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 ‫ ا  م ا‬: ‫دة‬  ‫ ا  آ ر  م‬: ‫ا ى‬

 ‫دروس ا  و ا‬ MISSOURI Mohamed

( ‫ ا  ء )ا "!ء ا‬

$% ‫ا)('ل ا "ول ا‬

B ‫ ا ة‬-$. : 2 ‫ا ل‬   ‫"د  ا‬ B + H 2O  BH + HO − ‫ ا ء‬/

‫ ا ء‬/

AH + , ‫ ا‬-$. :1 ‫ا ل‬

+

+

‫ ل‬$  ‫دة‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬

ni = CV CV − x CV − x f

(‫و‬

0

0

0

 #  $$ ‫ا‬   #

(‫و‬ (‫و‬

x xf

x xf

x xf

)  # *  #

:

+

 HO  =  BH  = f f

‫م‬% ‫ا‬

AH + H 2 O  A + H 3 O

ni = CV CV − x CV − x f

n ( HO

)

n ( BH

+

= V V −14 Ke 10  HO −  = = − pH = 10 pH −14 + f 10  H 3O  f f

)

f

=

xf V

+

xf xm

n ( H 3O + )

f

V

+

xf

=

xm

= =

Qr ,éq

2 éq

(τ .C ) = τ 2C k = Qr ,éq = C (1 − τ ) 1 − τ

=

@‫  !دو‬A , ‫ ا‬1B 768.

Ke Ke 1 − τ ⇒ Ka = = Ke Ka K τ 2C

f

V

=

xf V

= 10− pH

 H 3 O  .V  H 3 O  10− pH f f = = CV C C +‫ آ‬,   ‫ ا‬τ ≺ 1 +‫ ا   آ‬τ = 1

n ( AH ) f

=

CV − x f

V V + CV −  H 3 O  .V V

= C −  H 3 O + 

f

τ=

xf xm

 H 3O +   A−   H 3O +  éq éq éq = = [ AH ]éq [ AH ]éq ⇒ x f = τ .xm = τ .C.V

x τ .C.V  H 3O +  = f = = τ .C éq V V CV − x f = C −  H 3O +  = C − τ C = C (1 − τ ) [ AH ]éq = V 2 (τ .C ) τ 2C Qr ,éq = = C (1 − τ ) 1 − τ : % ‫ ا‬0)‫ا‬1 ‫ر‬0 ‫درا) ا‬ ( 0$- ‫ ل ا‬-" ) ‫ ل‬-$ ‫ ا‬. "

σ = λH O  H 3O +  + λA  A−  +

3

K=

n ( A− )

+

2

B

)  # *  #

2

x τ .C.V  HO −  = f = = τ .C éq V V CV − x f = C −  HO −  = C − τ C = C (1 − τ ) [ B ]éq = V

BH +

x xf

( ‫ آ‬7= -$ ‫ ا‬768)‫ ا ازن‬4 -$ ‫رج ا‬: 768.

⇒ x f = τ .xm = τ .C.V

:

  #

x f =  H 3O +  .V CV − xm = 0 ⇒ xm = CV

[ AH ] f

(‫ آ‬7= -$ ‫ ا‬768)‫ ا ازن‬4 -$ ‫رج ا‬: 768.

τ=

0

x xf

 HO  .V  HO  10 pH −14 f f τ= = = = xm CV C C n ( B ) f CV − x f = [ B] f = V V − CV −  HO  .V = = C −  HO −  V

k = Qr ,éq

 H 3O  =  A  = f f

τ=

 BH +   HO −   HO −  éq éq = = [ B ]éq [ B ]éq

 $$ ‫  ا‬#

: 234 ‫ ا م ا‬6 

x f =  HO −  .V CV − xm = 0 ⇒ xm = CV xf

x xf

(‫و‬ (‫و‬

‫م‬% ‫ا‬

: pH 0)‫ا‬1 ‫ر‬0 ‫درا) ا‬

: 234 ‫ ا م ا‬6 

‫ ل‬$  ‫دة‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬ (‫و‬ 0 0

pH 0)‫ا‬1 ‫ر‬0 ‫درا) ا‬ −

‫ول ا  ر‬   ‫"د  ا‬

x  H 3O +  =  A−  = V

(

⇒ σ = λH O+ + λ A− 3

) Vx

⇒  H 3O +  =  A−  =

σ x = V λH O+ + λ A− 3


 ‫ ا  م ا‬: ‫دة‬  ‫ ا  آ ر  م‬: ‫ا ى‬

 ‫دروس ا  و ا‬ MISSOURI Mohamed

(

( ‫ ا  ء )ا "!ء ا‬

$% ‫ا)('ل ا "ول ا‬

)

n M ( S ) = nx

: +‫ ن ه‬3$ ‫ا‬

(

)

n M (S ) =

n ( e− ) m

:

M ( S ) ‫ "دة‬$‫آ‬

)  ‫د‬$ ‫ ا‬G5 D"

n( X ) = n( X ) =

:‫ت‬6J  ‫آ‬H :( ‫ت‬E $ ‫دة ) د ا‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬

V (X ) Vm : + $ ‫ا آ ا‬

CaVa

CbVb

0

0

CaVa − x

CbVb − x

x

x

x

)  #

CaVa − x f

CbVb − x f

xf

xf

xf

*  #

  #

CbVbE − xm = 0 ‫ و‬CaVa − xm = 0 ) : 2(3 ‫) ا‬

CaCO3 + 2 H 3O + → Ca 2+ + CO2 + 3H 2O C.V

:+3 ‫ا آ ا‬

ni − x

C.V − x

ni − x f

C.V − x f

0

0

0

 #  $$ ‫ا‬   #

x

3x

x

)  #

xf

3x f

xf

*  #

ni ( CaCO3 ) =

: $- ‫ ا‬3 ‫ا‬

0 x xf

m + ‫ و‬ni ( H 3O ) = C.V : 4567‫م ا‬% ‫ ا‬- M ni ( CaCO3 ) − xm = 0 ‫ أو‬ni ( H 3O + ) − xm = 0 ⇒ xm =

: ‫ء‬$ ?)  ;? (‫آ‬

  ‫"د  ا‬ ‫م‬% ‫ا‬

‫ ل‬$  ‫دة‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬

ni

n( X ) [X ] = Vs m Cm = Vs m ρ= V

M 29

 $$ ‫  ا‬#

‫م‬% ‫ا‬ 0

+ D ‫ل‬, ‫ت ا  م و‬17‫ آ‬I1 -$ ‫ ا‬:4 ‫ا ل‬ J‫ا رر‬

n ( A) C= Vs

d=

‫ ل‬$  ‫دة‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬

⇒ xm = CaVa = CbVbE xm CaVa CV ⇒  A−  = = = b bE f Va + VbE Va + VbE a Va + VbE a

N Na

ρ d= ρ eau

2

:  ‫ و‬n ( e− ) = mnx ‫إذن‬

Q I ∆t I ∆t I ∆t n ( e− ) = = = ⇒x= F F N Ae mnF

m( X ) n( X ) = M (X)

‫ل‬, 1 ‫ ا ء‬/ 2!@ -$ AH + D ‫ل‬, ‫ة‬78 :3 ‫ا ل‬ ‫ ا ء‬E ‫ آ‬-$. ‫ة‬F ‫ول ا  ر‬ − −   ‫ا‬  ‫"د‬ AH + HO  A + H O

m M

‫ أو‬xm = C.V

: 89: ‫; او ا‬- ‫درا< ا  ر  ا< ا‬ :  ‫د‬$ ‫= ا‬%- ‫ ن‬3$ ‫ ن ا‬3 ‫ أوآ? ا‬+A ‫ز‬, ;#

PCO2 .VCO2 = n ( CO2 ) .R.T

:‫ز  )? * اء‬, (‫آ‬

x = n ( CO2 ) =

PCO2 .VCO2

n ( CO2 ) .R.T

L$<‫ا‬ ‫ن‬$ ‫ا‬

‫ن‬3 7‫ا‬

‫ن‬E‫ا‬

C2 H 6

‫ا ون‬

C3 H 8

‫ا  ن‬

C4 H10

‫ا ))ن‬

C5 H12

‫?ن‬3* ‫ا‬

C6 H14

n1i

n2i

n3i

n4i

0

‫ا *ن‬

C7 H16

n1i − mx

n2i − nx

n3i + mx

n4i + nx

x

CH 4

‫ د‬$ <‫ درا‬:5 ‫ل‬$ ‫ا‬

mN ( S ) + nM (maq+) → mN (nS+) + nM ( S ) ‫ ل‬$  ‫دة‬$ ‫ ا‬$‫آ‬

Qr ;i =

 N naq+   ( )

‫م‬% ‫ا‬

(

)

(

)

ni N (naq+ )

m

  ‫"د  ا‬  #  $$ ‫ا‬  #   # )

C 'V ' = V +V ' = m + CV ni M ( aq )  M maq+   ( ) i V +V ' n+ N ( S ) → N ( aq ) + ne − : D‫و‬3 E‫ ا‬D ‫د‬$ ‫ ا‬+ 5 i

n

M (maq+) + me− → M ( S )


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