Chapter 10 Multimedia and the Web
Learning Objectives ď Ž
Describe what multimedia is and some advantages and disadvantages of using it.
Explain the difference between the following multimedia elements: text, graphics, animation, audio, and video.
List several Web-based and non-Web-based multimedia applications.
Learning Objectives, cont’d.
Briefly describe the basic steps and principles involved with multimedia and Web site design.
Discuss the various tasks involved with multimedia and Web site development.
Speculate as to the format of multimedia in the future.
This chapter covers:
The elements of multimedia
Common multimedia applications
Design principles of multimedia
Multimedia and Web development
What Is Multimedia? ď Ž
Multimedia refers to any type of application or presentation that uses more than one type of media. An application is interactive if the user can control the flow or content by using a touch screen, keyboard, or mouse to select options or turn pages.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Multimedia
Advantages Can fit a variety of learning styles More interesting and enjoyable experience Can be easier to understand
Disadvantages Cost Amount of storage space required Limitations of Web-based multimedia
Serif typefaces are typically used for large bodies of text; sans serif typefaces are more commonly used for headings.
Different typefaces can convey widely different feelings and impressions.
Point size should be selected carefully to make sure text is readable while not taking up too much of the screen.
Multimedia Elements: Graphics
Graphics are digital representations of images.
Clip art and stock photographs are widely available on CD and on the Web. Graphic file formats include: BMP
Multimedia Elements: Animation
Animation involves a series of graphical images displayed one after another to simulate movement.
Multimedia Elements: Audio
Audio is sound, such as music, spoken voice, and sound effects. Audio can be recorded using a microphone or MIDI device, captured from a CD, or downloaded from the Internet. Common audio formats include:
wav mp3 midi
aif dcr swf
Multimedia Elements: Video ď Ž
Video usually begins as a continuous stream of visual information; it is broken down into individual frames when recorded.
Can be recorded using standard video camera and then input into computer, or recorded directly into PC or onto digital media using digital video camera.
Common formats include avi, mpeg, mov, and rm.
Non-Web-Based Multimedia Applications
Web-Based Multimedia Applications
Web-based training Self-paced instruction Ability to update material Immediate feedback Entertainment Online games Distribution of music Virtual reality VRML allows Web delivery
Basic Design Principles
Applications should be interesting and exciting.
Web site content should be changed on a regular basis.
Navigation should be clear, consistent, and easy to understand.
Web site pages should load quickly, and CD applications should fit on one CD whenever possible.
Basic Design Principles, cont’d.
A Web site should work on a variety of PC configurations. Consider carefully:
Features that require a specific browser
Features that require little-used plug-ins
Content wider than a typical browser window
Determining the Intended Audience and Objectives ď Ž
The intended audience will help determine the appearance of the application.
The objectives will help determine the content.
Using Flowcharts, Page Layouts, and Storyboards
Flowcharts can be used to describe how pages of the site or application relate to one another.
Page layouts are commonly used to design the appearance of a Web site.
Storyboards are commonly used with multimedia applications to illustrate the appearance and content of each screen in an application.
Navigational Design Considerations
A site should be well organized (use the threemouse-clicks rule). Larger sites can use a site map. Other navigational tools include: Drop-down menus Search boxes Text- and image-based navigation bars Frames
Modifications should be made for users with nontraditional PCs, such as: Mobile devices Text-only browsers Screen readers Federal Web sites need to comply with Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) guidelines.
Multimedia and Web Site Development
Development process includes three steps:
Creating the multimedia elements
Creating the application or Web site
Testing the site or application
Creating the Multimedia Elements
Graphics software Painting and drawing programs Image editing programs
Audio and video software
Creating the Application or Web Site
Multimedia authoring software Director, Authorware, Toolbook
Web site authoring software Dreamweaver, HomeSite, GoLive
Testing the Site or Application
Test navigation Test usability Proofread carefully Web site considerations: Browser and computer incompatibility Download time Broken links Stress test
The Future of Multimedia
Broadband Merging TV and multimedia Web sites Interactive TV and TV on demand
Multimedia capabilities built into: Internet access devices Game boxes