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Ask Mohawk

The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper


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The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper A guide to printing on uncoated papers 01 Deconstructing the Myth 02 Continuous Tone: The Elusive Ideal 03 Dots and the Digital Age 04 Qualities to Consider 05 Think About the Ink 06 Where’s the Rub? 07 Success on Press

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Ask Mohawk

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The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper

Dots and the Digital Age

Today most images are reproduced through digital rather than photographic halftoning. Digital halftoning adds precision, but still relies on dots, each designated ink or no ink. The digital process allows for the creation of much smaller dots and more various shades and gradations Controlling Curves Without Diet or Exercise Dot gain can now be controlled to a great extent in digital pre-press through the use of “curves,” a set of adjustments—usually proprietary to the printer—that will accommodate for the natural dot gain caused by different types of paper, equipment and images.

Proper curve adjustment leads to cleaner, crisper printing with brighter highlights and more detail in the shadows. Without proper curve adjustment, results can include moiré or messy mottling, plugged or flat images.

The Naked Truth is one of a series of print buyer’s guides produced by Mohawk Fine Papers.

A printer can print a test file with 100 tonal steps representing gradations in shade from 1 to 100 and use a loupe and densitometer to locate the values that created the desired tones. For example, dot gain might cause the 50% tone to occur at the 45% value, giving the printer the information to make the necessary curve adjustments. A curve can then be built in the pre-press software—just before the final run or sometimes in Adobe PhotoShop®— to correct for the dot gain in a particular image on a given press using a particular paper. Curves for coated paper will be different than the curves for uncoated paper, so the test should print on the paper of choice.


Call 1 800 the mill or visit Mohawk Fine Papers Inc. P.O. Box 497 465 Saratoga Street Cohoes, New York 12047 March 2006

DENSITOMETER: Instrument that measures the density of colored inks on paper. It is typically used to determine consistency in ink densities throughout a press run.


Deconstructing the Myth


Once upon a time, choosing an uncoated paper to print a job with photography or illustration meant taking some risks on print quality. But no more. Innovations in papermaking, printing and ink technologies have made it possible to deliver beautifully crisp printed images with the smooth, rich feel of uncoated paper. In the Beginning: The Birth of the Halftone Printing innovations are best appreciated in the context of history. With the dawn of photography in the 1830s came the desire to print images and text on the same page in volume. Developed about fifty years later, the halftone was the “eureka!” solution.

Halftones use screens to cut continuous-tone images such as photographs into tiny squares that form series of dots on the conventional printing plate. In printing, ink is applied to the dots but not to the spaces between them. The size and angle of the screen controls the size and proximity of the dots to create the desired shade. Larger, closer dots create dense color because they allow less of the paper to show through. As dots get smaller and farther apart, the color gets lighter. Through an optical illusion, our eyes connect the dots to create the effect of continuous tone.

Coated paper, which allows the ink to sit on top of the coating instead of being absorbed into the fiber, was an early solution to dot gain. Coated paper has its drawbacks, though.The synthetic coating gives it an artificial feel in contrast to the more natural feel of uncoated paper. Coated paper typically comes in a narrow range of colors—often only white and ivory—and limited surface finishes such as satin, matte, dull or gloss.

Go for Effect Different types of ink and methods of applying it can produce great effects on uncoated paper.


Hexachrome Hexachrome is 6-color process printing, adding two process colors (green and orange) to the traditional cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Hexachrome inks are brighter, cleaner and more vibrant than traditional CMYK. Disadvantages would be higher ink and printing costs.

Duotones, Tritones, Quadtones Duotones are two-color halftones that use two screens at two different angles and two colors on two different plates, to create more depth and contrast. In the case of black and white images, a duotone might use two blacks instead of two different colors.

01 Deconstructing the Myth 02 Continuous Tone: The Elusive Ideal 03 Dots and the Digital Age 04 Qualities to Consider 05 Think About the Ink 06 Where’s the Rub? 07 Success on Press


Coated Curves


Touchplates Touchplates or bump plates use one unit of the press to apply extra ink—often a fluorescent—only to those areas of an image requiring a special “pop.” Photoshop or other software programs are used to isolate touchplate areas and then incorporate them into the image.

Quadtones use four screens at four different angles and four colors (usually black, cyan, magenta and yellow) on four different plates to create the crispest images in both black-and-white and color.

PRINT DENSITY: The measure of the amount of ink on the surface of the printed press sheet.


Uncoated Curves


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UNDER COLOR REMOVAL (UCR): A technique used to achieve color stability in shadows through the reduction or replacement of the cyan, magenta and yellow inks with a controlled amount of black. The result is better detail and improved trapping. If UCR leaves the images weak, under color addition (UCA) is used to replace some of the color.

Screens Higher line screens show more dot gain than lower line screens because smaller dots grow more than larger ones. Method Waterless printing reduces dot gain by minimizing the amount of ink that is absorbed by the paper. Ultraviolet (UV) printing reduces ink absorption by curing (which dries) each layer of ink as it is applied. EFFECTS OF DOT GAIN Halftones Halftones may get muddy and lose detail. Color Colors change in separations and builds don't match swatches. Tints Screen tints darken. Detail Reversed or “knocked out” fine lines and serifs on type begin to disappear. Spreads and chokes lose shape.

Paper Priorities When specifying a paper for your job, think about the following qualities: Smoothness In general, the smoother the paper, the crisper the halftones. Uncoated paper delivers a more authentic feeling smoothness than its coated counterparts. Different degrees of smoothness are achieved in a process known as calendering, the last step in paper making when the paper is run through a stack of large steel rollers with different surfaces. These rollers or calenders tighten the fibers and smooth the paper. Common finishes for uncoated paper, in order of increasing smoothness, are eggshell, vellum, smooth and super smooth or ultra smooth. Formation Formation refers to the distribution of fibers within a sheet. To check the formation, hold a sheet of paper to the light and look for uniformity rather than clumps or clouds. Good formation makes uncoated paper absorb ink evenly to yield uniform solids and clear reproductions.

Side-to-Side Consistency Finished paper technically has two sides: the “wire” side, which comes in contact with the wires on the papermaking machine, and the “felt” side, which does not. In some papers, a color printed on the wire side will appear different than the same color printed on the felt side. Better uncoated papers have good side-to-side consistency. Texture Textures are embossed on paper after it leaves the papermaking machine to create effects such as linen or laid. Textured papers are used to add tactile effect and visual interest. Genuine felt papers tend to be more absorbent. Linen finish papers by contrast have a harder surface and better ink holdout.

Matte or dull varnishes are widely used on uncoated papers for rub protection, but gloss and satin varnish are usually discouraged because they can cause images to appear uneven or mottled. Varnish darkens inks on uncoated paper—making solid blacks blacker—but it will not provide any other visual effect. If the project involves glue, you may need to knock out or remove the varnish where the glue is going to be applied. Check with the bindery department to be sure.


Brightness A paper’s brightness is a function of the amount of color and light the paper reflects. The whitest paper may not always be the brightest. In general, brighter paper leads to the appearance of sharper images because more light goes through the ink and reflects back to the eye. Uncoated papers tend to have less glare than coated papers. Opacity Opacity refers to the degree of “show through,” and should be a consideration with any job that prints on both sides of a page.

SPREADS AND CHOKES: Similar to trapping (See section 06), these terms refer to the overlap of overprinting images to avoid white or colored borders around details of images.

Conventional 4-Color Process

With Fluorescent Yellow and Fluorescent Magenta

For uncoated papers, we recommend using non-leafing metallic inks and applying dull varnish or dull aqueous for rub protection. Always consult your printer for their recommendations. UV Inks Conventional inks “dry back” or lose some intensity as they change from wet to dry. Ultraviolet (UV) inks produce the sharpest images because they dry or “cure” instantly under ultraviolet lights on press, leaving little time for dot gain and eliminating the need for a varnish or aqueous coating. UV inks tend to be more expensive and can be used only on specially adapted presses.

GRAY COMPONENT REPLACEMENT: Gray component replacement (GCR, also known as achromatic color replacement): a technique using specialized software on electronic scanners to remove the graying or achromatic component of combined cyan, magenta and yellow and replace it with black.


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Fluorescent Inks Fluorescent inks were formerly limited to screen printing, but ink technology now enables them to work on any type of press in both duotone and full color processes. Semi-transparent and naturally bright, fluorescent inks increase the clarity and brightness of images printed on uncoated paper. Fluorescent inks are not recommended for images of people because they tend to make them appear too “hot” or sunburned.

Black (2x)

Vanquished with Varnish Varnish, the most economical coating, is a petroleumbased sealant applied by a standard inking unit in the press. It can be specified in satin, matte, dull or gloss and applied on the entire sheet or in selected areas. Varnish can be inline or “wet-trapped,” meaning it is applied over wet ink on press, or it can be “dry-tapped” over dry ink “offline” in an extra press run. Inline varnish needs as much time to dry as a solid ink color.


Shade A paper’s color affects the way process colors reproduce on it. Not all white papers are the same color. Warmer whites contain more yellow, while cooler whites contain more blue which will affect the appearance of the printed colors. The printer may want to compensate for this possible color shift.

Where’s the Rub?

Heavy ink coverage on uncoated paper can sometimes “rub off” at the touch of a finger or “offset” on the sheet next to it in a post-press stack. Varnish, aqueous and ultraviolet coatings will seal the ink to prevent rub-off.

Absent with Aqueous As an alternative to varnish, a water-based aqueous coating can be applied over wet ink from a special coater tower. Aqueous has the advantage of sealing a sheet instantly as it allows the ink to dry underneath. It is also more environmentally friendly and won’t yellow the sheet as varnish might. Aqueous is available in matte, gloss, satin

Before Uncoated Curves Adjusted

Types of Offset Press Sheetfed presses tend to have less than web presses.

Qualities to Consider

Paper makers have been just as innovative as printers in the past several decades. In response to market demand, uncoated papers have gotten increasingly smoother while offering a variety of colors, visual effects and surface textures.

Co-Cure Inks Co-Cure or hybrid inks can run on a conventional or UV press. With a Co-Cure Press only some of the ink towers have UV lamps. These lamps are moveable within Enhanced Black the press depending on which ink the printer wants to A denser, richer black, achieved with two hits of black or “cure” with the lamp. Towers without the lamps use heat, process black applied over 50% cyan can add drama and rather than light, to dry the inks. Co-Cure presses give the contrast with a little extra investment. printer the option of printing conventional or UV on the Metallic Inks same press. They are less expensive than a full UV press Metallic inks use metallic powders, such as aluminum and that has inter-deck drying units or UV lamps after each ink bronze, mixed with the proper varnish base to create images tower. Drawbacks of Co-Cure presses include the time it with metallic luster. The smoothest uncoated papers usually takes a printer to change the press setting back and forth deliver the best results. Metallic inks work in virtually any from UV to conventional and the limit on the number of printing process. There are “leafing” and “non-leafing” drying units available. metallic inks. Leafing inks which have metal flakes that rise to the top of the ink mixture have a little more shine but increased rub off. The metal flakes in non-leafing metallic sink down with less rub off but a little less shine.

Tritones use three screens at three different angles and three colors on three different plates to enhance the effect. In the case of black and white images, a tritone might use one black and two grays.


Paper Different papers cause different levels of dot gain. Uncoated papers absorb ink which tends to increase dot gain.

Think About the Ink


When Dot Meets Paper: Not Quite the Perfect Match When a dot or drop of liquid ink hits a sheet of uncoated paper, its nature is to spread like a drop of watercolor falling from a paintbrush onto an absorbent sheet. In printing, this effect is known as dot gain. Regardless of how precise a printer is in controlling the fineness and angle of the screens, the paper affects the outcome. If the printer doesn’t allow for dot gain, the ink can over-saturate, making images darkened and blurry.

The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper A guide to printing on recycled papers

LOUPE: A printer’s magnifying glass.


and dull, though matte or dull aqueous is recommended for uncoated paper. It generally covers the entire sheet; spot aqueous is available but may not be necessary. Like varnish, aqueous creates no visual effect; its primary purpose is to prevent rub-off. Because aqueous is water-based, some printers will only use it on 100 lb. text and heavier papers to avoid the risk of curling edges. When specifying aqueous, be sure it is compatible with the pigments in the ink, as aqueous can cause some pigments to bleed. The caution about mixing varnish and glue applies to aqueous, too. Yesterday with UV Like ultraviolet (UV) inks, UV coating is dried quickly with UV radiation. UV coating is applied by silkscreen, offline. UV methods deliver the best rub protection and fastest drying time, but they are also the most expensive.

UV can be used on smooth, uncoated papers, with cover weights being the best candidates. Pre-testing is recommended, as the paper needs to be sealed before the UV is applied, and the coating will deepen the color of the printed area. UV coating is usually specified in gloss, although matte, dull and satin UV coatings are available. Options include spot and overall coverage.

Match Silver

No Varnish

No Varnish

Gloss Varnish

Gloss Varnish

Dull Varnish

Dull Varnish

Gloss Aqueous

Gloss Aqueous

Dull Aqueous

Dull Aqueous

Gloss UV Coating

Gloss UV Coating

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After Uncoated Curves Adjusted

Adjusting Curves Dot gain can now be controlled through the use of “curves,” a set of adjustments—usually proprietary to the printer— that will accommodate for the natural dot gain caused by different types of paper. These adjustments can take place in scanning or more frequently when the plates are processed.


Continuous Tone: The Elusive Ideal

A photograph, painting or illustration that includes different shades or gradations of color is said to have continuous tone. The history of printing is a history of progress toward reproducing continuous tone in mass quantities. We are getting closer, but we’re not there yet. Most printing processes still depend on the halftone’s binary distinction between ink and no-ink portions of an image. Finer Screens, Higher Resolutions With halftones, the quality of the outcome—its ability to fool the eye into seeing continuous tone—depends on the size of the screen used to divide the image into dots.

Conventional halftone screens range in size from 60 lines of dots per inch (lpi) to 600. Like threads per inch in bedding, the higher the number, the finer the resolution or detail of the image. Smaller screens in the 60-85 lpi range have been commonly used in newspapers, where the results can be grainy. With screens of 133 or more lpi, the resulting dots are invisible to the naked eye. For high quality printing on premium paper, 175 lpi is considered the minimum standard line screen. Stochastic Improvements Over the years, more and more printers have given up film in favor of a direct-to-plate prepress process. Directto-plate allows the printers to offer stochastic screening, as well as conventional.

In the stochastic process, uniform-sized dots are placed randomly. Stochastic screens are measured in microns and refer to the size of the dot. Opposite to the system of conventional screen measurement, the lower the number of microns, the finer the resolution in the image.

STOCHASTIC: Arising from chance; random.

MOIRÉ: The appearance of patterns in an image caused by incorrect screen angles.

Stochastic (20 Micron/380 lpi)

Conventional Line Screen (175 lpi)

With stochastic screening, the number of dots determines the density of the color, in contrast to conventional screening where color density depends on the size of the dot. Advantages of stochastic screening are: • finer line screens (equivalent to 200 lpi and higher) • easier and smoother tint builds • ability to print more type out of screens without sawtooth edges • no risk of moiré in angled areas of images • no rosettes in flesh tones • reduced dot gain


Getting on the Same Page

The two most important elements to a successful print job are communication and planning. Once you’ve decided to use uncoated paper, take these tips to get the best results on press. Before You Proceed Ask your printer’s salesperson for samples showing the specific techniques you will be using in your project. Find out whether your printer has experience with the type of stock you plan to use. Because communication is the key to success, you should be comfortable with your salesperson’s knowledge and understanding. Make sure you choose a printer who can meet your expectations. Choosing a paper Mohawk papers are formulated to strike the delicate balance between ink holdout and ink receptivity. Printers choose Mohawk’s uncoated papers because they provide superior ink holdout and are dimensionally stable. Given the extensive range of uncoated papers on the market, you should specify not just “uncoated,” but also the manufacturer and the grade that reflect the quality standard you expect. Discussing your paper choice with your printer early in the process will help ensure that the paper you want is delivered in time for your print date. Mohawk Fine Papers recommends that you call your paper representative early in the design process for assistance in choosing an appropriate and available stock.

Disadvantages of stochastic screening include the printer’s costs for special software and high-end plates as well as for the research and development required to fine tune the process for a particular press. Fine screens can also create a challenge on press; when you push ink to increase saturation in stochastic screened areas, you might see very little movement or gain, but the inks can become plugged and look mottled. Corrections may mean a return to prepress. Today many printers use both stochastic and conventional screens, depending on the image. Either process can provide excellent results on uncoated papers.

MOTTLED OR MOTTLING: Having a blotchy, cratered appearance similar to the lunar surface. Mottling is a risk for images that include big areas of solid color.


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A 10-micron stochastic screen produces an image equivalent to a 480-550 lpi conventional screen and a 2.0micron stochastic screen is equivalent to a 380-400 lpi

Line Screen Dot Pattern

60 DPI

120 DPI


175 DPI

200 DPI

250 DPI

300 DPI

PAPER DUMMY: A paper dummy uses the specified paper and shows how the job will be assembled during production. Get a paper dummy at the outset for any project involving numerous pages. Make sure to get a new paper dummy if the page size, paper or job specifications change.

Samples Have you had a print job in the past that you just loved? Or one that you didn’t? Send samples of print jobs that have specific qualities that you want to repeat or avoid to your printer. Communication Once you release your project, schedule a call with your printer to discuss the job. Keep in mind that you are buying a custom-made product. Your expectations should be clearly defined in the beginning. Discuss critical areas of your project and talk about the samples that you sent showing the results you like and those you want to avoid. Ask your printer for a production schedule that includes dates for receiving proofs, returning proofs, press runs and deliveries.

Inform the printer of your paper selection including color, weight and finish. Your paper choice is relevant for each department involved in your job, from prepress through bindery. Curves Talk to your printer about curves. (See Section 02.) Most printers have curve settings for coated, uncoated and newer hybrid papers. Common targets printers use to open up separations on traditional uncoated papers range from 16% to 20%. Please note that these are targets only.

BULK: A concept of thickness. Right: Two sheets of the same weight can have different thicknesses depending on the finish.

The amount the printer adjusts the curves depends on a variety of factors including: • • • • • •

Paper surface – Is it vellum or super smooth? Type of press – Conventional or UV? Blankets and plates Screen types – Conventional or Stochastic? Original image – Lots of shadows? Bright colors? Your expectations – Are you looking for a sharp, crisp print or a softer look?

Proofs The best proofs are the ones your printer can match, so you should find out which proofs your printer prefers. In almost all cases the printer has “fingerprinted” the equipment to the proofing system. Keep in mind that, short of a press test, there is no proof that 100% replicates the printing process.

Loose Color Proof A printer who is doing scans will provide a loose color proof that lets you compare the scanned color against the original image. This step if especially important if you are providing your printer with digital photography. Digital Color Proof Direct-to-plate printing uses digital proofs, rather than film or blue lines, for composite color, type and position. Digital proofs, also called “spin jets,” save time and money and can sometimes be made on the actual paper you plan to print on. Press Okay Take all final proofs, original art and ink drawdowns with you to check against on press. Use at least a 12-power magnifying loupe for close inspection. Above all, take your time.

Ink Drawdown This offline test uses the ink for your job on the paper you’ve specified. Ink drawdowns are important when you are using specialty inks, for a critical color match or to see a double hit of color on your stock. This is especially important if using a cream or colored stock. Make sure you also ask for appropriate coating–varnish, aqueous or UV–on your drawdowns, as these can affect your ink shade.

This Demonstrates a 23" x 35" sheet folded down to illustrate the concept of paper bulking.

70# Text, Smooth Finish

70# Text, Vellum Finish

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The Naked Truth is one of a series of print buyer’s guides produced by Mohawk Fine Papers. For more information

Call 1 800 the mill or visit Mohawk Fine Papers Inc. P.O. Box 497 465 Saratoga Street Cohoes, New York 12047 March 2006

The Naked Truth About Uncoated Paper  

Your guide to printing on uncoated papers. Once upon a time, choosing an uncoated paper to print a job with photography or illustration mea...

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