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Preface Site analysis is one of the vital steps in understanding a site hence contributing to the design process. Throughout this book a thorough analysis of the Guildhall site will be undertaken helping in making the site much more understandable.

Acknowledgments Many thanks for all the people who helped in composing this book. Special thanks to Leeds Metropolitan University and specifically Vernon Thomas and Keith Andrews for giving us the opportunity to put this book together. Last but not least, the people who work in the Guildhall for allowing us to tour the building.

Contributors Mohamed Mahmood - 33348759 Robert Cresswell - 33325711 Christopher Scarffe - 3315273 Justin Bilinskas- 3344584


Table of Contents

1

Site Location Macro Meso Micro

2

13 16 17

22 23 26 30

Contextual Analysis List of Surrounding Buildings Space Qualities

45 53

Services & Materiality Water ways and Sewage System

6

7

62 66

Circulation & Access Roads & Car Parks Public Transport Pedestrian & Cycling Routes Boats Routes

8

59

Historical Development Historical Maps Site History

Climatic Analysis Average Temperatures Wind Analysis Precipitation Solar Analysis

4

2 4 6

Geological Analysis Ground Space Diagrams Open Spaces Ground Geology

3

5

Circulation Master plan

69 74 77 82 84


1

Site Location


1 Macro Location of the UK in comparison to the world

United Kingdom

2


1 Macro Location of England in comparison to Europe

England

3


1 Meso Location of the Yorkshire & Humber Region in comparison to England

Yorkshire & Humber

4


1 Meso Location of York in comparison to the Yorksire & Humber region

England

5


1 Micro Site location in comparison to York city centre

0

6

50

100

150 200 250 m

Site


1 Micro The exact location of the site

0

5

10

15

20

25 m

Site

7


1 Micro Site location in comparison to York city centre

8


1 Micro The exact location of the site

9


1 Micro Site location in comparison to York city centre

10


1 Micro The exact location of the site

11


2

Geological Analysis


2 Ground Space Diagrams Urban Layout

Outside City Wall: This section of the map is taken from outside the city wall; an area of more recent construction. This is apparent through the more spaced out, regimented layout of buildings. Inside City Wall: This section of the map is taken from within the city wall. This is the heart of the York and is where the city originated. This has a much older medieval urban layout which is incidental and dense.

13


2 Ground Space Diagrams Figure Ground Diagram

Medieval urban layout: The figure map illustrates the dense and incidental massing of the centre of York. The medieval layout adds an adventurous and exploratory theme to the experiential factor of the city. This is enhanced by the feature of snickets creating pathways through and connections to courtyards within the massing of the buildings.

14


2 Ground Space Diagrams Reverse Figure Diagram

15


2 Open Spaces Outside Spaces

16


2 Ground Geology Geological Map

The geological map above illustrates the composition of the different materials that make up England and Wales. The materials around York were formed around the Triassic and Jurassic period. These are mostly limestones, clays and sandstones.

17


2 Ground Geology Borehole Location Map

The map above shows the positions from where each borehole around the site was taken. The bore holes positions were chosen as together they help to provide a broader geological understanding of the area of and around the site. (Borehole 2 is taken to be similar to the site)

18


2

2 Ground Geology Bore holes

2

19


2 Ground Geology Local Materials

Limestone

- Limestone can be also be used as a cut stone or as a main component in cement. - The image on the left shows the York minster. The main construction material used in this building is limestone

Clay

- Clay is commonly used for roof tiles and brick work. - The image on the left shows an example of clay used in construction in York for the tiles of the pitched roofs.

Sandstone

- Sandstone can be used as a cut stone for block work or facade tiles.

20


3

Climatic Analysis


3 Average Temperatures Average Maximum and Minimum Temperatures

The graph above shows the average minimum and maximum monthly temperatures over the year in York. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/2633352

22 2


3 Wind Analysis Average Annual Wind Direction

The wind rose above illustrates the average wind directions throughout the year in York. As shown the prevailing winds in York come from the West.

23


3 Wind Analysis Average Monthly Wind Direction

24 2


3 Wind Analysis Average Monthly Wind Direction

25


3 Precipitation Average Precipitation Level Map

The diagram above is a precipitation map of the UK. This illustrates the different levels of annual rainfall in the UK. York receives one of the lowest levels rainfall in the UK with a measure of around 625mm a year.

26 2


3 Precipitation Average Monthly Precipitation

The graph above shows the average monthly precipitation (rain, snow and hail fall) over the year in York. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/2633352

27


3 Precipitation Flood Map for the City of York

Scale 1:25000

28 2


3 Precipitation Flooding Section for Site

29


3 Solar Analysis Average annual sun across the United Kingdom

900

950

1000

1500

1100 kWh/m2 York

The diagram above is an irradiation map of the UK. This illustrates the different levels of solar exposure in different parts of the UK. York lies somewhere in the middle with a Average annual sum of around 900-950 Kwh/m. This information can be used to calculate the amount of electricity that can be produced in this area by a PV solar panel.

30 2


3 Solar Analysis Average Daily Sunlight Hours

The graph above illustrates the average number of hours of bright sunshine each day for each calendar month for York. Note: Hours of bright sunshine is measured from midnight to midnight. Bright sunshine has generally been recorded with a Campbell-Stokes recorder. This device only measures the duration of “bright” sunshine, which is less than the amount of “visible” sunshine. For example, sunshine immediately after sunrise and just before sunset is visible, but would not be bright enough to register on the Campbell-Stokes recorder. Source: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/York=climateGraphs

31


3 Solar Analysis Average Daylight Hours

The graph above illustrates the average number of hours of visible daylight each day for each calendar month for York. Source: http://www.timeanddate.com/world clock/astronomy.html?n=136

32 2


3 Solar Analysis Summer Solstice 9:00 AM

During the early hours of the day the sun mainly hits the facing vertical facade while the narrow streets remain shaded.

33


3 Solar Analysis Summer Solstice 12:00 Noon

At midday the sun usually hits the buildings vertically and even the smaller streets get a large amount of sunshine.

34 2


3 Solar Analysis Summer Solstice 3:00 PM

The sun at this hour is usually still high up in the sky and it mainly hits the vertical facades of the buildings.

35


3 Solar Analysis Summer Solstice 6:00 PM

The sun is usually much lower in the sky at this hour as it starts to set.

36 2


3 Solar Analysis Equinox 9:00 AM

Shadows are much longer at this hour compared to summer as the sun is usually much lower in the sky.

37


3 Solar Analysis Equinox 12:00 Noon

Compared to summer the sun is usually much lower in the sky and the shadows mainly hit the vertical surfaces and most of the areas are still heavily shaded.

38 2


3 Solar Analysis Equinox 3:00 PM

During this time of the day the sun would mainly be focused on the horizontal surfaces such as building roofs.

39


3 Solar Analysis Equinox 6:00 PM

At this hour of the day the sun had already set and all areas are completely shaded.

40 2


3 Solar Analysis Winter Solstice 9:00 AM

During the early hours of the morning the sun is usually very low in the sky and most of the areas are fully shaded.

41


3 Solar Analysis Winter Solstice 12:00 Noon

As midday approaches the sun is higher in the sky yet shadows are more dominant and most of the areas are shaded.

42 2


3 Solar Analysis Winter Solstice 3:00 PM

The sun begins to set at this hour and most of the areas are completely shaded.

43


3 Solar Analysis Winter Solstice 6:00 PM

During this time of the day the sun had already set and the whole area is covered in shadows.

44 2


4

Contextual Analysis


4 List of Surrounding Buildings List of the Surrounding Buildings

45


List of Surrounding Buildings

4

List of the Surrounding Buildings

46


4 List of Surrounding Buildings List of the Surrounding Buildings

47


List of Surrounding Buildings

4

List of the Surrounding Buildings

48


4 List of Surrounding Buildings List of the Surrounding Buildings

49


List of Surrounding Buildings

4

List of the Surrounding Buildings

50


4 List of Surrounding Buildings Heights of Surrounding Buildings

51


4 List of Surrounding Buildings Building Usage

52


4 Space Qualities Heights of surrounding buildings

Material Area Distance Timber Ampleforth 19miles Timber Selby 18miles Steel York 2miles Steel York 3miles Glass York 3miles Grained Sandstone Britannia Quarry 80miles Woodkirk Yorkstone, Sandstone Morley 34miles Mortar lime Coldstones Quarry 34 miles Limestone Hillside Quarry 52miles Concrete, Cement Pickering 27miles

53


4

Space Qualities Views of Different Spaces Around the Site

Main entrance to Guildhall.

54


4 Space Qualities Views of Different Spaces Around the Site

Alleyway is used as storage with all of the doors are gated and windows boarded.

55


4

Space Qualities Views of Different Spaces Around the Site

Riverside views of the shopping centre parking.

56


4 Space Qualities Views of Different Spaces Around the Site

Some of the alleyways are well looked after and have unique feel to them.

57


5

Services & Materiality


5 Water Ways and Sewage Systems Location of Service Circulation

59

Electricity

Fresh Water

Sewage disposal


5

5 Water ways and Sewage System Usual water run off courses and location of run off water drains

Run off water Run off water drain

60


6

Historical Development


6 Historical Maps 1850

Site of Priory - During the 1850’s the local site was predominately used for religious reasons as the rebuild of the minster was underway.

Lendal Chapel - This was built between 1816 and 1818 and cost ÂŁ3000. It seated 1000 people and was one of the largest chapels to be open around this time.

Lendal Ferry - This was the only river crossing this side of the city at the time. This was because the medieval bridge was being dismantled and rebuilt due to the collapse during the return of St William of York from exile.

62


6 Historical Maps 1890

Clubs - During the 1850’s the social revolution within the Victorian era, new clubs, bars and pubs were being built. This was to host all classes. On site you can see the erection of 3 new clubs.

Lendal Bridge - This bridge was built in 1863 and designed by Thomas Page. The bridge was constructed to allow the connection of the train station to the minster. It also hosts the inner ring road around York.

63


6 Historical Maps 1930

Guildhall - From what can be seen from the maps you can see an extension of the current structure, this would have been to host the expanding industry within York. At the time this was still a meeting place of the “Guilds�. Or now known as local Businessmen.

Green Areas - Because of the extension of the guildhall the green areas within the local proximity of the site shrunk and cyst to exist. This was part of the growth of the city through the Victorian era due to population increase and the need for housing and industry.

64


6 Historical Maps 1960

Boat Yard - The site we now see today was purchased by the York Boat company which now use the low lying site to repair boats. You can see that they have built offices and storage space as well as the addition of a slip way into the river.

Pontoon - Due to the sites current use, it was necessary to add a pontoon in order to still allow boats to dock on the site.

65


6 Site History

66


6

67


7

Circulation & Access


7 Roads & Car parks A Roads

The main A roads that link the city to other cities is adjacent to the city walls. The road also connects to the main inner roads and the train station.

69

A Roads Site


7 Roads & Car parks Main Roads

The main road goes across the city and usually connects to the gates of the city walls where it connects to the A road.

Main Roads Site

70


7 Roads & Car parks Minor Roads

Seeing as the city has been preserved there aren’t many minor roads within the city walls.

71

Minor Roads Site


7 Roads & Car parks Foot Streets

The foot streets are located in the heart of the city and they are pedestrianised roads that allow vehicles at certain times only.

Foot Streets Site

72


7 Roads & Car parks Car Parks

Car parks are mainly located outside the city walls. Only a few car parks are located within the city and almost none near the city centre.

73

Car Parks Site


7 Public Transport Bus Routes and Stops

74


7 Public Transport Coach Parks

75


7 Public Transport Rail

76


7 Pedestrian & Cycling Routes Pedestrian Streets

York has one of the largest pedestrian zones in Europe. The pedestrian streets create a safer and more attractive city centre for everyone.

77

Pedestrian streets


7 Pedestrian & Cycling Routes Prohibited Cycling

Cycling is prohibited

78


7 Pedestrian & Cycling Routes Advisory Cycle Routes

Advisory route for cyclists

79


7 Pedestrian & Cycling Routes On-Road Cycle Lanes

On-road cycle lane

80


7 Pedestrian & Cycling Routes Off-Road Cycle Lanes

Off-road cycle track

81


7 Boat Routes Paths and Stops

82 73


8

Circulation Master plan


8 Circulation Master plan Analysis of Existing Access Routes

84


8 Circulation Master plan Obstacles on Site

The removal of the highlighted buildings is required for our proposals to fully utilise the site.

85


8 Circulation Master plan Obstacles on Site

Improving appearance of key access route. Cobble street could be resurfaced to improve the accessibility.

86


8 Circulation Master plan Obstacles on Site

Removal of obstacles such as the bike storage is required to open up this new access route to the site.

87


8 Circulation Master plan

River Walkway (Normal river level)

River Walkway (Flooded river level)

1:15m Rise Ratio

5m Landing

88


8

7

Static Walkway

Static Walkway This image diagrams the detail of how the walkway can react to changing water levels As the water rises it will push the pole within the pile enabling the walkway to stay above river level at all times while retaining an appropriate rise ratio

89


8 Circulation Master plan Revised Site Plan

Circulation Routes Water Taxi Stop

Site Location Proposed Walkway

90


York site analysis