime minister stepped down as he failed to convince the citizens and his own ministers to renegotiate the terms of Britain’s EU Membership.

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SEJARAH ISU

KRISIS EKONOMI EROPAH: KEMEROSOTAN EKONOMI GREECE DAN SEPANYOL Teks: Nur Firzanah binti Mohd Kamil & Nor Amira binti Badrul Aziz

E

uropean dikenali sebagai Kesatuan Eropah merupakan satu kesatuan potilik dan ekonomi antarabangsa yang dianggotai 28 negara dari eropah. Dengan penyertaan di dalam Kesatuan Eropah, warga EU bebas untuk melabur, bergerak dan bekerja di negara ahli EU lain tanpa pasport dan pemeriksaan kastam. Pada tahun 1999, mata wang Euro telah diperkenalkan dan kini ianya digunakan oleh 19 buah negara EU yang dipanggil Eurozone. Sejak dari krisis ekonomi tahun 2007-­2008, Eurozone berperanan memberikan pinjaman wang bagi mengukuhkan ekonomi negara yang bermasalah. Krisis ekonomi dunia pada tahun 2007-­2008 telah menjejaskan ekonomi beberapa buah negara anggota EU, antaranya Sepanyol dan Greece. Sepanyol yang menyertai EU pada tahun 1986 telah mula menggunakan

mata wang Euro sejak kali pertama ianya diperkenalkan. Sementara itu, Greece menyertai EU pada tahun 2000 setelah permohononnya untuk menyertai EU ditolak kerana faktor ekonomi di Greece yang tidak stabil. Pada ketika itu, hutang negara dan inflasi di Greece adalah sangat tinggi dan Greece juga berdepan dengan masalah pengangguran dimana satu daripada sepuluh orang rakyat Greece tidak bekerja. Namun begitu, Greece dibenarkan menyertai EU pada tahun 2000 setelah berjaya memperbaiki situasi ekonomi mereka dan memenuhi kriteria yang ditetapkan EU. Greece menyangka EU adalah tiket bagi mereka keluar dari krisis ekonomi yang dihadapi kerana penggunaan mata wang Euro membolehkan mereka melakukan pinjaman wang dengan kadar faedah yang lebih rendah. Namun sangkaan pihak pentadbiran

Greece meleset sama sekali apabila situasi ekonomi Greece kian merosot. Pada Januari 2010, Kementerian Kewangan Greek telah melancarkan Program Penstabilan dan Pertumbuhan 2010 dan menyenaraikan lima punca Greece mengalami masalah kewangan iaitu pertumbuhan keluaran dalam negara kasar (KDNK) yang rendah, ketidakcekapan kerajaan, hutang kerajaan yang tinggi, pematuhan bajet dan kredibiliti data. Sumber lain menyatakan masalah kewangan ini juga berpunca daripada perbelanjaan berlebihan kerajaan dan kemerosotan ekonomi di Greece. Diburukkan lagi dengan sikap masyarakat Greece yang sering mengelak dari membayar cukai sama ada syarikat-­syarikat besar mahupun individu. Proses kutipan cukai adalah sangat sukar dan pendapatan kerajaan kurang daripada jumlah perbelanjaan.

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Selain daripada itu, hutang negara Greece juga meningkat dengan mendadak ketika Greece menganjurkan sukan Olimpik pada tahun 2004 dimana mereka telah membelanjakan 4.5 billion Euro. Jumlah ini dua kali ganda daripada anggaran asal bajet Greece bagi sukan berprestij itu dan pada awal tahun 2010, hutang negara Greece telah mencecah 300 bilion dan jumlah ini lebih daripada jumlah keseluruhan KDNK. Sekiranya Greece diisytiharkan muflis, maka negara itu tidak lagi boleh menggunakan matawang Euro sebaliknya mereka perlu memperkenalkan matawang yang baharu dimana nilainya lebih rendah daripada Euro. Kesannya, Greece akan mengalami inflasi, gaji pekerja kerajaan akan dipotong, rakyat berkemungkinan tidak mendapat pencen dan pelbagai kesan negatif yang lain. Keadaan ekonomi Greece yang

KEADAAN EKONOMI GREECE YANG TIDAK MENENTU BUKANLAH PERKARA BAHARU BAHKAN NEGARA ITU JUGA PERNAH DIISYTIHARKAN MUFLIS SEBELUM INI OLEH PERDANA MENTERI GREECE, CHARILAOS TRIKOUPIS PADA TAHUN 1893.”

tidak menentu bukanlah perkara baharu bahkan negara itu juga pernah diisytiharkan muflis sebelum ini oleh Perdana Menteri Greece, Charilaos Trikoupis pada tahun 1893. Namun begitu, seorang professor sains politik dan pentadbiram awam dari Universiti Athens berpendapat situasi itu berlaku kerana kerajaan melakukan pinjaman yang berlebihan dan wang tersebut digunakan untuk pembinaan infrastruktur yang memberi banyak faedah kepada masyarakat Greece dalam tempoh yang panjang seperti pembinaan landasan keretapi. Selepas diisytiharkan muflis pada ketika itu, kerajaan Greece menyerahkan pentadbiran ekonomi Greece kepada Kawalan Kewangan Antarabangsa (International Financial Control) dan terpaksa melakukan pungutan cukai tambahan, melakukan reformasi sosial, dan melakukan usaha meminimakan korupsi. Selepas melakukan pelbagai langkah reformasi akhirnya situasi ekonomi di Greece pulih pada tahun 1910 sekaligus menjadikan Greece sebagai salah satu daripada Negara berpengaruh di Eropah. Krisis ekonomi pada tahun 2007-­ 2008 telah menjejaskan ekonomi kebanyakkan negara termasuk Sepanyol. Di Sepanyol, kegawatan ekonomi telah berlaku pada tahun 2008 namun telah kembali pulih pada tahun 2016.

Krisis ekonomi Sepanyol berpunca daripada gelembung hartanah (housing bubble) dan kadar KDNK yang tidak stabil. Gelembung hartanah berlaku apabila harga hartanah meningkat secara mendadak dan nilai itu kemudiannya merosot. Nilai hartanah kawasan perumahan meningkat 200 peratus dari tahun 1996 hingga tahun 2007 dan jumlah ini menurun sebanyak 25.3 peratus. Situasi ini turut menyebabkan sesetengah kawasan di Sepanyol kelihatan seperti “bandar hantu” dimana kawasan yang sudah dibangunkan tidak dihuni kerana nilai pasaran yang tidak menentu. Contohnya bandar Valdeluz yang di majukan untuk kemudahan 30, 000

“SITUASI INI TURUT MENYEBABKAN SESETENGAH KAWASAN DI SEPANYOL KELIHATAN SEPERTI “BANDAR HANTU” DIMANA KAWASAN YANG SUDAH DIBANGUNKAN TIDAK DIHUNI KERANA NILAI PASARAN YANG TIDAK MENENTU. ” penduduk tetapi populasinya hanya 700 orang dan sebuah lapangan terbang yang menelan kos sebanyak €1.1 billion turut terbiar. Namun di atas bantuan kewangan dari Tabung Kewangan Antarabangsa atau dikenali juga sebagai International Monetary Fund (IMF), ekonomi Spain kini lebih stabil dan KDNK Sepanyol juga makin bertambah. Ekonomi Sepanyol telah bertambah 3.2 peratus pada tahun 2015 dan dijangka berkembang lagi sebanyak 2.7 peratus pada tahun 2016. Tuntasnya, keadaan ekonomi semasa turut berubah dari masa ke semasa. Namun sekiranya kerajaan yang mentadbir bijak dalam menangani krisis ekonomi dan juga permasalahan korupsi, kewangan negara dapat bertahan justeru masalah inflasi dan pengangguran dapat diatasi.

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“Mereka adalah orang biasa, dengan keluarga untuk disara, dididik dan bagi membina rumah tanggan bahagia. Jika saya jual pemilikan saya untuk mendapatkan wang tunai, masa depan pekerja menjadi tidak menentu.” -­ Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al-­Bukhary

SISI PERIBADI SYED MOKHTAR AL-­BUKHARY Teks: Ahmad Wared Bin Mokhtar

K

ekayaan yang dimiliki langsung tidak mencerminkan gaya hidupnya yang sentiasa merendah diri dan tidak melupakan asal usulnya. Pendirian yang sentiasa ingin berkongsi hasilnya kepada yang memerlukan dan sentiasa ingin membantu bangsanya menjadi lebih maju di tanah air sendiri. Begitulah sifat yang dimiliki oleh seorang hartawan bernama Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Albukhary. Seorang ahli perniagaan hebat yang disenaraikan di kedudukan ke-­9 individu terkaya di Malaysia pada tahun 2016 oleh majalah forbes dengan nilai milikan harta sebanyak 1.45 bilion. Lahir pada 12 Disember 1951, anak ketiga daripada tujuh orang adik-­beradik kepada pasangan Syed Nor dan Sharifah Rokiah ini berasal dari Alor Setar, Kedah. Kekayaan yang dikecapi pada hari ini bukanlah hasil warisan keluarga kerana hidupnya sewaktu kecil dalam keadaan yang miskin dan hanya tinggal di tepi

landasan keretapi di Alor Setar. Perniagaan pertamanya bermula pada tahun 1972, Syarikat Kenderaan Sentosa, merupakan perniagaan pengangkutan menggunakan lori hasil dari bantuan bapa saudaranya Haji Rahmat. Sifat tidak mengenal erti malunya dan sentiasa ringan mulut untuk bertanya menyebabkan dia diberikan empat permit lori daripada kerajaan sedangkan beliau hanya memohon dua permit sahaja untuk menjalankan perniagaan tersebut. Tidak hanya terhenti di situ, beliau terus mengembangkan empayarnya dalam perusahaan beras. Menyedari bahawa perniagaan tersebut lebih dikuasai oleh bangsa Cina, Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Albukhary tidak mengalah sebaliknya bertindak bijak dengan menjadikan mereka sebagai rakan kongsi dan memastikan beliau memegang majoriti dalam usahasama tersebut. Hasilnya, Bukhary Sdn Bhd ditubuhkan pada 15 Julai 1976. Kepintarannya menjalin hubungan

baik sesama peniaga Cina yang mendominasi sektor yang diceburi menjadikannya dia semakin semakin berjaya. Pada tahun 1977, merupakan satu lagi titik tolak kejayaannya apabila dia mula mengembangkan sayap perniagaannya ke Kuala Lumpur sehingga tertubuhnya Bukhary (KL) Sdn. Bhd dan masih memegang majoriti pegangan saham bersama rakan kongsi Cina yang lain. Pelbagai pahit getir dalam perniagaan telah berjaya ditempuhinya. Pada tahun 1985, kemelesetan ekonomi merupakan salah satu dugaan terbesarnya dalam perniagaan. Akibat daripada itu, beliau terpaksa menarik diri daripada perniagaan pembangunan hartanah kerana kos peminjaman yang sangat tinggi diperlukan walaupun mempunyai margin keuntungan yang tinggi. Keadaan ini sekaligus merudumkan segala perniagaan yang diperolehinya. Dalam perjalanan perniagaan, beliau telah menjalinkan persahabatan

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dengan ramai orang, termasuklah Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin yang pada ketika itu merupakan Pengarah Urusan Sergam Bhd, sebuah agensi kerajaan negeri yang diamanahkan untuk mendapatkan bekalan pakaian seragam. Ikatan persahabatan yang amat rapat memudahkan mereka untuk menjelajah ke serata dunia bagi melakukan promosi perniagaan termasuklah di kota London . Kota yang terkenal dengan Trafalgar Square itu disinggahi oleh mereka hanya dengan menggunakan penerbangan tambang murah dan melabuhkan tirai mereka di Hallam Hotel, Portland Place. Syed Mokhtar Albukhary merupakan seorang insan yang begitu menyayangi bangsanya. Beliau sentiasa bertekad merebut setiap peluang yang dibuka oleh kerajaan kerana padanya, itu adalah langkah untuk bukan sekadar memajukan perniagaanya malah dapat membantu bangsanya sendiri dalam membuka peluang pekerjaan. Hak Bumiputera yang diperuntukkan kepada kaum Melayu dan Asli digunakan sebaiknya untuk memajukan kehidupannya. Memetik kekesalanya dalam biografi beliau berkata “Ramai melayu patut disalahkan, begitu juga dengan orang Cina. Dalam keadaan mereka sepatutnya menyimpan apa yang diperuntukkan kepadanya sebagai Bumiputera, mereka menjualnya atau menjadi orang tengah dengan termakan pujuk rayu orang Cina”. Pengalaman itu diceritakan apabila dia mendapat empat permit lori pada permulaan perniagaan pengangkutanya namun hanya mempuyai 2 buah lori. Peniaga Cina mengambil kesempatan untuk membeli baki dua lagi permit namun beliau tidak mahu membelinya kerana dia merasa itu satu pengkhianatan atas hak bumiputera yang dimilikinya. Selain itu, peristiwa apabila syarikatnya diberikan sejumlah 10% pegangan saham dalam projek penjana kuasa bebas Genting Sanyen. Saham lain selebihnya diberikan kepada Tenaga Nasional sebanyak 10%, kerajaan negeri Selangor 20% dan Genting Berhad sebanyak 60%. Pada ketika itu, syarikatnya masih terlalu mentah dan tidak mampu untuk memgang saham tersebut. Akibatnya, pemilik Genting, Lim Goh Tong menawarkannya RM 6 Juta untuk

pegangannya. Beliau berasa kecewa kerana Lim sepatutnya membantu untuk mendapatkan pinjaman projek tersebut namun hakikatnya tidak. Akhirnya dia menyerahkan bahagian itu kepada Tenaga Nasional. Sehingga kini empayar Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary semakin berkembang dan maju. Beliau kini memgang majoriti tiga kumpulan syarikat utama iaitu MMC CORP, DRB-­HICOM dan Tradewinds yang masing-­masing dibawahnya mempunyai anak syarikat yang masih beroperasi sehingga kini. Beliau kini mempunyai hampir 360,000 pekerja secara langsung mahupun tidak langsung. Setiap kebajikan mereka diberi perhatian. Dia sentiasa menjaga kepentinganya dalam perniagaan kerana dia menganggap itu untuk membantu pekerjanya dalam menyara keluarga mereka. “Mereka adalah orang biasa, dengan keluarga untuk disara, dididik dan bagi membina rumah tanggan bahagia. Jika saya jual pemilikan saya untuk mendapatkan wang tunai, masa depan mereka menjadi tidak menentu. Tanggungjawab saya adalaah untuk memastikan bahawa syarikat saya berjalan lancar dan kebajikan pekerja tidak terjejas. Sikapnya yang sentiasa merendah diri dan ingin membantu menjadikan dia sebagai ikon yang boleh dicontohi anak muda kini. Tertubuhnya Yayasan Albukhary sebagai badan menguruskan tujuan amal Syed Mokhtar. Yayasan tersebut juga memberi biasaiswa kepada pelajar yang tidak mampu untuk melanjutkan pelajaran. Sisi lain Syed Mokhtar Albukhary ini menunjukkan beliau dikatakan satu entiti yang boleh digelar “Role Model” lengkap kepada semua individu masa kini. Sikapnya yang serius dalam perniagaan namun mempunyai

yang sangat ingin membantu bangsanya dalam memenuhi setiap hak yang diberikan.

Badan-­badan dibawah Yayasan AL-­Bukhary.

naungan

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Who’s Who:

YASMIN AHMAD I

Text: Muhammad Naim Muhamad Ali

t is rather unusual for films from the small Malaysian cinema industry to make an impact at international screen, mainly due to the common pattern of majority film-­makers seen as clumsy melodramas, broad comedies and formulaic musicals made for local consumption but one managed to break through the ceiling glass and shifted the Malaysian film industry into going international none other than, Yasmin Ahmad. It was a tragedy of her demise as she was one of the few Malaysian directors to ever make a name on the world screen and uplifted her actors to win awards internationally. Yasmin was one of the new generations of film-­makers (she refused to accept the title rather, using a film-­ dabbler instead) who are courageous enough to reflect the wide ethnic and cultural diversity of Malaysia and the reality of the citizens. Her films are

considered controversial as she does not follow the pattern of other local film-­ makers and create her own path. She made six feature-­length films at a prolific rate. The first four were made for TV;; Rabun (2003), Sepet (2004), Gubra (2006) and Mukhsin (2006). All of the films featured the autobiographical of Orked as the main character. Muallaf (2008) and Talentime (2009) broke away

Her films challenged ethnic stereotypes, against any type of fundamentalism and racism, making her an icon to support minority rights.”

from Orked but still featured many of the same cast and locations. She could also come up with sentimental driven fable-­like TV commercials which are most anticipated during festive seasons and drew a huge following in the country. Several of her popular commercials are duly Youtubed which she, herself approved of;; “Piracy is stealing from greedy people,” she once said. Her films challenged ethnic stereotypes, against any type of fundamentalism and racism, making her an icon to support minority rights. That is why it is no surprise that her films were disliked by Malaysian elites, conservatives and religion radicals in Malaysia. She was known to admire Yasujiro Ozu and Douglas Sirk creations, although she created her own Western and Oriental hybrid. She however claimed with faux-­naïveté that her

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films were guided purely by sentiment and enrages the elites even more. She may not have plenty supporters but it wouldn’t make her stand back;; instead she would gladly boast her international achievement of her films and commercials, which of course annoyed the industry even more. Another reason why local film-­ makers and Malaysian elites hated her is that she has the courage to frequently portraying interracial romance or attraction. Four of six of her most powerful films revolve around the theme. Little that people knew, the film Sepet (2004) was banned due to the subject of interracial relations until Yasmin agreed to make eight cuts including the part when Harith tickles Ida Nerina in bed to satisfy the National Film Development Corporation Malaysia (FINAS). Sepet (or loosely translated to Chinese Eyes) revolves about a relationship between a Chinese boy and a Malay girl. The film allegedly touched the sensitive nerve of race in Malaysia, which reminded the citizens of the terrible tragedy of May 13th, 1969. This film focused on a 16 year-­old girl, Orked (Sharifah Amani), the only child of well-­ off Malay parents (played by Ida Nerina and Harith Iskander), who falls for Jason (Ng Choo Seong), an older Chinese boy, whom to be aspired in poetry and sells pirated DVD. Despite the social class, race and language (eventually met an agreement usi-­ng English to communicate), the romance blossoms. This film is followed by two sequels, Gubra and Mukhsin (both in 2006) following the character Orked and her family. It was not all bout interracial love;; that would be against her view on diversity. Her films also portray the real sense of family, not because the domestic unit should be prominent, but there should be humane yet a silent loud voice in her films to give examples of how the society should be. In her final completed film, Talentime (2009), Yasmin revisited the themes of faith, tolerance, family and living in a multicultural society. It revolves around three families;; a mixed Malaysian family, similar to the one in Orked films;; an Indian family consisting of a widow and her two children;; and a dying

Tan Hong Ming, “Do you have a girlfriend?” Merdeka commercial resulted in this light-­hearted yet powerful clip about seeing the world through a child’s unprejudiced eyes. It captivated not just the nation, but the world, winning gold at the 2008 Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival.

A scene from Yasmin's final completed film, Talentime that revisited the themes she always use in her films and advertisements. Malay mother and son. The thread that brings them together is a high school talent show in which a child from each of the three families participated. She died in the midst of planning two further features with a secured financial status. First is called Wasurenagusa (Forget-­Me-­Not) and a Singaporean film with the working title of Go Thaddeus! The first would be a fictional drama about a half-­Japanese woman

played by Sharifah Amani while the second would have been a biopic of a Singaporean athlete who died at a very young age. These films, which fates face uncertainty, would have been interesting because both involve different countries. Yasmin’s final short film is about three minutes long called Chocolate and was released posthumously as part of an online series called 15Malaysia. It is a parable about the increasing distrust

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It is perfect to be imperfect, because perfection is made up of many imperfections put together that makes it perfect.” -­ Yasmin

Ahmad

(1958 -­ 2009)

between our two main ethnic groups;; Chinese and Malay. The short film was about a Chinese boy whose family owns a grocery store and a Malay girl. There is a mine of sub-­textual allusions as identification of the Chinese with business and Malays as always needing assistance. Though the business is not a big one but the Malay girl in the short film happens to be short of cents to buy a small chocolate bar. Why chocolate bar? Because one of Yasmin’s scenes is where Orked’s maid in Mukhsin explains how she makes her style of ice cream. You just have to mix the bitter so you can appreciate the sweet. It is so oddly apposite that this is what Yasmin has finally, literally, put on the table for us. Her films never portray the good sides only but always portray the reality of the people’s conditions. Yasmin died at the age of 51 on July 25th 2009 after suffering a stroke and undergoing surgery for a cerebral hemorrhage. May she rest in peace.

Yasmin with an award she received.

A scene from one of her famous masterpiece, Sepet (2004).

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SUMBANGAN GOLONGAN

Teks: Muhammad Naim Muhamad Ali

Keris Mas

L

iterati atau ahli sastera adalah individu yang mengabdikan diri dalam bidang sastera dan pembangunan bidang penulisan yang mampu mencerna minda masyarakat sehingga memberi impak kepada pembaca. Ungkapan “mata pena lebih tajam daripada pedang” jelas didedikasikan kepada golongan yang berupaya menghasilkan karya-­ karya menyentuh jiwa dan mampu mencabar kematangan pembaca sekaligus diangkat menjadi pedoman dan teladan kalangan pembaca. Kerajaan Malaysia mengiktiraf golongan sasterawan atas sumbangan mereka dalam penghasilan karya-­ karya yang menempatkan Malaysia sebaris dengan ahli sastera di peringkat antarbangsa. Ahli Sasterawan Negara merupakan antara anugerah tertinggi para sasterawan din negara ini. Keris Mas •Dr. Kamaluddin Muhammad atau lebih dikenali dengan nama Keris Mas

merupakan Ahli Saterawan Negara 1981. •Oleh kerana kegigihannya untuk cuba mengangkat perjuangan persatuan ASAS 50, beliau diangkat menjadi Ketua Satu ASAS 50. Beliau juga merupakan ahli dalam Persatuan Penulis Nasional (PENA) dan Gabungan Persatuan Penulis Nasional (Gapena). •Keris Mas telah menghasilkan 60 buah karya cerpen. Antara cerpen yang pernah dihasilkan adalah Wasiat Orang Bangsawan yang tersiar dalam majalah Suluh Malaya (1946), Darah dan Air Mata (1947) Mekar dan Segar (1959), Dua Zaman (1963), Patah Tumbuh (1963), dan Pertentangan (1968). Selain cerpen, beliau juga turut menulis novel. Antara nukilan novel beliau adalah Pahlawan Rimba Malaya (1946), Korban Kesucian (1949), Anak Titiwangsa (1967), Saudagar Besar Dari Kuala Lumpur (1983) dan Rimba Harapan (1985). Beliau banyak menghasilkan karya yang berkisar tentang masyarakat Melayu tempatan dan berunsur didaktik

Kesusasteraan yang mengandungi nilai moral yang dapat menghidupkan daya intelek, inspirasi dan aspirasi bangsa Malaysia untuk menjadi manusia yang dinamik, jujur dan sempurna,” -­ Keris Mas

atau memberi pengajaran atau moral sebagai motif utama. •Terdapat beberapa buah cerpen Keris Mas telah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa-­bahasa lain seperti Cina, Korea, Inggeris, dan Rusia. Manakala terdapat tiga buah cerpen beliau yang diterjemah ke dalam bahasa Inggeris seperti ‘They Do Not Understand’(Mereka Tidak Mengerti) dalam Tenggara (1968) dan ‘The Approach of Independence’ (Menjelang Merdeka) 1967.

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Shahnon Ahmad • Dato’ Professor Emiritus Haji Shahnon bin Ahmad adalah Sasterawan Negara Malaysia yang kedua. • Beliau juga bergiat aktif dalam politik dan merupakan bekas Ahli Parlimen Sik mewakili parti pembangkang PAS. • Kemudian Novel Rentong dan Ranjau Sepanjang Jalan merupakan kemuncak kerjaya Shahnon Ahmad. Ranjau Sepanjang Jalan telah diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Inggeris ‘No Harvest But A Thorn’ (1972) oleh Adibah Amin dan telah diangkat menjadi salah satu daripada 10 novel menarik tahun 1972 pada tahun 1973 oleh The Sydney Morning Herald. Novel ini juga telah diadaptasi kepada filem arahan Rithy Panh, pengarah filem Kemboja berjudul ‘Rice People’ dan filem arahan Tan Sri Kamarul Ariffin Mohammed Yassin pada tahun 1983. • Pada tahun 1999, Shahnon Ahmad mengeluarkan buku berjudul Shit @ PukiMak @ PM yang berkisarkan kontroversi politik. buku tersebut merujuk secara terus kepada kerajaan Barisan Nasional dan parti komponen utamanya, UMNO serta Perdana Menteri ketika itu, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. Buku ini telah diharamkan oleh kerajaan serta cubaan menarik semula gelaran Sasterawan Negara. Usman Awang • Wan Osman Wan Awang atau lebih dikenali sebagai Usman Awang merupakan Sasterawan Negara Malaysia 1983. • Usman Awang membentuk nama beliau melalui penulisan sajak. Sajak-­sajak nukilan beliau banyak mempamerkan akar budi Melayu dan perikemanusiaan. Antara sajak beliau yang terkenal adalah Pak Utih, Ke Makam Bonda, Nasib Buruh, Bunga Popi, Gadis Di Kuburan dan Salam Benua. • Banyak karya beliau yang telah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa lain termasuk Bahasa Inggeris, Cina, Jepun, Korea, Perancis, Siam, Czechkoslovakia, Danish, Tamil, Itali, Rusia dan lain-­lain. A. Samad Said • A. Samad Said merupakan Sasterawan Negara Malaysia 1985. • Menggunakan pelbagai nama pena seperti Hilmy, Isa Dahmuri, Jamil

Kesusasteraan yang sebenar adalah kesusasteraan yang berkahlak, kesusasteraan yang bermoral, bertujuan meningkatkan kehidupan manusia terus menerus ke arah kesempuranaan.” -­ Shahnon Ahmad

Shahnon Ahmad

Penulis sebagai komentar seni tidaklah sekadar tukang cerita atau tukang catat apa sahaja yang ada pada masyarakatnya, sebaliknya penulis telah memberi pandangan, pendapat dan komen terhadap visinya sendiri.” -­ Usman Awang Usman Awang

Seorang seniman itu ialah seorang yang meyakini apa yang dirakamnya merupakan sesuatu pengalaman yang boleh menambah khazanah hidup dan memperkayakan hidup orang lain dengan tidak memikirkan hal nama dan hal wang.”

A. Samad Said

-­ A. Samad Said

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• Antara hasil karya terkenal beliau termasuklah Kisah Tiga Pelayaran (1959), Lingkaran (1962), Sandera (1971), Bunga Dari Kuburan (1987), Kuntum Tulip Biru (1987), dan banyak lagi. • Belaiu pernah menjadi felo di Universiti Cornell di Amerika Syarikat dan dipandang tinggi oleh para ilmuan di sana kerana mempunyai kepakaran dalam kajian Melayu dan Nusantara.

Seni dapat menyelesaikan masalah manusia dan perhubungan sejagat kerana ia dapat menjalinkan hubungan batin antara manusia dan dapat menghubungkan perasaan serta batin antara manusia sejagat.” -­ Arena Wati

Arena Wati

Puisi yang baik adalah puisi yang boleh menolong seseorang pembaca atau pendengar itu hidup lebih maju lagi menjadi lebih peka pada manusia.” -­ Muhammad Haji Salleh

Muhammad Haji Salleh Kelana, Manja, Mesra dan Shamsir. • Beliau berjaya menyatukan ahli sasterawan 50-­an yang memnetingkan tema dan mesej dengan sasterawan yang cenderung menekankan nilai kesusasteraan. • Novel pertama beliau yang berjudul Gerhana ditukarkan kepada tajuk Salina dan menjadi satu karya yang mempunyai tema cerita yang asing dengan kesusasteraan Melayu di Malaya. Ketika itu beliau baru berusia 23 tahun. • Beliau banyak menulis tentang latar belakang pengalamannya semasa menulis karya-­karya terkenal beliau seperti Salina (1961), Sungai Mengalir

Lesu (1967), dan Langit Petang (1980) dalam buku bercorak autobiografinya. Arena Wati • Muhammad Dahlan Abdul Biang atau lebih dikenali dengan nama Arena Wati merupakan Sasterawan Negara Malaysia 1987. • Arena Wati pernah bertugas sebagai seorang wartawan sebelum menceburkan diri dalam bidang kesusasteraan Melayu. • Kebanyakan karya beliau berbentuk akademik, imiginatif, mencabar minda dan sering memberikan kritikan yang pedas dan berbisa.

Muhammad Haji Salleh • Prof. Dr. Muhammad Haji Salleh dinobatkan sebagai Sasterawan Negara 1991 dan dinobatkan sebagai Tokoh Akademik Negara pada tahun 2008. • Beliau banyak menterjemah puisi berbahasa Melayu ke bahasa Inggeris dan merupakan sidang editor jurnal Tenggara. • Muhammad Haji Salleh lebih menumpukan hasil beliau dalam puisi dan kritikan sastera dalam Bahasa Melayu dan Bahasa Inggeris yang seterusnya membawa hasil tersebut ke serata benua Asia, Eropah dan Amerika Syarikat. • Telah menghasilkan 15 koleksi puisi, 5 buah antologi dan 12 kritikan atau teori dalam Bahasa Melayu dan Inggeris. Beliau juga telah menterjemah lebih 11 buah buku Bahasa Melayu ke dalam Bahasa Inggeris. Beliau juga mengkaji teks sastera klasik seperti Hikayat Isma Yatim, Sulalatus Salatin dan Hikayat Hang Tuah dan karya lain yang menonjolkan jati diri Melayu. • Oleh kerana sumbangan beliau dalam bidang kesusasteraan Melayu, beliau telah mencetuskan dua pusat kajian Melayu iaitu di Universiti Islam Riau dan Universiti Jambi. • Hasil karya beliau telah diterjemah ke dalam 12 bahasa termasuk Bahasa Belanda, Cina, Danish, Ibrani, Itali, Jepun, Jerman, Korea, Rusia, Sepanyol, Siam, Vietnam, Portugis dan Perancis. Noordin Hassan • Noordin Hassan merupakan Sasterawan Negara 1993. • Dikenali dengan gelaran Datuk Drama atau Cikgu Drama. • Noordin Hassan lebih dikenali di pentas teater dan bidang drama. Mulai berkecimpung dalam dunia tersebut sejak tahun 1953 dan telah menghasilkan kurang lebih 30 buah

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buah karya drama dan koreografi tarian. • Beliau banyak menghasilkan karya eksperimen yang mengetengahkan teater fitrah serta bentuk drama berlandaskan budaya Melayu. • Antara drama yang terkenal nukilan beliau adalah Bukan Lalang Ditiup Angin (1979), Anak Tanjung (1992), Peran (1997). • Beliau merupakan penulis drama yang penting dalam perkembangan kesusasteraan Melayu moden dan banyak menonjolkan kecenderungan terhadap karya yang mengandungi unsur atau konsep keislaman. Abdullah Hussain • Abdullah Hussain telah dinobatkan sebagai Sasterawan Negara kelapan pada tahun 1996. • Beliau mulai dikenali pada tahun 1939 melalui cerita lucu yang disiarkan dalam majalah Tanah Melayu. Beliau juga menghasilkan cerpen, novel, biografi/autobiografi, terjemahan dan esei sastera. • Beliau telah menerbitkan kurang lebih 25 buah novel, tiga kumpulan cerpen, sembilan buah terjemahan, sebuah autobiografi dan enam buah biografi. • Beliau juga lebih dikenali dengan nama lain seperti Zamroed, Roslani Shikin, A.A, Adiwijaya, A.H, Andijaya, Asly, Bintang Kecil, Iskandar Muda dan Suryakanta. • Novel Interlok hasil penulisan beliau pada tahun 1971 telah menimbulkan kontroversi pada tahun 2011. Buku tersebut telah dipilih sebagai novel sukatan Tingkatan 5 untuk sekolah di Semenanjung Malaysia. Aduan melalui parti MIC, Uthaya Sankar dan lain-­lain mempertikaikan kesesuaian novel tersebut sebagai sukatan pelajaran kerana mengandungi unsur yang tidak tepat, mengelirukan dan menghina kaum India di Malaysia. Novel tersebut kemudian dipinda mengikut kesesuaian dan beberapa istilah telah dibuang. Novel tersebut akhirnya dibatalkan dalam sukatan pelajaran disebabkan bantahan yang berterusan. S. Othman Kelantan • Syed Othman Syed Omar dianugerahi Anugerah Sasterawan

Jika kamu kehilangan sesuatu, kamu boleh berpatah kembali sekiranya kamu mempunyai permulaan, tetapi jika ia tidak ada, ketika itu agama boleh memberi satu daripada jalan kepada kamu.” -­ Noordin Hassan

Nordin Hassan

“ S. Othman Kelantan Negara ke sembilan pada tahun 2003. • Dengan berkat ketabahan serta minatnya dalam dunia penulisan kreatif, beliau hari ini dikenali sebagai seorang novelis dan cerpenis penting tanah air. • Beliau banyak menulis puisi, novel, cerpen serta esei kritikan sastera. Beliau mulai dikenali melalui nukilan cerpen beliau bertajuk Pahlawan lembu yang cukup popular dalam kalangan peminat cerpen tanah air. S. Othman telah menghasilkan kebih 170 karya cerpen. • Di samping berkecimpung dalam dunia penulisan, beliau juga turut terlibat salam kegiatan persatuan penulis dan pernah menjadi Ketua Satu Persatuan Penulis Kelantan pada tahun

Peradaban dan tamadun sesuatu bangsa dibina dengan bahasanya sendiri, baik dalam bentuk prosa ataupun dalam bentuk kreatif kerana bahasa menjadi jiwa sesuatu bangsa. Keindahan estetika sebagai emosi kepada jiwa itu ialah karya kreatif.” -­ S. Othman Kelantan

1973 hingga 1976. • Beliau juga menjalankan kajian terhadap permasalahan dalam kesusasteraan Melayu dalam konteks pembangunan semasa , atau melihat kegiatan penulisan dan persuratan Melayu di Pantai Timur. Beliau juga turut menerbit-­semula karya-­karya Melayu yang pernah dihasilkan sebelum zaman perang. • Antara cerpen terkenal beliau juga termasuklah Surat (1972), Ibu (1980), Minden, Sejamu Adalah Perubahan (1981), Menjunjung Titah Perintah [antalogi bersama] (1984) dan banyak lagi.

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Melayu itu beradab, berperaturan, berkerajaan, Di Alam Melayu ribuan tahun kekuasaan, Khalifah Allah segala raja dan sultan, Patut dibantu Orang-­ orang Besar bijaksana lagi budiman.” -­ Anwar Ridhwan

Anwar Ridhwan

Harga membangunkan kebudayaan dan pendidikan sumber daya manusia dengan ilmu pengetahuan tiada yang murah, dan tidak boleh dianggap terlalu mahal untuk kemajuan hidup rakyat.”

-­ Baha Zain Baha Zain

Saya mula berasa amat tertekan. Keinginan untuk menulis masih meruap-­ ruap. Namun masa amat terhad.” -­ Zurinah Hassan

Zurinah Hassan

Anwar Ridhwan • Anwar Ridhwan merupakan seorang novelis dan Sasterawan Negara kesepuluh yang dinobatkan pada tahun 2009. • Selain terkenal sebagai novelis, beliau juga terkenal sebagai seorang cerpenis. Novel pertama beliau bertajuk Hari-­hari Terakhir Seorang Seniman telah memenangi Hadiah Novel GAPENA-­ Yayasan Sabah, 1979. Karya beliau yang diilhamkan dan disiapkan di Jepun pada tahun 2001 bertajuk Naratif Ogonshoto telah memenangi Hadiah Sastera Perdana Malaysia 2000/2001. Novel tersebut diterjemah ke dalam bahasa Rusia oleh Victor Pogadaev dengan judul ‘Bili i Nebili Ostrovov Ogonsoto’ pada tahun 2006. • “Kemunculan novel Naratif Ogonshoto telah menonjolkan lagi bakat penulisan dan kewibawaan Anwar Ridhwan dalam menggarap persoalan nilai kemanusiaan dan konsep demokrasi yang menjadi amat relatif dalam kehidupan pascamoden selain menonjolkan keterampilan dalam gaya pengolahan” – Dr. Victor Pogadaev. Kemala • Ahmad Kamal Abdullah atau lebih dikenali dengan nama pena Kemala telah dinobatkan sebagai Sasterawan Negara pada tahun 2011. • Beliau lebih dikenali sebagai seorang penyair. • Kemala banyak mengangkat golongan bawahan seperti petani, nelayan dan kaum buruh dalam puisi-­ puisi beliau. • Sajak-­sajak Kemala penuh dengan musik dan irama yang mendalam. Kebolehan beliau dalam permainan kata mampu mengorak bahasa menjadi indah, lembut dan kadang-­kadang ekspresif dan meletup. Setiap bait sajaknya penuh dengan gerakan dan dijadikan organisma hidup. • Selain puisi, beliau juga ada menghasilkan drama seperti Malam Perhitungan yang telah merangkul hadiah terbaik dalam satu peraduan yang dianjurkan Majlis Drama Malaysia pada tahun 1971. Drama terbaru beliau berjudul Pending Numera diterbitkan pada tahun 2011. • Setakat ini, Kemala telah menerbitkan sembilan kumpulan puisi

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iaitu Timbang Terima (1970), Meditasi (1972), Era (1975), Kaktus-­Kaktus (1976), ‘Ayn (1983, 1989), Titir Zikir (1995), dan Ziarah Tanah Kudup (2006). Baha Zain • Baha Zain atau Baharuddin Zainal merupakan penulis, tokoh penyair dan intelektual terkenal yang telah dianugerahi Anugerah Sasterawan Negara Malaysia ke 12 pada tahun 2013. • Karya-­karya puisi beliau banyak diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggeris, Korea, Rusia, Mandarin dan Sepanyol. • Beliau pernah menjadi pengarah teater ‘Tamu Di Bukit Kenny’ karya Sasterawan Negara Usman Awang yang dipentaskan pada tahun 1967. • Kecemerlangan, ketokohan dan sumbangannya terhadap kesusasteraan Melayu, bahasa dan buudaya diiktiraf melalui pelbagai anugerah dari dalam dan luar negara.

Buku Hikayat Cekel Waneng Pati yang disusun-­semula oleh beliau telah diberikan hadiah oleh UNESCO sebagai bahan bacaan tambahan yang baik untuk pelajar sekolah menengah. Zurinah Hassan • Zurinah Hassan merupakan seorang penyair dan tokoh Sasterawan Negara Malaysia 2015. Beliau juga merupakan satu-­satunya tokoh Sasterawan Negara wanita sehingga kini. • Mulai berkecimpung dalam dunia penulisan secara sambilan sebelum memutuskan untuk meletak jawatan dan memenuhi keinginan untuk berkarya sepenuh masa. • Zurinah Hassan mulai menulis sejak usia 12 tahun lagi dan sejak dari usia itu beliau sudah pun mengetengahkan persoalan sejagat dalam penulisannya termasuk puisi gelaja melepak dalam kalangan remaja pada tahun 1990-­an. • Beliau merupakan karyawan wanita yang banyak menyumbang

bakti dalam dunia kesusasteraan Melayu. • Zurinah Hassan telah mengharumkan nama negara mewakili pengkarta wanita Melayu di persada antarabangsa dengan meraih anugerah SEA Write 2004 oleh Ratu Sirikit, Thailand pada Oktober 2004. Jelaslah, penjanaan idea bagi menghasilkan sesuatu karya itu bukanlah mengambil masa sehari dua, bahkan diberi masa sebulan juga belum tentu dapat memuaskan kehendak atau matlamat penulis. Keistimewaan golongan sasterawan jelasnya, terletak pada sensitiviti dan kreativiti mereka terhadap alam, persekitaran serta nilai manusia dan kemanusiaan yang harus diterokai, difahami dan akhirnya dituangkan ke dalam karya-­ karya sastera yang indah, baik dan bermutu sehingga mampu menjulang nama Malaysia ke serata dunia dan memperkenalkan kesusasteraan Melayu.

Keistimewaan golongan sasterawan jelasnya, terletak pada sensitiviti dan kreativiti mereka terhadap alam, persekitaran serta nilai manusia dan kemanusiaan...”

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TOKOH

THE REMARKABLE

Teks: Alia Md Lani

T

he iconic name of Helen Keller is not new in the place of history. Helen Keller was the first deaf and blind woman who had created waves as a writer, political activist, and educator. Keller’s world was all dark and silent, yet it did not prohibit her from becoming a powerful example of dynamism and advocacy for people with disabilities. Helen Adams Keller was born on 27th June 1880 in a small town called Tuscumbia, Alabama, on an estate called Ivy Green. Her parents were Captain Arthur H. Keller and Katherine Adams Keller. Her father was a veteran of the confederate army and also the editor of the local newspaper, the North Alabamian. Born physically normal, Keller started speaking when she was six months old. She was able to communicate with her parents and learned to walk at the age of 1 year old. However, Keller then became extremely ill and lost her ability to hear and see at the age of nineteen months to an illness now called as scarlet fever. Keller had a turbulent childhood life, where she was constantly in anger and

frustration causing her to frequently throw tantrums in an attempt to express herself. Her parents have done many ways to get help for Helen but the efforts always turned into failure. Being in a world of total darkness and silent for years, a seven-­year-­old Keller was introduced to Anne Sullivan, a person responsible for the turning point in Keller’s life. Out of the darkness with Anne Sullivan On March 3, 1887, Anne Mansfield Sullivan came to Keller’s home in Tuscumbia to be the teacher of Keller. Sullivan who was a 20-­year-­ old graduate of the Perkins School for the Blind was one young woman with strong-­willed spirit to have persevered Keller’s stubbornness. First few weeks of teaching Keller were not as calm and easy as it would be to teach other kids. Keller would hit, punch and kick her teacher, Sullivan as her frustration grew and the tantrums would just keep growing by the day. Sullivan had to move into a small cottage on the Kellers’ property to

personally teach and control the girl. The demand was necessary to isolate Keller and her from the rest of the family for a time so that Keller could concentrate only on Sullivan’s instruction. Sullivan used the techniques she learnt at Perkins’, a technique of finger spell in learning to intrigue the sense of touch of the blind. Sullivan began her task of teaching Keller by manually signing the child’s hand, with a doll that she brought from Perkins to take to Helen. By spelling “d-­o-­l-­l” into the child’s hand, she hoped to teach her to connect objects with letters. She continued to fingerspell the names of familiar objects into Keller’s hand. As for Keller, she turned curious and sometimes defiant, refusing to cooperate with Sullivan’s instruction. It was truly a tough journey to get on Keller’s cooperation as the child would sometimes harshly troubled Sullivan on purpose to get rid of her. Despite the struggle, Sullivan realized that the key to reach Keller was to teach her obedience and love. She saw the need to discipline, but not crush, the spirit of her young charge.

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Regardless of the lack in abilities, Keller was actually a very bright child. Keller was able to quickly learn to form the letters correctly and in the correct order but did not know she was spelling a word, or even that words existed. In fact, Keller thought her teacher was just playing a game. Keller memorized words but failed to understand that they did have a meaning. On this day : The incident of the water pump. It wasn’t until April 5, 1887 when Sullivan took Keller to an old pump house, where the girl finally understood that everything has a name. Sullivan put Keller’s hand under the stream and began spelling “w-­a-­t-­e-­r” while pumping the water over her palm. It was the revealing moment where Keller started to understand and has continuously pounded the ground, demanding to know its “letter name”, out of excitement. She repeated the word in Sullivan’s hand. “Suddenly I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgotten—a thrill of returning thought, and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me. I knew then that “w-­a-­t-­e-­r” meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free! Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought. As we returned to the house every object which I touched seemed to quiver with life”, as what Keller wrote in the book on the journey of her story, ‘The Story of My Life’. Ever since then, Keller grew to explore new things with her hand and learnt the name of every object she touched. Keller became more joyous and confident. She started to understand the system of the world where things are connected as she handled more things and learned on their names and uses. Over time, Sullivan fingerspelled to her constantly and coached her in the give-­ and-­take of conversation. Many believe that this was the foundation of Keller’s success, where Keller grew her love of language, her great articulation, and grace as a writer and public speaker. A new phase of life After the miraculous breakthrough incident at the water pump, Keller’s

The remake of the water pump incident.

Keller, the name of an amazing and truly inspiring person has overcome difficult conditions with a great deal of persistence and perseverance.”

mind raced ahead. She proved so gifted with her hard work on the learning of fingertip alphabet and shortly afterward writing. Soon, by the age of 10, she successfully mastered reading and writing in Braille and able to use the hand signals for the deaf-­mute, which she could understand only by the sense of touch. She also tried hard to learn on how to speak by feeling her teacher’s mouth when she talked. By the time she was 16, Helen could speak well enough to go to preparatory school and to college. Her interest in learning has led her to enter the Cambridge School for Young Ladies in 1898, to prepare her for college. During fall in 1900, when she was 20, she entered Radcliffe College, proved herself to be the first deaf-­blind

to receive a college degree in Bachelor of Arts degree. The teacher stayed with her throughout those years, interpreting lectures and class discussions to her, by repeating the lectures into Keller’s hand. While still a student at Radcliffe, Helen began a writing career that was to continue throughout her life. Keller’s first book, The Story of My Life, was her first ever book to be published which has been translated into 50 other languages. It was written on her life transformation from childhood days to being a 21-­year-­old college student. She then continued to publish other books of different genres which were on her personal experiences, religion, one on contemporary social problems, and a biography of the teacher, Anne Sullivan. Not just that, she also wrote numerous articles for national magazines on the prevention of blindness and the education and special problems of the blind. Who could have imagined that someone who cannot see or hear can reach such achievement by doing the talk, write, read, went to college and published books, with the disabilities that she had. Keller had been the guiding light of the American Foundation for the Blind too for which she had raised funds. Helen Keller dedicated her life to improving the conditions of the deaf-­ blind around the world, and with the achievements that Keller earned, she will remain as an extraordinary and remarkable person that inspires many people. This leaves Keller’s name as the memories of future generations and pages of history. She is definitely a symbol of the triumph of the human spirit over adversity. In regards of that, we should be inspired by the struggle of Helen Keller, being blind and deaf, yet, she saw something that has brought her better ‘vision’ than those with vision. Helen Keller, the name of an amazing and truly inspiring person has overcome difficult conditions with a great deal of persistence and perseverance. She will be remembered as someone, who always labored for the betterment of others and the sake of the disables especially. Keller showed us that the world has no boundaries to courage and faith and that were the foundation to where it led her to a brighter and more colourful side of the world.

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Text : AZIZAH ADIB RAHIM

Al Ghazali is a major contributor of philosophy and thoughts in Islamic practices and teachings for nearly nine centuries. The theories and practices of Islam have constituted the predominant schools as well. One of the aspects that he penned down in his book is morality. Thus, this article will go in details of Al Ghazali’s Moral Philosophy.

F

irst and foremost, Al Ghazali gave a great emphasis on the Prophet, Muhammad S.A.W as the role model of morality perfection and it is dictated in Qura’n. Aisyah r.a, prophet’s wife mentioned “the prophet’s morality is like what is reflected by the Quran”. Besides, Al Ghazali highlited the definition of morality by salafi. Morality denotes generosity, smiles and making people around us are at ease with our moral and disposition. Four principles to have good characters and morality are wisdom, courage, purity and justice. Apart from that, to make changes and to fix our morality, Al Ghazali asserted the importance of moderate. It is crucial to be mad and to have courage at the right place moderately. As he said, being mad to protect your dignity is justifiable and having courage to protect Islam and your country is a must. But our morality must be led by our mind rather than our emotions. He further added that Allah does not mention in Quran of people who have no anger but He mentioned that the anger should be channelled by a

healthy mind. Apart from that Al Ghazali wrote two ways to achieve the modest morality. First, is by granting by Allah, one of the wondrous gifts of healthy mind and exquisite moral conduct. A person who is blessed with this gift has good ethics that is guided by his mind. Second, is to make efforts to have good morality. For example, by cultivating good ethics in ones’ mind and soul until it becomes an attitude or behavior. To illustrate, a person tries to be generous in helping people until he gets used to it even he does not feel comfortable at the first place. According to Al Ghazali, not all people are able to see their flaws and to fix it, only those who have sharp eyes and mind are capable to scrutinize themselves wisely. Al Ghazali asserted four ways to reflect our morality. One of them is by learning from religious people (Kiyai) who have vast knowledge on the weakness and the imperfections of human. He suggested for us to abide the advices as it is one of the ethics (respect) between teachers and

students. Next, good friends can be defined as friends who can guide us to the right path when we do any wrongdoings. It could be in any form for example advices. Al Ghazali illustrated Umar as a caliph who was not ashamed, asking to be guided even if he held the highest position at that time as a caliph. People who have an open mind own no arrogance in themselves if people advise them. Instead, they are being thankful and grateful for the right hand men who are willing to correct them. Al-­Ghazali then stress on the characteristic of good akhlaq. Good akhlaq resides in faith (iman) while the opposite is placed in munafiq (Muslims who were secretly unsympathetic to the cause of Muslims and actively sought to undermine the Muslim community.) Prophet Muhammad SAW explained the characteristic of good akhlaq includes Mu’min who loves other people just like they love themselves. He also mentioned, good akhlaq is when a person who believes in Allah now and hereafter, and always talks in a good

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manner and silence when he is angry. Allah S.W.T entrust the human being of their children. Hence, they have to take a good care of them mentally and physically. A-­Ghazali symbolized the kids and children as the white sheet, ready to be painted with colours by their parents. To educate a good morality in children, Al-­Ghazali pointed out the needs to monitor the children of whom they are befriending with and to not pamper them with wealth and luxury life. He further added to nurture the children with table etiquette. Take food with right hand, do not have meals until others do, to be grateful to have whatever food they have and do not rush while taking food. Apart from that, the children should be taught with Quran and Hadith, as well as the struggles and sacrifices of salihin and the knights of Islam for the sake of Islam and the ummah. Besides, Al-­Ghazali also mentioned in his book to be careful with what words coming out from our mouth. Some of the measures that should be avoided are talking of unnecessary things, cracking too much jokes, talking impolitely and lying, and last but not least is quarrelling instead of debating. On the other hand, he emphasized on the act of backbiting or gossip (ghebbah). In order to overcome this negative disposition, Al-­Ghazali suggested to always reminding ourselves the punishment of Allah towards people who like to gossip. Next, people should reflect themselves and fix their weakness rather than searching for other people’s mistakes. Thirdly, it is a must for us to constantly remind ourselves that gossiping or mocking about people’s flaws is just the same to mock the creation of Allah. Then, we should be more empathy towards the people who we are talking about by putting ourselves in their shoes, what would we feel if we are at their place? Al-­Ghazali is considered as one of greatest Muslims scholar and theologian. His book has been utilized by many institutions globally. Young generation especially Muslims should go back to their root, in understanding further the Islamic philosophies and thoughts that are contributed by these sagacious scholars.

BEDAH BUKU

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THE INTERNATIONAL

BEDAH BUKU

Teks: Ahmad Wared Bin Mokhtar Intan Suhana Binti Che Omar

W

e always wondering where did the jews come from and how did they become so powerful without actually having a “nation” as the start of their colony. What makes them think that they are the “chosen one” instead other people. They even go as far as categorizing the world to types of people in this world which are the Jew and Gentile which refers to other person than the Jew. The book “The international Jew” has discovered the factors and their tricks to take over and conquer the world from every aspect including the administration, businesses, law and even education. Here is a brief background about this book. The book is written by Henry Ford, who is famously known as the founder of car manufacturers “Ford” in 1920. The book has his own story to survive this world with the pressure he received from the hatred Jew. The Jews feel that the book has offended them and has carried out a campaign against Mr. Ford. As a result, the book has to stop the circulation. Besides that, the Jews even broke into the bookstores selling

the book and commanded destruction all copies of the book available. Sneak thieves were commissioned to go to libraries available and stole the books out of the libraries. It makes the book hard to get until this very day Jews in America was coined by Christopher Columbus. On August 12th, 1492, the Jews were been expelled from Spain. On the next day, with five other companion who were Luis de Torres the interpreter, Marco the surgeon, Bernal the physician Alonzo de la Calle and Gabriel Sanchez set sail to the west with 300,000 other Jews. From the very beginning, Jews saw America as a fruitful country which they can go and build their empire. They have set their journey to Brazil but because of disagreement between Brazil and Dutch Colony they have set their anchor to Dutch colony known as New York which is labelled as the New Jerusalem. However, the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant did not welcome them in his place. They were forbidden to enter public service and open retail store. However, they are intelligent enough to overcome this and make sure The world's foremost problem that hits American since before.

that they are still able to do business. In the book they stated, when they are forbidden to sell new clothes, they sold old clothes, when they forbidden to deal in merchandise, they deal with waste. They can trade very well. From time to time they improved and after 50 years, the Jewish population increased to 3,300,000 from 4,000 in George Washington time. Not only business, the Jews start to bring their culture into the live of American including labour, church and education. The name given by the writers to label the Jews as a propagandist is befitting. They even claim that the fundamentals of the United States are Jewish not Christian and the history should be rewritten due to the acknowledgement toward Judah. They state excelled because of the Jewish idea and the people (Jewish) are the vehicles of the idea. Jews are antagonistic and bring their influence to every aspect of life to control the society. It is to break up the present control disunity between labor and and capital, by lowering down the government through corrupted politics, by trivializing the mind of people through theatre and movies. Jews claim themselves as the “chosen one”, continuously spreading influence of their religion. There is no Christian Church that the Jews have not repeatedly attacked. They oppose Christmas, Easter and other Christian Festivals,

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and their opposition to certain patriotic songs is a proof of their attack. As a result, they have control over United States. No one ever dare to question the Jewish position or they will be damned. The writer claimed that America has not been called “The Jews” nation for nothing between Europe countries. No one can even ask about the immigrants that enter United States. They have power in the immigration force whereby they have special passport arrangement for the immigrants who wants to enter the country without health regulations. The laws are set aside for them. The Jewish protocol is used in their agenda to exercise the power over United States. It is mad up of 24 documents known as “The Protocol of the Learners Elders of Zion”. This is their tactical documents on controlling United States to become so powerful which including dominate the government, law and even dividing people. As stated in the eighth protocol, the order states that the Jews are to control the top position by using “Gentile Front”. It is said that, “For the time being until it will be safe to give responsible government position to our brother Jews, we shall entrust them to people whose past and whose characters are such that there is an abyss between them and the people”. Jewish are using g e n t i l e as a puppet to hold important positions as practiced in the fi n a n c i a l w o r l d today in order to

cover up Jewish control. There are two organizations responsible in bringing Jews to power which are New York Kehillah and American Jewish Committee. However, Kehillah is the most influential not just in America politics but also worldwide. For them, New York seems to be like New Jerusalem for Jewish and Mecca for Muslim. No one ever dares to question their power in America. As a result, American thinking and American politics, became Jewish oriented in the decades followed. New York is the laboratory in which the emissaries of revolution learn their lesson and their daily knowledge is risen by the counsel and experience of travelling delegates straight out of Russia. American citizens basically do not realize that all public disturbances, labor differences, strike and political confusions of which they read are not mere sudden outbreaks, but the deliberately planned movements of leaders who know exactly what they are doing. The book also states that Jewish organization is supports communism in United States by controlling and expanding the Hebrew labor movement among the millions of immigrants during 50 years. They intend to put the limitation on the Americanization program to force America to head in their direction. They never wish for the American to wake up and challenge them. Jews also use theatre and movie as the medium for guiding public taste and influencing the public mind. Most of the management of those theatre a n d movie are monopolised b y t h e Jews. Every night, t h e r e are thousands of people who spend their times two to three hours watching movie or theatre and this situation currently places them vulnerable to the exposure of Jewish ideas of life, love and labor and also propaganda. This action declined the arts and morals of the stage as their real intention is to influence people rather than to express arts. The music industry is also dominated by the Jews. The Jewish mostly plagiarise old songs to create new songs to fit their propaganda. Their pocket money also

The front cover of 'The International Jew'. comes through music. Jews from that also have a great deal with liquor, gambling, vice and corruption. It came as a surprise to the American people that the liquor business of the world is in the hands of the Jews. They controlled the liquor traffics even through prohibition and they also conquered the vodka business which undermined Russia. There are also corruption done by the Jewish gamblers in sports when they see sports as money rather than fun and skills. There are also influences of Jews in press control. All leading news agencies in America are Jew-­controlled. They give restriction and guide as to what needs to be done by the news agencies such as “the whispering drive” and “ the boycott “, instances of their agenda. However, there is newspapers that struggle for the independence of press and outside of the Jew-­ controlled such as New York Herald. Lastly, this book also describe about the state of All-­ Judaan. It is described as the most closely organized power on earth and the only state that exercises world government. The principle culture of All-­ Judaan is more on journalistic and technical. Judaism is passionately in favour of perpetuating nationalistic division for the Gentile world.

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BEDAH BUKU

Pengembara Agung, Karya Terulung, Menyingkap Wajah Dunia Teks: Alia Md Lani

P

enjelajahan agung seorang pengembara Islam yang juga dikenali sebagai Ibn Battutah, tersohor dengan karya Rihlah Ibn Battutah yang kini telah berusia hampir tujuh kurun. Berikutan itu, Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM) telah mengambil usaha untuk menterjemahkan karya Rihlah Ibn Battutah ini ke Bahasa Melayu dan kini diterbitkan dalam sebuah karya buku yang berjudul, Pengembaraan Ibn Battutah : Pengembara agung karya terulung menyingkap wajah dunia. Usaha ini berikutan sebagai salah satu cara yang berkesan kearah pemantapan kefahaman Islam dengan mendedahkan masyarakat umum, tidak kira dalam kalangan umat Islam mahupun bukan Islam terhadap pengetahuan tamadun dan budaya Islam. Buku Pengembaraan Ibn Battutah ini mencatatkan penceritaan perjalanan pengembaraan Ibn Battutah yang telah menggembara selama hampir tiga puluh tahun merangkumi 73,000 batu (117,000 km). Sebagai tokoh pengembara Islam, beliau juga dikatakan telah mengembara dengan jarak yang jauh lebih hebat iaitu sebanyak tiga kali ganda jarak perjalanan Marco Polo, seorang pengembara barat yang terkenal dengan pengembaraanya di mata dunia. Jika Marco Polo terkenal sebagai pedagang yang bersifat lebih “tepat” dan “objektif” dalam catatannya, Ibn Battutah pasti tidak kurang hebat memandangkan beliau

telah mengunjungi lebih banyak tempat dan menemui lebih ramai tokoh sejarah yang penting. Dalam pada masa yang sama, Ibn Battutah sebagai ahli budaya dan ilmuan lebih bersifat peribadi dalam catatannya, menjadikan sesebuah penceritaannya itu lebih menarik serta meliputi huraian terperinci meliputi segenap kehidupan manusia pada waktu itu. Hidupnya yang terisi dengan pengembara hampir tiga puluh tahun membawanya untuk menjelajah hampir seluruh dunia Islam dari Barat ke Timur termasuk wilayah Islam bahagian tengah serta ke Timur sehingga ke China, India, Indonesia, Asia Tengah, Afrika Timur dan Sudan di Afrika Barat . Namun, ini bukanlah kali pertama Rihlah Ibn Battutah ini diterjemahkan, malah Rihlah ini telah diterbitkan dalam pelbagai bahasa sebelumnya termasuklah penterjemahan ke bahasa Sepanyol, Itali, Jerman, Rusia, Poland, Hunggary, Parsi dan Jepun. Hal ini membuktikan betapa karya klasik ini diangkat kepentingannya di serata

dunia sebagai salah satu karya warisan sejarah yang wajar dijadikan bahan rujukan yang pastinya berguna serta mampu membawa kepada fahaman yang jelas berkaitan sejarah lampau. Pada masa yang sama, karya ini juga bernilai sebagai bukti untuk umat Islam sebagai lambang dan kebanggan wujudnya seorang mengembara Muslim yang terulung dalam sejarah dunia. Selain itu, karya klasik ini juga diakui oleh dunia sebagai karya yang memiliki mutu dan nilai yang tinggi serta asli dalam mengekalkan sifatnya.

Sebagai tokoh pengembara Islam, beliau juga dikatakan telah mengembara dengan jarak yang jauh lebih hebat iaitu sebanyak tiga kali ganda jarak perjalanan Marco Polo...”

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Secara kasarnya, buku Pengembaraan Ibn Battutah ini adalah penterjemahan semula keseluruhan teks Rihlah Ibn Battutah ke Bahasa Melayu, dimana ia menceritakan kisah pengembaraan Ibn Battutah dari awal permulaan pengembaraannya iaitu seawal beliau meninggalkan kota asalnya (di Tangier) ketika beliau berusia 21 tahun pada tahun 1325 demi menunaikan haji di Mekah yang membawa ke perjalanan pengembaraanya yang seterusnya sehinggalah pengembaraan terakhir beliau iaitu di negeri Sudan (Mali) di Afrika Barat pada tahun 1353. Setiap catatan pengembaraannya yang mengambil masa hampir 30 tahun itu diceritakan dalam buku ini secara lebih terperinci, dengan menggunakan bahasa yang mudah difahami dan ringkas demi memastikan karya ini dapat terus hidup jika perbincangannya dapat terus diperluas. Buku hasil penterjemahan Rihlah Ibn Battutah ini penting kerana selain ia memberikan keterangan yang jelas bagi membolehkan kisah pengembaraan Ibn Battutah difahami dan diamati, pembaca juga boleh terkesan dengan pelbagai ikhtibar dan nilai murni yang dapat dilihat dari segenap aspek kehidupan seharian manusia melaui pembacaannya. Bukan sekadar kisah

pengembaraan biasa, namun kisahnya pasti memberi kesan kepada lakaran peta tamadun Islam pada waktu yang sama. Kejayaan Ibn Battutah mengembara hampir segenap dunia dapat dijadikan contoh serta dorongan kepada pembaca untuk memperluas pandangan dan pengalaman dalam mengejar ilmu pengetahuan. Ibn Battutah sendiri telah membuktikan ianya tidak mustahil untuk mengharungi sesuatu pengembaraan yang jauh menempuh gelora dalam usia yang muda. Hal ini dapat kita jadikan tauladan sebagai tunjang semangat dalam memulakan sesuatu demi mencapai sesuatu keinginan dan matlamat yang diimpikan dalam kehidupan. Asas kepada kejayaan Ibn Battutah adalah kerana semangat dan cintanya pada ilmu pengetahuan yang mendorong beliau meneruskan pengembaraan selama hampir 30 tahun. Justeru, seseorang individu itu sendiri wajar mengadaptasi sekaligus mempraktikkan nilai-­nilai murni yang ada pada Ibn Battutah ini dalam kehidupannya sebagai persediaan dalam menghadapi cabaran kehidupan yang tidak pasti pasang surutnya. Diibaratkan seperti kapal yang sarat dengan kelengkapannya, begitu juga manusia yang perlu

melengkapkan diri dengan semangat yang jitu, sentiasa cinta dan dahaga pada ilmu pengetahuan, memaparkan keperibadian dan akhlak yang tinggi, suci rohaninya, hebat dalam memimpin dan berani menghadapi pancaroba kehidupan di masa akan datang. Secara konklusinya, karya Pengembaraan Ibn Battutah : Pengembara agung karya terulung menyingkap wajah dunia terbitan IKIM ini bersifat global dan dapat ditafsirkan sebagai kisah yang membawa seribu satu teladan kepada pembaca secara umumnya. Dengan penceritaannya yang menarik dan terperinci, pembaca pastinya dapat mendalami dan merasai sendiri keistimewaan kisah pengembaraan Ibn Battutah, pengembara Islam terulung di dunia pada abad ini.

“

Asas kepada kejayaan Ibn Battutah adalah kerana semangat dan cintanya pada ilmu pengetahuan...�

Perjalanan Ibn Battutah

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ART OF DECEPTION Teks: Siti Fatimah Nasir

BODY LANGUAGE Text: Jeredeana Fiona

TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD Text: Jeredeana Fiona

Buku “The Art of Deception” merupakan buku yang merungkai peristiwa 11 September 2001 iaitu pengeboman bangunan World Trade Centre (WTC) di Washington, Amerika Syarikat. Terdapat banyak agenda tersembunyi yang dirancang oleh Amerika sendiri terhadap peristiwa tersebut. Kenyataan yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah Amerika berkaitan tragedi tersebut adalah jauh berbeza dengan apa yang sebenarnya berlaku kerana semua yang terjadi tidak melibatkan pengaruh pengganas tetapi sebuah rangkaian penipuan besar yang membabitkan Amerika, Israel, Zionis, Iluminati dan Freemason itu sendiri. Buku ini juga memaparkan misi-­misi yang digunakan oleh gerakan itu untuk menyesatkan akidah manusia ke arah memuja syaitan sementara menunggu ketibaan Dajjal. Keunikan buku ini membuka minda setiap pembaca supaya memikirkan sejenak fakta-­fakta yang dipaparkan di dalam buku dan memahami apa sebenarnya yang terjadi di sebalik tragedi 11 September tersebut. Penulis juga mengatakan peristiwa tersebut ada kaitan dengan hubungan organisasi rahsia dan Dajjal.

It is a well illustrated book which explains while examining in very simple terms each component of body language. It will help in those awkward situations to better understand a person or a group of people. The book helps create awareness of non-­verbal cues and signals while helping to create the reactions you wanted. Here are some most common gestures you will see daily : The Head Nod – In most cultures it signifies an agreement however there are two powerful uses of the head nod. Firstly it signifies that you are feeling positive or affirmative, if you start nodding your head in a conversation, you will experience positive feelings. Secondly, head nodding is contagious. It is an excellent tool to build a rapport, getting agreement and cooperation. Hands-­on-­Hips – It is a universal gesture used to communicate that a person is ready for assertive action. It lets the person take up more space and has the threat value of the pointed elbows that act as weapons preventing others from approaching or passing. This shows an attack stance.

The book is a story of two siblings in Southern United States in the 1930’s where it was a turbulent time for race relations. The story centres on the Finch family according to the eyes of the youngest member, Jean Louise ‘Scout’ Finch. She lives her brother, Jeremy Atticus ‘Jem’ Finch, and their father, Atticus Finch who is a lawyer in Maycomb. Atticus Finch instils strong sense of morality and justice to his children especially to Arthur ‘Boo’ Radley, a reclusive man whom the children called a monster. However when Atticus is assigned to defend Tom Robinson, a black man whom Bob Ewell accuses of rape, the children’s moral compass gave way to the evil side of human nature. The Finch family became the town’s pariah because Atticus was defending a man of different colour. Although Atticus made an impassioned and convincing defence, the jury finds Robinson guilty and is sent to prison. Harper Lee used Scout to depict the story because it was harder for a child to understand the coexistence of good and evil and the importance of moral education. SASARAN Edisi 72 151

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MEDIA = SETAN OLEH ISMAIL HASHIM YAHYA Teks: Aiman Adila

7 TAHUN 7 HARI OLEH DIANA NUZUIN Teks: Saiful Asyraf

ANAK APAK MEMOIR, POLITIK KEWARTAWANAN OLEH SUBKY LATIF Teks: Aiman Adila

Media = Setan menceritakan bagaimana kejahatan yang begitu rapi direncana, disusun dan dikuasai akan menghasilkan realiti-­realiti kejahatan yang sempurna (manipulasi). Manipulasi dan pelacuran berita merebak bebas sehingga manusia semulia mana sekalipun tidak dapat lagi membezakan antara yang hak dan yang batil. Karya Ismail Hashim Yahaya diterbitkan oleh DuBook Press, mempunyai 239 halaman muka surat menceritakan bagaimana orang ramai dimanipulasi oleh pihak berkepentingan melalui media yang dikatakan bersifat rasis dan sumbang. Agenda yang disebar melalui media secara halus dan tidak sedar telah berjaya mempengaruhi pandangan setiap orang dan ini yang dinamakan kejahatan sempurna media. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat pengulangan huraian dan fakta yang jelas dalam beberapa tajuk dalam buku ini dimana huraiannya sekadar diubah gaya aturan ayat. Namun, ia masih sebuah naskhah informatif dan kritikal yang mengambil contoh isu di dalam dan luar negara seperti Islam extremis dan bagaimana media menghuru-­harakan sesebuah negara dengan manipulasi sempurna.

Kejatuhan buat kita belajar mencintai diri sendiri lebih daripada segala-­ galanya. Kejatuhan juga buat kita berdiri di bumi nyata. Kejatuhan buat kita kenal siapa kawan, siapa puaka.” Itulah antara sebahagian daripada petikan ayat yang terkandung di dalam buku bertajuk 7 Tahun 7 Hari hasil karya Diana Nuzuin. Buku setebal 109 muka surat ini menceritakan mengenai kehidupan penulis sendiri dalam sisi yang berlainan sebagai seorang pelajar, anak, penjaga, pekerja dan teman wanita. Penulis percaya cerita dan pengalaman yang dikongsi turut dialami oleh sebahagian besar masyarakat di negara ini, lebih-­lebih lagi kisah suka dan duka bersama ibunya yang merupakan seorang ibu tunggal. Pada bab ketiga, pembaca dapat merasai bagaimana penulis cuba menyingkap kembali pengalaman menjadi gelandangan bersama ibunya dan terpaksa tidur beralaskan bangku kantin sekolah setiap hari. Namun, atas dasar ingin berubah, beliau dan ibunya berjaya keluar daripada kepompong tersebut dan akhirnya memulakan hidup baru.

Memoir, Politik Kewartawanan yang diberikan judul ANAK APAK, menceritakan pengalaman hidup dan pahit getir penulis, Subky Latif. Dididik oleh bapanya yang dipanggil Apak untuk menjadi seorang Tok Guru tetapi disebabkan masalah ekonomi dan beberapa isu lain, penulis akhirnya menjadi wartawan dan aktivis politik sepenuh masa. Memoir menggunakan gaya bahasa santai dan mudah difahami oleh pembaca untuk mengenali sejarah dan peristiwa lalu melalui penceritaan peribadi penulis. Buku setebal 437 muka surat ini memaparkan pengalaman hidup penulis sewaktu Tanah Melayu dijajah Jepun, zaman British menguasai semula Tanah Melayu dan fasa awal pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Anak Apak merupakan sebuah naskah yang membuatkan pembaca berfikir jauh merentas zaman dan usia dalam membina harga diri dalam sesuatu kehidupan.

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A NEW MALAYSIA BY JOAQUIM HUANG Text: Aiman Adila

LIBERATING THE MALAYS MIND BY M. BAKRI MUSA Text: Raja Nadhirah

A New Malaysia, written by Joaquim Huang is a book for anyone who is curious about the reality of different races in Malaysia. In this book, readers will gain the insight of how sensitive sentiments were used among races that poses threat unity and harmony. The author makes comparisons between secular laws and divine laws, and took the examples from Malaysian Federal Constitution Part II, Clauses 6 and 8 that secular laws can be just as divine. The book additionally calls for comprehensive administration through the establishment of non-­fanatic senates at state level and the strengthening of the current Dewan Negara, urging our congresspersons to lead the pack in enactment changes. This may set aside opportunity to change. However, it will be a step forward.Published by Strategic Information and Research Development Centre (SIRD), the book includes seven chapters that discussed on race, politics and religion. This is a must-­read book for those who are interested in the future of our nation. The book can be found at Kinokuniya bookstore in KLCC, retailing at the price of RM 25.

Are the Malay minds still entrapped within invisible walls? The answers might be in this book. Liberating the Malay Mind by M. Bakri Musa, mostly touches on the sensitive Article 153 of the Federal Constitution which centres on Malay supremacy, its literal English translation of Ketuanan Melayu. With Malaysia being a multinational country, the issue of Malay supremacy has been almost a taboo topic to be discussed. In this book, Bakri Musa maps with clarity the path towards a liberated Malaysia, which can be achieved when the Malays escape their shackled mind. Focusing on Malay supremacy concept – which was a superficial concept that gives an illusion of “protection” of Malay and Bumiputra rights – that inhibit the people from forging towards a dynamic and globally competitive Malaysia. Hence, the aptly-­ titled “Liberating the Malay Mind”. The book is composed of 9 parts with a total of 36 chapters. It is an elaborate expansion from the presentations that the author delivered at three Alif Ba Ta conferences organized by the UMNO Club of New York and New Jersey student organizations. Published by ZI Publications. allmajor bookstores at RM 69.90. SASARAN Edisi 72 153

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To a bullied child, this is the way out

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FAKULTI KOMUNIKASI DAN PENGAJIAN MEDIA, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA 40450 SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN. TEL: +603 5544 4898 FAX: +6035544 4861

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