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Georgia on the Crossroads of Civilization Golden Silk Road Architect of Future Georgia The Real Princely Palace Travelling in Wonderland Sataplia Nikoloz Rurua Sasuratkhato Professional Puppet-Makers


MTSKHETA


National Tourism Agency


PUBLISHER Vladimir Dzhishkariani EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Irine Jordania PROJECT CONCEPT Giorgi Akhalkatsi ENGLISH TEXT EDITOR Tea Bakhtadze TRANSLATOR Tea Bakhtadze INVITED MARKETING MANAGER Leli Mirijanashvili INVITED EDITOR Nino Daraseli PHOTO EDITOR Zviad Mosiashvili LAYOUT CONCEPT Levan Asatiani AUTHORS : Irine Jordania/ Giorgi Kalandia / Zaza Abzianidze/ Lika Mamacashvili PHOTOS : Zina Barnovi / National Centre of Manuscripts/ Buba Kudava Alexsandre Roinishvili / Mariam Janashia FOUNDERS Vladimir Dzhishkariani DIRECTOR Vladimir Dzhishkariani IT DIRECTOR Zviad Mosiashvili DISTRIBUTION Mikheil Amashukeli ACCOUNT Paata Salia THE TECHNICAL STAFF Milana Drucker PARTNERS:

SPECIAL THANKS TO: The Administration of the President of Georgia / Georgian National Museum / Georgian State Literature Museum / National Centre of Manuscripts Georgian National Archive / International Union For Conservation of Nature / Department of Tourizm and Resorts of Georgia The Agency of Protected Areas / Ministry of Economy and Sustainable of Georgia / The Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Georgian National Investment Agency / Press-speaker of the President of Georgia Manana Manjgaladze / Tbilisi History State Museum Minister of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia Nikoloz Rurua /The Georgian Ambassador to France Mamuka Kudava / Lika Mamacashvili Publisher by: Publishing House ‘MODI’ Tbilisi, 0171, Kostava str. 68, build 3 Phone/Fax: +99532 409398, +99532 409397 E-mai: infmodi@hotmail.com Copyright by Publishing House ‘MODI’ LTD All rights reserved Printed By: Publishing House ‘MODI’ LTD

COVER Cloisonné Enamel Art Truly Georgian


jer kidev XII saukuneSi cnobili sparsi poeti xayani Sirvaneli Tavis leqsSi qristian qals qarTulad uxmobs: ‘’moi, moi’’. Sua saukuneebis erT-erTi aRmosavleli poeti ki ambobs: ‘’saqarTveloSi viyavi da sul moi, moi viZaxeo’’. rogorc Cans, yvelaze xSirad stumarTmoyvare qarTvelebisgan enis armcodne mogzaurs swored ‘’modi’’ (Tu misi xalxuri forma ‘’moi’’) esmoda da yvelaze adviladac am sityvas imaxsovrebda. qarTvel kacs ver warmoudgenia rame martom akeTos, vinmes ar Seexmianos, ar dauZaxos, ar moipatiJos, azri ar gauziaros. albaT amitomaa amdeni ‘’modi’’ Cvens saubarSi, saqmeSi, cxovrebaSi. qarTvelebi xom ‘’modiT’’ viwyebT: modi vicekvoT, modi vimReroT, modi vTqvaT, modi gavakeToT, modi avaSenoT, modi davlioT, modi wavideT, modi vibrZoloT, modi vifiqroT, modi davweroT, modi vicocxloT da ase usasrulod... erTxelac saubari albaT ase daiwyo: modi, ’’modi’’ gamovceT...

buba kudava

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To Georgia


In one of his poems, the 12th century Persian poet, Khaqaini Sherwani, used the word modi when his lyrical hero was trying to attract the attention of a Christian girl. Centuries ago, foreign visitors used to associate the word modi with Georgians, and the country, as they would often hear Georgians say “modi, modi, modi.” Modi is Georgian for “come” and is the word we use to informally call or invite somebody over, yet the meanings within this word are boundless. “Please come over, come in, have a seat, make yourself comfortable…” It is as if this word reflects why Georgians find it unimaginable to do things on their own and invariably invite others to join in, welcome them into their homes, share their experiences and ideas. More often than not, our discourse starts with modi, indicating that the listener is very much welcome - let’s dance, let’s sing, let’s talk, let’s drink together, let’s go, let’s fight, let’s think, let’s write, let’s live our lives… One conversation might even start with, “Let’s publish Modi!

BUBA KUDAVA

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CONTENT

24.

The Golden Silk Road

36. 42.

The Real Princely Palace

Architect of Future Georgia

50. Travelling in Wonderland


CONTENT

56.

A Trip in the Prehistoric Times

68.

GEORGIA ON THE CROSSROADS OF CIVILIZATIONS

109.

Professional Puppet-Makers

76. SASURATKHATO


A Georgian

INTRODUCTION

Nat ional Costume Men’s Attire 1. Lasuri Chokha –type of Caucasian national chokha – national costume 2. Akhalukhi – worn under the chokha (the outer coat): buttoned shirt made out of pattered or printed fabric, with a braided high-collar.

3. kabalahi- traditional male headdress in western Georgia, tapered hood of fine woolen cloth with long ends, and brush on the hood.

4. Belt – mainly maid of silver, designed to hold a sword 5. Sword – the type of horseman’s sword, with a bone shaft, often silver nielloed.

6. Tsugamesti - Boots composed of leather low shoes and leather leggings to cover the legs from beam to the knees. Tsugha is a shoe, mesti - leggings.

7. Gun

The Lazian Man

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

GEORGIA IS THE COUNTRY GEORGIA – HOMELAND OF WINE Georgia has been a winemaking country since the ancient times. It was here that the first grapes were cultivated. The geographical location and a variety of soils of the country create perfect conditions for development of viticulture and winemaking. The history of viticulture in Georgia commences from the IV millennium BC. The grape seeds of the time discovered by the archeologists are the oldest in the world, which makes Georgia the homeland of vine. There is an opinion that the word “wine” (ghvino) (“vin”, “wine”, “vine” etc.) is of the Georgian origin. Out of the two thousand vine species in the world, five hundred are Georgian. Archeologists uncovered the Bronze Age artifacts, such as winepresses, wine cellars, the clay and metal vessels for wine etc. A figure of a man drinking wine, also symbolizing fecundity, dated with IX-VII B.C. was discovered, too. The wine bowls made of gold, silver and bronze decorated with the precious stones and vine ornaments attract plenty of attention. The propagation of Christianity in Georgia is also related to viticulture. St. Nino entered Georgia with the vine cross. Quite a few Georgian temples are decorated with vine ornaments. There used to be primitive wineries in Georgian churches and monasteries, with wine cellars and winepresses remaining to this day. As is known, a wine cellar of the IV century was discovered in Nekresi and the remnants of the winery were found in the monastery complex of Ikalto, too. In the grounds of Alaverdi Cathedral, an ancient wine cellar with forty kvevris (large clay wine vessels) was discovered. The monastery keeps up the tradition of wine making to this day. In Kvareli region, there is a unique wine repository located in the 13.5 km tunnel cut in the rock. The temperature in it is 14-16OC at all times, which is the perfect condition for aging the wine. Here the Georgian brand wines are aged up to this day. Enoteca was a brick construction of the XIX century in Alexander Chavchavadze’s estate (Tsinandali, Kakheti region) distinguished for its historical and architectural properties, which housed a collection of the most valuable wines. The oldest of the drinks in the collection “Polish Honey” is dated with 1814.


INTRODUCTION

OF ANCIENT CULTURE PLIQUE-A-JOUR The art of vitreous enamel known since the ancient times originates from Egypt. It is evident that the first goldsmiths filled grooved golden plates with precious stones and glass. The similar technique is practiced in China as well. The Romans did the same with bronze. In Western Europe, the art of enameling dates back to XII century. The art of vitreous enamel developed simultaneously in Georgia and Byzantium and, therefore, there is a certain disagreement among the scientists about which of the two was the first to launch it. In Georgia, the oldest artifacts of vitreous enamel belong to VIII-IX centuries and in the Middle Ages it truly gained ground. The Georgian vitreous enamel is distinguished from plaque-a-jour of Byzantine and the other countries by its specific colors: a broad spectrum ranging from vin rouge to transparent green. From the XV century, the production of enamel terminated in Georgia and the technology fell into oblivion for a long time. In the XX century, the Georgian vitreous enamel was restored and now once again it is at the at center stage of the contemporary Georgian arts.

CARPETS AND RUGS It is hard to say, where the first carpet or rug was made and in general, where the craft originated from. The scholars suppose that the first carpets and rugs may have been made in Iran, Turkmenistan, Central Asia, Mongolia or China, the so- called “belt of carpet-weaving�. According to the legend, Cleopatra, the famous Egyptian queen appeared Julius Caesar wrapped in a carpet. In the Caucasus and the Middle East, the production of carpets was considered one of significant branches of industry. Carpets and rugs were widespread across the entire social structure. They decorated the palaces and religious cult buildings, too. Initially, the daily use items, such as bags, sacks, saddlebags, tents, etc. were made from coarse thread. Gradually, the carpet making techniques refined into the art in its own right. Interest in and demand for the carpets and rugs increased not only in the East but the West, too and soon their practical purpose became less significant.

The quality of carpets is determined by abundance of colors derived from the natural dyes, as well as the weaving techniques expressed in the number of knots, the innovative patterns and the originality of amalgamation of colors. The location of the country contributed to the development of the Georgian carpet weaving. Most of the oriental carpets were exported to Europe by the transit route via Tbilisi, the center of the Caucasus.

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INTRODUCTION

Golden Colchis The archeological excavations in Trialeti, Vani, Sairikhi, Akhalgori have shown that Georgia is the country of ancient culture. The visitors still marvel at the jewelry made thousands of years ago. The gold artifacts of Colchis have been exhibited in famous museums and galleries of the world. Currently the archeological treasures are exhibited in the National Museum in Tbilisi.The chronological framework is as follows : the period from III millennium BC to the IV AD, the time of the Georgians’ conversion to Christianity. The oldest of the displayed artifacts of the so-called kurgan culture: the golden necklaces, clasps, pendants, and bracelets, bow ornaments and the other adornments are dated with the third and the early second millennia. The highly sophisticated technology employed in manufacturing thereof make us surmise that goldsmithery in Georgia had developed much earlier. Then follows the magnificent culture of the socalled Trialeti Great Kurgans in which the golden and silver articles were discovered. No golden or silver artifacts belonging to the subsequent thousand years were found. They emerged again from the VIII, VII, VI centuries BC. Greek and Roman authors often used the epithet “Golden Colchis”. The archeological excavations conducted in Georgia confirmed that the legendary Colchis actually existed. The culture of ancient Colchis was highlighted by the archeological excavations in Vani. The highly developed civilization of Colchis and its extensive relations with the outside world were made apparent. For centuries, there used to be a powerful school of professional goldsmiths in Vani, who employed the most complex techniques to make the magnificent, unique jewelry of Colchis. Among the exhibits, there are numerous golden items, such as– necklaces, a diadem, pendants, bracelets, woman’s shroud decorated with beads and golden buttons, cloths decorated with plates and images. From II-III AD they started studding gold with the semiprecious stones, mostly turquoise, garnets and jets. Objects exhibited in the museum have been brought from all over Georgia (from the seacoast to the mountains of Svaneti).


INTRODUCTION

The Trip Across The Country of Golden Fleece – Myth About Argonauts The myth about Argonauts was the inexhaustible source of inspiration of the antique literature. Either fully or in episodes it provided the basis for numerous literary works: Iliad and Odysseus by Homer (XII – VII BC), Medea by Euripides (V BC), Argonautica by Apollonius Rhodius (III BC) or a long poem of the same title by ValeriusFlaccus, the Roman poet (I A.D.). The theme of the Argonauts was widely reflected in the art and music and the essence of the Golden Fleece rouses plenty of interest to this day. According to antique, Hellenistic and Byzantine sources, the Golden Fleece seized by the Argonauts in Colchis is a poetic allegory of the event. However, what the Greeks were actually driven by was the Colchs’ secret of gold mining. In his geographical works Strabo (I BC) said that the rivers were gold bearing in Svaneti and that the Svans collected it with the sieves and furs. Incidentally, even now gold is still obtained by sheepskin in Svaneti. In 1984, “The New Argonauts”, the expedition led by Tim Severin, the famous English scientist, proceeded along the same route as the legendary Jason sailing in his “Argo” three thousand years ago. Tim Severin started from the Greek port city of Volos, passed the Aegean Sea, the Dardanelles, the Marmara Sea, Bosporus and the Black Sea and arrived to the Georgian sea port Poti (Pasisi) and from there, via the Rioni River to the western Georgian city of Kutaisi (Kutaia). Tim Severin’s voyage proved that the route described in the legend of Argonauts was a reality. The New Argonauts also visited Svaneti, the location of the legendary Golden Fleece.


MODI To Georgia

FIVE REASON WHY TO VISIT GEORGIA By Director National Tourism Agency Maia Sidamonidze GEORGIAN PEOPLE AND HOSPITALITY Georgia has a unique, welcoming culture, which explains its world-famoushospitality. There is a saying in Georgia that “the guest is the gift from God”. And you will be surprised by the warmth and genuineness of the hospitality you receive wherever you travel and stay in Georgia.

DIVERSITY Although a small country, you can find here the Caucasus Mountain range, Black Sea coastline, curative climate and mineral waters, national parks and UNESCO Heritage Sites, ancient history, diverse culture and traditions, delicious cuisine, rich wine culture.


MODI To Georgia

ON THE CROSSROADS OF EUROPE AND ASIA

LIFETIME MOMENTS AND UNFORGETTABLE EXPERIENCES

UNIQUE DESTINATION

Georgia has more to offer than any other country of its size in the world. It is a land of contrasts at the crossroads of East and West, influenced by worlds two biggest cultures over centuries, still remaining its unique spirit.

With so many things to offer in such a small country, here are some of the Experiences to make your trip unforgettable. Walk through Tbilisi’s Old Town and experience the stunning architecture and European café-style culture.

There are things that you can only experience and see in Georgia.

- Home-stay in Ushguli, or camp in one of our National Parks. - Trek through the Caucasus Mountains in summer. - Sample the local wine at a hundred years old vineyard on a wine tour of Kakheti. - Visit the walled city of Signaghi. - White water raft down our glacier fed rivers. - Discover the Monastery at the fabulous caved city of Vardzia. - Go boating deep underground on our amazing underground cave rivers in Imereti - Ski Europe’s highest mountain range at one of our resorts at Gudauri , Bakuriani or Mestia. And for the true adventure, try heli-skiing - Have a traditional sauna in the hot spring baths in the middle of Tbilisi. - Make new friends at a supra – the traditional Georgian feast.

- First Europeans Remains of a 1.8 million year old hominid were discovered in Georgia There are the oldest links to modern man found outside Africa. - Europe’s most diverse and unspool nature Although only 69,700 square kilometers, Georgia’s biodiversity is immense: subtropical marshes, semi-deserts, lofty alpine meadows and mighty snowy peaks can all be found within a hundred kilometers of each other. There are more than 40 protected areas. So much of it is untouched and unspools. - Europe’s highest settlement Ushguli village in the Svaneti region, at 2,300 meters is the highest settlement in Europe. - Cradle of wine Archaeological research provides evidence of viniculture in Georgia stretching back over 7,000 years, and many believe that Georgia is the birthplace of wine. - One of the oldest Christian countries Georgia was one of the first countries in the world to officially adopt Christianity in AD 337.

These are just some of the things that will make your time in Georgia some of the best moments of your life.

Combine all this with a Mediterranean climate and the legendary Georgian hospitality and you have a unique travel destination.


MAIN STORY

Irine Jordania

T

he transcontinental, caravan routes, the linking way of coast of China, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea known as the Silk Road. It gets its name from China, the oldest silk manufacturer country. The first loaded caravans started their way from China toward Asia and it followed toward countries of Europe.Sometimes, it is not easy to define historical truth, because of different overviews of historians on the same historical facts, but in case of the Silk Road in Georgia this kind of problems are not seen. The silk route is known exactly, there are maps made in the fourth century by Roman geographer Kostorius. This fact is proved by discovered historical and archaeological materials on the territory of Georgia and generally the mentality of the country. The location of the Silk Road specified the development of buildings and roads in Georgia. This fact is proved by different styles of architecture and oldest arch bridges, which have functions nowadays too. Sometimes the location of caravan routes determined the political and social processes in Georgia. On one side, the geopolitical location of the Silk Road was convenient for Georgia and on other side, in many cases it was the cause of wars between empires. This fact was very important in process of creating Georgian government as multiethnic state for many centuries and defined its multi-cultural character too. The term “Silk Road� first was used by German Geographer Ferdinand Von Richthofen in 1877. This great network of routes connected two continents Europe and Asia was founded by Han Dynasty in II century BC, but it must be mentioned that the Silk Road was used by people from the prehistoric time. Historically the Silk Road started from China, in Sandzian and was split into two branches from

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MAIN STORY

The Golden Silk Road

Dunkhuan and was followed toward to the west, both ways were linked in Kasugai, in the town of Central Asia, from there, the south branch of the route travelled through Mesopotamia, by passing Babylon and ended in Antioquia. Another branch- north route, moved through the Caspian Sea , Caucasian Albania, modern Azerbaijan and Georgia ( this part of Georgia at time known as Iberia) passed Kolkheti, from this point it was extended toward Europe by the Black Sea. The trade started by this route in II century BC. By this road, Chinase, high quality silk was exported; the customers of Chinase silk were representatives of Roman upper class. The silk was exported in Rome and after some time in Byzantine too by East states such as Parthia and Sassanid of Iran. Exporting of Chinase Silk cost to Romans up to 100 thousand sestertius per year. Gold was also exported from China. Though Chinese silk was certainly major trade item from China, some other goods like glassware, luxuries, Arabic horse were imported and several types of cultivated plants were spread too. The great battles took place for several centuries between Rome, Byzantine against Parthia and after several times against Sassanid of Iran. The cause of these wars was the part of the road extended across the Middle East. It must be mentioned that the route of the silk was the governmental secret in Parthia. The trade of goods which were exported by this route was controlled by the Arabic State from 7 to 8 centuries BC, after some time this road was monopolized by Mongolians.The Silk Route which started in China, passed through Georgia and followed to Mediterranean ports, played a great role in developing of some civilizations such as China, Egypt, Pakistan, Iran and Rome. The silk route involved 12 thousand kilometers, step by step became centers of trade, cultural and religion activities. “The Silk Road” known as “Golden Silk

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MAIN STORY

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MAIN STORY

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MAIN STORY Road� connected civilizations of the whole world such as China, Mongolia, India, Greece, Byzantium, Iran, Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Rome. By this way the Koran was introduced from Arabia, precious stones were brought from India and Pakistan, furs were imported from Russia , silver and gold products from Turkey and etc.By trading activities along the Silk Road Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Confucianism were transmitted in to West and Europe flooded the east with missionaries to spread there Christianity. Ideas and opinions were transferred in Antakya, Babylon, Erzurum, Hamada, Bukhara, Samarkand and in other towns, which names are lost nowadays. If we overview the history of countries along to the Silk Route such as Japan, Korea, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, Egypt, we can see cultural exchanges, establishment of new branches in the philosophy, literature and art. Different countries with various cultures, histories, philosophy, religion, traditions created one space inspired by the Silk Road. Diplomatic relations were implemented between populations of old East and Europe by this road. It must be mentioned that Georgia’s location on the main route was very important not only commercially and culturally, but politically too. There was second road passing through Georgia from North to South. The road started from North was not profitable, because nomadic tribes invaded into neighboring area. Emperies such as Rome, Iran, Byzantium took great attention to exclude entering of Georgian nomadic tribes into civilized Empires. Georgian Kings successfully used this fact.The fragmentation of Mongol Empire in 15 century loosened the importance of the Silk Road. From that time, economical and cultural relations interrupted. Gradually destruction of the network of the Silk Road started. It lost function at the end of the 16th century when navigation was developed and Europeans applied marine route bypassing Africa. It seems that Georgia lost its significance for this road much earlier because of Constantinople fall in 1453, Georgia was at deadlock and Europe lost interest toward the Silk Road in Georgia. The Silk Road played a large role in developing and spreading cultural, scientific, philosophical ideas, and views. At the beginning of 21 century, the significance was reverted to the Silk Road. Considering the historical and cultural experience, the subject of the dialogue between different cultures became significant again in order to connect cultures and civilizations, it will make more harmonious the process of enriching of different cultures and peaceful coexistence.

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MAIN STORY

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CITIZENSHIP GEORGIA

MAIN STORY

G

eorgia’s location on the Silk Route determined the main character of the capital townTbilis’s multiethnic phenomenon. Abanotubani is the ancient district in Tbilisi, where are orthodox and Gregorian, Synagogue, Machete churches stands next to each other. Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Jews, Kurds, Greeks are living in Tbilisi from ancient time to nowadays.The existence of ethnical versatility had determined traditions, culture, the way of life in Tbilisi, at the same time the admixture of different religions, cultures generated the phenomenon of Tbilisi.According to the census of the population of 19th century, more than 15 different nationalities live in Tilisi, from 1878 year the column of nationality was removed from ID Card. Several times many travelers or guests of the town described the phenomenon of Tbilisi. Marco Polo, the traveler of the 18th century, wrote about multiethnicity of Tbilisi, the famous French traveler Jan Sharden, who traveled to Georgia in 1672 and published ethnographical records about Georgia, pointed the same: “It is a beautiful town, not a big

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one. Its name is DAR EL MELUK, and it means the town of kings. Nowhere in the world can you see so many foreigners as here.”

Ashugi Sayat - Nova A poet, musician, represents Tbilisi’s symbol for citizens. Ashugi or Ashik in the Arabic language means a sweetheart. National poets and singers in the Caucasus and Middle East were called Ashugi. He wrote verses for songs and composed music for stringed instruments and sang himself. Romantic and heroic lyrics are central themes in Sayat-Nova’s creativity. At first, Sayat- Nova’s poetry was based on the romantic lyric as seen from the meaning of word Ashugi, but after some time social theme also appeared in his folk arts. Ashugs arranged poetry competitions which looked like Georgian Shairi (Shairi - quatrain). In Georgia, especially in Tbilisi the phenomenon of Ashugi developed from second part of the 18th century. Sayat-Nova was considered as the greatest Ashugi that ever lived in the South Caucasus.SayatNova was the pseudonym of the poet. His real name

Ashugi Sayat-Nova


www.silknet.com


MAIN STORY

GEORGIA’S LOCATION ON THE SILK ROUTE DETERMINED THE MAIN CHARACTER OF THE CAPITAL TOWN- TBILIS’S MULTIETHNIC PHENOMENON. ABANOTUBANI IS THE ANCIENT DISTRICT IN TBILISI, WHERE ARE ORTHODOX AND GREGORIAN, SYNAGOGUE, MACHETE CHURCHES STANDS NEXT TO EACH OTHER. GEORGIAN, ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI, JEWS, KURDS, GREEKS ARE LIVING IN TBILISI FROM ANCIENT TIME TO NOWADAYS. 32

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MAIN STORY

SEVERAL TIMES MANY TRAVELERS OR GUESTS OF THE TOWN DESCRIBED THE PHENOMENON OF TBILISI. MARCO POLO, THE TRAVELER OF THE 18TH CENTURY, WROTE ABOUT MULTI-ETHNICITY OF TBILISI, THE FAMOUS FRENCH TRAVELER JAN SHARDEN, WHO TRAVELED TO GEORGIA IN 1672 AND PUBLISHED ETHNOGRAPHICAL RECORDS ABOUT GEORGIA, POINTED THE SAME: “IT IS A BEAUTIFUL TOWN, NOT A BIG ONE. ITS NAME IS DAR EL MELUK, AND IT MEANS THE TOWN OF KINGS. NOWHERE IN THE WORLD CAN YOU SEE SO MANY FOREIGNERS AS HERE.”

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MAIN STORY was Arutina. He was born in Tbilisi in 1711 or 1712 years. His father was from Alleppo, who settled in Tbilisi and married the Armenian woman from Sanaine. In the childhood he has wrote the first verses and played eastern musical instruments. It is not known, whether Sayat- Nova had elementary education. The spelling and grammatical errors, which researchers found in Sayat- Nova’s poetry, indicate that, he has not received regular school education. Under other version, it is considered that he has received elementary education at school at the Armenian monastery in Sanaine. Sayat-Nova knew some languages fluently and wrote verses on Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Farsi languages. It is known that he composed songs on Baluchistan dialect of Farsi language too. Baluchistan dialect was considered as the literary peak of Farsi language It is very interesting that Armenian songs were recorded in Georgian characters and Azerbaijani songs in Armenian letters. The King Erekle has invited the Ashugi poet to the court and he became “Sazandari” (a folk singersongwriter) and at the large receptions, played Chonguri and sang songs for the king and his guests. He had many enemies at the court and they assured the king to expel the honest poet, Sayat- Nova from the court. Sayat –Nova had been sent in the Armenian Church Anzali, in the Persian province of Giljan where he had accepted a spiritual name of Stepanoz. After several years, he was allowed to return to Georgia and was sent as a priest to the village named “Kakhi”. Sayat-Nova was named as “San Vardapet”, it means scientist monk and was sent to in Akhpatsky monastery, in Lory, which was located on the north of Armenia. He was there till the end of his life and died in 1801.According to the other version SayatNova having news in September of 1795 about approaching of the Persian shah Aga Mohammed Khan to Tbilisi, he has gone from a monastery to the capital and has sent his family to the North Caucasus, in Mozdok, and he himself remained in the church. The Persian armies have rushed into a city, plundering and killing inhabitants. Together with many other Christians Sayat-Nova searched for a shelter in the church. Persian soldiers have found him and demanded to leave church and to renounce the belief. But Sayat-Nova refused and he was killed by swards of Persian soldiers. More than 230 compositions of Sayat-Nova in different languages have reached us.

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Making Georgia

Niko Nikoladze

The Architect of Future Georgia The name of Niko Nikoladze is pronounced respectfully in Georgia. It is not strange, because even now we can find responses to the vital questions in his works, views and practical activities too.He made lot for presentation worthily of his“ Tiny Country” and “ Unknown People for Everybody ” before Russian Empire and Europe. He had relations, correspondences, and collaborations with Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Hugo, Alphonse Daudet, Luis Blan, Emil De Jirarden, Jan Jorge, Paul Lafargue, whose father -in –law, Karl Marx asked Nikoladze to become the representative of the international in Transcaucasia, but Niko Nikoladze declined the offer. By materials Zaza Abzianidze

N

iko Nikoladze’s inexhaustible energy did not recognize any borders. His degree work “Economic and Social Consequences of Disarmament” was published in Geneva and caused the great interest among readers. By his participation the educational society ‘Ugheli” was established in Geneva . His work “Decadent Press, a Foreign Pressman’s Researches” was published, in French; Luis Blan’s feedback about this book was very interesting: “Your book is for every Frenchman journalist who must read and it will be nice if he starts to think too...” Nikoladzes’ original hearth was in Kutaisi, later on, in 1887 the whole family moved to Didi Jikhai, then, they moved to Poti and finally they were settled in Tbilisi and located on Ganovi, in the famous house for citizens, ( nowadays- G.Tabidze street). Niko arranged European type farm on the territory of Lortkipanidze’s past living place. It was the first time that the farm in Georgia was equipped with the butter churn and separators of milk and with other new technologies. Besides, he planted the exotic, beautiful garden. The railway station was opened by his intensive requests, the school was established in

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the village, the post office and the pharmacy were opened too. Niko Nikoladze was named “the Great Georgian and Great European” by his contemporaries. Georgian politics, economics, the arrangement of the government according to” European radius” are linked with Niko Nikoladze’s name. His European views established during his first emigration. Actually Niko was the person who laid foundation for the close and intensive relationship between European and Georgian society and increased interest in European Education and European life among Georgians. He collaborated with Russian Radicals and shared their radical ideas from his student life in Petersburg as he was the friend of Russian Radical leader, Nikolai Chernyshevsky and the author of the magazine “ Sovremenic.” It is symbolical that Niko Nikoladze publishedChernishevsky’s publications’ first volume and in 80’s, he played the significant role in returning Chernishevsky from exile. Niko’s activities in the magazine “ Obzori”during his short -term expatriation can be evaluated as a lucky period in his life, because of Olga Guramish-

Niko Nikoladze


Making Georgia


Making Georgia


vili’s visit (his future wife), a beautiful girl, who, seven years earlier was taken by the famous publicisttogether with Niko’s sisters and brothers for studying in Switzerland without parents‘ permission. At one glance NikoNikoladze was leaving one nice girl and getting married to another. At that time, (period of living in Stavropol) he was not yet divorced with his first wife Bogumila Zemianskaia, who was from Polish family, settled in Kutaisi. As you know the act of divorcing was connected with great problems at that time and needed special permission from the Synod. It is obvious from Niko’s entire biography, that Olga Guramishvili was not only a faithful wife but also devoted friend and companionin arms. Many monographs were written about Niko Nikoladze’s practical activities. In this period, we must underline his twenty years tenure as a mayor of Poti.

The telephone network was built and power capacity of the newly built electric station was pretty enough for Poti as well as city port. How many novelties we must announce: majestic church, fundamental buildings for educational institutions, the railway station, an elevator, etc. The stocks and tickets of lottery were printed first time in Georgia; revenues from these activities were used for the improvement of the city infrastructure. No wonder that the budget of the town had been significantly increased during the NikoNikoladze’s activity in his position of city mayor.

NO WONDER THAT THE BUDGET OF THE TOWN INCREASED, WHILE NIKO NIKOLADZE WAS THE MAYOR. AT LAST, DURING THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PORT, THE CONCRETE WAS USED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN GEORGIA AND GRADUALLY POTI BECAME ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SEAPORTS TOWN ALONG THE BLACK SEA SHORE.

Alexander Dumas (eldest) described his travels through Caucasus and characterized Poti as a swampy terrain, with huts and, blind and muddy streets. Dumas had made the first record about Potiin 1858. Niko Nikoladze was elected as a mayor of city of Poti in 1894. For that period he was already well-known public person and publicist with European orientation paying special attention to the socio economic problems. Niko Nikoladze knew about difficulties and problems of Poti prior to his election. The mayor had his own credo through colleagues, it was looked like this: “who knows Poti’s local authorities, he understands that I do not allow any public servant to be influenced by its own social views or interests of political party. I request the faithful work only to contribute to the benefit of the city.” During his being tenure as a mayor of Poti, he managed to facilitate to the transformation of little swampy village into the seaport city. Under Niko Nikoladze’ssupervision the drain systems were built around Poti to prevent the city from flooding. The bridges were constructed, the streets were stoned and “Konka” moved in the streets of the city.

At last, during the reconstruction of the port, the concrete was used for the first time in Georgia and gradually Poti became one of the most important seaportcity along the Black Sea shore.NikoNikoladze played a significant role in developing of coalfield in Tkibuli, later, he became the co-owner of this property. However Tkibuli had no future because of absence of road.

Therefore in 1881 the board of Kutaisi decided to look after this problem and elected Niko Nikoladze as a commissary (lobbyist) of future railway station in Tkibuli. At the end of 1887 year the railway station began to operate. After the two years the society “ Nakhshiri” was established. One of the founders of this organization was well-known lobbyist. Niko Nikoladze’s practical interests were also focused on manganese deposit in Chiatura, where the problem of the railway station existed as well, but the difficulties were overcame by his great enthusiasm and energy. In 1891, Emperor of Russia signed the Chiatura- Shorapani’ railway station construction project. Later on, the branch of this railway station started to work . Niko Nikoladze’s another practical interest was related to the problems of petroleum regular transiting from Baku to Batumi by Tsipi tunnel (planned to be constructed under Surami’ slope, dividing east and west parts of Georgia). The detailed program of transiting plan was published in “ Novoe Vremia” in Petersburg (1883). This publication was very impressive and caused the deep interest of Rothschild’s financial house.. Later the Georgian government also demonstrated the great interest to contribute to the

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Making Georgia

Mayor of city of Poti Niko Nikoladze. 1895

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realization of this project. Hence, Tsipi tunnel was opened in 1889. According to Niko Nikoladze’s opinion the social progress could be achieved by gradual evolution only. His booklet “the Government and the New Generation” published in Switzerland (1866), clearly expressed his view that the dethronement by means of revolution, terrorism, violence would throw the country into the bloody whirl. It is a reason why he always criticized the activities of social -democrats and anarchists. When Georgia gained real opportunity to achieve Georgia independence, it became clear that it would lose Batum-Akhaltsikhe districts according to “Treaty of Brest Litovsk”. NikoNikoladze took participation in negotiations with Turkey in April- May of 1918. He designed Georgian independence Act

THE TELEPHONE NETWORK WAS BUILT AND POWER CAPACITY OF THE NEWLY BUILT ELECTRIC STATION WAS PRETTY ENOUGH FOR POTI AS WELL AS CITY PORT. Project in Batumi together with Noe Jordania, Zurab Avalishvili, Akaki Chkhenkeli and Svimon Surguladze. He personally contributes to the facts that Germany became Georgia’s boundaries guaranty for that time and Georgian National Council declared independence of Georgia on May 26,1918. In Georgia, mostly in Guriaand Imereti you can see yards surrounded by green fencing. It is a natural fence of Trefoil. Maybe, nowadays, the housewives do not know that Trefoil was introduced by NikoNikoladze together with other exotic plants (it was called Niko’s barb). “Neither class struggle nor national enmity but the unity is necessary for achievement of the main goals: personality and freedom” by NikoNikoladze. “The Great Georgian” believed that the colony with its intelligent and business oriented people, with the condition of absence of centralized administration, could create the better country than metropolis in terms of wealthy, culture and even level of freedom. Such examples were Poland and Finland within the Russian Empire. Both were more progressive countries than Russia. Poland and Finland were controlled only by Russian military authorities.

Niko Nikoladze(1843–1928) Was a notable Georgian publicist, Pro-Western enlightener, and public figure primarily known for his contributions to the development of Georgian liberal journalism and his involvement in various economic and social projects of that time. He was born in the village of Didi Jikhaishi, Imereti, western Georgia petite noble family of Nikoladze. After the graduation from Kutaisi Gymnasium, he enrolled into Faculty of Law, St Petersburg University in 1861. In the same year he was excluded from the University for taking part in student protests. After leaving St. Petersburg he went to study in Western Europe in 1864 and became the first Georgian to receive a doctorate (in law) from a European university, namely in Zurich (1868). Like many other Georgian intellectuals of that time, he followed the evolution of Russian liberals to different versions of socialism, establishing his own contacts with the Western leftist thinkers. Nikoladze was the first Georgian figure within this trend to gain position of influence in all-Russian liberalist movements. During his stay in Zurich, through Paul Lafargue he met Karl Marx, who asked Nikoladze to become the representative of the International in Transcaucasia. Despite the strong governmental censure and pressure exerted upon Nikoladze, he remained an influential and respected publicist not only in Georgia, but also in Russia proper. Many of his best writings composed in Russian, and French were systematically published in the European press. The climax of Nikoladze’s activity was his successful negotiations in the mid-1880s with Alexander III and his government that reduced the nationwide repressions and saved Vera Figner from the gallows and Chernyshevsky from exile. As a notable public benefactor, Nikoladze was responsible for a number of social and economic projects, including the expansion of railway systems in Georgia and the construction of the Grozny-Poti pipeline. From 1894 to 1912, Nikoladze was elected a mayor of Poti. During his tenure as a mayor, he made this small portal town on Georgia’s Black Sea coast an important maritime city and trading center.

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WALLS OF THE PAST

The Real Princely Palace T Giorgi Kalandia/ Lika Mamacashvili

he Zugdidi Palace was probably first built during the reign of Levan II Dadiani (1611-1657). He cared much for the Palace and made it “gorgeous, with tremendous chambers and stonewalls.” After the death of the great prince, his heirs continued to live there and Zugdidi Palace became the main residence, memorizing the most glorious days within its walls. Based on historical sources, the open field, now housing an architectural complex, included other palaces as well. But the prince chose this place for his residence. The last Queen of Samegrelo – Ekaterine Chavchavadze (18931882), continued the same way, preferring a new palace, to that of her husband David Dadiani’s (1813-1853). The queen was attracted by the arches of the House of David’s Sister, Pupi Dadiani; the first floor was occupied by the wine cellar and parquet plant. After Pupi’s marriage, the Queen invited the most famous architecture of the day, Architect of Viceroy in Tiflis (1851-1852) and the Head of the Civil Chancellery – Edvig Jacob Reis and asked him to reconstruct the building. Reis enlarged the old building, used the arches and skillfully mixed Baroque and Rococo style with the Asian and Georgian architecture the result was more than expected, the main square of Zugdidi, held the most fabulous and enormous building ever.

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Main facade of the Queen’s Residence was a kind of Tudor style interpretation, with the yard of the Georgian and Ottoman synthesis. Marvelous, Laz Balcony takes its leading part in the whole building. The Balcony is made of wood and stands on 51 massive pillars and there was used no single nail, while making it. Almost every detail of the Balcony is explicitly ornamented, having about 50 thousand small ornaments in it and finally, it is roofed uniquely. Architectural complex is finished by three-storied, massive, English style Castle, erected on the West side of the complex. It was used as a shelter and hiding place of treasury. Thus, the walls of the Castle were thicker and the windows were narrower, then usual. As legend says, the Dadianis held one of the most precious belongings of the Christian world – the Robe of the Virgin Mary and no one was allowed to see it without the permission of the Prince. And in the honour of the Mother of Jesus, the Castle was called the Virgin Castle. With many efforts and tries of the Megrelian princes, the Palace acquired every feature needed for the main residence of the Region. Except its residential purposes, the Palace had one of the richest libraries in Georgia, museums, military chancellery, artifacts, archeological and paleographic pieces, heraldic accessories, standards and coats of arms of the Princedom. Dadiani Palace kept the great number of the Georgian treasure of that time. Besides the Georgian church


” The Dadianis had several residences in Megrelia, among which most distinguished was the Palace in Zugdidi. “On a large plain is Zugdidi, the Palace of the Dadianis, well built and with chambers, rampart and towers”, wrote Prince Vakhushti. It is clear from the evidence of foreign travelers that the Zugdidi Palace was given special significance; it had a definite advantage as the venue for receiving embassies and holding meetings. Most of the time the prince and his family spent in the palace. At the turn of the 18th-19th centuries the Dadianis had a palace in the middle of the town – in the area of the present-day residence. For this they had chosen a special place and prepared a vast earth embankment. This was probably done soon after the death of Grigol Dadiani, when the Russian emperor sent 2000 tchervonetz to Nino Dadiani to build a church of the Blachernae Virgin. In 1837 Davit Dadiani commenced the building of a temporary palace on the cited territory. He planned to build the principal residence later. “The real princely palace” was built soon – two-storied, with 28 rooms. The middle part of the building was of stone; later additional rooms of chestnut wood were annexed to it. After receiving the Emperor’s assent, Dadiani imported, through the Qulevi harbor, valuable furniture and other goods duty-free, estimated at 25 thousand roubles. The building was occupied by Omar Pasha in 1855, turning it into a war hospital. After Grigol Dadiani’s successful counter-offensive and the recapture of Zugdidi, Iskander Pasha – before escaping – burnt the building down. It was restored by Dimitri Qipiani, who transferred it to Chilaev, Governor of Megrelia. However, before long the palace was again destroyed by fire. It was not restored any more, and the remaining stone walls were demolished and used in the construction of Niko Dadiani’s palace. The design of the palace was conjecturally drawn either in Europe or in Russia. Along with Georgians, foreigners too participated in the construction of the palace: Iakob the “Tatar”, Hasan Hammuz Oghli and Theodore the Greek. The architect of the Queen’s Palace was Edwig Jacob Rice, who in 1851-1852 served as architect and chief of the civil office at the Viceroy’s court in Tiflis. The main façade of the Queen’s residence in Zugdidi is a peculiar interpretation of the Tudor style. The inner court is a brilliant blend of Georgian and Ottoman styles, the Laz balconyholding the principal place. Through the efforts of the Megrelian princes, the palace acquired all the functions required by the chief residence of the region.


WALLS OF THE PAST collection, unique manuscripts and golden furniture, it held the richest gallery of art in Tanscaucasia, as well. Members of Dadiani Family were interested in various genres of the French, Italian, Russian Art, so that was why, the Palace was full of many examples of fine art. In this palette of rich colours, the Portrait of the Queen Ekaterine was the most distinguished one; the author of the portrait is the German painter – Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805-1873); he was known for his portraits of royalty, mostly of noblewomen, painting them with gracious and coquetry. But there was one thing, which distinguished the portrait of Ekaterine from others as the legend says, the painter added a bit of the Queen’s soul, giving the still picture, its everlasting vividness we do not know, whether it is the romanticism of the legend or the extraordinary mastership of the artist, but the fact is really obvious, gracious Queen of Samegrelo, shows up her vividness from the picture. You can still feel the beauty of her blue eyes and her earring, still “playing with its shadow”. Queen Ekaterine has much influenced on the social life of Dadiani Palace; her saloon meetings were famous among the Georgian and foreign guests. The first Nobel Prize laureate woman – Bertha von Suttner once wrote: “Sometimes, you could see Caucasian women in the company of the Queen, dressed in na-

MEMBERS OF THE DADIANI FAMILY WERE INTERESTED IN VARIOUS GENRES OF FRENCH, ITALIAN, AND RUSSIAN ART, WHICH IS WHY THE PALACE WAS FULL OF MANY EXAMPLES OF FINE ART tional attire, neatly. The Queen purchased her dresses from Vort and wore them as real noblewoman. She spoke French fluently, though with Russian accent and she talked in Georgian with her children”. Crown of this Architectural complex – Botanic Garden refers to the Queen’s name, as well. It was initiated in 1840 and won the first place in the Park Art Contest of the Russian Empire, in XIX century. Prince David dedicated this Garden to his spouse; he invited the famous gardener from Trieste – Joseph Babin, which worked together with Italian brothers – Gaetano and Giovanni Zamberletti.


WALLS OF THE PAST

Niko Dadiani’s Palace

A palace for David Dadiani’s son Niko (the same Mingrelski) was built in the 1880s. Its author was the Russian architect Leonid Vasiliev. Skillfully adjusting the Georgian interior to Russian exterior, he produced an architectural specimen quite unusual for that time. The palace is of special historical significance, the literary evenings were often held here, bringing together Georgia’s outstanding figures. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries the Dadiani residence turned into a major centre of Georgian culture. The attempts of Russifiers to introduce divine service in Megrelia in the Megrelian language were frustrated by the masters of this palace and their like-minded supporters. Here the idea arose of transferring the unique books and manuscripts to the library of the Society for the Spread of Literacy among the Georgians. The palace hosted Ilia Chavchavadze and Akaki Tsereteli. In its halls the breakaway Abkhaz princes took oath on loyalty to Georgia. Winter

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WALLS OF THE PAST In April of 1921, the Palace was turned into the Museum, presently holding about 44 thousand exhibits. Museum is rich in goldsmithery pieces of XI-XIX centuries. Many brilliant examples from goldsmithery of XI-XIX centuries, included the Rhipidium of the King George (XI), one of the best and oldest example of Christian heritage; Icon of the Queen Burdukhan – mother of the Queen Tamar (XII), its 52 cells held the sacred parts of saints; St. George’s triptych icon with the image of the Episcope – Kirile Zhuanidze (XVI) etc. The most valuable treasure of Zugdidi Museum is the shrine of Christianity – the Robe of the Virgin Mary, which was brought in Georgia, in 1453, after the collapse of the Byzantium. It was first placed in Bedia Monastery and then in Khobi Church. Since 1533, Levan I Dadiani brought the shrine in the Palace. Except the Robe of the Virgin Mary, Zugdidi Museum holds many other shrines as well: Arm of St. Marine, Hand of St. Kvirike, thigh bone part of St. George, bone part of St. John the Baptist. Sacred parts are placed in silver chest, set with precious stones and golden, relief image of the Virgin Mary. Exhibits of the Museum include, furniture of Bullet, Rococo, Empire, examples of the Georgian, Chinese, Japanese, French and Russian art; crystalware, Dutchware (faience), silver sets, vases, albums with golden covers, examples of the Georgian blacksmith – silver belts, swords. French historical-cultural examples deserve our special attention – pictures and books; one part of which are collected at Dadiani Palace and the other part was brought by the Prince Achille Murat (1847-1895) from France. Prince Achille Murat was the grandson of Marshall Joachim, King of Naples, Grand Admiral and brother-in-law of Napoleon (husband of his sister Caroline Bonaparte), he married a daughter of David Dadiani – Salome. After abolishing the monarchy in France (1879), Achille came to Georgia and brought great part of family relics with him. All these treasure now occupies 10 large chambers of the main Palace in Dadiani Architectural Complex. Time flies history of the Palace counts more than 300 years already. Today, there are no “dandies” (nickname of XIX “European style” youth), even no “English, French and Hindu style men” attracted by the Georgian “Madonna”, Alexander Chavchavadze, Grigol Orbeliani, Nikoloz Baratashvili, glorious knights of Georgia, rest in peace whereas, in Dadiani Palace, you can still find the everlasting roses in front of the Portrait of Ekaterine –the last beauty of XIX Century.


WALLS OF THE PAST

The Murat Palace

The handsome wooden palace of the Murats formed part of the architectural ensemble. Ekaterine’s daughter Salome and her husband Achille Murat, Napoleon Bonaparte’s relative and aide-de-camp to Napoleon III, lived in this palace. The palace, as well as its owner, had an astonishing tragic fate. In 1895 it was destroyed by fire. Sergi Chilaia wrote: “This beautiful palace of the Murats was burning, and there was no one around to help. The domestic servants cried and screamed but they could do nothing. The wooden part was burnt to ashes, only the charred bricks stood like a skeleton. The domestic servants brought the surviving furniture to one place, mourning over each object as if it was a deceased person”, Shortly after the fire Achille Murat died, “due to haemorrhage of the brain”, the French press reported. “However, by unofficial reports, it was rumoured as if Salome had insured the wooden palace of twentyfour rooms, had removed the furniture and set fire to it. Reports on this had found their way into the newspapers. The prince could not stand the insult and committed suicide in his summer villa, in the village of Chkaduashi”. Winter

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IN SEARCH OF GEORGIAN WONDERS

Knut Hamsun

T R AV E L L I N G I N W O N D E R L A N D MANY EUROPEAN WRITERS OR ARTISTS WERE ATTRACTED BY DISTANT LANDS OF CAUCASUS. BY THE TIME THE GREAT WRITER KNUT HAMSUN, A NORWEGIAN AUTHOR AND NOBEL LAUREATE IN 1920, DECIDED TO TRAVEL THROUGH RUSSIA TO CAUCASUS IN 1899, HIS FAMOUS LITERARY WORKS: “HUNGER” AND “MYSTERIES” HAD BEEN ALREADY PUBLISHED: “ IT IS COMPLETELY DIFFERENT WORLD MORE ATTRACTIVE PEOPLE , MUCH MORE RED WINE, HIGHER MOUNTAINS AND I BELIEVE THAT COD RESIDES IN KAZBEGI! THE WRITER WROTE ABOUT CAUCASUS AFTER RETURNING HOME…”

In Wonderland The writer dedicated his two works to the theme of Caucasus - “ In wonderland” and” The Queen Tamar”. The premiere took place in 1904 at the National Theatre in Oslo. The critics characterize Knut Hamsun’s “ In Wonderland” as documental prose of his journey through Russia and Caucasus and emphasize that it is the most subjective, travel records in Scandinavian literary history. The author returned to this genre only once, after a long pause, after being declared as mentally dysfunctional, in his last work “On Overgrown Paths”. “This country is not like any other countries seen. I am thinking again that I can live here all my life. Moon and Sun are shining and as if they have a rivalry. Here, a human is belittled by the beauty of the nature. Even the natives of this country, who watch this beauty every day, cannot hide their admiration. A Caucasian has no idea about New York’s stock market, about the stock price and its fluctuation. Caucasian life does not look like a horse race, a Caucasian lives slowly, eats mutton and fruits…”

Unlike the famous travelers, Knut Hamsun does not reveal his identity and in special cases uses his Finnish friend’s visiting card. The author’s companion is his wife Berglijot Gopfert (nee Bech) during this journey, who is mentioned by him as “his Missis”. Later on, after a long, heavy journey, the famous writer stays in Tbilisi. “My hotel “London” is indicated by a star, there are 170 thousand inhabitants in Tiflis and the number of men is two times more than women. You can hear speeches in seventy languages. In summer, the average temperature in Tbilisi is 21°C and in winter -10C. Tiflis has been conquered by Rome, Persia, Turkey for several centuries and now it is ruled by Russia. The prosperity of Tiflis depends on the convenient geographic location, Tiflis locates on the trade crossroad, which is linking the mountains, Caspian Sea, Russia and Armenia. There are wonderful museums, theatres and galleries of paintings, Here is a botanical garden, a castle, Georgian Royal Palace, which is used as a prison today. And at last, a statue of Russian General is standing here… And on the slope of the mountain is ST. David’s Monastery. For Georgians It stands on the Holy Mountain- Mtatsminda. There is the statue of Griboedov, I try to remember Rus-

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IN SEARCH OF GEORGIAN WONDERS sian writers whose names are linked with Tiflis : Pushkin, Lermontov, Tolstoy, and etc…” Since Georgia became a part of Russian Empire, Tbilisi became the main administrative and cultural center of Transcaucasia. The 19th century Tiflis architecture follows the European and Russian architecture of those days. The number of residential buildings and public houses are being built by European architects. The feudal city transforms into European town. However, the fa-

“LIFE IN ASIAN DISTRICTS IS QUIET AND SLOW, IT IS IN DISTANCE FROM THE FUSS OF REST OF THE WORLD. IT IS COMFORTABLE HERE. BUT AROUND IT THERE IS A NOISE TYPICAL TO THE MODERN TRADING CITY, AS IF THERE IS AMERICA THERE...” mous writer is impressed especially by Asian area and he visits it frequently. “In Tiflisi, there are windows with mirrors, “konka” variety clubs, ladies and gentlemen dressed in European style, but an Asian district is all very different. Frankly speaking, I cannot call the local street : a lane, an alley, a stair, That’s all. Stair connects one house with the other- from the side. From above, from underneath. There are representatives of different tribes in “Dukani” and what amazing things they sell.! Persians and Turks are engaged in trade in Constantinople and Tehran. And here everyone sells, everyone who lives in Caucasus: Persian, Turk, Armenian, Arab, Tibetan, Palestinian. It is quiet here, no fuss. Eastern quietness is attractive. White and colored headgears are dominant between colorful headdress, but also a green or blue headdress is suited to someone’s gouges head. The metal belts were painted. I have seen Persian belts too, made from colorful silk. Caucasians, Kurds and Ar-

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Former Hotel “London” in Tiflis


Knut Hamsun (1859 -1952) Was a Norwegian author, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920. He was praised by King Haakon VII of Norway as Norway’s soul. Hamsun’s work spans more than 70 years and shows variation with regard to the subject, perspective and environment. He published more than 20 novels, a collection of poetry, some short stories and plays, a travelogue, and some essays.

Mt. Kazbegi

Former Hotel “London” in Tiflis

The young Hamsun objected to realism and naturalism. He argued that the main object of modern literature should be the intricacies of the human mind, that writers should describe the «Whisper of blood and the pleading of bone marrow». Hamsun is considered the «leader of the Neo-Romantic revolt at the turn of the century», with works such as Hunger (1890), Mysteries (1892), Pan (1894), and Victoria (1898). His later works-in particular his «Northland novels»-was influenced by the Norwegian new realism, portraying everyday life in rural Norway and often employing local dialect, irony, and humor. The epic work Growth of the Soil (1917) earned him the Nobel Prize.Hamsun is considered to be «one of the most influential and innovative literary stylists of the past hundred years» (ca. 1890–1990).[5] He pioneered psychological literature with techniques of stream of consciousness and interior monologue, and influenced authors such as Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorky, Stefan Zweig, Henry Miller, Hermann Hesse, and Ernest Hemingway. Isaac Bashevis Singer called Hamsun «the father of the modern school of literature in his every aspect-his subjective, his fragmentariness, his use of flashbacks, and his lyricism. The whole modern school of fiction in the twentieth century stems from Hamsun». Ernest Hemingway stated that «Hamsun taught me to write».

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IN SEARCH OF GEORGIAN WONDERS St. David’s Monastery

Knut Hamsun in Georgia

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IN SEARCH OF GEORGIAN WONDERS menians carry weapons. In “ Dukani”, there are being sold mostly silk cloth, carpets, guns, jewelry, embellishments. Life in Asian districts is quiet and slow, it is in distance from the fuss of rest of the world. It is comfortable here. But around it there is a noise typical to the modern trading city, as if there is America there. Rarely, you can hear laud speeches or cry: law speeches, nodding a head slowly, and that’s all. I go to Asian district everyday while I am in Tiflis. Because this world is different from our world. We have forgotten how to be surprised…”

The Holy Mountain Mtatsminda

”Konka”

“THIS COUNTRY IS NOT LIKE ANY OTHER COUNTRIES SEEN. I AM THINKING AGAIN THAT I CAN LIVE HERE ALL MY LIFE. MOON AND SUN ARE SHINING AND AS IF THEY HAVE A RIVALRY. HERE, A HUMAN IS BELITTLED BY THE BEAUTY OF THE NATURE. EVEN THE NATIVES OF THIS COUNTRY, WHO WATCH THIS BEAUTY EVERY DAY, CANNOT HIDE THEIR ADMIRATION...”. Knut Hamsun was in the Caucasus during three weeks, after which he continued his journey to the East, to Istanbul, and later to Persia, but as the writer underlined himself the Caucasus remained for him as completely distinguished ” wonderland”. “Here , (in Akhstapa) I have drunk water of Mtkvari. It turned out to be a fatal mistake, because, when somebody has drunk water of Mtkvari, he never stops to worry about the Caucasus...“

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MODI GEO

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MODI GEO

SATAPLIA

A Trip in the Prehistoric Times THE PRESERVED TERRITORIES OF THE CAVES IN THE IMERETI REGION SATAPLIA- THE MOST BEAUTIFUL MONUMENT OF NATURE. GEORGIAN NATURE IS RICH WITH ITS DIVERSE AND UNIQUE RESERVES. SATAPLIA RESERVE VERY DIFFERENT PLACE WITH THE NATURAL CONDITIONS. THERE IS PROTECTED THE UNIQUE MONUMENTS OF NATURE. THE SECRET OF THIS MONUMENT ARE TRACKS TO IT Winter

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THE COMPLEX OF CAVES OF APPROXIMATELY OF 354 HA, IS SITUATED IN 10KM FROM THE CITY OF KUTAISI. SATAPLIA NATIONAL RESERVE, PREDOMINANTLY COVERED WITH YOUNG, COLCHIS TYPE, SUBTROPICAL WOODS, WITH A NUMBER OF THE RELICTS AND ENDEMIC SPECIES, IS AT 500 M ABOVE THE SEA. NAME OF SATAPLIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH A WHILE BEE SPREAD IN THE CLIFFS OF SATAPLIA. THE COMPLEX OF FOUR KARST CAVES IS SITUATED IN THE RESERVE. THE CAVES STAND OUT FOR THEIR BEAUTY, FAUNA AND FLORA. 58

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MODI GEO

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MODI GEO

THE ENTRANCE TO “SATAPLIA 1” IS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE KARST FUNNEL, DEEPLY CUT INTO A CLIFF. IN THE CAVE, THERE IS A FOREST OF STALACTITE AND STALAGMITE IN THE 900M LONG AND 10M HIGH. IN THE CENTER OF THE HALL, THERE IS A MUSHROOM-LIKE STALAGMITE AND AN ACTIVE STALACTITE, WITH THE WATER RUNNING FROM IT. AT SOME PLACES, THE STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES INTERTWINE AND FORM THE BIG COLUMNS, WHICH CREATE THE FAIRY-TALE STRUCTURES. IN THE CAVE THERE ARE PLENTY OF CHEMICAL FORMATIONS – COLUMNS, GROUPS OF ROCKS, TRACES OF AVALANCHES AND THICK LAYERS OF CLAY. Winter

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THERE ARE STONE FLOWERS OR A BIG TRAVERTINE IN SATAPLIA CAVES. IN THE GALLERY OF “SATAPLIA-2”, THE ARCHEOLOGISTS FOUND A SMALL POOL WITH SPECIFIC FISHES, WHICH ARE UNIQUE IN NATURE. 62

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MODI GEO

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MODI GEO

THERE ARE DINOSAUR FOOTPRINTS AT THE ENTRANCE OF “SATAPLLIA 4”, ON THE RIGHT FROM THE ROAD. IN THE PREHISTORIC TIMES, 50-60 MILLION YEARS AGO, THERE WAS A COAST, IT WAS HAUNTED BY DINOSAURS. THEIR FOOTPRINTS ARE SEEN ON TWO STRATA, WHICH ARE UNIQUE. Winter

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MODI GEO

THE RESERVE WITH ITS ADJACENT AREA IS THE DESTINATION OF THE CULTURAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL TOURS. AT PRESENT, THE LARGE-SCALE WORKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE HAVE COMPLETED. THE SPECIFIC FACILITIES, WITH MODERN ACOUSTIC SYSTEMS, AN EXHIBITION HALL, THE RECREATION AREAS, A CAFÉ OR THE SURFACED PATHS HAVE CONSTRUCTED FOR VISITORS. AT THE VISITORS’ CENTER YOU WILL GET THE NECESSARY INFORMATION.

Present column is prepared on the basis of “AGENSY OF PROTECTED AREAS” materials.

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Interview


Interview

GEORGIA ON THE CROSSROADS OF CIVILIZATIONS “Georgian Culture has his own unique character, present and past individuality. Georgian Culture is the particular, spiritual or material product and has been created by the definite Ethnos. It is Nation’s culture and if we speak about general culture which involved everything what has been created by humanity during the different stages of the whole history such as are :literature, philosophy, and other branches of art, we as the unique nation has its own place in this uniting concept - Culture...” - Nikoloz Rurua

Interview with Nikoloz Rurua / Interviewer: Irine Jordania

So, MODI Magazine had meet with Minister of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia Nikoloz Rurua and speak about The identity of Georgian Culture and the place of Georgian Culture in the world. What is the ‘unique character’ of Georgian Culture? Firstly, we are an independent cultural unit. Georgia has its own unique native spoken and written language- one of fourteen existing original written languages – which does not belong to any other language families. Alexander Dumas, the elder, in the introduction of his book “Caucasus”, writes about the distinctive character of the Caucasus. The author paid great attention to Georgia as being the connecting component between Caucasus nations. Our identity and place in world culture depends on the products that have been created by Georgians. To my mind, besides the literary works in the Georgian written language, our wine-making tradition takes primary place in Georgian culture. Nowadays, Georgia is considered the homeland of wine. Even such countries as France and Italy, where wine production is in the vanguard, recognize Georgia as being the place where wine was originally cultivated.The fact of this has already been proven and the evidence is present in various museums and scientific works. I cite as an example the “kvevri” (clay pitcher) - a Georgian vessel which was used by our ancestors for wine fermenting as far back as the 3rd or 4th millen-

nium BC, if not earlier. The use of kvevri predates Egyptian and Greek amphorae. The form of the kvevri is very similar to the natural form of an egg, and its placement in the ground creates optimal conditions for wine fermenting. Such methodology has not been seen before. That is why we want to place Georgian kvevri on the UNESCO world heritage list this year as a unique Georgian phenomenon. Georgian polyphony deserves mention due to the perfect form in which it has reached us. We can also say that the tradition of Georgian architecture is very similar to that of the Byzantine Empire, but since it was created by Georgians, its concept or style must be recognized as different and as having its own separate school. Although many components of other old-world styles are present, the uniqueness of Georgian architecture is as a fusion of all those national components, perceived as a purely Georgian product. This is the cultural body where our country is united and created, based on necessity or imagination. It has not been created from nothing; it is the result of generations upon generations of experience which has then been transformed and passed on to us today - whether polyphony, or the Georgian winemaking tradition. This unique combination has established the distinctive traditional culture of our country.

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Would you consider Georgian culture as a part of European culture, or as a mix of European and Asian cultures? I think modern Georgian culture is closer to Western culture, deriving from our Christian past. However, pre- Christian Georgian culture itself is original. Nor, considering its aesthetics, can we prove that it is an Asian culture. If we observe archaeological samples belonging to Georgia’s pagan history- jewelry production or weapon manufacturing- we can be assured of its “Western’s”.

What can you say about the old mentality? It is difficult to talk about the mentality of those days.

Do you think that our mentality is not purely European even today? As for the present, I believe that our mentality does not differ so much from that of many Post-Soviet countries, but our country has made a European choice and today it stands at a moment of transformation. And, although

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Georgia was absorbed into an Oriental / Iranian-Turkish culture, which influenced our traditions (as well as our language which, you know, adopted many Persian and Turkish words), Christianity upheld the European civilization. What we today call our western choice: liberal democracy and freedom in general; all these factors were the idea of Christianity in those times. Christianity was not only a religion but an ideology as well. It was our people’s political choice to stand by civilized Europe and not to share the despotism of some Eastern traditions. In records of Persian historians, Georgian kings are often referred to as the governors of Persian provinces. All this, of course influenced our mentality, but the choice has been made, and surveys and referendums have confirmed that Georgia is a part of European civilization both by history and by choice. Georgians believe that the most appropriate form of governance is that of democracy, a key concept in a country building its human rights and the rule of law; this is the European face of Georgia. If we take into account the fact that the Soviet type despotism is an Asian phenomenon, that it has nothing to do with European socialism, we see that Lenin - Stalin’s Bolshevism is a continuation of Chingis Khan and Timur Lang’s governance. I’d like to


Interview

reaffirm that our mentality is more European than Asian, or that, in any case nowadays this tendency seems to be the case. When the idea of NATO membership is supported by more than 80 percent of the Georgian population, it is not just speaking about security, but about our mentality as well.

sufferings- it might be difficult to grasp but the writer is able to transcend national borders, and, therefore, is transcendental. There are numerous literary works such as Gilgamesh, one of the most important epic poems of Mesopotamia, just as dear to us Georgians, as to the British or Iraqis.

Are there any national boundaries within Georgian culture?

Hence, the idea is that culture in general has no boundaries, but that it is created by particular nations and thus has particular identifiable elements. In this regard, we can recall Vazha –Pshavela’s brilliant essay Cosmopolitism and Patriotism, where he says: “It is impossible to be a true cosmopolitan and not be a patriot, and vice-versa ...”

Yes, there are. But a culture with national boundaries does not mean isolation. In order to understand whether there are any national boundaries in a culture, we must determine the meaning of those boundaries. Every culture has its own unique characterizing factor. In my opinion, this in itself is a boundary. In addition, every culture has something exceptional which makes it a part of greater human culture. No matter what Anton Chekhov’s written language is, it is clear to everyone that the writer is describing Russian life. On the other hand, Dostoevsky, who is also a Russian writer, writes about Russian spirit and its

Incidentally, the same idea has a place in our national hymn - “My icon is my motherland, and the whole world is its icon-stand….” When a culture reaches the height of artistic value, it becomes universal. If this logic is applied to national culture, too, we can see that it is universal. Take Georgian polyphony, which, while being a solely Georgian phenomenon, is at the same time as dear to any good listener as Mozart is to an Austrian or hip-hop music is to a New Yorker.

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Interview Do you believe that Georgian- and world -culture are experiencing a crisis? Do you consider that living in the information age necessitates new means of expression? Art in general is not constant; it is forever undergoing processes of evolution; developing and transforming. Theatre, literature, visual arts, movies; any branch of what we can consider ‘living’ art –that which is not sentenced to be a dusty showpiece in a museum, as in the case of archaeological finds,- is continually developing. From this perspective, if the current situation is called a crisis, I think that it is not a negative or harmful thing. As a rule, any crisis can be ended by finding the way out. If such a crisis exists, it is a natural process which can only be revealed in time.

Do you think that some forms of expression are obsolete? I believe that classical theater is suffering a crisis and we cannot see how forms of sculpture are developing today. I think, too, that for a long time there was a crisis in Georgian film production which has not yet been completely overcome. Georgian film production belonged to the art house cinema and was part of the Soviet economic system and was not able to adapt to the new system after the disintegration of the Soviet one. The profession of ‘producer’ has previously not existed in our country as this function was in the hands of the state. Without central funding, it is difficult to find new, independent producers as we have yet to bring up a new generation of scriptwriters. Film production, in general, is a synthetic art and several specific professions of film-making have disappeared. Movies are made by teams. A writer is able to independently create a brilliant work; he needs only paper and a pencil. But in case of film-making, it is not such a simple matter. Moreover, turning once more to the theme of crisis, I would consider that any crisis in the world of art demonstrates the need of change and this is a good thing. If not, progress cannot happen.

How do you evaluate the success of modern Georgian art in recent years? We cannot consider any specific case or even several works of art as being breakthroughs in the field. I believe that any course for progress can be called a breakthrough in any field. ‘Spring could not be brought by a single swallow,’ as the saying goes. In the same way, one person’s success, no matter how brilliant, is not enough and will be considered only as an individual case- that is to say, the field of art must develop as a whole. As for Georgian cinema, I can say that in this sphere the young generation has come forward with great desires, energy and ambition and now all that is needed is good organization. Cinema is a team-built art, as I mentioned before. It


Interview is made by criticism, by the film-rental system, by the existence of appropriate legislation as well as by social economic stability. Movie production in poor countries cannot develop; it needs the intellectual resources and the copyright protection mechanism too.

FIRSTLY, WE ARE THE INDEPENDENT CULTURAL UNIT - GEORGIA. THE COUNTRY, WITH ITS OWN, NATIVE LANGUAGE AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE, ONE OF THE FOURTEEN EXISTING ORIGINAL WRITING LANGUAGES, THAT IS A SEPARATE UNIT AND DOES NOT BELONG TO ANY OTHER LANGUAGE FAMILIES It is impossible to make a valuable movie, if any of these components are missing. To my mind, our negative status since the Post-Soviet era- 15 years past now- has been overcome and the results are obvious. To prove my point, you have only to ask the professionals (film critics) and you will soon be assured that I am not exaggerating. When we talk about recent Georgian films, we can argue about taste, the severity of themes, about the quality of the film, but the fact is that the films being made today are perfectly acceptable from the technical point of view. So, they can readily be shown to an international audience. I can spotlight Levan Koghuashvili’s film “Street Days”, Rusudan Chkonia ‘s film “Smile or Keep Smiling”, George Ovashvili ‘s movie “The other Bank of the River”, Ketevan Machavariani’s “Salt White”, and several documentaries, among them Mindia Esadze ’s film “Not White. Black.” The most significant event for Georgia in this sphere is that, recently, our country has become a Member State of Eurimages. The most famous fund of cinematographic works in Europe, Eurimages serves to protect European films from the commercial production industry, in truth, to defend them from the “Hollywood “ and “Bollywood” takeover. Georgian producers have been given a chance to join such organizations and to obtain European funding. The same positivity can be given to literary translations, which I think is the way to come out of our isolation. We often translate from foreign languages into Georgian, but we have rarely translated works from Georgian into a foreign language. Therefore, we have developed a system of working in tandem: the


Interview


Interview translator translates the lines of the work and then it is corrected by foreign translators. Approximately twenty Georgian works have been translated through this system. In March, we will see the presentation of a book entitled “The Best of Georgian Contemporary Fiction”, which will be published in large quantities and distributed in English-speaking countries. Nowadays, the government program of supporting books and literature is strong and the result of it is that the budget for translation activities has quadrupled. In the framework of this program, publishing activities and the development of scholarship programs will continue to be provided.

Are there any definite priorities determined by the Ministry of Culture? What kind of projects are supported? We strive to support specific initiatives. Generally, the state itself cannot create art: an artist makes himself and we can only encourage him.

From Deputy Chairman of the Defense and Security Committee to Minister of Culture; which do you feel more comfortable with; which best expresses your abilities? I see little difference. I would say that the creative nuance is everywhere, including Parliament. The life of a parliamentarian is different from the activities within executive government. In Parliament, you are the initiator; you assert your own position; it is a more active procedure in which you are part of a political process which is being watched by the whole country. Working as the Minister of Culture represents a different kind of active life. I cannot give a preference, but I think that in this position I can better carry out my intentions. Despite the fact that none of the significant documents were passed at that time without my participation, be it the Concept of National Security, the Counter-Intelligence Legislation, or the Anti-Organized Crime Legislation, I would still give preference to my current occupation. The existence of art is somehow linked with security. It reminds me of the words of John Adams, America’s second president: “I must study politics and war that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. My sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history, naval architecture, navigation, commerce, and agriculture, in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry, and porcelain...” Perhaps it is a figurative statement and three generations is not enough for this kind of knowledge, but in essence it is an accurate view. Otherwise, nothing will happen. Therefore, I cannot give you a well-defined sphere for my interests. Today our country is at a very interesting juncture in its history, when many things are becoming clear. We all have to take part in this momentous age.

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SASURATKHATO “Many of us live idly. All the people try to put the blame of their uselessness on the lack of money. However, they tend to forget that any kind of wealth or property is based not on the money, but on lab our, diligence and courage. Mr. Roinashvili is a wonderful example of all this. An absolutely unassisted, poor man who made up his mind to do something special, managed to show his diligence and courage for twenty years, did his best, to achieve his goal and at last fulfilled his dream. He ran his business and stated that whosoever has such a great love towards what he does, will be able to overcome all the difficulties….” Ilia Chavchavadze

A

lexandre Roinashvili was born in Dusheti 1846.

Father-Solomon, saddle master, a poor craftsman, died young. Mother, Marine-a gentle, kind-hearted woman, supported her family by needlework. Alexandre was sent to Ananuri “Barracks Scool”.At the age of fourteen Alexandre became an apprentice to a famous artist-photographer in Tbilisi, V. Khlamov. After fire years of studies V. Khlamov handed over to Roinashvili a camera, some tools and materials-all that was necessary for independent work.

Artist Dato Monavardishvili’s objects “Alexsandre Roinashvili and Muslim Woman”

Roinashvili opened his own photo studio, “Sasuratkhato” (photo imagery), in the centre of Tbilisi, in Palace Street. Since that period Roinashvili became keen on archaeology and collecting antiquities, travelled to all parts of Georgia and took photographs of cathedrals, castles, icons and antique things; made

portraits of statesmen, writers, clergymen and actors. Mose Djanashvili: “He took all this and gave a national look to his “Sasuratkhato”. Roinashvili created photo reproductions of Shota Rustaveli and Queen Tamar according to Gagarin’s French edition ‘Caucase Pullore due’. He perfected the photographs, made them look like modern portraits and spread them all over Georgia for free. His studio, ”Sasuratkhato”, became a gathering place for Georgian celebrities. Professional actors and amateurs often held rehearsals there. Akvsenti Tsagareli:”It was high time to establish a theatre company. some people emerged who strongly supported this initiative, among them was Alexsandre Roinashvili…” “Sasuratkhato” was a predecessor of the Society for Dissemination of Literacy among Georgians,to

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ICON which later Roinashvili left his photo archives and all his property. Alexandre Roinashvili’s will: I leave all my property, including a photographic institution, all the negatives, cameras, photographs, also all the archaeological and antique objects as a legal property to the Society for Dissemination of Literacy among Georgians. Roinashvili moved to Telavi. He took photographs of architectural monuments of Kakheti and collected

I LEAVE ALL MY PROPERTY, INCLUDING A PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, ALL THE NEGATIVES, CAMERAS, PHOTOGRAPHS, ALSO ALL THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTIQUE OBJECTS AS A LEGAL PROPERTY TO THE SOCIETY FOR DISSEMINATION OF LITERACY AMONG GEORGIANS historical and ethnographical objects.He intended to open the Georgian National Museum. Roinashvili’s letter to Dimitri Bakradze: “I enjoy obtaining and purchasing such items so much, that I could easily do without most of the things, if only it helps me to add something special to my collection. Owing to my enthusiasm I have been able to get 600 pieces and I am going to organize a mobile museum”. He travelled from Kakheti to Dagestan and stayed in Temirkhashura for eight years. By 1880s Roinashvili became the owner of such a significant collection that he was elected a member of Emperor’s Petersburg Archaeological Society, which ordered him to produce photo albums of Caucasian landscapes and genotypes. Roinashvili was awarded the Emperor’s prizes for his works. Georgian “Karachokheli”

He organized the exhibition of Caucasian antiquities in Dagestan and travelled with it to Astrakhan, Saratov, Petersburg and Moscow.


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ICON Zakaria Eristavi and Alexandre Roinishvili. Dagestan 1887

The magazine “Novoye Vremya”(‘The New Times’): In the hotel “Belle Vue” Mr.Roinashvili presents to the audience the antiquities and rarities collected by him in the Caucasus…”. The exhibition contains plenty of interesting materials for all branches of archaeology, for future scientists and investigators. Roinashvili returned to Tbilisi. He became a member of several cultural and public organizations and carried out enormous charitable activities.He paid great attention to educational and library matters, opened a boarding school, enrolled 17 pupils, provided them with free accommodation and gave them free lessons in the art of photography. Herewith Roinashvili collected the patterns of Georgian national handicraft, fought for restoration of traditional needlework and employed women artisans. Rescuing and revival of folk art became a permanent object of his care. He tried to establish the Georgian National Museum, commissioned the design to an architect P. Shtern, printed its postcards and disseminated them among the people. Unfortunately this project remained unfulfilled. To commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the Krtsanisi Battle, he printed and distributed all over Georgia 2000 photographs of King Erekle. By that time Roinashvili owned three photo studios in Tbilisi: “Sasuratkhato”, “Rembrandt” and “Comradeship”. He collaborated with the French magazine “La Caucase Illustre” and with Georgian publishing houses. 1898, 11 May: On the day when Roinashvili was planning to send the inventory and some books to Dusheti library he felt unwell and died three hours later. His last words were: “I wish a man knew when he will die”.

Present column is prepared on the basis of book “Aleksandre Roinishvili” the Aouthor of project Lika Mamacashvili Winter

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How would you define your style? Style is a general term that represents character of the artist, my idea, performance, period and communication manner, my personal view concerning the environment and the processes around me; Style is an image that cannot be found somewhere on the street – it is gradually developed in together with the person and is a result of constant effort, love of the work and devotion. All the above mentioned built up my style, which actually is a visual identity of my personality.

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Giga Kobidze Winter

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PORTFOLIO

Giga kobidze A young Digital Artist, Illustrator and Graphic Designer living the dream and passion in Georgia. Working on various projects all around the world. Inspired by a myriad of inputs. CREATIVE FIELDS & SKILLS Digital Art, Art Direction, Graphic Design, Illustration, Typogaphy, Motion Graphics, Painting, drawing, Package Design, Print Design, Multimedia, Web Design, Photo Manipulation, Creative Direction...

PUBLICATION & FEATURES The Book Of Creation ( FR ) NeverLayzy MAG TWOFOLD Magazine ( UK ) Fogged Clarity CityID

Features On The Web designcollector.net onlycreative.com lookinart.net creativebite.net themagentalinks.com whitezine.com designspiration.ne bcreative.al robotactivate.com sharesomecandy.com ffffound.com ghostroom.net awesomator.net inspiration.visualassault.be shadowness.com designloops.com boxandline.us citid.net

g1gakobidze@gmail.com Twitter: @GIGABIT Web: be.net/g1gab1t Winter

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GALLERY

Cloisonné Enamel A Cloisonné enamel art in Georgia goes back to the Middle Ages. The Georgian art of this period is recognized as a part of the Byzantine culture, although cloisonné enamel art, as the other fields of art, manifested itself in a very original

way. An ancient art form, cloisonné enamel was devoted especially for the Church. In the treasure house of the Geor-

gian National Museum in Tbilisi, there is a rich collection of works from the 8th -15th centuries, as significant as the

collections of the largest museums in the world. Some exemplary pieces of Georgian cloisonné enamel are exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Cluny Museum in Paris. The secret of

cloisonné enamel technique was lost in the 15th century and was only restored in the

creative works of a very few artists in the 1940s. Along with traditional Christian subjects, work of secular character appeared at the end of the 20th century. By the 1990s, cloisonné enamel was becoming very popular. The first group and personal exhibitions were held, cloisonné enamel workshops were established so that many artists can learn this ancient technique. Moreover, many artists participate in an enamel club, set up in 2000. Georgian cloisonné enamel artists have taken part in international exhibitions and contests. More than once honorary prize was awarded to Georgians (Barcelona, Tokyo, Baltimore, Morez). For the development and integration of Georgian enamel art into

the world the 1st and 2nd international Biennial “A New Wave” event was organized in Tbilisi in 2004 and 2006, in which enamel artists from many countries took part. The art of cloisonné enamel is an extremely intricate technique. Contemporary Georgian artists incorporate modern and individual designs to this ancient art form. Their work is distinguished for their highly artistic value, rich creative imagination and original color combinations. Cloisonné Enamel Art refers to a particular technique that uses a “cloisonné” - a thin strip of wire that is welded to a precious metal (silver or gold) plate. To create cloisonné enamel artwork requires a combination of artistic and sophisticated craftsman’s skills.Itisacomplextechnologybasedonthehightemperatureburningofmetalandpaints.Eachpartitionedhollow is gradually filled with a specially prepared colored glass powder, and then baked in an oven. Every color requires a fixed temperature, the range of which varies from 800 to 1200 Celsius. It usually takes four to six weeks to complete a relatively small piece. 98

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Art Truly Georgian

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National Centre of Manuscripts

1/3 Merab Alexidze Street, 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia Tel.: (995 322) 36 41 85 Fax: (995 322) 36 32 41 info@manuscript.ac.ge www.manuscript.ge


Special Project

PROFESSIONAL PUPPET-MAKERS


Special Project

As against some of the other Georgian museums, the Tbilisi Museum of Dolls may not be attractive to the connoisseurs of the antiquities. However, we pride ourselves in the unique exhibits, and you will hardly find such exhibition elsewhere in Georgia or in other countries. The Museum houses about 3000 unique dolls and other toys arriving in Georgia from over forty countries. Each of them has its own story. The antique dolls and toys made by the Georgian craftsmen or professional puppet-makers, musical, motion dolls, the antique furniture and the other items of visual and applied art depict the history of Georgia of the last three centuries and testify to the country’s close ties with the outside world even in the hardiest times.

A German doll, 1903


Special Project

Nana Okruashvili

T

he Tbilisi Museum of Dolls initiated by Ms. Tinatin Tumanishvili, a versatile teacher and a children’s writer was founded in 1936 by the order issued by the State Committee for Education and opened in 1937. It was owing to Ms. Tumanishvili’s dedication, talent and a good taste that the Museum came into being and shaped out in a very attractive place. It is somewhat surprising that the Museum was conceived at one of the toughest times of the Georgian history, the years marked with the Communist terror, permeated with fear and annihilation of the traditional values. Why did the persecuted people show a whole-hearted support to the concept? Was it the desire to escape the bleak reality or create a sanctuary for the traditional values? It was those repressed people that encouraged Ms. Tinatin Tumanishvili to carefully select the collection for the would-be Museum. At first, there were just a few exhibits: Ms. Tumanishvili’s donations and family relics in it. She was always on the look-out for the items that may have been displayed in the Museum, those preserved by her friends belonging to the upper walks of life in the pre-Soviet times. In order to avoid the stigma of the “enemy of the people”, those were glad to get rid of the luxury items setting them apart from the rest of the public. Such families would sell or donate to the Museum their toys, antique furniture etc. beautiful items they cherished so much. Where and how were our exhibits made? How did some of them

Japanese dolls of the XIX century

Pulchinello


Special Project lend in Georgia? Do they have much in common with the Georgian dolls and how did they come to the Museum? Some of the stories are better known, while the others fell into oblivion along with their final owners. Some wonderful, mysterious characters are going to be your guides in your journey to Georgia of the last few centuries and nowadays. Our European collection includes the dolls made by nearly all the distinguished European puppet-makers of the early XIX century. The swimming girl, a unique clockwork toy of the late XVIII century arrived at the Museum in 1943. Whole ensemble of the handmade German dolls the author is unknown (early XIX century). No-one knows how the jolly “Pulcinello” arrived from Sicily to Georgia. Neither do we know anything about the German “Clown” emitting beautiful sounds.

Chshang -Cingu. XX century

Here is the story of a tiny German doll of 1913: Mr. Vasil Kobakhidze, the owner of a restaurant and a French ice-cream café in the garden “Samaya” in Tbilisi would go on regular business trips in Europe. It was from there that he brought the small doll for his daughter who is said to have been unlucky in love. Later, she presented the doll to her niece who fell for her like her aunt had. Curiously enough neither the second owner of the doll had much luck in her private life. Although, there were some children growing in her family, the elderly woman who perhaps wanted it to be well tended to, decided to donate the doll to the Museum in 2009 or was it because she wanted to protect the family members from her own or her aunt’s bad luck.

Princess Elizabeth A gift by Gretta Peters de Roy, 1989. Ms. Gretta Peters de Roy from Holland, was taken over to the Museum in Tbilisi, she was so delighted by the exhibits that on her return home, she sent “Princess Elizabeth” as the gift to Georgian museum, the doll was made herself. And this small girl arrived from America in 1980s during the Cold War. She was donated by Ms. Audrey R. Femer, the American visitor. On her return home, she imparted her impressions to her fellow members of the Gateway Doll Study Club of St. Louis, Missouri who decided to donate the much loved 1930 collection Shirley to the Tbilisi Museum. That’s how the Georgians got to know the Western icon -Shirley Temple, a lovely girl known merely to the Soviet film critics.

’’Princess Elizabeth” A gift by Ms. Gretta Peters and Roy, 1989.

Now let’s throw a glance at the Far East, Japan, with the doll or ningios ( in Japanese)being one of its wonders. The Japanese dolls made at the turn of the XVIIIXIX centuries, now a rarity have been preserved in our collection since 1940s. Recently, Ms. Junco


Special Project

Shirley Temple-1930, the 1988 gift by Ms. Audrey R. Femmer of the Gateway Doll Study Club.

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”Rezo” - A puppet made Ms. Nino Brailashvili, 1942


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A clown- AGerman Musical Toy of the Early XIX century.

Kamohara, the wife of the Japanese Ambassador in Georgia, ordered the doll kimonos made from the old style cloths for reviving the ceremonious dressing of ningios . Mr. Isamu Azechi, the Ambassador’s advisor donated three beautiful Japanese dolls. I want to underline the collection of Chinese dolls preserved with us since 1940s. This collection have been replenished as a result of the donations made by Ms. Mali Lu-Kandareli Kwangwen. The family of Ms. Mali Lu has associated with Georgia for a couple of centuries. Mr. Lao Jonjao, her grandfather was invited here to introduce the tea crop with his descendants, still dedicated to the intercultural ties. A doll from India was donated by Mr. Krishnan Chandr, the Indian writer during his visit in Georgia. A bigger part of the collection: dolls and toys (including the clockwork ones) were ordered by Ms. Tinatin Tumanishvili, the founder of the Museum. The clockwork dolls made by the local puppetmakers rival their European counterparts. The Museum also houses the toys of the Soviet times with their specific artistic vision. Museum collection is replenished continuously, with a number of worthy dolls arriving recently. The Museum is in touch with some of the contemporary Georgian artists. The modern Georgian puppetmaking art is the fusion of national, oriental and western cultural elements, this is the unique character of our culture as the existing culture on the crossroad.

Kimekom- A Japanese Doll of the 1950’s, A Gift by Isamu Azechi.

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Gourme’t

“Supra” “Lobio” (Red Beans), it is said to have its origins in the area known today as Georgia. The dish most likely predates any division of the lands into countries or republics. As with many Georgian dishes, “Lobio” is spicy, but not necessarily hot. One of the traditional recipes for “Lobio” does not call for hot peppers but relies solely on ground black pepper for its spice. While there are many ways of making “Lobio”, the earliest is undoubtedly the clay pot. Red kidney beans would be put in the pot with water and spices and allowed to sit overnight. The following day, the pot would be placed over a fire or, if available, in a small exposed oven, and the beans slowly cooked. At the appropriate stages, meat and other vegetables would be added to cook. The cooked “Lobio” would then be served in the clay pot, along with flat bread. In this form, “Lobio” resembles early dishes that start with a basic ingredient such as a starch, legume, or wheat, which is then cooked with whatever other foodstuffs and flavorings are available. The fewer available foodstuffs, the more beans are added. An early recipe for “Lobio” calls for soaking the kidney beans in water with two mashed cloves of garlic, and a handful of basil, mint, and parsley. After soaking, the beans would be cooked in this same water. Once cooked, any excess water was drained; oil was added along with meat, vegetables, and tomatoes. This was then cooked slowly until the meat and vegetables were done (often, the water would be retained to make up for a lack of oil). Sometime in the early 19th century, “Lobio” was transformed as part of fondness of the Russian aristocracy for elaborate dinner parties that began with a full table of hors d’oeuvres, and then proceeded through at least six courses. “Lobio” became an appetizer. In this form, the beans were soaked and cooked, without spices, and then mashed into a paste. This paste was combined with finely minced onion, cilantro (or other available herbs with a sharp flavor) and combined with olive oil and lemon juice. Into this, a great deal of ground black pepper was added. The final product was then allowed to sit for a minimum of six hours. It was then served on either toasted bread or a flat bread. Throughout much of Russia today, this appetizer is what is known as “Lobio”.

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Gourmet’t

Recipe of Cooking “Lobio” with Walnuts The recipe of cooking is different such as: “Lobio” Soap, “Lobio” in a Clay Pot, and “Lobio” with Walnuts and Spices. Ingredients: Lobio -500 gr. Walnuts -1 cup Wine vinegar - 3 tablespoons Garlic-5 cloves Coriander, Cilantro, parsley-10 gr. Directions The recipe of cooking is different such as: “Lobio” Soap, “Lobio” in a Clay Pot, and “Lobio” with Walnuts and Spices. Dishes of Lobio can be served both hot or cold. Place Lobio into a pot and cover with water. If you take fresh beans, the cooking time is two hours; in case of canned beans, the cooking time is 40 minutes. Later on, add Salt and red Pepper to taste, the above-mentioned spice and serve it hot.

“Elargi” “Elargi” is a mix of a corn meal and a cheese. By tradition, at Georgian “Supra”, this main dish is brought with different dressings: “Bazhe” w(A Walnut Sauce) or “Lobio”. Ingredients : Grounded Corn -1 cup Corn Meal - 4 tablespoons “Sulguni”(Traditional Georgian Cheese) - 700gr. Water - 4 cups Directions At first, place 4 cups of water and 1 cup of grounded corn into a tin pot. Allow it to boil for a few minutes. Reduce heat to low and simmer, until mixture thickens. Stir it occasionally to prevent from burning, cut the cheese into small pieces and add them equally. Boiling this mixture until the cheese is melted completely. Serve it hot.


GUIDE

EMBASSY

Fax: (+995 32) 244 73 64

CHINESE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC EMBASSY,

Tbilisi, 37d T. Tabidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 291 49 70, 291 49 71, 291 49 72 Fax: (+995 32) 295 49 78, 291 49 80

Tbilisi, 12a Kipshidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 225 39 61 Fax: (+995 32) 225 11 86

CZECH REPUBLIC - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 37 Chavchavadze Ave., b. 6 , Tel: (+995 32) 291 67 40, 291 67 41, 291 67 42 Fax: (+995 32) 291 67 44

ESTONIA - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 4 Likhauri lane Tel: (+995 32) 236 51 22, Fax: (+995 32) 236 51 38

GREECE REPUBLIC - EMBASSY

IRAN ISLAMIC REPUBLIC EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 80 Chavchavadze Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 291 36 56, 291 36 57, 291 36 58 Fax: (+995 32) 291 36 28

ITALIAN REPUBLIC EMBASSY

EU MONITORING MISSION

Tbilisi, 3a Chitadze St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 64 18 Fax: (+995 32) 299 64 15

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 7d Krtsanisi St. Tel: (+995 32) 275 21 11 Fax: (+995 32) 275 21 12

Tbilisi, 49 Krtsanisi Tel: (+995 32) 224 37 18, 224 37 10

Tbilisi, 20 Telavi St. Tel: (+995 32) 244 73 00, Fax: (+995 32) 244 73 64

GREECE REPUBLIC - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 37d T. Tabidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 291 49 70, 291 49 71, 291 49 72, Fax: (+995 32) 295 49 78, 291 49 80 www.greekembassy.ge

ESTONIA - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 4 Likhauri lane Tel: (+995 32) 236 51 22, Fax: (+995 32) 236 51 38

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 20 Telavi St. Tel: (+995 32) 244 73 00,

JAPAN - EMBASSY

KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 20 Telavi St. Tel: (+995 32) 227 62 00 Fax: (+995 32) 227 62 32

KINGDOM OF SWEDEN EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 12 T. Tabidze St Tel: (+995 32) 255 03 20 Fax: (+995 32) 225 12 26

KINGDOM OF DENMARK HONORARY CONSULATE

Tbilisi,7 N.Nikoladze St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 81 15, (+995 77) 574 40 01 Fax: (+995 32) 292 35 33

KINGDOM OF BELGIUM HONORARY CONSULATE

Tbilisi, 24 Kazbegi Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 246 52 00 Fax: (+995 32) 246 52 00

To Georgia

REPUBLIC OF FRANCE EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 4 Odessa St. Tel: (+995 32) 224 48 58 Fax: (+995 32) 238 14 06

LATVIA REPUBLIC - MBASSY

Tbilisi, 15 Gogebashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 99 76, 293 42 10 Fax: (+995 32) 295 33 75

LITHUANIA REPUBLIC EMBASSY

REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 25 Abuladze St. Tel: (+995 32) 291 29 33, 25 81 00 Fax: (+995 32) 222 17 93

NORWAY HONORARY CONSULATE

Tbilisi, 20 Abasheli St. Tel: (+995 32) 229 09 79 Fax: (+995 32) 229 35 53

PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 52 Barnov St. Tel: (+995 32) 225 26 70

REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 4 Tetelashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 17 23, 295 94 43 Fax: (+995 32) 96 42 87

REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN EMBASSY

Tbilisi, Kipshidze St., q. 2, b. q Tel: (+995 32) 225 35 26, 225 35 27, 225 26 39 Fax: (+995 32) 225 00 13

REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 61 Agmashenebeli Ave.

Georgian - American restaurant “Vera Steakhouse. 37a Kostava St. Tbilis. www.verasteakhouse.ge

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Tel: (+995 32) 291 01 94, 91 01 95 Fax: (+995 32) 291 02 70

Tbilisi, 83 Lvovi St. Tel: (+995 32) 239 90 08 Fax: (+995 32) 239 90 04

REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN EMBASSY

Tbilisi,23 Shatberashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 76 84 Fax: (+995 32) 229 24 24

REPUBLIC OF POLAND EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 19 Zubalashvili Brothers St. Tel: (+995 32)292 03 98 Fax: (+995 32) 292 03 97

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 35 Chavchavadze Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 225 20 72 Fax: (+995 32) 222 06 66

ROMANIA - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 7 Lvov St. Tel: (+995 32) 238 53 10 Fax: (+995 32) 238 52 10

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUSSIAN FEDERATION INTERESTS SECTION AT THE EMBASSY OF SWITZERLAND)

Tbilisi, 51 Chavchavadze Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 291 26 45 Fax: (+995 32) 291 27 38

SPAIN HONORARY CONSULATE

Tbilisi, 29 I. Abashidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 235 58 35

EMBASSY OF ISRAEL TO GEORGIA

154 Agmashenebeli ave. Tbilisi 0112 Tel: (+995 32) 255 65 00

SWISS CONFEDERATION EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 11 Krtsanisi St. Tel: (+995 32) 275 30 01, 75 30 02 Fax: (+995 32) 275 30 06

UKRAINE - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 75 Oniashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 231 11 61 Fax: (+995 32) 231 11 81

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 4 Freedom Sq. Tel: (+995 32) 227 47 47 Fax: (+995 32)227 47 92

USA - EMBASSY

Tbilisi, 11 Balanchini St. Tel: (+995 32) 227 70 00 Fax: (+995 32) 227 77 01

VATICAN (THE HOLY SEE)

Tbilisi, Nutsubidze plateau 2m/d,40 Zhgenti St. Tel: (+995 32) 253 76 01, 253 76 04 Fax: (+995 32) 253 67 04

Entering Dzveli Sakhli, you seem to travel in the Old Tbilisi of XIXceturies


GUIDE

HOTELS

SHERATON BATUMI

(+995 250) 27 30 30

TETNULDI

Restaurant- 29 I. Abashidze St. Tbilisi

tel: (+995 90) 512 33 44

restaurant-7 Gorgasali St. Tbilisi

3 Metekhi slope, Tbilisi

BUFFET - ITALIAN CUISINE

Georgian Restaurant Beliashvili St. Tbilisi tel: (+995 95) 243 10 20

Svaneti-Mestia, Margiani str.9 Batumi, Vazha-Pshavela str.2 Tbilsi, Rousen square Tel: (+995 32) 240 22 00

RADISSON BLU HOTEL, BATUMI

INTOURIST BATUMI PALACE

Batumi, E.Ninoshvilis str. 11 tel: (+995 222) 7 55 25

CITADINES

Tbilisi, Freedom square 4 Tel: (+995 32) 254 70 30

HOLLIDAY INN

BAGRATI

Kutaisi, A.Cereteli 2a tel: (+995 331) 4 75 76

SPORT HOTEL GUDAURI

Gudauri

SHERATON METECHI PALASE

Gudauri

POLSPORT

Bakuriani, Didveli (Close to Tatra-puma lift)

MARRIOTT TBILISI

Tbilisi, 26 May square1 (+99532) 293 14 04

Tbilisi, Telavi str. 20 tel: (+995 32) 277 20 20

Telavi, I. Chavchavadze str.154 tel: (+995 32) 272 90 09, (+995 99) 531 69 28,

31 I. Abashidze St. Tbilisi

CARAVAN - LITERARY ARTCAFÉ

10 Purtseladze St. Tbilisi

CHINA TOWN - CHINESE RESTAURANT

Dzveli Sakhli –Georgian Restaurant - 3 Sanapiro St. Tbilisi

Tbilisi, Rustaveli ave 13 tel: (+995 32) 277 92 00

RESTAURANTS, BARS,CAFES

Betsy’s hotel is an exquisitely decorated boutique hotel overlooking the center of Tbilisi.Tbilisi Makashvili str.32/34 www.betsyshotel.com

MISSONI – LOUNGE,

Cocktail Bar - 11 Erekle II St. Tbilisi

OLD METEKHI PHAETON –

PUR PUR

1 A. Tbileli st. Tbilisi

10’ A

Salve – French cuisine

SAKURA

Japanese Restaurant - 29 I. Abashidze St. Tbilisi

TSISKVILI

IN THE SHADOW OF METEKHI

Georgian Restaurant The Right Bank of the R. Mtkvari. Tbilisi tel: (+995 32) 253 07 97

KALA – CAFÉ

Club-Restaurant - 7 Bambis Rigi St. Tbilisi

KGB - CAFE WITH SOVIET INTERIOR

American/Georgian Restaurant -37a Kostava St. Tbilisi

L’EXPRESS - FRENCH CAFE

Asian Restaurant - 29 I. Abashidze St. Tbilisi

Georgian Restaurant-29 K. Tsamebuli Ave. Tbilisi tel: (+995 32) 277 93 83 8/10 Erekle II St. Tbilisi tel: (+995 99) 279 97 37

RCHEULI VILLA

RCHEULI MARANI

BREAD HOUSE- GEORGIAN

on Chardin Street- 12 Chardin St. Tbilisi

Tbilsi, Freedom square 4 Tel: (+995 32) 277 91 00 Fax: (+995 32) 277 91 10

Batumi, N. Zhordania str. 31 tel: (+995 32) 272 90 09, (+995 99) 31 69 28, (+995 222) 7 07 07

BELLE DE JOUR - FRENCH

CHARDIN 12 RESTAURANT

CARPE DIEM

COURTYARD MARRIOTT –

Batumi .1 Ninoshvili Street 6000 Batumi Tel: +995 422 255 555 Fax: +995 422 228 888

MATRYOSHKA – SLAVIC

cuisine- Hero’s Square, Tbilisi

PIROSMANI

Signagi, Central square tel: (+995 255) 4 30 30

RADISSON BLU IVERIA

ANTRE

Batonebi - American café 64 Paliashvili st. Tbilisi

8/10 King Erekle St. Tbilisi

14 Chardin St. Tbilisi

MASPINDZELO - SAKHINKLE

Restaurants Network - 7 Bambis Rigi St. Tbilisi tel: (+995 32) 230 30 30

TWO SIDE

VERA STEAK HOUSE

VONG

DINNING ROOM

38, Paliashvili Street Tbilisi, Georgia tel: (+995 32) 225 09 00

Citadines Freedom Square Tbilisi is the first Apartment Hotel in Georgia. http://www.citadines.com/georgia/tbilisi/freedom_square.html

Winter

117


GUIDE 10 A

Abanotubani, Tbilisi, Georgia tel: (+995 32) 272 00 21

CLUBS TWO SIDE PARTY-CLUB

Tbilisi, 7 Bambis rigi St., reservation: Tel: (+995 32) 230 30 30

BAMBA ROOMS

Tbilisi, 12 Bambis rigi Tel: (+995 32) 243 99 77

BEATLES CLUB

Tbilisi, 25 Kostava St. Tel: (+995 32) 292 09 50

CITY CLUB

Tbilisi, 22 Metechi St., I fl. Tel: (+995 92) 532 32 32

NIGHT CLUBS CLUB 33A

Tbilisi, 76 Chavchavadze Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 222 51 33

Tel: (+995 90) 521 21 21, (+995 95) 221 21 21

Tel: (+995 32) 269 66 47, 269 66 51

NIGHT FLIGHT

THEATERS

Tbilisi, Baratashvili bridge, Mtkvari Right embankment Tel: (+995 32) 292 30 17 Fax: (+995 32) 292 30 16

SAFE

Tbilisi, 2 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 293 58 11, 93 18 40 Fax: (+995 32) 293 31 15

CINEMA

Tbilisi, 8 Merjanishvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 35 82

AMIRANI

G. MICKELADZE STATE TOY THEATRE

Tbilisi, 11 Rkinis rigi Tel: (77) 522 02 82

FINGERS THEATRE

Tbilisi, 36 Kostava St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 99 55, Fax: (+995 32) 293 38 71

CACHE - CINEMA CLUB

Tbilisi, 18 Nikoladze St. Tel: (+995 32) 225 05 80

CACHE - CINEMA CLUB

Tbilisi, 9 Kiacheli St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 05 51, (+995 99) 544 08 18

CINEMA HOUSE

GURU

Tbilisi, 44 Chavchavadze Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 229 25 34, (+995 97) 290 14 94

KALAKURI

Tbilisi, 13 Shavteli St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 66 83 Fax: (+995 32) 292 24 96

MOVIE TIME

RUSTAVELI

Tbilisi, 5 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 292 03 57, 292 02 85, Fax: (+995 32) 255 50 00

SAKARTVELO

MAGTI CLUB

Tbilisi, 22 Rustaveli Ave.

Tbilisi, 2/9 Guramishvili Ave.

Tbilisi, 64 Guramishvili Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 261 84 26, 261 84 13

INDEPENDENT THEATRE

Tbilisi, 64 Paliashvili St. Tel: (+995 90) 222 64 64

Tbilisi, 12 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 38 03, (+995 93) 522 20 60

Tbilisi,103Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 295 69 03 Fax: (+995 32) 295 17 13

G. SHAVGULIDZE THEATRE SAKHIOBA

WHY NOT

Tbilisi, 45 Kostava St. Tel: (+995 91) 568 88 00

A. GRIBOEDOV RUSSIAN STATE DRAMA THEATRE

Tbilisi, 2 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 58 21 Fax: (+995 32) 293 31 15

K. MARJANISHVILI STATE ACADEMIC THEATRE

Tbilisi, 8 Marjanishvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 35 82 Fax: (+995 32) 295 40 01

KAKHA BAKURADZE MOVEMENT THEATRE

KONSTANTINE GAMSAKHURDIA SOKHUMI STATE DRAMA THEATRE

Tbilisi, 11a Leonidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 74 27, (+995 99) 257 95 92

M. TUMANISHVILI CINEMA ACTORS THEATRE

Tbilisi,164 Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 235 31 52, 234 28 99, 235 70 13 Fax: (+995 32) 235 01 94

MEORE SAKHLI (THE SECOND HOME)

Tbilisi, 60 Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 295 78 22

MUSIC AND DRAMATIC STATE THEATRE

Tbilisi,182 Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 234 80 90, 234 79 59 Fax: (+995 32) 234 80 90

NABADI - GEORGIAN FOLKLORE THEATRE

Tbilisi, 19 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 99 91

NODAR DUMBADZE STATE CHILDREN`S THEATRE

Tbilisi, 99/1Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 295 50 67, 95 78 74 Fax: (+995 32) 296 32 89

ROYAL QUARTER THEATRE

Tbilisi,182 Agmashenebeli Ave. (Mushtaidi) Tel: (+995 99) 556 87 57

Tbilisi, 10 Abesadze St. Tel: (+995 32) 292 38 70 Fax: (+995 32) 299 61 71

abaSiZis 10/ 995 32 222222

Bar F1 - 10 Abashidze str. Tbilisi. Booking: (99532) 2252257

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To Georgia

Cocktail Bar - 11 Erekle II St. Tbilisi

S. AKHMETELI STATE DRAMATIC THEATRE

Tbilisi, 8 I. Vekua St. Tel: (+995 32) 262 61 97, 262 59 73

SH. RUSTAVELI STATE THEATRE

Tbilisi, 17 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 293 65 83, 293 18 94 Fax: (+995 32) 299 63 73

SOKHUMI CHILDREN’S THEATRE

Tbilisi, 8 Tetelashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 296 17 40

TBILISI STATE MARIONETTE THEATRE

Tbilisi, 26 Shavteli St. Tel: (+995 32) 298 65 89, 298 65 93 Fax: (+995 32) 298 65 89

TEATRALURI SARDAPI – RUSTAVELI

Tbilisi, 42 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 299 95 00

THEATRE – VERIKO

Tbilisi, 16 Anjaparidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 222 13 38, 299 98 96 Fax: (+995 32) 222 13 38

THEATRE OF PANTOMIME

Tbilisi, 37 Rustaveli Av. Tel: (+995 32) 299 63 14, (+995 77) 541 41 50

THEATRE ON ATONELI

Tbilisi, 31 Atoneli St. Tel: (+995 32) 293 32 38


YourGuide To The Legal Issues


GUIDE Z. PALIASHVILI TBILISI STATE THEATRE OF OPERA AND BALLET

Tbilisi, 25 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 32 48, 298 32 49 Fax: (+995 32) 298 32 48

BATUMI THEATRE

Batumi, Rustaveli str. 1

KUTAISI THETRE

Kutaisi, Agmashenebeli square 1

GALLERY ART AND ANTIQUE SALON

Tbilisi, 30 Leselidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 292 05 76

ART GALLERY LINE

Tbilisi, 7 Bambis Rigi; 44 Leselidze St.; Airport,

“PRIMECLASS” CIP LOUNGES

Tel: (+995 32) 250 85 80 Fax: (+995 32) 250 85 80

BAIA GALLERY

Tbilisi, 10 Chardin St. Tel: (+995 32) 275 45 10, (+995 99) 550 53 02

CAMEO

Tbilisi, 11 Rkinis Rigi Tel: (+995 32) 272 48 72, (+995 93) 531 92 66

CHARDIN

Tbilisi, 13 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 299 09 25

EVENT GALLERY

Tbilisi, 8/10 Erekle II St. Tel: (+995 32) 293 89 14

GALA

Tbilisi, 27 Atoneli St. Tel: (+995 32) 293 14 18

GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM - PICTURE GALLERY

Tbilisi, 11 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 48 14

GIA GALLERY

Tbilisi, 9 Griboedov St. Tel: (+995 32) 251 43 87, (+995 99) 546 32 72

GTM FRAME

Tbilisi, 10 Abashidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 223 21 07

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To Georgia

HOBBY

Tbilisi, 8 Chanturia St. Tel: (+995 32) 298 98 89, (+995 99) 556 99 71

KARVASLA’S EXHIBITION HALL

Tbilisi, 8 Sioni St. Tel: (+995 32) 292 32 27

KOPALA

Tbilisi, 7 Zubalashvilebi St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 99 02 Fax: (+995 32) 299 99 02

LA MAISON BLEUE - TEXTILE ART STUDIO

Tbilisi, 94 Barnov St. Tel: (+995 32) 223 21 16, (+995 93) 530 70 29

M GALLERY

Tbilisi, 11 Taktakishvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 225 23 34

MARCO

Tbilisi, 30/2 Leselidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 88 72, (+995 97) 574 33 00

MODERN ART GALLERY

Tbilisi, 3 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 21 33 Fax: (+995 32) 298 21 33

N GALLERY AND SANDRO ANTADZE

Tbilisi, 15 G. Akhvlediani St. Tel: (+995 32) 292 00 53, (+995 99) 590 33 09

NEWKAZ - TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

Tbilisi, 5 Janashia St. Tel: (+995 32) 223 37 56, (+995 99) 551 68 42 Fax: (+995 32) 223 37 56

ORNAMENT - ENAMEL GALLERY

Tbilisi, 103 Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 295 28 20, (+995 99) 550 20 80 Fax: (+995 32) 295 17 13

TEVDORE

Tbilisi, 6 Erekle II St. Tel: (+995 32) 298 98 56

VERNISAGE

Tbilisi, 17/6 Agmashenebeli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 291 00 24

MUSEUMS ANIMATION TOY`S MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 23 Amagleba St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 57 88

ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

Tbilisi, Agmashenebeli Alley Tel: (+995 32) 252 13 05

CINEMA HISTORICAL MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 88 I. Javakhishvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 34 74 79, 91 01 92

D. BAAZOV GEORGIAN JEWISH HISTORICAL ETHNOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM

Tbilisi,3Anton Catholicos St. Tel: (+995 32) 298 59 92, (+995 32) 298 90 62

DENDROLOGIC MUSEUM (BOTANIC GARDEN

Tbilisi, 1 Botanikuri St. Tel: (+995 32) 272 11 85 Fax: (+995 32) 272 34 09

E. AKHVLEDIANI HOUSEMUSEUM

GEORGIAN FOLK SONGS AND INSTRUMENTS’ MUSEU

Tbilisi, 6 Samgebro St. Tel: (+995 32) 245 77 20, (+995 32) 245 77 21

GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 3 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 299 71 76, 298 48 11 Fax: (+995 32) 298 21 33

GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM-PICTURE GALLERY

Tbilisi, 11 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 48 14

GEORGIAN OLYMPIC MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 2 Dolidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 236 57 23, 236 57 20

I.CHAVCHAVADZE HOUSEMUSEUM

Tbilisi, 22 Chubinashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 02 60

K.MARJANISHVILI STATE ACADEMIC THEATRE’S MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 8 Marjanishvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 294 00 76

MINERALS MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 27/1 Leselidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 298 92 89

MIRZA FATALI AKHUNDOV AZERBAIJANIAN CULTURE MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 17 Gorgasali St. Tel: (+995 32) 272 15 71, 275 35 30

MONEY MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 7 Erekle II St. Tel: (+995 32) 293 64 12 Fax: (+995 32) 298 90 13

Tbilisi, 12 Kiacheli St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 74 12

Tbilisi, 3/5 Leonidze St. Tel: (+995 32) 244 24 05, 244 24 06

PHOKANI - GALLERY OF PHOKA ST. NINO NUNNERY

FOLK AND APPLIED ARTS MUSEUM

NIKO PIROSMANASHVILI STATE MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 7 Bambis rigi Tel: (+995 32) 243 90 47, (+995 99) 597 60 51

Tbilisi, 28 Sh. Dadiani St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 97 22, (+995 32) 299 61 52

RUSTAVELI 34

GEORGE CHITAIA THE OPEN AIR ETHNOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 34 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 99) 573 17 30

RUSUDAN PETVIASHVILI`S GALLERY

Tbilisi, Kus tba highway 1 Tel: (+995 32) 272 90 46

Tbilisi, 29 Pirosmani St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 86 73

SH.AMIRANASHVILI STATE MUSEUM OF ARTS

Tbilisi, 1 Gudiashvili St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 99 09 Fax: (+995 32) 298 21 33

SH.RUSTAVELI ACADEMIC THEATRE’S MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 17 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 298 40 51

SIMON JANASHIA GEORGIAN MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 3 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 299 80 22 Fax: (+995 32) 298 21 33

SOVIET OCCUPATION MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 3 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 299 80 22 Fax: (+995 32) 234 86 51

STATE MUSEUM OF THEATRE, MUSEUM AND CINEMA

Tbilisi, 6 Kargareteli St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 19 00, 295 86 98

STATE SILK MUSEUM TBILISI

6 Tsabadze St. Tel: (+995 32) 234 09 67, 234 09 63 Fax: (+995 32) 234 09 67

TBILISI Z.PALIASHVILI OPERA AND BALLET STATE THEATRE’S

Museum Tbilisi, 25 Rustaveli Ave. Tel: (+995 32) 293 37 43

TOY’S MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 17 Shavteli St. Tel: (+995 32)2 99 53 37, 299 65 11

VAKHTANG CHABUKIANI MUSEUM

Tbilisi, 83/23 Agmashenebeli St. Tel: (+995 32) 295 19 63 Fax: (+995 32) 223 70 25

Z.PALIASHVILI HOUSEMUSEUM

Tbilisi, 10 Bakradze St. Tel: (+995 32) 299 81 16

THE NATIONAL CENTER OF MANUSCRIPTS,

1/3, M. Alexidze. Georgia,Tbilisi Tel.(+995 32) 236 41 85 Fax:(+995 32) 236 32 41 www. manuscript.ge


12 Chanturia str., 0108 Tbilisi, Georgia Tel: +995 32 433 433 +995 32 106 392 info@investingeorgia.org www.investingeorgia.org

121

Winter


INSIDER

2011 HAS BEEN A YEAR OF NEW STRATEGIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL INVESTMENT AGENCY What were key achievements of GNIA in 2011? Keti Bochorishvili, GNIA Director: “Success for us means investment attracted to Georgia, investment projects implemented, and Georgian products exported. GNIA entered the 2011 year with an understanding of the foundation needed to achieve these goals and has successfully laid that foundation. Our activities have included intensive PR, sector analysis, business plan development, conference participation, investor networking and engagement, the introduction of export linkages and promotion activities. We are pleased to report a number of accomplishments in these areas, and believe we will have a number of investments facilitated in 2012 as the result of our work” Throughout 2011, GNIA has conducted research on numerous sectors of the economy: IT technologies, agriculture, the automotive industry, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and others. Agency contractors have been leading, worldwide consulting companies such as PWC and local consulting firms with strong capabilities like as Komsa International. GNIA also identified those countries which present the most significant investment potential for Georgia in order to keep focus in our efforts. In total GNIA has made presentations on Georgia’s business climate and business opportunities at over 50 local and international events, meeting more than 2000 businesspeople and informing them on the business development opportunities in Georgia. While promoting Georgia’s reform accomplishments GNIA hosted visit of McKinsey & Company representatives,

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To Georgia

followed by leading Ukrainian TV channel “Inter” dedicating numerous TV report and two programmes to investment climate and business development opportunities in Georgia. GNIA has also prepared and marketed over 25 specific investment opportunity proposals. As a result so far, GNIA has facilitated a real estate privatization, an Anaklia investment, and major interest from Turkish apparel producers to establish production facilities in Georgia. Hoping that the apparel industry holds untapped potential, GNIA started an intensive works with European and US apparel/textile brands offering them various incentives to come and invest in Georgia. For this purpose, the agency has already launched www.apparel.ge a web page focusing on the Georgian apparel industry and current investment opportunities. GNIA has been cooperating with USAID-funded Economic Prosperity Initiative (EPI) and some of joint efforts have already yielded fruits. World known brands, like Roberto Cavalli and Koton ordered production to some local companies. Egyptian textile company plans to open large-scale plant and employ over 100 people.” Turkish company Elif Tekstil is planning to open apparel factory in the nearest future. Investors currently present in Georgia are highly satisfied with the business climate and successfully operate. Ajara Textile (Turkish investment) has concrete expansion plans. In nearest future the company will open a new factory employing 300 people. BTM textile also plans to introduce an additional production line for jeans what will need workforce of 120 employees. As for the film industry development thanks to agency efforts Indian producers have entered Georgian market and filmed a movie generating more than 1 million USD invest-

TWG Beverages Forum Opening Georgian Wines Being Awarded at Terravino 2011-International Wine Contest Ajara Textile Factory


The export support service of the agency which focused on the promotion of Georgian alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages had a highly successful year. As a result of ESS negotiations and contacts Georgian companies have enjoyed major recognition at two significant wine and spirits competitions. At Hong Kong International Wine and Spirits competition local producers of alcoholic beverages gained Trophy, 2 gold, 1 silver and 13 bronze medals, (16 in total) which was shortly followed by 19 medals at “Terravino 2011” Mediterranean International Wine Challenge, the only International wine and spirits competition organized in Israel. Georgian brands were awarded with one double Gold, nine Gold, six Silver and three special prizes. Efforts of GNIA culminated in facinating Beverages Tradeshow and Forum conducted in the end of November. For three days Tbilisi has become a single meeting point for more than 80 international traders, wine experts, Asian Media and representatives of 56 Georgian companies as the city hosted Trade With Georgia 2011 – Beverages Tradeshow and B2B Forum, a major event dedicated to the promotion of Georgian alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages.

12 Chanturia str., 0108 Tbilisi, Georgia Tel: +995 32 433 433 +995 32 106 392 info@investingeorgia.org www.investingeorgia.org

ments to Georgian economy. Three more movies are in pipeline and will be shot by spring 2012. Together with the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia GNIA initiated Georgian National Business Award which shortly gained recognition as one of the most prestigious awards in Georgia.


INSIDER

GEORGIA UPDATE 2012

In 2012 GNIA plans to become even more active advancing its investor relations and introducing investor’s aftercare system. It is anticipated that our investment projects portfolio will increase up to 50 projects. Our major objective will be reaching further and informing international society on Georgia’s one of most the favorable business climates in the world. At this stage GNIA has already planned 35 events out of which 29 are conducted abroad. The Geographic scope of GNIA activities will not be limited and Agency representatives will either organize or participate in thematic trade fairs, conferences or business forums in more than 20 countries across the globe. Export Support Service plans for 2012

dressing this issue with the following activities:

The Export Support Service of GNIA will be highly productive as well. ESS will introduce an export manager’s position on Georgia’s labor market. Besides it is planned to open export information centers. ESS will identify the priority export products and organize big scale trade fair tailored to one concrete product promotion.

GNIA addresses educational institutions accredited in Georgia to express their interest in implementation of the Export Management School project. The project embraces the introduction of the export management certification course to be conducted in the English language. The mission of the Export Management School project is to create the certified export training program (“the Program”) and to train the certified export managers who will study the quality assurance, marketing, export planning and commodity export procedures and will obtain the appropriate practical skills for implication of the gained knowledge in practice, in the course of the program.

The experience shows that the majority of export-oriented Georgian companies are lacking the skilled personnel in the export sphere that hinders both the export activity of those companies and the export growth of the country. Export Support Service of GNIA is ad-

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To Georgia

Nikoloz Gilauri Georgian Prime Minister Opening Georgia-Poland Business Forum Mikheil Saakashvili President of Georgia Awarding Mercury 2011 Winner Company SilknetPresident George Ramishvili


12 Chanturia str., 0108 Tbilisi, Georgia Tel: +995 32 433 433 +995 32 106 392 info@investingeorgia.org www.investingeorgia.org

To help Georgian companies with capacity building Export Support Service is creating the document “Exporter’s Guide” which will help SMEs with the first steps of exporting. This guide will be integrated in the website www.exports.ge and will be user friendly for the clients. The guide will be an answer to all the questions addressing the export procedures from Georgia to destination countries. “Exporter’s Guide” will be a first step to open the Export Service Center where GNIA staff will help customers with any inquiries coming from the local producers. Professional market researches will be conducted within the organization to help the companies with individual inquiries.

12 Chanturia str., 0108 Tbilisi, Georgia Tel: +995 322 433 433/ +995 322 106 392 enquiry@investingeorgia.org www.investingeorgia.org

Winter

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