High-High Quality Level and Flow Sensors at everyday Low-Low prices
ProSense® FTS Series Thermal Flow Sensors (Starting at $235.00) Offer a very cost-effective solution to monitor water, glycol, or air flow
ProSense® VFL Series Vibration Fork Level Switches (Starting at $137.00) Tuning fork technology detects reliable liquid point level for alarming and control applications
• No moving parts - advantage over mechanical versions • 4-digit display and easy pushbutton setup
• Ideal for applications where conductivity, turbulence, buildup, air bubbles, foam, pressure, temperature, and viscosity changes affect other switches
• Probe lengths of 100 mm or 200 mm • Two ﬂow or temperature outputs serve as limit switches or for continuous ﬂow rate / temperature monitoring
ProSense® Flow Switches, Flow Transmitters, and Flow Meters (Starting at $129.00) Offer low cost liquid media monitoring solution and provide reliable flow detection • Mechatronic Flow Switches • Mechatronic Flow Transmitters
• Available in two process connection sizes, two insertion lengths, standard and high temp constructions, and with a 3-wire DC switch output or a 2-wire AC/DC switch
Flowline® Reflective Technology™ EchoPod Ultrasonic Level Sensors (Starting at $405.00)
• Magnetic-Inductive Flow Meters
ProSense® Submersible Level Sensors (Starting at $309.00) Provide continuous liquid level measurement by sensing the hydrostatic pressure produced by the height of liquid above the sensor • Provides a 4-20 mA output signal that can be used with PLCs, panel meters, data loggers, and other equipment
Reflective Technology™ uses vertical surfaces to prevent most water droplets from adhering to the sensor surface • Maintains reliable level measurements in applications with condensation • No moving parts and corrosion resistant materials • Units with LCD display available
• Fail-free operation for applications with dirty, sticky or scaling liquids
• Easy setup via WebCal software (free download)
Research, price, and buy at: www.automationdirect.com/sensors
Order Today, Ships Today! * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2019 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.
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the #1 value in automation
AC Drives for LE$$
Quality Drives at AutomationDirect Prices.
• 1/4 to 1.5 hp, 115V (single-phase input)
• 1/4 to 3 hp, 230V
• 1/4 to 5 hp, 230V
WEG CFW300 STARTING AT
WEG Compact Size High Performance AC Drives Starting at $139.00 (CFW300A01P6S2NB20)
The WEG CFW300 variable frequency drive is a high performance VFD for three-phase induction motors. The CFW300 series features a compact size and is ideal for applications on machines or equipment that require precise control with easy setup and operation. The CFW300 includes a built-in keypad and SoftPLC with free WEG Programming Suite (WPS) software for customtailored control schemes. A variety of plug-in option modules for additional I/O and communications protocols can be added to extend capabilities. A remote keypad and flash memory module are also available.
Also Available AC Drives up to 300 hp
VFD Rated Motors
DC Drives and Motors
• V/Hz or sensorless vector control modes • PLC (built-in) • PID control (built-in) • 5 digital I/O (built-in) • 4 digital & analog I/O option modules (supporting additional digital, relay, analog, temperature and encoder signals) • Side-by-side mounting (no heat dissipation space required) • Optional Remote keypad • Optional RS-232 module (Modbus RTU) • Optional RS-485 module (Modbus RTU) • Optional USB module (for PC communications) • Fire mode • DIN rail or surface mount • Flash memory module for project transfer • One year replacement warranty • UL/CE listed
Research, price, buy at:
Order Today, Ships Today! * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2019 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.
input #2 at www.controleng.com/information
the #1 value in automation
input #3 at www.controleng.com/information
Vol. 66 Number 11
ANSWERS 16 | Workloads in the cloud for industrial manufacturers 20 | Get the right software purchasing fit for service requirements 24 | IT/OT convergence provides a path forward 27 | Make the IT/OT data connection
COVER: Software as a service offerings typically provide global access via many device types, including smartphones. Courtesy: Seeq
INSIGHTS 5 | Great engineering includes more than engineering NEWS
10 | Teaching skills with video games, Edge computing optimism 12 | Robots fill some skills gap; Ethernet group accepts 1 and 10 Gbits/s; Headlines Online: Safety group discourages cannabis use; AI research; grid monitoring; Hot topics: October 13 | Control panel building tips 14 | Think Again: Best practices matter when designing control systems
30 | IT/OT collaboration must drive digitalization 34 | Profit-driven operations require IT/OT integration 38 | Secure remote connections with cloud technologies 41 | The human asset in cybersecurity 44 | Physical and cybersecurity converge
Pg. 38: Courtesy: AutomationDirect
45 | Flowmeter market growth expected thanks to oil and gas industry recovery 47 | VFD: Swap it or upgrade? INSIDE PROCESS
P1 | Intelligent alarms create actions from noise P5 | Opening your options: Control system migration
CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 66, No. 11, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #325 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher/Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2019 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Perio dicals postage paid at Downers Grove, IL 60515 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #325 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Telephone: 630/571-4070. E-mail: email@example.com. Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #325 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #325 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $165/yr; Canada/Mexico, $200/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); International air delivery $350/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $30 US and $35 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #325 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.
Overworked? Tired of working nights and weekends on motion control projects? Itâ€™s time to contact an automation specialist at SEW-EURODRIVE to help solve your design challenges. Using the latest innovation, we provide a complete package from start to finish including, project planning, design, software, components, commissioning, and worldwide support. Go home . . . we got this!
seweurodrive.com / 864-439-7537 input #4 at www.controleng.com/information
INTEGRATOR UPDATE Stephen M. Goldberg, Matrix Technologies Inc.
Great engineering includes more than engineering Is that really an apples-to-apples quote comparison? System integration firms have audits based on best practices and benchmarks to ensure business and professional services are at the highest level.
hen seeking control system integration services, manufacturers usually want the best solution at the lowest price. The Control System Integrators Association offers certification to help ensure the comparison is apples to apples and that the lowest price is likely the best price. CSIA Certified Control System Integration companies and the independent certification companies use the CSIA Best Practices and Benchmarks, revision five, when auditing a member company for compliance.
CSIA Best Practices and Benchmarks
Companies determined on improving businesses submit to multiple audits to certify that businesses are performing services at the highest level of business and professional practice. Many CSIA members have contributed to the Best Practices and Benchmarks document, providing information needed to keep their businesses expertly tuned for all areas, including: 1. General management: Strategic management, organizational structure, facilities and equipment, computer systems management and corporate risk management 2. Human resources management: Administration, recruitment and selection, performance management, training and development, compensation and benefits and employee communication 3. Marketing, business development and sales management: Marketing plan, sales strategy 4. Financial management: Measures of performance, financial planning, billing procedures and tax policy 5. Project management, contract management, procurement management, planning, risk management, resource management, communications management, scope management, schedule management, budget management, change management, quality management and closure 6. System development lifecycle: Internal kickoff, requirements, design, development, unit/module and integration testing, factory acceptance testing, system shipping, installation, commissioning and site acceptance testing www.controleng.com
7. Supporting activities: Process development and maintenance, standards and templates, project methodologies, procurement management, risk management, configuration management and reuse management 8. Quality management: Continuous measurable improvement, client satisfaction measurement, client service and project quality assurance 9. Service and support: Strategic management, organizational structure, methodology and service management 10. Information systems management and cybersecurity: Information systems management, facilities and equipment and cybersecurity.
CSIA experiences, sharing
CSIA is important because manufacturers throughout the world have always needed help from contractors, consultants and system integrators to complete projects on time and within budget. Engineers and project managers at these corporations may only deal with one or two major projects a year. System integrators can deal with hundreds of projects per year. System integration firms have project managers, designers and engineers dealing with all aspects of projects from pre-engineering through support agreements. As manufacturing companies continue to shrink teams to improve the bottom line, more manufacturers need help. CSIA assembles the owners of many system integrators from around the world to share stories on how to succeed. System integrators also share what they learned from failures, to learn from mistakes, rather than repeat them.
Looking at the CSIA Executive Conference presentations from 1994 compared to 2019, there are similarities. Most sessions this year have resonating themes. In 1994, session titles and presenters included: • Pursuit of total customer satisfaction through world class leadership • Managing your most important asset: Selecting, motivating and evaluating your people • Trends in the marketplace: What is coming control engineering
M More INSIGHTS KEYWORDS: System
integrators, best practices CSIA offers best practices, benchmarks 25 years of educaton show that some topics are common History of information sharing helps system integrators avoid similar mistakes.
CONSIDER THIS If the engineering is secure, but providing company is not, does that lowest quote have long-term value?
ONLINE If reading from the digital edition, click on the headline for more resources. www.controleng.com/ magazine Also read: Improvement by association: engineers collaborate on best practices CSIA: www.controlsys.org
INTEGRATOR UPDATE >75,1(5552)69$4(342*4$04(57/652) 0(0%(45748(;
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System-integrated IIoT with standard PC-based control
www.beckhoff.us/Industrie40 Beckhoff provides the ideal foundational technologies for Industrie 4.0 and Internet of Things (IoT) applications via standard PC-based control. With the TwinCAT engineering and control software, machine control systems can be extended to support big data applications, cloud communication, predictive maintenance, as well as comprehensive analytical functions to increase production efďŹ ciency. As a system-integrated solution, TwinCAT IoT supports standardized protocols for cloud communication and enables the easy integration of cloud services right from the machine engineering stage. In addition to fault analysis and predictive maintenance, TwinCAT Analytics offers numerous opportunities to optimize machines and systems in terms of energy consumption and process sequences. input #5 at www.controleng.com/information
CSIA: Learning from history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ce Stephen M. Goldberg is a senior project engineer, Matrix Technologies Inc., which is a system integrator established in 1980 and a founding and certified member of the Control System Integrator Association (CSIA). CSIA is a CFE Media Content Partner. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, C21642/1*,1((4,1*CFE Media, email@example.com.
SENSE Is it cold in here or did your boss just walk in?
We have a sensor for that.
Shop Allied. It makes sense. input #6 at www.controleng.com/information
© Allied Electronics & Automation, 2019
input #7 at www.controleng.com/information
INNOVATIONS NEW PRODUCTS FOR ENGINEERS
57 | Industrial camera, Control loop diagnostics, Cabinet dome for WLAN protection, Hardness analyzer, Connectors and cables. See more New Products for Engineers at www.controleng.com/NPE.
BACK TO BASICS
58 | Getting the automation zone ‘just right’
NEWSLETTER: Information Control We have upgraded our newsletter to deliver a better overall experience for our subscribers. Go to www.controleng.com/newsletters to learn more. • Selecting HMI remote access options • Decode hybrid AI system potential • Teaching supercomputers to work smarter, not harder • Strengthening nuclear security with computational tools • OOIP Part 3: interfaces and methods. www.controleng.com/newsletters
CFE EDU: Catapult your career forward Earn learning units and discover exclusive content through videos, presentations and access to experts at CFE Edu, an ondemand education platform by CFE Media. • IIoT Series: Part 4: Machine Learning • IIoT Series: Part 3: Edge, Fog, and Cloud • Data-Driven Maintenance • Introduction to Cybersecurity within Cyber-Physical Systems • IIoT Series: Part 2, Current Issues and Applications Check out the course catalog today at cfeedu.cfemedia.com/catalog.
Control Engineering eBook series: SCADA & HMI Upgrading hardware and software HMI systems, open process automation, and five essential criteria for mobile HMIs are among eBook articles at: www.controleng.com/ebooks. Oil & Gas Engineering helps maximize uptime and increase productivity through the use of industry best practices and new innovations, increase efficiency from the wellhead to the refinery by implementing automation and monitoring strategies, and maintain and improve safety for workers and the work environment. Read the digital edition at www.oilandgaseng.com.
controleng.com provides new, relevant automation, controls, and instrumentation content daily, access to databases for new products and system integrators, and online training.
Video games teaching engineering skills The skills gap is often thought of as younger workers not having the knowledge they need to be ready for a job because the older workers are leaving. That’s partly true, according to Samer Forzley, CEO of Simutech Multimedia in his presentation, “Digitally Developing the Next Generation of Manufacturers with Gamificiation and 3-D Simulation,” at Process Expo at McCormick Place in Chicago. The truth is, the skills gap is a bit double-edged. Younger workers don’t have all the knowledge and skills needed, but older workers are falling behind technology advances. “The older people are facing technology challenges because there’s a lot of automation, and they don’t know how to deal with it,” Forzley said. Forzley highlighted four facts about the current state of manufacturing 25% of skilled labor is within 2 years of retirement; average staff retention rate is around 80%; Half of labor costs are health-related such as stress and accidents; 2.4 million jobs are unfilled, costing the economy $2.5 trillion. There are two very different perspectives on manufacturing and much of that, Forzley said, is tied to how they learn and apply that learning. Boomers and Gen X, he said, learned through memorization and
mentoring. They had concepts and ideas drilled into their heads in school, and when they got to the manufacturing floor, they learned from an older worker’s wisdom and knowledge. That doesn’t work with Millennials and Gen Z. These days, if a younger person has a question, they’ll use Google or YouTube to learn how something is done. It’s a different form of DIY, but valuable in its own way, Forzley said. Video games and simulations allow people to learn through doing. Forzley showed a video of everyday objects being programmed through electrical conduits to play games such as Super Mario Bros. by Nintendo, Pac-Man by Namco, and Dance Dance Revolution by Konami. Forzley’s company takes the video game concept and provides engineers of all ages and skill sets a safe and practical way of learning how things work. The company’s current game is focused on electrical equipment with future plans on a game for variable frequency drives (VFDs) in 2020. Forzley said, “When you’re going from passive to active, they learn more through retention. They retain the
Simutech Multimedia has a point-andclick game designed to provide a reallife simulation of what could happen on a manufacturing floor. Courtesy: Chris Vavra, CFE Media & Technology
knowledge by practicing through simulation. They sit in a simulator and practice before going on to the real thing.” Simutech Multimedia has developed a point-and-click game that is designed to provide a real-life simulation of what could realistically happen on a manufacturing floor. Electrical engineers act as the level designers, and they work out scenarios an engineer might face. Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media & Technology, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Survey respondents show edge computing optimism
dge computing has the ability to transform industrial automation processes, according to the “Edge Computing Trend” report from Stratus Technologies and CFE Media and Technology. The report is the first the first chapter in a global research series on the topic. By surveying 300 engineers, system integrators, and operational technology professionals in various industries in North America, highlights from the research include: • 66% of North American industrial operators are planning to implement edge computing solutions within the next 12 months • 63% of respondents consider device failure detection to be the most valuable use case for edge computing
• 51% of respondents position themselves as either early adopters or early actors of edge computing, while 38% of respondents position themselves as conservative, taking a “wait-and-see” approach. Edge computing puts computational resources at or near industrial processes, the report says, to relieve bandwidth constraints or latencies, improve system security and reliability. Edge computing can filter or process data so only what’s needed is transmitted between production control and enterprise systems and/or cloud-based resources, the report suggests. - Edited by CFE Media and Technology from information provided by Stratus.
PLCnext... Mind. Blown. Open your mind to a new state-of-the-art digital ecosystem that expands the use of a PLC in ways that will change the future of automation. Featuring open Linux, integrated HTML5 visualization, and seamless integration of high-level languages, PLCnext provides unlimited access to more data via IIoT systems, and more flexibility with open source code.
I I OT- R E A DY
ÂŠ PHOENIX CONTACT 2019
input #8 at www.controleng.com/information
R E V O L U T I O N A RY
Robots’ impact on manufacturing jobs The manufacturing industry is hoping industrial robots will be able to help fill the current and ever-increasing labor shortages. There are more job openings in manufacturing than skilled workers in the labor pool that can fill those positions. What is causing this shortage and how far does the impact reach?
Impact of the skills gap
Baby Boomers make up 27% of the manufacturing workforce and 10,000 are retiring each day. Unfortunately for manufacturers, millennials and Gen Xers are not interested in filling the jobs that are available. As a result, experts say there will be an enormous skills gap between 2018 and 2028. It’s estimated that 2.4 million positions will go unfilled. The impact of the skills gap on today’s manufacturing business is great. There is a direct bottom-line impact thanks to the shortage of manufacturing labor. Because of the shortage of workers, overtime is
increasing among current workers. The cycle time for manufacturing projects is increasing. Without workers to operate the equipment, downtime and machine utilization are increasing as well.
Manufacturing labor problem
Manufacturers are searching for a solution on how to solve the problem of manufacturing labor. They are offering incentives to keep Baby Boomers on the job, like increased pay, increased bonuses, part-time positions, and flex time. These last-ditch efforts are an attempt to keep Baby Boomers working once they reach retirement age. Industry leaders are doing their best to form partnerships with vocational and technical schools. They are offering apprentice programs or are partnering with schools for apprentice programs. Many are trying to lure candidates with Silicon Valley-level perks. They also are doing their best to change the perception
Ethernet group accepts addition to standard
he Technical Committee of the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG) has accepted EtherCAT G as an addition to the EtherCAT standard. Moving forward, EtherCAT G, which extends EtherCAT technology to 1 and 10 Gbit/s, will be supported and promoted by the ETG. EtherCAT G was introduced by Beckhoff Automation in 2018 as an extension of the EtherCAT standard. Beckhoff recently presented the gigabit technology addition to the ETG, and after thorough review, the organization’s Technical Committee accepted it. Right now, the ETG is working to add EtherCAT G to the corresponding technology specifications. EtherCAT G is useful in applications where particularly large amounts of process data must be transported per device. This can include, for example, machine vision, high-end measurement technology, or complex motion applications that go beyond the scope of drive control. The central element of EtherCAT G is the use of EtherCAT Branch Controllers and act as a kind of node for the integration of segments from 100 Mbit/s devices. They also enable parallel processing of the connected EtherCAT segments. This reduces propagation delays in the system, which increases system performance many times over previous levels. EtherCAT G is compatible with the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, and no software adaptions in controllers are required for the standard mode. - Edited from an EtherCAT Technology Group press release by CFE Media.
of manufacturing jobs. This is crucial because many manufacturing jobs now require advanced technical skills.
Robots and manufacturing
Contrary to popular belief, reports show that industrial robots do not take away jobs. In fact, more robots create more jobs. Fortunately, new robots can still provide hours of relief to the labor crisis going on right now and that has no signs of letting up for the next decade. New robots will be able to create savings in manufacturing. They’ll be able to perform tasks efficiently and do so with little or no downtime. New designs of industrial robots will create relief for the labor crisis in the coming years. This article originally appeared on the Robotics Online Blog. Robotic Industries Association (RIA) is a part of the Association for Advancing Automation (A3), a CFE Media content partner.
Headlines online Control Engineering hot topics, October The most-clicked articles in October 2019 at www.controleng.com included stories about the Engineers’ Choice finalists; PLC naming conventions; digital engineering practices; and RPC and model-based control. For six more, read this story online or, from the digital edition, click on the headline above. Motion control company gets new name SKF Motion Technologies, formerly part of the SKF Group, is now known as Ewellix: Makers in Motion. Framework developed to make AI more transparent North Carolina State University researchers propose a framework to help users understand artificial intelligence (AI) decisions. Electric grid monitoring tool University of Wisconsin-Madison research Safety group discourages cannabis use for safety-sensitive positions Events, webcasts Check out events at www.controleng.com/mediainfo and webcasts at www.controleng.com/webcasts and www.controleng.com/webcasts/past. www.controleng.com
Digital edition? Click on headlines for more details. See news daily at www.controleng.com
Control panel building tips
ptimizing control panel planning and designs increases efficiencies, decreases wiring and enables new opportunities for industrial digitalization. Mike Burke and Gerhard Flierl, control panel consultants with Siemens, explained that electrical planning can be complex and multifaceted, with many possibilities for improving efficiency. Efficiencies in control panel design include: 1. Use of electronic computer-aided design (ECAD) software features to help automate and optimize the design. 2. Setup of optimized data management. 3. Because engineering costs can account for half of a control panel’s cost, downloading and using information from the design simplifies creation of related documents and other types of data needed during electrical project engineering and documentation creation. 4. Reduction of engineering costs using ECAD software and other tools.
Many components, devices and systems can go into a control panel. Optimizing layout and design and then using the resulting information can save resources, time, and money. On the left is an industrial control panel with Siemens components; on the right is a large screen with a digital twin of the same. Courtesy: Siemens
5. Getting data from the panel quickly and easily saves costs and time. For more on these topics, industry experts from Siemens, Eplan, UL and CSA will host a Control Panel Online Symposium on Dec. 12 for electrical engineers, engineers or anyone involved in the design and manufacturing of industrial control panels. Edited from information provided by Siemens by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, email@example.com.
AZ Series )XAQHCÉ$NMSQNKÉ4XRSDLR
Rack & Pinion Systems
Compact Electric Cylinders
Open loop performance. Closed loop control. input #9 at www.controleng.com/information
EtherNet/IP is a registered trademark of ODVA, Inc.
orientalmotor.com firstname.lastname@example.org 800-468-3982
INSIGHTS THINK AGAIN
3010 Highland Parkway, Suite 325, Downers Grove, IL 60515. 630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504
Best practices matter when designing control systems
When lives depend on control system design (and even when they don’t), best practices matter. Here’s what I’d like control system designers to know.
Emily Guenther, Director of Interactive Media 630-571-4070, x2229, eguenther@CFEMedia.com
hen lives can recover safely, then the sysdepend on tem needs a sensor backup or an automattwo to provide data instead. ed control sysBest two-out-of-three (2oo3) tem, the system should fail voting designs decrease risk. safely. When components fail Education and in a control system, operators training matter should receive clear, immeMark T. Hoske, Information continue to diate guidance on status so proper decisions can be made Content Manager emerge in the Boeing 737 Max grounding, and some details immediately in manual mode. If a set of circumstances could occur seem contrary to what was said earlier. where the failure of one sensor causes a Through it all, I keep thinking: control system failure before operators • People get degrees in control engineering for a reason.
M More INSIGHTS
KEYWORDS: Critical control systems,
safety systems, single point of failure Control system design best practices Safety system design best practices Be a whistleblower if something doesn’t look right.
CONSIDER THIS Will you be a whistleblower when lives and/ or livelihoods are on the line?
ONLINE Control Engineering has many articles on related topics; it’s hard to pick a few. • Avoiding nuisance trips from SIFS • Four overlooked aspects of risk management, process safety • Safety instrumented systems: Applying measurement best practices • Comparing conventional and sustainable safety instrumented systems • Process safety: Shutdown failures • Sustainable cybersecurity architecture for safety instrumented systems If reading from the digital edition, click on the headline for more resources including live links to articles above. Or search on www.controleng.com for these and other resources.
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2227, MHoske@CFEMedia.com Jack Smith, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2230, JSmith@CFEMedia.com Kevin Parker, Senior Contributing Editor, IIoT, OGE 630-571-4070, x2228, KParker@CFEMedia.com
Amanda Pelliccione, Director of Research 978-302-3463, APelliccione@CFEMedia.com Chris Vavra, Production Editor CVavra@CFEMedia.com
Contributing Content Specialists Suzanne Gill, Control Engineering Europe email@example.com Ekaterina Kosareva, Control Engineering Russia firstname.lastname@example.org Agata Abramczyk, Control Engineering Poland email@example.com Lukáš Smelík, Control Engineering Czech Republic firstname.lastname@example.org Aileen Jin, Control Engineering China email@example.com
Editorial Advisory Board
www.controleng.com/EAB Doug Bell, president, InterConnecting Automation, www.interconnectingautomation.com David Bishop, president and a founder Matrix Technologies, www.matrixti.com Daniel E. Capano, president, Diversified Technical Services Inc. of Stamford, CT, www.linkedin.com/in/daniel-capano-7b886bb0 Frank Lamb, founder and owner Automation Consulting LLC, www.automationllc.com
• People earn safety certifications for a reason.
Joe Martin, president and founder Martin Control Systems, www.martincsi.com
• Listen to people with training and experience who use standards and best practices.
Mark Voigtmann, partner, automation practice lead Faegre Baker Daniels, www.FaegreBD.com
• Listen to operators who know the process. • If you see something that doesn’t seem right, and lives (and/or livelihoods) depend on it, be a whistleblower. Before I get onto another Boeing 737 Max, I will find out if there’s a backup angle of attack sensor also delivering measurements and ask what happens to the control system when that sensor and/or the backup sensor fails. If I don’t like the answer, I’ll think again and book another aircraft. ce
Rick Pierro, president and co-founder Superior Controls, www.superiorcontrols.com
CFE Media Contributor Guidelines Overview Content For Engineers. That’s what CFE Media stands for, and what CFE Media is all about – engineers sharing with their peers. We welcome content submissions for all interested parties in engineering. We will use those materials online, on our website, in print and in newsletters to keep engineers informed about the products, solutions and industry trends. www.controleng.com/contribute explains how to submit press releases, products, images and graphics, bylined feature articles, case studies, white papers, and other media. * Content should focus on helping engineers solve problems. Articles that are commercial or are critical of other products or organizations will be rejected. (Technology discussions and comparative tables may be accepted if non-promotional and if contributor corroborates information with sources cited.) * If the content meets criteria noted in guidelines, expect to see it first on our Websites. Content for our e-newsletters comes from content already available on our Websites. All content for print also will be online. All content that appears in our print magazines will appear as space permits, and we will indicate in print if more content from that article is available online. * Deadlines for feature articles intended for the print magazines are at least two months in advance of the publication date. Again, it is best to discuss all feature articles with the appropriate content manager prior to submission. Learn more at: www.controleng.com/contribute
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COVER STORY: VIRTUALIZATION, CLOUD Michael Risse, Seeq Corp.
Workloads in the cloud for industrial manufacturers Cloud adoption in industrial and manufacturing organizations is growing. See five use cases of how manufacturers use the cloud and the potential benefits.
he cloud is of the big three technology innovations, with Big Data and machine learning (ML), which are powering a new generation of solution and plant infrastructure. The cloud is also a buzzword in modern consultant-speak: Industry 4.0, Smart Manufacturing, digital transformation, and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The cloud has become the backbone of our personal lives with online shopping on Amazon, applications like Microsoft Office 365, and services like banking. At least we’ve agreed what to call on-demand computer rental since Amazon first offered virtual machine (VM) and storage services in 2006, followed by Microsoft and Google in 2008. Since then we’ve seen the hype and progress of automation company cloud-based services, and acquisition after acquisition as vendors shore up and expand their online offerings. The cloud has produced a lot of talk, perhaps too much talk because while KEYWORDS: Cloud, cloud the cloud is everywhere in our personal software, Industrial Internet of lives, the details of where the cloud will Things (IIoT) matter first and best to manufacturing The cloud is powering organizations is still an ongoing process. manufacturing growth and It’s more of a roadmap than reality. improving connectivity. Further, there are specific requireUse cases involving the cloud ments of industrial organizations that include the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), data historians and preclude some cloud-based deployreporting systems. ments. Unlike consumer and general Software-as-a-service (SaaS) information technology (IT), industrimanufacturing applications al cloud deployments have specific are growing thanks to cloud security requirements. They also need industrial software. guaranteed availability and require ONLINE software-as-a-service (SaaS) versions Read this article online at of important enterprise asset managewww.controleng.com for ment (EAM), manufacturing execution additional articles from the author. systems (MES), and potentially supervisory control and data acquisition CONSIDER THIS (SCADA) applications (see sidebar). Has your plant used cloudAt the same time, despite the hesibased capabilities and what benefits did it provide? tancy and challenges of cloud deploy-
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ments, there are five current and recognizable patterns of cloud use by industrial manufacturers, with each described in detail below: • Born on the cloud: IIoT • Lift and shift historians • Data lakes • Cloud reporting systems • Quick start analytics. These patterns, or use cases, are called “workloads” by the cloud platform vendors, as in “early cloud workloads for IT departments included lowcost, long-term storage, and on-demand computing resources.” The list of cloud workloads will grow as issues such as the availability and acceptance of SaaS plant applications like MES are addressed. Using these as specific examples of the cloud in industrial use will help enable the transition from an amorphous cloud to a discussion of specific tradeoffs and benefits.
1. Born on the cloud: IIoT
The first cloud workload is the IIoT use case where new sensors are deployed on assets with the telemetry required to pipe their data to the cloud for storage, applications and analytics. Alternatively, the assets are existing, but there are new sensors deployed, “lick and stick” as one vendor referred to them. This born on the cloud scenario is reminiscent of countries that skipped widespread phone use prior to the cell phone and went straight to a cell-based model vs. fully deploying a wired telephone network. • Born on the cloud IIoT benefits: A fit for greenfield monitoring scenarios or expanding visibility in an existing facility to additional assets or resources. www.controleng.com
Amazon, Google, Microsoft and other leading information technology (IT) firms have industrial cloud service offerings.
• Downside: It’s still a work in process because end users must make decisions on each piece in the solution stack including sensor, device management, gateway, security, communications layer, cloud vendor, data storage, etc.
2. Lift and shift historians
“Lift and shift” is taking an IT workload and moving it out of the data center and into the cloud, running the application on a virtual machine (VM), which is an instance of an operating system decoupled from the underlying hardware. Virtual machines enable one physical server to host many virtual machines, which run many applications, improving hardware utilization versus a dedicated server for each application deployment. The drive for moving application workloads out of on-premise data centers is lower costs: the fully burdened cost of a server in a data center can be 50 times the price of the server itself. Amazon’s AWS team, for example, advises companies to aim for a “zero square foot data center” with all applications running in the cloud (Figure 1). Companies have been moving IT applications to the cloud for years, including email, enterprise resource planning (ERP) and accounting systems. Historians, from a costsavings perspective, are waiting their turn. • Lift and shift historian benefits: If correctly executed, the users of the historian won’t see any impact on their use of historian data, and cloudbased historians are more accessible to IT.
Cloud-based storage in data lakes and greenfield Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) deployments are matched by the growth and interest in time series database storage systems. Images courtesy: Seeq
• Downside: Internet bandwidth, historian read access, and security are issues to be addressed — but the cost advantages of cloud-based deployment make this more a “when” than an “if ” discussion.
3. Data lakes
The big bang option for cloud workloads is building a data lake, which is an aggregation of unlike data types in one system, for example a pharmaceutical company combining sensor data from historians, laboratory information management systems data, batch data, quality data and control engineering
COVER STORY: VIRTUALIZATION, CLOUD other areas, to enable a global view into operations and business outcomes by data science and IT. The benefits of this approach may be considerable, but the list of challenges is just as long. Data lakes are always bespoke in the details — schema, data requirements, use cases, and other details — and they are complex and expensive. As one example, moving time series data doesn’t make it easier for analysis. From an end user data analytics perspective, moving historian data to a data lake, for example, doesn’t solve a problem; it just changes the location of the data.
nal company business analysts who need reporting and “known” views on production processes. For the third audience, visualizing data is done with business analytics products and SaaS applications. The challenge is giving these users access to the right data given the challenges visualization products have with time-series data. The answer is creating tables of process data and storing them in a relational database service for easy access by business intelligence products. These data tables don’t enable all the flexibility required by process engineers, but for known questions like overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) or production accounting reporting, they provide access and flexibility. • Cloud reporting system benefits: Using cloud-based relational database services to store data that answers known or defined questions for non-production specialists. • Downside: The architecture creates an infinite loop of requests back to IT based on data structure and context to chase queries in new or unexpected directions.
Quick start analytics
Advanced analytics applications like Seeq have a software-as-aservice (SaaS) offering, compressing the time and reducing the cost required for deployment.
The second biggest challenge with data lakes is the timing and infrastructure used to copy and update the data lake while the source data is constantly flowing from the system. Too slow of an update wastes insight opportunity; too fast can be very expensive to implement and still may not guarantee high-speed concurrency. • Data lake benefits: The aggregation of disparate data types enables access by data science and other IT experts to find new insights to improve production and business outcomes via a view across the organization (Figure 2). • Downside: The cost, time to insight, and company-specific challenges of data lake projects mean this is not an effort to be taken lightly: years and millions of dollars are the right denominations for implementation.
4. Cloud reporting systems Three audiences need access to time series or production data for analytics and insights. First is data scientists, typically associated with data lakes and IT. The second is process engineers and plant employees, typically working with data in historians and manufacturing applications. Third is inter-
The benefits of the SaaS application model are known to any consumer who has bought something online and any employee who has worked with online applications in their workplace: fast access, browser-based user experience, and little, if any, deployment overhead. This model is available for manufacturing applications including MES systems and will expand in the years to come. The highest end-user priority, however, is improved analytics software to enable faster and deeper insights on expanding data volumes in manufacturing. End users need more and new types of insights, such as predictive analytics, and the kind of collaboration and knowledge capture features offered in modern workplace applications. Advanced analytics applications leveraging machine learning to accelerate insights are in high demand. Applications offering this functionality as SaaS offering for fast deployment and low IT costs are of particular interest as first use cases for companies exploring cloud-based opportunities for innovation (Figure 3). • Quick start analytics benefits: End users can implement and access advanced analytics for their data on premise or in the cloud with little to no IT touch. In particular, they can do so without first moving, copying, or changing their system of record (one or multiple historians). • Downside: Like all cloud deployments, bandwidth and security are requirements for successful implementation, but there is limited downside with subscription models for software licensing. If it doesn’t work, the user can turn it off. www.controleng.com
These five examples of using cloud platforms to benefit industrial manufacturers shows the cloud is more than its hype as the center and component of everything interesting. These workloads will expand as objections are overcome and new services are offered, but they already provide a short-term opportunity for manufacturers to realize immediate value. ce Michael Risse is the CMO and vice president at Seeq Corp. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The highest end-user priority is improved analytics software to enable faster and deeper insights on expanding
data volumes in manufacturing.
SaaS manufacturing applications
s the quantity and quality of cloud applications for managing manufacturing operations increases, a new category of software has emerged: cloud industrial software. These are “cloud native” applications, meaning they have been designed from the ground up specifically for the cloud, as opposed to cloud versions of existing onpremise applications. What they have in common are promises of lower cost, rapid deployment, and opportunities for return on investment (ROI) from the untapped value of the data in on-premise systems. In a typical application, data is stored in the cloud for access worldwide (sidebar photo). Here are a few examples – of the many – in several popular categories of SaaS offerings: • Manufacturing applications: 42Q - 42Q is a cloud-based MES and computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) that promises the benefits of cloud efficiencies and cost advantages with global visibility into production and maintenance, metrics and analytics. • Cloud data storage: OSIsoft Cloud Services (OCS) – OCS is intended to aggregate and augment operations data. The vision is for end users to combine and store multiple data types from multiple facilities in the cloud for real-time planning and monitoring that drives process improvement. • Manufacturing applications: Tulip – Tulip enables business users to build manufacturing apps to improve process outcomes without writing code while still taking advantage of back-end systems and data sources. • Machine vision: Spyglass Visual Inspection – An AI-powered platform that augments existing systems on the factory floor by delivering improved accuracy
in detecting defects. Spyglass deploys in the cloud for a Lean approach to leveraging advances in emerging AI and machine vision technologies to drive continuous quality improvement. Vibration analytics: Petasense – Makes industrial machines smarter by offering a stack of sensors, connectivity, and cloud solutions to enable web and mobile applications to provide acoustic-based insights for improving asset reliability and predictive maintenance. The benefit for end users is reduced downtime and lower repair costs on assets and production facilities. A general benefit of SaaS-based manufacturing applications is a low-cost trial or proof-of-concept phase with connections to live operations data, along with low IT overhead. SaaS also allows prototyping and iteration without large capital investments in hardware or systems. With SaaS, how far or fast a manufacturer proceeds is a matter of choice without the constraints if there are significant sunk costs.
Cover: SaaS offerings usually provide worldwide access via many types of devices, including smartphones.
COVER STORY: SOFTWARE STRATEGY Andrew Lichey, IFS
Get the right software for field service management, product lifecycle needs As companies’ field service offerings, managing people, hardware assets, and software bring additional challenges, field service management software must address the entire service lifecycle. Consider three options.
s the number of mobile applications and wearable devices being used in field service grows, so does the choice of field service management software. This new breed of service software allows enterprises to meet emergent and contracted service demand, improves technician utilization and ensures service level agreements (SLAs) are met. While this software can be sold as-a-service (SaaS) or owned outright through a perpetual license, some software companies only sell through more profitable subscription-based licensing. This shouldn’t be the only choice when investing in cloud-based software, though. Companies should consider these three options.
Reverse logistics is another key requirement for businesses working within complex repair environments, as is project management for instant communication
with remote personnel in the field. 1. Lower upfront costs
with a subscription license
Buying software on a subscription basis enables customers to pay for software on an expense budget as opposed to a capital budget. This is desirable as the expense may be assigned to a given depart-
Even if managing people and assets seems like “old hat,” field services software may help. Courtesy: Mark T. Hoske, CFE Media and Technology
ment’s operating budget and is well below the normal threshold for a capital budget spend. The lower upfront investment of SaaS is also attractive for businesses starting with a smaller footprint because they can scale up and down depending on fluctuations in technician numbers. Organizations can implement field service management in one division or office as a proof of concept. When starting with fewer SaaS users, businesses can consider a wider rollout and scale the solution across more users when required.
2. Peace of mind with one-off payments
Before the internet and broadband connectivity became central to most businesses, software was sold through perpetual licensing. Purchased through a one-time license fee, the solution can be applied on a company’s hardware or private cloud. www.controleng.com
Spreadsheets weren’t designed for time series data analytics. Seeq is.
Time series data analysis poses unique challenges. With Seeq®, difficult and time-consuming work in spreadsheets is a thing of the past. Seeq’s multiple applications enable you to rapidly investigate and share insights from data stored in multiple enterprise data historians, such as OSIsoft PI, Honeywell PHD, and GE Proficy, as well as contextual data sources such as SQL Server, Oracle, and MySQL. Seeq’s support for time series data and its challenges – connecting, displaying, interpolating, cleansing, and contextualization – relieves you of hours and days of fruitlessly searching for insights in your process manufacturing data. Seeq helps you get more value from the data that you’ve already been collecting, and gives organizations data transparency and the ability to execute on those insights.
Learn more at www.seeq.com Asset Optimization
Investigation & Troubleshooting
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COVER STORY: SOFTWARE STRATEGY Mission-critical software ownership for business operations seems to be important for some consumers. They want to own the software to confidently build vital processes around it; owning software outright also allows companies to use it indefinitely. It is generally purchased with a contract for ongoing maintenance and support, but most of the cost comes from the initial purchase. Companies also can provision software sold through a perpetual license on their own servers and support it with their IT personnel.They also can place it in a private or public cloud run by a third-party vendor, such as their software vendor. Running software this way allows a company to outsource common IT administration tasks while ensuring the server capacity can scale to meet user count or transaction volume demand. Commitment is key for organizations opting for a perpetual license. The fact that the license purchase hits the capital budget is significant. From the top of the organizational chart down, there is potential for these processes to maximize the service organization’s profitability.
3. Field service
Field service software buyers should prioritize specific requirements before assessing deployment options. Whether
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KEYWORDS: Field service software, software licensing, SaaS A subscription license may lower upfront costs. Purchasing software may cost more but offer peace of mind. Field service software options should look at the service lifecycle.
CONSIDER THIS As you expand review models to include more services, are your software models also advancing?
ONLINE If reading from the digital edition, click on the headline for more resources. www.controleng.com/magazine See the IIoT webcasts under online training at www.controleng.com. input #12 at www.controleng.com/information
Strong support for serialization ensures compliance in regulated industries and recalls are supported when necessary — reducing lost revenue, broken SLAs and dissatisfied customers.
the solution is purchased through a perpetual license or by subscription, field service management software will fail if it does not address the entire service lifecycle. Beyond scheduling, dispatch, and field mobility, field service applications should allow automated call handling and routing, while dispatches are important to optimize call center functionalities. Traceability systems and spare parts management also give control over supply chains, which helps keep businesses safe and compliant. Reverse logistics is another key requirement for businesses working within complex repair environments; so is project management for instant communication with remote personnel in the field. Strong support for serialization ensures compliance in regulated industries and recalls are supported when necessary — reducing lost revenue, broken SLAs and dissatisfied customers.
Don’t cut software corners No matter how software is paid for, companies need to remember they are buying new business capability. The choice should focus on if software meets key business requirements, and if the field service software vendor can assist in meeting and exceeding customer expectations through a deployment model that works best for the circumstances. ce Andrew Lichey is product manager for field service management, IFS; Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, email@example.com.
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COVER STORY: IT/OT CONVERGENCE Daymon Thompson, Beckhoff Automation
IT/OT convergence provides a path forward Long before Industry 4.0 and cloud-connected architectures became possible, innovators championed PC-based technologies for industrial automation.
s Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) concepts become real applications, exciting conversations include integrating information technology (IT) and operations technology (OT). Large IT companies have promoted ideas like workload consolidation for businesses to optimize processes and be more competitive in their respective industries. This excitement, boosted by some of the largest players in automation technology (AT) who are jumping on board, is well deserved. Greater system openness, real-time deterministic control with many-core processors, the incorporation of web technologies and machine learning (ML), among other advances, are possible by applying popular technologies to industrial applications. IT/OT convergence continues to offer benefits to machine control architectures, as it has for more than 30 years. Many suppliers are only beginning to integrate KEYWORDS: information PC-based technology into industrial autotechnology, operations technology, IT/OT mation. Even so, the history of IT and OT convergence convergence in the context of automation IT/OT convergence is technology dates back to the early 1980s accelerating the age of the IIoT with the advent of the modern PC and and Industry 4.0. those who saw its potential for industriIT/OT convergence started in al use. the early 1980s with the rise of Of course, the adaption of these ideas the modern PC. follows the diffusion of innovations theSome companies converged early while others did so as ory, which describes how new ideas and the technology improved and technologies are adopted in order by:
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became more cost-effective.
ONLINE Read this article online at www.controleng.com for links to additional stories about IT/OT convergence and what it means for manufacturers.
CONSIDER THIS When did your company begin IT/OT convergence, and what were the short-and long-term results?
•Innovators 2.5% •Early adopters 13.5% •Early majority 34% •Late majority 34% •Laggards 16%. This theory helps provide perspective on how IT/OT convergence has evolved since the 1980s and where things are leading today. control engineering
PC-focused innovation in the 1980s
During this era, the larger technology world began to develop the PC and related technologies for more widespread business and consumer use far beyond the levels seen in the 1970s. These efforts led to transformations in standardized chip sets, board designs and eventually sophisticated operating systems. At that time, most industrial technology companies stayed far away from the PC path. The large, predominately programmable logic controller (PLC) platforms were using proprietary chip sets, board designs and, in most cases, proprietary programming software. Traditional PLC technology for industrial machine control evolved much slower than it should have due to an industry-wide aversion to change. As a result, the paths of hardware PLCs and consumer and business-facing PCs would not converge for decades. Most industrial vendors and manufacturers shunned IT technology on the plant floor at first, though smaller start-up companies recognized both technologies could coexist. These innovators foresaw how intermingling them could capitalize on the technological advantages of both sides and provide a high performance, universal platform for manufacturers and machine builders. Using proven industrial standards and emerging computer science innovations, smaller AT companies began the convergence of IT and OT in manufacturing.
Early adopters of the 1990s
In the 1990s, IT and OT technologies continued to advance. However, IT pioneers had surpassed traditional OT. The popularity of Microsoft Windows exploded, and it became ubiquitous in nearly every area of technology. Microsoft launched Visual Studio in 1997, which combined a number of programming languages in one convenient environment, which continues to evolve and remain important today. Industrial vendors that began implementing PC-based automation technologies in the previous decade saw significant gains www.controleng.com
For controls technology innovators, IT/OT convergence was happening for decades before the IIoT and Industry 4.0 conversations that often draw attention to the concept today. Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation
in hardware and software performance, which far outpaced traditional PLCs. The successful companies created new tools for deterministic, real-time control designed to run on industrial PC controllers with standardized operating systems (OS). Automation vendors that saw an opportunity researched and launched computer-based controls. However, these early adopters realized developing software from scratch and maintaining it was expensive. They started using some off-the-shelf real-time operating systems, but often didn’t promote them. Sometimes this happened because the vendor didn’t really believe in the technology, and other times it was because the technology wasn’t reliable. Some notable crash-and-burns gave PC-based platforms a bad reputation during this time. The truth is, many platforms were providing strong results in the field and extending the lead in performance over traditional PLC technologies.
Early majority from 2000 onward
The turn of the millennium brought further developments in software and multi-core processors. Major players on the consumer side, like Intel, IBM and Microsoft, actively expanded into the OT realm. Likewise, a determined subset of the automation space kept integrating IT with increased real-time capabilities. This was happening when widespread IoT was still just an idea. Along with the automation and control advances, networking also was a major development. The introduction of industrial Ethernet proto-
cols, such as EtherCAT, created major performance improvements and a path forward from legacy fieldbuses. Industrial Ethernet is another example of IT and AT convergence, with Ethernet and fieldbus technology merging. Others were trying to port legacy fieldbus technology to run on Ethernet and, in the end, were not as successful. For example, TCP/ IP technologies, created to drive non-deterministic, massive-scale networks, required extensive ancillary components and complicated configurations to create a high-speed, deterministic fieldbus. However, EtherCAT eliminated the complexity and cost of switches and additional hardware while providing deterministic control with up to 65,535 devices per network. This resulted from the same PC-based control innovators carefully considering what industrial Ethernet could offer by combining the openness and acceptance of Ethernet with the functionality expected of industrial fieldbuses. This was a different approach than creating workarounds, such as expensive managed switches for old fieldbus protocols, without regard to bandwidth utilization, Ethernet frame efficiency or the number of plant-floor IP addresses.
Late majority in IT/OT convergence
From automation software apps on smartphones to many-core CPUs with processors in industrial enclosures, the IT/OT convergence continues to accelerate in the age of IIoT and Industry 4.0. For another example, human-machine interfaces (HMIs) commonly rely on web technologies, and standards such as message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) and control engineering
Not actively seeking technologies that drive IT/OT convergence will lead to strategic disadvantages for tomorrow’s laggards.
to address the limits of non-EtherCAT fieldbuses. In addition, industry is beginning to earnestly apply ML and other artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, which already drives consumers’ online shopping experience, directions and other phone apps. Rapid consumer technology advances provide opportunities to deploy industrial technologies faster and accelerate risks of falling behind when some controls vendors are slower to adapt. Not actively seeking technologies that drive IT/OT convergence will lead to strategic disadvantages for tomorrow’s laggards. The good news is the previous reluctance of manufacturers and machine builders to implement
PC-based technologies continues to evaporate as they see the benefits of applying IT technologies where it makes sense. In any field of technology, this is a moving target, but companies driving this convergence understand the stakes. Automation vendors and machine builders can’t decide to throw untested IT technologies on a multi-million-dollar piece of equipment and hope for the best. For companies that have championed IT/OT convergence as a fundamental design philosophy for years, it is clear any IT principle carried over to OT products must be deterministic, reliable, available for many years, and implemented in the most efficient way possible. Done correctly, IT/OT integration produces results far above what traditional platforms can accomplish alone. It’s important to remember this IT/OT integration didn’t start with IIoT, and it won’t end there. As cloudconnected architectures and Industry 4.0 concepts become commonplace in factories globally, it’s important to be aware of what’s next and of the technology leaders driving innovation in the industry. ce Daymon Thompson, automation product manager – North America, Beckhoff Automation. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org.
IIoT Series: Part 4: Machine Learning CFE Edu introduces “lloT Series: Part 4: Machine Learning,” an on-demand course that is accessible 24/7 with a computer, tablet or smartphone. In this course, our instructors will discuss the emerging machine learning paradigm for process control and enterprise management, as well as examine some real-life case examples that are already delivering results.
t An overview of machine learning. t Distinguish between supervised and unsupervised learning.
t Review machine learning case examples.
t Differentiate between Cloud This course is FREE and students can earn one (1) Professional Development Hour (PDH) after receiving a passing grade for the final exam and finishing the exit poll. To register, go to cfeedu.cfemedia.com/catalog “IIoT Series: Part 4: Machine Learning. “ You can also register for the lloT Series: Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3.
and Edge applications.
COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION Tim Gellner, Maverick Technologies
Connecting IT/OT data From raw materials to finished goods, data flow between the information and operations technology (IT/OT) system layers increases efficiency, quality and agility.
n today’s evolving industrial automation world of smarter, better, faster system and software applications, data remains a constant. For manufacturers, the most impactful source of information they have is data from the operational technology (OT) layer. The whole point of manufacturing, after all, is to produce finished goods from raw materials in the most efficient manner possible and sell those finished goods to customers. The flow of data between the OT and information technology (IT) system layers has increased in the last decade because of open system architecture and innovative software applications. For instance, the widespread adoption of the EtherNet/IP Ethernet protocol for process control and automation systems and the migration of older protocols to operate within the Ethernet framework has moved manufacturers away from proprietary communications and hardware to open connectivity across the enterprise. The convergence of these underlying communications has increased the interoperability between the automation layer and the business layer. This convergence also opened the door to Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technologies and devices, enabling the Big Data explosion and helped bring other technologies such as digital twins and artificial intelligence (AI) to the forefront. Understanding the wider integration and flow of data between the OT layer and IT applications gives manufacturers the opportunity to leverage real-time data to make more informed and timely business decisions.
IT/OT application roles
Among the most familiar of these IT/OT integrations is the interaction between the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, process control system (PCS), manufacturing execution system (MES), laboratory information system (LIMS), computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and some others. When going from raw materials to finished goods, each application uses OT data to fulfill a specialized role. The ERP is the “system of record” for maintaining the company’s books. It manages orders, inventory,
production and finished goods from an accounting perspective. At a very high level, the ERP system software tells the MES what and how much of something to produce via a production order. The MES, in turn, tells the PCS what materials it needs, the quantities and the equipment needed to fulfill the order. The PCS acts on the information to do the work required to produce the material while reporting its progress to the MES. During the normal product production, specific steps in the process may require the material being produced be sampled and analyzed in the LIMS to determine if the product meets specifications. The results of this analysis can initiate actions within the PCS that may include scrapping material, sending material back through the process for rework or sending it to be shipped. The CMMS also may be monitoring the realtime health of the equipment, runtime, idle time, downtime, power consumed, and a host of other associated data that all originate in the OT layer. The CMMS also tracks equipment maintenance history, spare parts, parts used, spares inventory, vendors and costs, maintenance scheduling, and other attributes. The SCADA system monitors process alarms and events, including any operator actions taken during a production KEYWORDS: information process. The process historian continualtechnology, operations technology, IT/OT ly collects and stores this data, along with convergence time series process data, batch data and Data flow between OT and IT other measurements. The wealth of data has increased due to technology the PCS produces and the historian capand software advances. tures form the foundation for a holistic This convergence also opened view of the production environment. the door to Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technologies For PCS data and all its interacting and devices. IT/OT integration components to be useful beyond a retcan help manufacturers gather rospective view, the data must be framed intelligence about facilities, within the context provided by the IT processes and people. layer systems. To do this, the data in ONLINE these upper-level IT systems must be Read this article online at accessible. In today’s modern historian www.controleng.com for more platforms, the historian data is available stories about digital twins and to OT and IT systems over Ethernet via their benefits for manufacturers. universal and open interface technoloCONSIDER THIS gies, including OLE for process control What immediate benefits could (OPC) and structured query language your facility gain from IT/OT (SQL). integration?
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COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION Time to innovate
By taking a closer look at the breadth of data the OT has produced and IT applications have consumed, and are contextualized within the boundaries of each application, manufacturers have the raw material from which they can construct a digital twin model. A digital twin is a virtual model of production equipment, products and processes. The concept was described in a University of Michigan presentation at a Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference as the foundational model for product lifecycle management (PLM). Digital twins are used to optimize the operation and maintenance of physical assets, systems and manufacturing processes and product
With tighter OT and IT system integration, manufacturers realize the benefits of more
timely, actionable data.
lifecycle management. If we take the contextualized data that resides in the IT applications along with real-time and historical data from the OT layer, we can construct a complete digital twin model of facilities, equipment and products from the receipt of an order through shipping and beyond. This model can encompass the ingredients, parts used and quantities. This includes the equipment used to process them and the operators running the equipment. The equipment includes the temperatures, pressures, alarms, operator actions, quality control (QC) tests taken and the results; when the production started, completed and all the stops in between. It also can include waste, final products, amount and cost of energy, building environment conditions, if a breakdown occurred, who respondent, parts used, time for repair, if the problem happened previously, total cost of production, and other measurements. While this wealth of information is crucial for a facility, the real promise lies in using this information to make data-driven decisions to predict possible business outcomes, such as: • Small changes in the operating environment • Minor differences in the quality of raw materials • How operator actions affect the system’s efficiency • How a series of minor process alarms can be used to determine if a major process upset may occur
Use information to make data-driven decisions to
predict possible outcomes. • The ability to operate proactively instead of reactively.
Thanks to tighter OT and IT system integration, manufacturers are realizing the benefits of increased availability of timely and actionable data. An example of this is the reduction in time for an organization to adapt to a production event. That can include a short-term event, such as an unforeseen equipment breakdown, or a longerterm event, such as a change in product specifications. This type of manufacturing agility is a strategic component in securing and maintaining a competitive advantage.
A new era, smarter industries
Manufacturers are in the beginning phase of what is being called the fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4.0. This era will be driven not just by data, but also by the intelligence that can be derived from it and applied across the industrial landscape of equipment, processes, facilities and people. Integrating OT and IT systems is an important first step along the path. Emerging
OT-IT information integration looks at who needs data when, and why to make smarter decisions. Courtesy: CFE Media and Technology
technologies such as machine learning and other aspects of AI, can revolutionize a manufacturer’s ability to use integrated IT/OT data to build and employ models that form the basis for increasing overall efficiency, quality and agility. ce Tim Gellner is senior consultant, Maverick Technologies, a CFE Media content partner. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, email@example.com. www.controleng.com
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COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION Michael Bingaman, Siemens Industry Inc.
IT/OT collaboration must drive digitalization Converging information technology (IT) and operations technology (OT) does little to move end-to-end digitalization forward. What makes digitalization really work is successful OT and IT collaboration and an understanding of what the other side needs. See 7 tips for smarter OT and IT collaboration.
ndustry talk about the convergence of operations technology (OT) and information technology (IT) assumes the two sides will merge into some common domain using IT methodologies, devices, tools, and team expertise — with all of it being as applicable to a plant floor as to front- and back-office operations. That notion, however, can be seriously misleading. By itself, IT/OT convergence does little to actually move end-to-end digitalization forward. While it might provide short-term cost savings through more technology sharing and consolidated IT and OT teams, the performance gains will be incremental, at best, and not the quantum gains
The real point of IT/OT collaboration is to establish vibrant digital threads of data running transparently, seamlessly and securely through businesses from the factory floor to the boardroom and everywhere in between.
digitalization can unleash. Shop-floor applications of IT-oriented hardware, software, connectivity, and services always will need to be far more robust, precise and reliable than those needed in offices. Instead of IT/OT convergence, industrial enterprises require a deep, cross-functional, and proactive collaborative approach that combines the respective intellectual power, know-how, and
experience of IT and OT teams to make today’s industrial operations fully digital enterprises. The goal would be to collectively understand the unique terminology and design requirements for all network environments, especially in context of the network as the strategic backbone of a fully digital industrial enterprise.
Roots of the IT/OT convergence myth The idea of IT/OT convergence is understandable. After all, IT and telephones were once separate functions and networks in most large companies, but they converged years ago thanks to packetized voice-over-IP (VoIP) technology. What’s more, OT engineers have adapted many enterprise IT technologies to address the needs of a diverse industrial landscape that spans factories, warehouses, logistics facilities, plus power, marine, mining, and oil and gas industries. Among those technologies are Ethernetenabled wired and wireless local area networks (WLANs) as well as industrial PCs, switches and routers. Industrial operators are continue to adapt emergent enterprise IT technologies, such as the cloud, Big Data, and advanced analytics, compelled by the economic advantages and competitive imperatives of the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The benefits of these IT adaptations have included big reductions in costs, latencies, cycle times and data collection errors. Industrial communications — the digital thread — also has helped interconnect what were once islands of activities and data, while helping to break down operational silos. Greater transparency and operational visibility also enable far better decision support for optimizing asset utilization as well as production quality, flexibility and costs. www.controleng.com
Adapting enterprise IT for complex OT applications
Adapting IT solutions for complex OT applications goes far beyond putting a veneer of ruggedization on devices. For example, OT automation systems consisting of hundreds or even thousands of field-level devices — sensors, actuators, valves and instrumentation — need precise, millisecond synchronizations of activities. Supporting networks must be deterministic. Data commands must arrive when they are supposed to and not on a besteffort basis. A network hiccup that delays an outbound email by a half-second might not be noticed by a user, but a similar delay in a controller command arriving at its destination could disrupt a production line. The consequences could be missed customer commitments, costly restarts, or, worst of all, worker injuries. Many leading industrial enterprises are not converging IT and OT technologies because they know doing it is beside the point. The real point of IT/OT collaboration is to establish vibrant digital threads of data running transparently, seamlessly, and securely through businesses from the factory floor to the boardroom and everywhere in between.
Facilitating IT/OT collaboration for end-to-end digital enterprises
Rather than pushing their IT and OT teams to force even a blending of two necessarily distinct technology environments, these companies prefer them collaborating to make an end-to-end digital enterprise a reality for their companies. To do so, each team needs to understand the other’s expertise and points of view, which includes their chief concerns.
Three concerns for IT and factory digitalization
1. Environmental, health, and safety impacts. While technology failures or security incidents can certainly disrupt enterprise operations, similar incidents in an industrial environment can cause disruptions and consequences on a different scale, even threatening lives and the environment. 2. Asset availability and utilization. Networked industrial systems can create business risks most IT teams may not yet had to consider, such as the damage or loss of expensive equipment or the production of faulty goods. Production disruptions also can cause industrial enterprises to miss customer commitments. Poor asset availability and utilization also can lower investment returns. 3. Outdated or custom systems. IT is used for applying frequent and consistent software patch-
Ultimately, by understanding the full potential of modern industrial communications, IT and OT can work together to ensure more operational efficiency, visibility, flexibility and
security in production.
es and upgrades, while industrial environments tend to be more systemic: one small change in one component or subsystem can trigger changes or disruptions elsewhere. Many legacy plant and factory control systems, as a result, may be running outdated operating systems that cannot easily be swapped out or a custom configuration that isn’t compatible with the standard enterprise IT security packages.
Four concerns for OT with enterprise connectivity
1. Physical risks and safety. Threats to life safety are still a concern, but OT teams now face threats that are potentially outside of their control. Connecting machines, equipment and control systems to more KEYWORDS: information open enterprise networks can leave technology, operations them vulnerable to hacking. Hacks can technology, IT/OT override valve controls and emergency collaboration shut-offs, exposing employees to danger Successful information and production to costly disruptions. technology (IT) and operations 2. Productivity and quality contechnology (OT) convergence trol. Losing control of the manufacturneeds to rely on collaboration ing process or any related devices are between the two sides. an OT team’s worst nightmare. What if IT concerns stemming from some malicious party was able to reprocollaboration include asset availability and outdated gram an assembly process to skip a few technology. steps or halt production entirely — OT concerns include risks to resulting in a faulty product that could physical safety, quality control potentially injure a customer user? and data leaks. 3. Data leaks. While data breaches have long been a top concern for ONLINE traditional IT teams, they are someRead this article online at what new to OT teams used to workwww.controleng.com for additional links to IT/OT ing with closed systems. However, given integration and collaboration. the types of industrial systems coming online, securing transmitted data is CONSIDER THIS critical. What is the biggest challenge 4. Industrial security. While OT for your company when it comes teams can see the benefits of moving to IT/OT collaboration and convergence? from closed systems to open networks,
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COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION they worry about a seeming lack of IT experience and potential solutions for rigorous OT needs, including real-time communications and cybersecurity traditional office solutions can’t provide.
Common IT/OT objectives for securing a fully digitalized industrial enterprise
Identifying and authenticating all devices and machines within a system, manufacturing plant and in the field, to ensure only approved devices and systems are communicating with each other.
Instead of IT/OT convergence, industrial enterprises require a deep, cross-functional, and proactive collaborative approach that combines the respective intellectual power, know-how and experience of IT and
Encrypting all communications between the devices ensures privacy of the transmitted data and the integrity of the data generated from these systems.
Three ways to collaborate on industrial digitalization
Full end-to-end digitalization of industrial enterprises requires a comprehensive networking strategy developed by IT and OT teams working together. The industrial network must be designed as the strategic backbone of production systems, not as a component. It involves deployment industrial-grade networking technologies based on proven standards. Here are three ways companies can facilitate the needed collaborative process. 1. Bring all stakeholders to the table. All relevant stakeholders to the digitalization of a company’s industrial and enterprise operations must have a voice in building a consensus about which metrics are most critical to the organization and about which metrics need improvement. They should focus on the unique requirements of production operations while managing risks of downtime and security. Together, they should
consider these questions to identify key goals for success: • What critical assets are likely to fail, when and why? • How could an asset’s failure impact personnel, operations, or production costs and downtime? • How can data-driven decisions be integrated within the constraints of existing practices? • Which production operations are performing below standard in terms of quality output or in-process defect rates? • Where are large amounts of human intervention occurring to control quality that could be otherwise automated? • Where could data be used to monitor realtime performance to reduce variability in output quality? 2. Provide education on industrial networks. IT teams may need education in the real-time requirements of industrial OT networks and the issues with traditional IT security solutions. That’s why OT teams must share the principles, protocols and architectural details about how to operate, maintain, and troubleshoot existing and planned industrial networks, including: • Switching and routing • Wireless communications • Security requirements. 3. Find an experienced partner to facilitate first steps. Only an active IT/OT collaboration — with a mutual understanding of each other’s respective roles and backgrounds — can data flows be optimized over a company’s core network, the backbone of a fully digitalized industrial enterprise. By understanding the full potential of modern industrial communications, IT and OT can work together to ensure more operational efficiency, visibility, flexibility and security in production. This can help companies fully realize the promise of digitalization to gain greater competitiveness and profitability in the short-term and for the long-term. ce Michael Bingaman is director of vertical sales, Siemens Industry Inc. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org. www.controleng.com
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COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION Yasunori Kobayashi, Yokogawa Electric Corp.
Profit-driven operations require IT/OT integration Maximizing process plant profits requires close integration across all levels of an organization.
ptimization at the operational technology (OT) level requires sharing results with and receiving feedback from higher levels of the organization to achieve best performance. Integrating IT with OT is required to share data and information among all levels of the manufacturing organization to achieve a profit-driven operation (PDO). PDO helps process industry companies deliver more profitable operations through real-time production performance improvements aligned from the management level to the plant floor. For example, a PDO takes production performance indicators monitored weekly or monthly by plant management and breaks these indicators down to the technical and operations levels using industrial best practices to create KEYWORDS: profit-driven synaptic performance indicators (SPIs). operation, PDO, IT/OT These SPIs are calculated and disintegration played in real time by using Big Data A profit-driven operation from the distributed control system (PDO) helps process (DCS). This information helps operators, industry companies deliver engineers and upper management stay more profitable operations through real-time production aligned to improve production perforperformance. mance by providing performance alarms, Integrating information guidance messages and a performance technology (IT) and operations balance score. By using IT technologies technology (OT) is crucial for such as the cloud, consulting services can maximizing PDO’s potential for the plant floor. be incorporated to uncover additional PDO can be applied to any production performance improvements process plant through an via the analysis of historical production approach of exploration and performance parameters. co-creation. This requires the merging of experONLINE tise in OT with the Industrial Internet Read this article online at of Things (IIoT) and other IT technolwww.controleng.com for more ogies, along with process industry best articles about IT/OT integration. practices, to enable production perCONSIDER THIS formance optimization over a process What specific benefits could plant’s lifecycle. your facility derive from a PDO Some process plant personnel, when and where do you think the first introduced to PDO, may confuse it biggest savings would come with advanced process control (APC) and from?
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optimization. In reality, plants should implement all three of these technologies working in concert. APC is used to control multiple control loops for partial process optimization, such as increasing throughput or reducing giveaway loss. Optimization is used to manage multiple APC instances for entire processes. APC and optimization are very powerful technologies, but they may not work if the model is not updated, and each is often turned off by operator turns due to a lack of deep understanding. PDO addresses these issues by helping operators understand the effectiveness of APC and optimization through the visualization of relevant SPIs and tradeoffs. This allows them to make the decisions required to maintain timely updates.
Managing SPIs across an organization
PDO solutions leverage real-time and accurate plant big data from a DCS and integrate this data with domain knowledge to create SPIs. These SPIs are synaptically connected from plant operation to plant management, much like the human body uses synapses to connect nerves. SPIs encompass five main management objectives and span four levels of a process plant organization (Figure 1). The high-level management objectives are production, profit, energy, reliability and safety. The organizational levels are leadership, management, technical and operation. SPI creation also requires extensive domain knowledge of the process plant’s operation. For example, by applying hundreds of years of collective experience and expertise, one process control system provider structured more than 2,800 SPIs for refinery operations and 800 SPIs for ethylene operations. This requires correlations to be drawn between macro-level plant management objectives and micro-level SPIs to create lasting value. These SPIs must be customized for each situation because each process plant is different. Some of the SPIs commonly used across many different types of plants, broken down by management objective: www.controleng.com
Figure 1: Customized synaptic performance indicators (SPIs) are created for installation, and these indicators are then managed across all levels of the plant’s organization to optimize production, profit, energy use, reliability, and safety. Images courtesy: Yokogawa Electric Corp.
Production • Feed and products complying with the plan • Capacity utilization • Minimization of off-spec products or reprocessing of slopped products. Profit • Maximization of higher value product yields • Minimization of quality give away • Loss and flaring. Energy • Energy consumption (fuel, steam, electricity) • Energy performance (furnace, heat exchanger, distillation column, pipe) • Carbon emission.
Figure 2: Real-time dashboards provide the information required for each level of the plant’s organization.
Reliability • Plant availability • Equipment availability and efficiency • Critical operating points of each piece of equipment. Safety • Safety risk factor of critical equipment • Violation of environmental regulations or loss of containment • Lost time and first aid injury frequency rates. Once the SPIs are created, the next step is to configure dashboards. www.controleng.com
SPI dashboard configuration
PDO software uses SPIs to configure many different types of real-time SPI dashboards (Figure 2). Each process unit’s home dashboard gives an overview of performance related to the five management objectives of production, profit, energy, reliability and safety. This dashboard helps users visualize SPI balance among the five management objectives by showing what objectives are in an alarm or alert state, and what SPI trade-offs may be required to address each issue. Clicking on a role level leads a user to another dashboard appropriate to his or her level of responsibility. These dashboards can then be used to control engineering
COVER STORY: IT/OT COLLABORATION mation to be communicated in real-time across all levels of the organization. IT/OT integration also is essential for enabling consulting services from external experts located remote from the plant. Cloud, digital twin and other IT services allow plant data to be communicated worldwide. Experts analyze these data and provide the plant with advice to make additional improvements. PDO is being applied worldwide to help process plants improve operation, as described in the sidebar. Figure 3: Applying PDO to a gas separation plant entailed the creation of almost 600 SPIs by Yokogawa and KBC, working in close cooperation with plant personnel.
improve operations as each provides an indication of current status as well as advice for making improvements. PDO software links all of these dashboards to coordinate actions among all levels of a plantâ€™s organization. By providing performance alarms, guidance messages and a performance balance score, the PDO helps leadership, management, technical and operation personnel stay aligned to improve production performance. Operation and technical personnel rely on OT to view dashboards and take actions; management and leadership often employ IT to view dashboards and provide advice. IT/OT integration is therefore crucial because it allows infor-
Additional applications Although the sidebar example indicates, the concept can be implemented with any type of control system, with OPC used for data exchange between the control and PDO systems. This allows PDO to be implemented in a wide range of plants worldwide. The PDO approach supports web clients, providing real-time access from any device capable of hosting a web browser. The gas processing plant example restricts use to in-plant networks, but worldwide access could be added in the future by connection to the internet. The left half of Figure 4 shows how a PDO system can be connected to the cloud, allowing external access by remote experts, along with access by remote company personnel. For these types of implementations, a PDO web human-machine interface (HMI) server is installed in the cloud
Figure 4: A gas separation plant in Asia installed an on-site Yokogawa PDO solution and connected it to an existing Yokogawa Centum VP DCS, with a cloud-based implementation a future possibility.
and connected to a cloud-hosted data historian. In addition to remote external access for expert advice, a cloud-based structure enables a company to manage multiple plants simultaneously and optimize profits across a fleet of sites based on site-specific variables, such as current energy and raw material prices. A final feature currently implemented at a number of installations worldwide is an optional data analysis tool using AI machine learning technologies. This allows plants to quickly sort through very large amounts of data and uncover opportunities for improvements.
Process control to performance control
PDOs help end users shift from process control to performance control by applying real-time management of SPIs. In addition to real-time profit maximization, it can also be deployed as a training tool for plant operations and technical personnel as it shows them management perspectives for driving operational profitability. PDO can be applied to any process plant through an approach of exploration and co-creation, with implementation accomplished in a matter of months. ce
Yasunori Kobayashi is a senior manager and executive consultant at Yokogawa Electric Corp. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, email@example.com.
A data analysis tool uses artificial intelligence-based machine learning technologies. This allows plants to quickly sort through very large amounts of data and uncover opportunities for
Profit-driven operation in action
plant in Asia separates natural gas received from offshore wells into five major products: methane, ethane, propane, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). As shown in Figure 3, 589 SPIs were created for the plant, distributed among the five management objectives spanning the four levels of the plant’s organization. SPI creation was a rigorous process, beginning with a template of SPIs for gas separation plants. Through the consulting stage led by subject matter experts (SMEs), potential improvement areas and relevant SPIs became clear. The SPI selection workshop was then held, and engineers used the results of the workshop to finalize the SPIs and input all the parameters and information into the PDO system, which took about one month. The PDO system was installed and at the site, and plant personnel began using the PDO dashboard. The entire implementation took only two months from start to finish. The PDO system is connected to the existing DCS for high-speed twoway data exchange (Figure 4). Workshops identified The plant monitors all PDO dash$500,000 potential improveboards in real time on the operator ments in energy savings and console screens, relaxing of operational limits. and on any laptop or PC connected to the company’s IT network capable of hosting a web browser. There is no connection to the cloud at this time, although this feature may be added later. The SPIs are managed by plant personnel to stay within HI/LO performance limits. According to the plant’s product control supervisor, “The production division likes using PDO on our DCS because it helps our operators understand how their key performance indicators (KPIs) are reflected to management KPIs, and because it helps them realize more profitable operation with less support required from our technical division.” Real-time SPIs are automatically stored in the PDO system for long-term access, and these SPIs are shared with remote experts manually or automatically. These experts also analyzed the historical SPIs using a process simulator, and then conducted consulting workshops with plant personnel to suggest quick-win improvements. Through these workshops, $500,000 of potential improvements was identified based on energy savings and relaxing of operational limits.
Jonathan Griffith, AutomationDirect
Secure remote connections with cloud technologies Cloud technologies enable remote connectivity for industrial applications, but can introduce security issues unless built from the ground up with cybersecurity in mind. See top five issues to address.
obile technology has advanced to touch many aspects of modern life. People expect and demand digital access to almost anything technology-based, often through mobile devices. Because of this expectation, contemporary devices are designed with such connectivity built in. However, there are certain applications, such as remote and mobile monitoring of industrial control applications, arriving a little late to the party. Industrial automation, historically, lags behind the latest consumer technologies due to its specialized needs. Automation hardware and software platforms must operate continuously for years or decades. Any failures directly and negatively impact costly equipment and products. Therefore, these platforms have often remained somewhat isolated at an end user’s site. KEYWORDS: cybersecurity, These rigorous requirements are the cloud-based access, remote connectivity primary focus for industrial automation Mobile and remote connections platforms. Any form of remote access are becoming popular, but they was a secondary consideration at best, often lack the proper cybersecurity and was often viewed as a potential way tools. to compromise cybersecurity. Even as Proper security management commercial networking, PC and interis based on the triad of confidentiality, integrity and net cloud technologies enabled far easiavailability (CIA) of information. er access to automation platforms, each Good cloud-based remote of these aspects has intensified cyberseconnectivity offer strong technical curity concerns. solutions and follow the latest Today’s always-connected end users cybersecurity standards. demand remote access from their autoONLINE mation platforms because it adds value Read this article online at by reducing downtime. They can visuwww.controleng.com for an alize a system’s performance, operate additional article from the author. more efficiently and diagnose problems CONSIDER THIS remotely. Establishing secure remote What applications in your facility connections with confidence requires would benefit the most from careful attention at many levels of hardcloud-based remote connectivity ware, software and networking. and why?
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A solid cloud foundation
Some end users with a strong information technology (IT) skillset can create and maintain their own remote connectivity solutions to the plant floor operations technology (OT) side of the operation. Executed properly, these can provide satisfactory results. Usually, the work includes establishing a virtual private network (VPN) so internet-connected devices can communicate through the site firewall and reach the desired OT targets. A virtual private network (VPN) can be difficult and expensive to establish and maintain due to the coordination required between IT and OT groups. Even when a VPN is in place, there must be mobile applications or other software for end users to remotely connect. This task can be challenging unless the end user has all the required specialized hardware, software and requisite experience. More troubling is the discussion about how a home-brewed remote connectivity technology should be tested initially and over time to ensure good cybersecurity exists. A proper security management model is based on the triad of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of information. Many end users may not be able to create and maintain such a security model. For these reasons, many end users are turning to established cloud-based solutions to implement remote connectivity with the security they need. Cloud-based platforms are already specialized for the remote connectivity task. Providers can offer economies of scale and other technical benefits.
Before addressing security, it is important to understand the technical features cloud software can offer compared to a homemade configuration. One significant difference cloud-based software can deliver is improved availability because they operate using servers in the same types of data centers handling other critical computing www.controleng.com
Automated detection of critical events and anomalies help providers identify and react to
... unexpected activity.
and data storage activities. Such an expandable architecture can truly be planet-scale and provide improved availability through redundancy. A network of VPN servers located in data centers can use the best server for low latency. It also allows other servers to take over if a connection fails. Some cloud services may use modern computing architectures like Kubernetes clusters, which optimize the operation and management of microservices. [Kubernetes is open-source software to automate deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.] Most cloud solutions also offer application programming interface (API) services for key computing processes, which provides a consistent way for programs to connect. For Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications, a protocol called message queueing telemetry transport (MQTT) is often supported. MQTT is ideal for IIoT communications as it is efficient and secure when paired with transport layer security (TLS). The API and MQTT features allow cloud software to provide more than basic connectivity because these technologies allow data to be stored and accessed through the cloud. Any industrial cloud solution also must be suitable for handling three types of databases: • Relational: Such as configuration information • Non-relational: Such as events, alarms and logs • Time series: Such as continually arriving timestamped analog process data. Each database has specific characteristics important for industrial applications. Cloud solutions incorporating all three are a good fit so long as security is ensured.
Five cybersecurity issues to address
The unfortunate lack of cybersecurity is a complex topic that surfaces in the news all too often. Knowing this, many end users are rightfully concerned with how to ensure the security of any internally developed remote connectivity solution. Best practice for any provider of remote connectivity or cloud-based solutions would be ongoing adherence to a comprehensive information security management system (ISMS) following
AutomationDirect’s StrideLinx cloud-hosted VPN has secure connectivity to industrial assets from mobile HMI applications hosted on laptops, smartphones and tablets. Images courtesy: AutomationDirect
requirements set forth by the ISO 27001 standard and undergoing qualified third-party audits. There are five top issues that must be addressed: 1. Encrypted connections: All connections to and between cloud services must be encrypted using HTTPS with TLS 1.2 or higher to prevent unauthorized access. 2. Centralized monitoring, logging, and analysis: Automated detection of critical events and anomalies help providers identify and react to any performance issues or unexpected activity.
Mobile VPN connectivity allows control and data viewing on third-party mobile apps.
3. Vulnerability management: Ongoing third-party audits should provide early detection of vulnerabilities or weaknesses before they are exploited. control engineering
4. Access control: Any cloud-based platform requires developer access, but it should be controlled to a limited number of people with strong access keys and thorough monitoring. 5. Software development life cycle: Software changes should always be peer reviewed, follow a rigorous versioning management system, and be tested using manual and automated methods.
Cybersecurity requirement: Any OT/IT remote connectivity solution needs to be coordinated with site security access restrictions.
If end users are not prepared to perform these activities, they should consider using a cloudbased software provided by a company in compliance with these ISMS directives.
Even the best cloud-based software can be compromised by weak on-premises security. Unfortunately, most OT technologies at manufacturing sites were not designed with security in mind and many are rarely updated. Connecting these legacy technologies to newer cloud-based platforms can lead to trouble unless precautions are taken. The most fundamental step is ensuring the machine local area network (LAN) is isolated from the wide area network (WAN) and internet using a router with a properly configured firewall. By default, this blocks all traffic between the two, denying any communications initiated on the WAN from reaching the LAN unless it’s configured to do so. However, it is often acceptable for LANs to generate trusted outbound communications to the WAN or the internet. This is the preferred way for OT systems to integrate with IT cloud platforms without involvThese AutomationDirect StrideLinx ing more complex IT solutions. VPN routers provide built-in firewall Any OT/IT remote connectivprotection to isolate machine level ity solution needs to be coordiLAN and companywide WAN netnated with site security access works, and optional 4G connectivity, restrictions. enabling cloud-based remote access One other point is many OT and simplifying implementation. operations are located where internet connectivity may be
less than ideal. For these cases, end users may want to look for routers capable of failing over from a preferred internet connection to 4G mobile networks. For applications with data logging, it is also recommended the router can buffer data for days at a time until a connection is restored.
Browser and app security
The final remote connectivity step is the end user interface. This could be browser-based or a mobile-based application. Unfortunately, this interface can be a prime target for outside attackers. As most users know from their personal email, banking and other computer-based accounts, login security is paramount. In addition to a unique and long password, users should consider using systems that allow two-factor authentication (2FA) as an additional layer of protection. Most often, users open another authenticator app on their mobile device to obtain a one-time passcode as they log in. Administrators of cloud-based connectivity system must carefully assign and control user privileges. Common sense dictates users should be granted just enough privilege to perform their tasks, and no more. This minimizes the affect a successful attacker can cause to a system. When apps are available, they are more convenient for end users than web browser access. This is because they are preconfigured for mobile screen size and tailored to offer the most typical information and functionality needed while requiring far less specialized development effort by end users.
Confident cloud connections
Remote monitoring and control, especially via mobile devices, is considered a must-have feature for many industrial automation users. It may be possible for some users to develop their own connectivity software, but the cybersecurity risk is significant and demands extensive effort for mitigation. This is one of the main reasons many users are finding cloud-based remote connectivity and data logging platforms are an ideal answer. The best cloud platforms offer better technical solutions, such as redundant servers and backup data connections, than homemade systems. They follow the latest industry security standards, are continually audited and offer mobile apps to help end users get running quickly, with minimal maintenance required throughout the lifecycle. ce
Jonathan Griffith is product manager for industrial communications and power supplies at AutomationDirect. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, Control Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org. www.controleng.com
CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION Dan Capano, Gannett Fleming Engineers and Architects
Cybersecurity: Human assets Human hacking, the compromise of human assets, is often the first step in a cybersecurity breach, even if or when technical systems are secure. Help coworkers and those in the supply chain to avoid being the entry point for attack. Learn attack methods, five attack types and five prevention techniques.
ocial engineering, that is, the manipulation of human assets for nefarious purpose, is a complex and difficult subject. It is, in effect, “human hacking.” The human asset is often the first compromised in a cyber-attack. A threat actor, after doing reconnaissance on their target, uses the information gained to obtain credentials or other information that will allow access to protected systems and resources. Often the attacker gets lucky, and with little effort, and even less risk can obtain user credentials simply by what amounts to guessing, albeit in an automated fashion. The subject is difficult to discuss; many users are “confident” in their abilities to protect their credentials so do not practice proper cyberhygiene. This has led to several high-profile breaches (see more reading, online).
Manipulation, social mining
Social engineering is defined as the manipulation of the human asset mainly though human intelligence (humint) and open source intelligence (osint). These are the same techniques, among others, that are used by intelligence agencies to gather intelligence from foreign adversaries. Roughly 80% of all cyber-attacks start with a social engineering (SE) attack. These initial attacks take many forms, the most common being phishing emails that are very sophisticated and effective. Without venturing too far, these attacks work and produce real results; those with poor cyberhygiene are easily compromised, sometimes repeatedly. Another fertile area is social media; aside from the inherent ability of social media to influence opinion and behavior, it has been shown that user data can be mined and used to build profiles that provide attackers with a wealth of humint and osint that can be used to obtain credentials or to compromise the asset.
Cognitive and social biases play heavily into the equation. One intriguing cognitive bias, known as the Dunning-Kruger Effect, postulates that the incom-
petent does not know they are incompetent, and this leads to an illusory, inflated self-image, which in turn leads to an asset that can be easily compromised. These assets do not typically follow instructions or take criticism well, which leads to a plethora of side effects. They are susceptible to flattery or pandering to jealousies or biases, an approach that has been used to great effect; these vulnerabilities provide a very fertile attack surface, particularly on social media. Social biases are a bottomless pit of opportunity to compromise assets with these proclivities. None of these techniques of mass manipulation are new — they have been used for ages to gain and retain power, but now, with valuable assets and critical infrastructure being the prize, the consequences are dire.
Methods of attack
Social Engineering attacks are one of the most dangerous threats. Threat actors use social engineering to attack systems for which they cannot find any technical vulnerabilities. It is generally accepted that these attacks can be detected but cannot be entirely prevented. There are several types of attacks using different methods. These attacks follow a common execution with similar phases. The most common pattern involves four phases: 1. RECON: Information gathering (reconnaissance) 2. HOOK: Fostering a relationship with the target 3. EXPLOIT: Exploitation of information and/or relationship 4. EXIT: Departure, leaving little or no evidence of the attack.
Attack stages are shown in the diagram. The attack loosely follows the steps in a control engineering
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KEYWORDS: Cybersecurity, human cyberhygiene, cybersecurity training and tips Social engineering can manipulate humans to compromise cybersecurity. Social media and cognitive bias can weaken human defenses Lower attack footprint, regular checks and an internal network safety team can help. CONSIDER THIS The most hardened cybersecurity can be thwarted by one person who lets down defenses.
ONLINE If reading from the digital edition, click on the headline for more resources, including a live link to the June article, “Understand the Cyber Kill Chain.” www.controleng.com/magazine
CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION cyber “kill chain” (See Control Engineering, June 2019: “Understand the cyber-attack lifecycle.”) Social engineering attacks can be human-based, or computer-based. Human-based attacks require the attacker to interact with the victim to acquire information, and therefore cannot attack more than one victim at a time. Computer-based attacks can attack thousands in a very short time. Phishing emails are an example of computer-based attacks.
Technical, social, physical Depending upon how the attack is perpetrated, attacks can be further classified into three categories: technical-, social- and physical-based attacks. Technical-based attacks are typically conducted through online venues, such as social media or websites designed to gather information. Social-based attacks are conducted through relationships with the victim and make use of emotions and biases. Physical attacks involve activities, such as “dumpster div-
Cognitive and social biases are a veritable bottomless pit of opportunity to compromise cybersecure assets.
ing” or “shoulder surfing” or outright theft. Physical attacks are often done in combination with social attacks to misdirect the victim, allowing theft of credentials or access to secured areas. Finally, attacks can be defined as direct or indirect. The former definition requires the attacker to be in contact with their victim, and often require physical contact, such as eye contact, conversation and presence in the victim’s work or home space. Direct attacks involve actual theft of documents or the perpetration of the long or short “con.” Direct attacks are often telephone calls. The fake IRS calls are examples of direct social engineering attacks. Indirect attacks do not require the attack to be in contact with their victims. Malware, distributed denial of service (DDoS), phishing, ransomware and reverse social engineering are some examples of indirect attacks.
Five common attack types Many variants exist on social engineering means and methods. All are based on basic human frailties; among these are curiosity, need and greed, and resentment. The skilled attacker has done his research and has tailored an attack to fit the weaknesses and vulnerabilities of the intended victim. Described below are the five most common types of attacks: 1. Phishing: Easily the most common of the SE attacks, phishing gets its name from the practice of “phone phreaking” whose aim was to manipulate the telephone network for thrills and free telephone calls. These attacks throw out a hook to see who or what bites. While the term is still used to describe deceptive telephone calls, by far the biggest venue for phishing is email. It has been estimated that over 80% of successful malware insertions occur with a phishing email scam. Phishing comes in several forms: Spear phishing — a targeted attack on one individual or facility; Whaling — a very targeted attack on a high value victim, or “Whale”; Vishing — the use of the telephone to perform the attack (voice and phishing); SMShishing — the use of text messaging. The list goes on. If the attacker has done thorough recon on the intended target, phishing can be very effective and difficult to detect and mitigate. 2. Pretexting: Pretexting is the art of creating fake and convincing scenarios that cause the victim to trust the attacker and almost willingly give up their personal information or access credentials. Attackers use open source intelligence (osint), that is, information that is readily available in public documents, on the internet and particularly the information rich landscape of social media. The pretext takes many forms; job offers, offers of companionship or sex, something for nothing for a small fee — these scams are as old as the hills. The most familiar pretext is the “419 scam,” so called because they violate section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code. These are the scams whereby you are presented with an opportunity to share in an inheritance, or lottery winnings, or some other nonsense if you can just send the scammer money to help them “get the money out.” While it originated in Nigeria, there are many variants and copycats: beware of the cheap sunglasses scam.
Cybersecurity attack stages through humans Research and reconnaissance RECON
Foster relationship HOOK
Exploit the target EXPLOIT
Exfiltrate data EXIT Courtesy: Dan Capano
3. Baiting: These attacks play into the “need and greed” impulse and offer something free if you click a link on a website. Unlike “clickbait,” designed to drive up site hits, baiting attacks are used to install malware on the victim’s computer. Innocent-looking websites offering a free financial planning spreadsheet for download, for instance. As the spreadsheet loads a reverse shell program does also, giving the attacker access to all the victim then accesses. Free music, movies and pornography all have been used as vehicles for malware delivery. A variant is the use of infected USB drives left around a coffee shop or parking lot that inexperienced users pick up and, out of curiosity, plug into their machines; this was the method of installing the Stuxnet worm into a secure Iranian nuclear facility that was otherwise air-gapped. 4. Quid pro quo: Similar to baiting, this attack offers a benefit to the victim for providing information. This is particularly effective in social media. One common attack is the fake IT staff scam, an example of “vishing.” These attacks do not have to be very sophisticated and are often done on the fly, with victims being selected at random. One study done in Great Britain several years ago showed that people stopped at random in the subway would give away their network passwords for a bar of chocolate or a cheap pen or some other trinket (reference). 5. Tailgating is a very common physical attack whereby the attacker, posing as another employee or as a deliveryman, accesses a secure area by “piggybacking” on the legitimate employee’s access. A common method is to ask someone to let the attacker in because they “forgot their ID card.” This method is used to gain access to secure areas and requires the attacker also to use pretexting to convince a dubious employee of sincerity and legitimacy. A variant is having the attacker “borrow” the employee’s ID card “for just a minute” so they can go to their car to retrieve a forgotten something or other — resulting in a copied or compromised ID card. Most people want to trust. Attackers know this and take full advantage.
Five prevention techniques
Five prevention techniques can lower risk of human errors that create cybersecurity risks. 1. Reduce the attack surface. This entails a thorough analysis of a facility’s IT infrastructure seen through the eyes of an attacker. Close up open ports, and secure the firewall. Limit access to critical systems to as few staff as possible. 2. Do thorough background checks on critical staff. Being as the weakest link in security is the human asset, the logical next step is to eliminate the human factor as much as possible. This means systematically removing human interaction as far as practicable. This may sound like heresy, but we face a crisis that has been brought on by careless-
ness and a failure of some to understand threats — in fact, many believe that cybersecurity is a solution in search of a problem. This type of thinking makes a skilled social engineer smile. 3. Network safety team: While training can mitigate some threats, it is recommended that key staff be identified and trained to monitor for threats and beaches, and to act as network safety officers who regularly audit security procedures and review cyberhygiene of other staff. These people must have authority to shut down a vulnerability and have the ability to remediate the offending employee’s behavior. A “strike team” composed of network admins, security staff and senior employees can act quickly to detect and seal off a breach, and then do a post-mortem to determine how the breach occurred.
A strike team ... can act quickly to detect and seal off a breach, and then determine
how the breach occurred.
4. Role-based access: Nothing is going to stop an employee from writing passwords on a sticky note or from treating cybersecurity as a useless exercise. This type of mentality is tough to deal with while allowing an employee to access the network and resources in the course of doing their jobs. Compartmentalization is one way to handle the problem; role-based access (RBAC) is an effective method of compartmentalization. Requiring a formal access request and then monitoring the employee while accessing critical data or systems is another technique. Multi-factor authentication is useful, but not if an employee does not take it seriously and is careless with their phone or other second means of authentication. 5. Passwords: Mandating and enforcing intelligent password policy is effective in preventing staff from using easily guessed passwords like “1234567” or the ever popular “password.”
Proper cyberhygiene, like personal hygiene, can be taught, but as we all know, is not always practiced. A company can spend millions of dollars on automation, training, active intruder detection, mitigation and prevention, and active countermeasures — all to be foiled by an employee who is careless or incompetent. Removing the human element where possible can reduce cybersecurity risk. ce Daniel E. Capano is senior project manager, Gannett Fleming Engineers and Architects, and on the Control Engineering Editorial Advisory Board. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, email@example.com. control engineering
CYBERSECURITY Gregory Hale, ISSSource
Converge physical, cybersecurity The distinction between digital and physical cybersecurity is vanishing, and connectivity risks have accelerated the need for new security protections.
You have to do advanced planning and communications. People
here is a growing intersection of physical and cyber security where the distinction between digital and physical worlds is vanishing, and the risks associated with connectivity have accelerated the need for new security protections in all aspects of manufacturing. “The notion you can separate cybersecurity from physical security is going away,” said Tarah Wheeler, longtime cybersecurity expert and cybersecurity policy fellow at New America, during her keynote at GSX 2019 conference in Chicago. “The world is changing and physical security is becoming cybersecurity.” In a world where information technology (IT) and operations technology (OT) cyber players have clashed and are beginning to work together, Wheeler sees the same thing on the physical security side. “Where physical and cyber are coming together, there will be politics,” she said. “In an incident you don’t want a fight. Physical security is a piece of the world being recorded by cybersecurity. The concept of an audit trail is coming for physical.” An audit trail is becoming more important as physical security players could rely on video from cameras, but through the years, industry players have learned sometimes video can be very misleading. “Seeing somebody’s face is not always true,” Wheeler said. “You need to question the things you see.”
physical security Cyberattack preparation Worst day for cybersecurity Protectors of data, people and companies.
CONSIDER THIS If you see an anomaly that may (or may not) indicate a cyberattack, do you know what to do?
ONLINE www.controleng.com/ networking-and-security/ cybersecurity/
Preparing for a cyber attack
Without adequate cyber protection to connected physical security systems protecting critical infrastructure, OT environments may end up exposed and vulnerable. Every connection and connected device is an entry point, and a golden opportunity for a breach. Everyone must understand attackers will leverage anything they can get their digital hands on to gain access to an OT system, including those within the enterprise security system itself to potentially infiltrate a manufacturing enterprise. Brad Konkle, director of integrated solutions at Stanley Convergent Security Solutions, said there is digital technolo-
gy in tools like wrenches and drills. That is why they have a digital product security team. “Anyone that makes a product that is connected to the cloud should be concerned about security,” Konkle said. “Everything is an IoT device now. It is not just about security or IT, it is also about everything including home appliances.” Wheeler added part of her job is to get into the mindset of an attacker.
Worst day in cybersecurity
“I have to think like a bad guy to keep people safe,” Wheeler said. “You have to think that way, too. There are three things to do on your worst day in cybersecurity: 1. React 2. Firefight 3. Recover trust.
“You have to do advanced planning and communications. People are the key to every part of security. Be ready for the situation that is about to come,” Wheeler said. Even those working in marketing are security workers, Wheeler said. They are looking at social media and getting an understanding of what customers are saying and thinking. They are also seeing chatter going on that could relate to the brand in a positive and negative manner. Wheeler added there needs to be solid communications up and down the ladder. “The value we bring is explaining what has happened,” she said. That is why security experts need to provide: • Analogies • Images • Brevity • Understatedness. “We want to be fierce protectors of data, people and companies,” Wheeler said. “It all boils down to trust.” ce Gregory Hale is with ISSSource.com. ISSSource is a CFE Media content partner. Edited by Chris Vavra, production editor, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org. www.controleng.com
Flowmeter market grows with oil and gas recovery A study from Flow Research projects the worldwide flowmeter market will grow from $7 billion to almost $9 billion by 2023 as the oil and gas industry continues recovering. Flow measurement technologies advance.
research study from Flow Research finds the worldwide flowmeter market totaled $7.06 billion in 2018 and is projected to approach $8.85 billion by 2023. The worldwide flowmeter market size has followed the upward and downward fluctuations in oil prices. When oil prices began dropping in 2014 and many oil and gas exploration projects were postponed or cancelled, associated instrumentation industries experienced a ripple effect. This downturn especially impacted the Coriolis, ultrasonic, differential pressure (DP), positive displacement, and turbine flowmeter markets, according to the May 2019 report, â€œVolume X: The World Market for Flowmeters, 7th Edition.â€? As oil prices began recovering in 2016, the worldwide flowmeter market is back on a healthy upward track. Coriolis and ultrasonic flowmeters (industryapproved for custody transfer of both gas and liquids) are projected to experience the fastest growth rates.
Traditional technology flowmeters, especially DP flow, positive displacement and turbine meters, have the advantage of a large installed base that is reluctant to switch without cause. In addition, they were among the first types of flowmeters to receive approvals from industry associations for custody transfer applications. In many applications, these are the lower-cost workhorses of the flow measurement world. However, the need for increased accuracy, reliability, and managed network capabilities are causing some users to make the switch to new technology meters.
Product improvements propel growth
Product improvements in new and traditional technology flowmeters also are contributing to the upward trend in the worldwide market. Some product improvements include modern materials for meter parts or liners, additional line sizes, increased accuracy and broader flow ranges. Suppliers are
New vs. traditional flowmeters
New-technology flowmeters are displacing traditional technology meters in some applications. Traditional meters remain a major force. New-technology flowmeters, meters first introduced after 1950, include Coriolis, magnetic, ultrasonic, vortex, and thermal flowmeters. Traditional technology flowmeters include DP, positive displacement, turbine, open channel and variable area flowmeters. As some new technology flowmeters become more familiar, gain industry approvals, come down in price, and expand the range of line sizes available, their advantages are gaining them converts. Some advantages include: accuracy, repeatability, reliability, lack of moving parts subject to wear and low to no pressure drop. A steady stream of new features, options, and apps increases ease of use and integration into processes. Some new-technology flowmeters also are benefitting from expanding and newer applications such as hydrofracking and environmental monitoring.
A study from Flow Research projects the worldwide flowmeter market will grow to almost $9 billion by 2023. Courtesy: Flow Research Inc. control engineering
FLOWMETER ADVANCES making battery powered units, smaller meter bodies for tight spaces, multivariable meters, and self-monitoring and selfrecalibrating meters. Regulatory reporting requirements and the need for continuous measurement without interruption are increasing the value of redundancy in measurement. Vortex and turbine suppliers have brought out flowmeters with two sensors and dual flowmeters calibrated together. New differential pressure flowmeters offer fully integrated orifice plates with multiple transmitters. Dual turbine rotor designs offer greater turndown flow range along with enhanced accuracy. Redundancy, accuracy and reliability are key features when selecting a flowmeter. Dr. Jesse Yoder, president of Flow Research, said, “Oil prices have stabilized and projects requiring new flowmeters are in full swing. Adding to that, suppliers are introducing new product features that are revitalizing the market. Chief among these are enhanced accuracy, reliability, and redundancy.” He said 2018 was a banner year for the flowmeter market, and that trend continues in 2019. Merger and acquisition activity is likely to continue as companies position themselves to compete more effectively in an expanding market, Yoder said.
Micro flow flowmeter
Thermal Micro Flow Rate Liquid Flow Meter Model F7M flow meter from Azbil Corp. can measure micro flow rates from 0.5 to 50 mL/min, an addition to the two current models, which can measure flow KEYWORDS: Industrial rates of 0.1 to 10 mL/min and 0.3 to 30 flowmeters, flow meters mL/min, respectively. The flow meters The worldwide flowmeter have applications in such areas as battery market follows oil prices. and semiconductor manufacturing, sterFlow meter improvements expand flowmeter use. ilization processes and spray dispensing.
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Azbil Corp., www.azbil.com
Do your flowmeters need upgrading?
Clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter
ONLINE www.controleng.com/research New Products for Engineers under the flowmeter product category www.controleng.com/NPE for: -ABB AquaMaster 3, Aplus Finetek Sensor EPR Series Paddlewheel Flowmeter -Endress+Hauser Proline flowmeters -Exair Wireless Digital Flowmeter -Schneider Electric Foxboro MagPlus -Siemens Sitrans FC430 Coriolis flowmeter
Dynasonics TFX-5000 ultrasonic clamp-on flow and energy meters from Badger Meter are designed for noninvasive, ultrasonic transit time measurement. The meters can be used in water and wastewater treatment, heating/ventilation/air conditioning and oil and gas applications.
Badger Meter, www.badgermeter.com
Thermal mass flowmeter
ST80 Series Thermal Mass Flow Meter by Fluid Components International (FCI) has FCI’s Adaptive Sensor Technology to expand the rangeability,
accuracy, extended service life, and reliability for process industry air/gas flow measurement. The technology combines constant power and constant temperature thermal dispersion sensing technologies in one instrument. Choose from four sensor elements. FCI www.fluidcomponents.com
Thermal mass flow flowmeter
Red-y Smart High-Precision Thermal Mass Flow Meters and Mass Flow Controllers from Vogtlin Instruments to accurately monitor gas flow in the very sensitive bioreactor process that cultures the algae. Sight glass meters were susceptible to temperature and pressure deviations, resulting in value variations by 10% or more. It has CO2 onboard totalizing and flowrate indication to support greater process results. Vogtlin Instruments, www.voegtlin.com/en
Lifecycle aware magnetic flowmeter
Admag Total Insight (TI) is a lifecycle-aware magnetic flow meter from Yokogawa that reduces OpEx and downtime by monitoring device health without removing it from the process. The dualfrequency design achieves a fast response, stable measurement, and zero stability. Basic parameters are grouped in an easy setup wizard. Download and save data to analyze offline, avoiding potential problems or downtime. It has three levels of built-in verification, including in-line.
Full bore magnetic flowmeter
Signet 2580 FlowtraMag from GF Piping Systems is full bore magnetic flowmeter with a U.S.-made sensor. It is designed for high accuracy flow measurement in short pipe runs (as low as 3X upstream and 2X downstream). High accuracy is achieved for these problematic runs with the new sensor design that has shorter inlet and outlet pipe length requirement and certified factory calibration.
GF Piping Systems, www.gfps.com
From materials submitted from the respective companies, edited by Chris Vavra and Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, email@example.com. www.controleng.com
VFD EFFICIENCY Jonathan Kopczyk, Yaskawa
VFD: Swap it or upgrade? Variable frequency drives (VFDs) offer energy efficiency and other benefits. There’s a lot to know behind the process of replacing a drive.
e live in a time where variable frequency drives (VFDs) are the standard for motor control. As they’re being installed primarily in commercial and industrial buildings, both new and old applications reap the benefits these intelligent devices bring. But just like all electronics, VFDs do not last forever. For example, a replacement may be needed due to a failure from a power surge, or because a 20-year-old VFD isn’t compatible with the building management system, and remote monitoring is crucial for the application. In either of these two scenarios, replacing a VFD may not be as easy as merely swapping the unit, powering up and walking away. On the other hand, the task actually can be quite simple when knowing what to look for and how to properly go about it. There are two primary scenarios most people face when replacing a VFD.
SCENARIO 1: Replace a VFD with the same model
There are a few things worth examining when changing out a VFD with one of the same model, as simple as it sounds. The first priority is matching the model number and the voltage class and current/HP rating on both units. This also verifies the new VFD will fit in the existing physical space. Next, all wiring must be landed on the same terminal designation. This ensures the input/output functionality of the new VFD equates to that of the old. Finally, parameter settings should match those that are key for the application. There are many forms of backup, especially if the old VFD can still be powered up. If accessed, parameter settings can be written down, stored in a software program, or even saved to the keypad’s memory and transferred to the new VFD. Ideally this should be done before the replacement process takes place. In cases when the VFD is incorporated in a bigger piece of equipment, the original equipment manufacturer may have its own parameter listing. The worst case is the drive will have to be set up manually and optimized for the application by the user.
It may prove beneficial to save a few parts from the old VFD. Depending on the intensity of the failure, certain components such as the keypad, cooling fans and control/terminal board may have been left unscathed and can be reused. The main circuitry parts of the VFD, including capacitors, should not be kept as there may be internal damage or extensive wear.
SCENARIO 2: Upgrade a VFD with a different or newer model
It is slightly more complicated to upgrade or replace a variable frequency drive with a different model. This time there are a few more factors involved. For starters, sizing and obtaining the correct model should be approached as if the drive is for a new application. Variables such as amperage, voltage, enclosure, de-ratings, and application type need to be taken into account. It’s also worth considering if the original VFD had been sized correctly in the first place.
In swapping the VFD, examine circuit breakers, filters, bypass configurations and
other electrical equipment for compatibility. Even before installation there are a few other considerations, physical sizing being of the highest importance for obvious reasons. Generally, newer VFDs are smaller and more compact than that of the previous generation but that’s not always the case. This also holds true when switching to a different manufacturer. It is always recommended to check a dimensional drawing to verify space requirements. An existing package or setup also will need to be looked at closely. Most stand-alone VFDs are rated simply for an indoor environment with little to no protection against airborne debris. They are often put inside an enclosure, which offers greater resistance against harmful elements such as dust and water. Replacing the unit as a whole (drive and control engineering
Figure 1: Bypass and configured packages include a replaceable variable frequency drive. Images courtesy: Yaskawa
enclosure) can get pricey, and only the drive itself may have failed. Swapping the VFD may seem logical but components such as circuit breakers, filters, bypass configurations and other electrical equipment need to be examined for compatibility. Once the above checks are complete, wiring can then be done. Assuming the terminal designations have no match from one VFD to the next, a simple breakdown of the inputs/outputs (I/O) type can help clarify where the wires should be landed. Once the main circuitry wiring is completed, the control wires and terminal designations on the new VFD can be categorized into five types. These are digital inputs, digital outputs, analog inputs, analog outputs and other I/Os. Itâ€™s best to reference a wiring schematic to obtain the exact function of the terminals. As one of the final steps, programKEYWORDS: ming is once again what makes the Variable frequency drive, VFD application. If a parameter list with When to replace a VFD non-default values can be obtained When to upgrade a VFD from the old VFD, then setting up the Check compatibility for related new model will be less troublesome. components. On the other hand, the VFD may ONLINE EXTRA just need to be configured from the www.controleng.com/discretestart. In this case, breaking down the manufacturing/motors-drives basics that a drive needs, such as a freCONSIDER THIS quency and run command, will make Is it time to upgrade VFDs? setup much easier. The advanced fea-
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Figure 2: The drive nameplate provides useful information when verifying compatibility with the motor.
tures can be programmed last. Typically, the VFD user manual will have detailed information on specific functions and a complete parameter list. The keypad may even have a setup wizard with a step-bystep procedure.
Repairing the VFD is another option. A wellmaintained, repaired unit may last another decade. The ability to accomplish this depends on factors, such as availability of parts, model or sizing of the drive and the extent of damage. Spare parts usually are available even for older models and therefore may be an inexpensive option. Determining the root cause of the VFD failure is an often-overlooked option. Most drives are replaced without this ever being questioned and rarely are VFDs just plain defective. Environmental issues such as humidity, dust, temperature and exposure to corrosion should first be considered. Other failure means are generally external to the VFD itself. These include, but are not limited to, motor problems and input voltage fluctuations which put strain on internal components such as capacitors. VFD protection and preventive maintenance are crucial and should never be undervalued. ce
Jonathan Kopczyk is a technical support engineer for Yaskawa. Edited by CFE Media and Technology. www.controleng.com
INSIDE PROCESS Jennifer Grimley, FacilityConneX
Intelligent alarms create actions from noise Alarm management software can decipher raw data, identify critical alarms, locate alarm sources, and provide role-based intelligence for faster resolution.
ndustrial facilities and manufacturing plants are busy places with numerous pieces of equipment sending raw data, information and alerts from many systems and machines. According to a report from human-machine interface (HMI)/supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) experts at GE Digital, about 75% of all alarms are noise. Operators face the difficult task of deciphering the raw data, identifying which alerts are critical, and locating where the alerts are coming from. This time-consuming, costly process is complicated by a shifting workforce of new and temporary staff who may not have the experience or familiarity with plant systems to differentiate noise from important data.
Critical assets, smarter alarms
Intelligent alarming has been used over the past decade to consolidate data from SCADA systems, creating clear direction and driving corrective actions. With the increasing push for the adoption of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0, intelligent alarming is giving plant operators an opportunity to gain efficiency and effectiveness with SCADA monitoring as well as enhance critical asset reliability for boilers, chillers, compressed air and other systems. Intelligent alarming supports the operability of various systems including HVAC, which allows plant operators to maintain environmental parameters such as temperature and humidity, ensure staff safety and comfort and increase process reliability. Advances in IIoT, real-time monitoring, and predictive analytics have helped intelligent alarming evolve into a multivariable alert system that looks at customized conditions and compares related data points. It provides a mobile safeguard for plant operations that can be kept in an operatorâ€™s pocket.
Four benefits for operators
By establishing a platform that transforms equipment noise from all systems across a plant into immediate corrective action, operators can: 1. Preserve the longevity and operability of assets 2. Reduce allocated costs for electrical and maintenance efforts 3. Maintain regulatory compliance 4. Take a more proactive approach to plant management.
Bringing intelligence to real-time monitoring
Every plant will have different requirements for operations and compliance based on the space, size and the industry theyâ€™re working in. The needs of biopharmaceutical manufacturing plants,
FacilityConneX software saves time when locating energy and operational efficiency issues with detailed causal analysis. Images courtesy: FacilityConneX control engineeering
for example, may vary from those of a manufacturer of home goods, requiring more air turns, tighter temperature ranges and reduced humidity. Pre-determined parameters create a series of alerts when operations fall outside of those parameters for temperature, energy use or other measurements. A large quantity of alerts can overwhelm operators, creating multiple notifications for the same problem without identifying the issue or its source. For example, a valve leak may result in
A large quantity of alerts can overwhelm operators, creating multiple notifications for the same problem without identifying the
issue or its source.
In the IIoT-driven world, new technologies like fault detection are using processed data and advanced analytics to consolidate alerts and determine what is critical and a priority before sending actionable alerts and information about a situation to the operator. This new technology has built-in intelligent alarming capabilities to eliminate false positives, minimize the chattering effect, and the reduce the overall effort to get to the cause and resolution. Time to resolution saves money and increases reliability in the process and product.
How it works: 3 steps Offering intelligent notifications to desktop or mobile devices, FacilityConneX provides immediate alerts when operations fall outside of pre-determined parameters so the right people can quickly address issues before they become costly and hinder productivity.
a spike in temperature, sending dozens of alerts in minutes. Combined with other monitoring efforts, operators may face hundreds of alerts per minute. It’s impossible for staff to keep up with all the alarms, which can result in alerts being ignored, which increases overall risk. Incorporating intelligence into alarming provides the ability to determine what the issue is, where it’s coming from, and create a faster alert to resolution process.
Creating condition-based alerts
The reason industrial facilities like manufacturing plants have so many alerts is because many alerts are “triggered-based.” This design sends an alert when a data point hits a pre-set threshold that acts as a trigger. Plant operators can set these triggers to send alerts at different levels as the data point hits different thresholds, which creates multiple alerts for one issue. Triggeredbased alerts also are not subject to time span, data quality or frequency (sometimes referred to chattering). These alarms tend to be noisy and distracting to operators.
An intelligent alarm is a “condition-based” alert that accesses multiple data points through a layered analysis approach instead of creating an alert once the data point hits a certain trigger. 1. In Layer 1, a data point coming in to the system is cleaned for quality, weeding out bad quality data from detection including gaps, controller sampling issues, and sensor health. If data quality is bad, the operator is alerted to the already pre-assessed situation, which further adds to the chatter. 2. Next, the data point or multiple points are used for fault detection, forming a current condition or prediction of a condition. In a typical fault detection system, the data is assessed for cause prior to sending the alert, giving the operator actionable insight and knowledge of what could cause the situation. 3. Lastly, the “condition-based” alert is tracked for chattering, trending, and timespan analysis so it doesn’t become noise. Conditions of similar assessments are not alerted multiple times, but instead triggered on the rules set by the operator, who also can assess the condition of the equipment after reviewing these aggregate results. For example, picture a motor sending an alert that it failed to start several times in a matter of minutes. Now, think about only seeing one intelligent alert with good data quality assessed, the condition analyzed down to the cause, and the chatter of continued attempts to start minimized. www.controleng.com
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time identifying and assigning tasks for corrective actions and helps them address the most critical issues first to reduce allocated costs. Issues and corrective actions can also be assigned through intelligent alarming, ensuring different team members are alerted only to the problems they need to address. This customization helps staff focus only on the alerts relevant to them and makes them seem less overwhelming by reducing their number. For example, an operator may get an alert about piece of equipment requiring adjustment while a plant engineer may get alerts about potential product quality issue. Individuals can receive customized, role-based view. FacilityConneX simplifies and speeds up the manual data entry process, making it possible to add and integrate these data points via mobile devices
By making these alert systems more intelligent with real-time monitoring and customizable analytics for multivariable analysis of conditionbased alerts from multiple systems, operators can identify the most urgent conditions and provide suggested preventative or corrective action. This approach also streamlines all data into a single cloud-based platform, which consolidates critical alerts and suggested actions. These alerts can also be sent to an operator’s mobile device, driving higher response times when staff are on- or off-site.
Caters to varied staff experience
Another key concern for operators is ensuring newer staff members have the tools and direction to be as effective at identifying and addressing critical issues as existing staff members. Operators who have been at a facility for a while often have a better understanding of the equipment’s voice, knowing what data to monitor, what’s regular noise and which alerts are KEYWORDS: Intelligent alarms, the most urgent. New and temporary alarm management staff will eventually accumulate this Alarm floods make operators understanding, but the ramp-up period less effective and increase risk. can be minimized with the use of intelSmart software assesses ligent alarming systems. alarms in layers, providing Because intelligent alarming and intelligent information. analytics provide such detailed alert Lower risk, increased proactive maintenance can result. context and visualization at the machine and process level, faster response time CONSIDER THIS for new and existing staff is possible. Could intelligent alarms lower Time to resolution can be reduced by up risk, save time, and improve your maintenance? to 30% as management and engineering teams don’t have to sort through raw ONLINE data and guess where an issue is comIf reading from the digital ing from, which can save hours or days edition, click on the headline for about alarming. depending on the plant’s size. A prioriwww.controleng.com/magazine tized list of alerts enables staff to save
M More ANSWERS
Shift to proactive maintenance
Using intelligent alarming and analytics provides an opportunity for a plant to shift from a reactive approach to maintenance to a more proactive approach. Teams with intelligence information can drive faster resolutions. Predictive analytics helps teams identify potential problems that could occur and address them proactively to prevent potential equipment failures. Continuous fleet analysis of equipment and systems can reveal critical issues and key performance and reliability gaps. By understanding how the equipment is operating and what maintenance may need to be performed, staff can enhance operational efficiency and preserve the reliability of equipment — saving on allocated costs for maintenance and replacements. Analytics also enables energy savings and reduces allocated costs for electricity as operators can identify target areas to maximize facility resource utilization and reduce energy waste. Intelligent alerts also are critical to maintaining compliance. In many plants, compliance with certain standards from various regulatory bodies is absolutely necessary. If an issue jeopardizes compliance, operators will need to show they’ve done due diligence, which the collection of data on corrective actions can reveal. Alerting staff to conditions that could lead to a problem enables them to address the issue before it becomes critical. Analytics and intelligent alarming are necessary for those who want to get the most out of their plants. It provides a tool that can make the lives of plant staff easier while also being more efficient. Intelligent alarms can pull the corrective actions from equipment noise, allowing operators to reduce allocated costs maintain compliance and ultimately become a more reliable, efficient and proactive operation. ce
Jennifer Grimley is sales director at FacilityConneX; Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org. www.controleng.com
Satnam Bhogal, Honeywell Process Solutions
Opening your options: Control system migration Aging process control systems (PCSs) create nine major problems. There are three good reasons to migrate distributed control systems before obsolescence.
bsolescence is a huge issue in the process industry. There are tens of thousands of aging control systems; many of them are two or three decades old. At the same time, only a few hundred new plants requiring distributed control systems (DCSs) are built each year â€” and fewer still of any scale. This means the migration of older systems to modern technology provides the greatest opportunities for businesses and industries to boost their productivity, efficiency and safety. Failure to address obsolescence, meanwhile, will limit potential improvements.
Nine aging control system problems
Yet, in many cases, aging systems are left in place, and, as a result, operators encounter a range of problems:
1. Decreasing reliability and availability as systems age
2. Rising maintenance costs with more frequent work required
3. Limited or expensive spare parts adding to costs and remediation time
4. Decreasing process efficiency as operators struggle with alarm floods
5. Skills gaps and rising labor costs as workers with systems expertise retire
6. Increased vulnerability to cyberattacks 7. Regulatory and compliance penalties as the ability to operate within limits deteriorates
8. Potential risks to safety 9. Downtime. www.controleng.com
Old controls: Risks and opportunities
However, there are a number of reasons to not address obsolescence despite these potentially significant consequences. One is the nebulous nature of the concept. Even in a strict sense, obsolescence occurs in phases, from the lack of availability of parts or updates to complete withdrawal of support. In most cases, good control system manufacturers will continue to help plants patch up the control system and source replacement parts for years after they are no longer available off the shelf. The result is the costs and problems of aging systems accrue gradually and are set against the comparatively larger up-front costs of migration to a new system. Perhaps the most significant cost of obsolescence is difficult to accurately quantify: The lost opportunity of gains that could be realized through improvements to operations that a new system would allow, either through enhanced control, or through other technology and software not supported by the existing system.
Three reasons to migrate before obsolescence
Aging control technology limits the ability of plants to adapt to changes, restricts possibilities to expand cost-effectively to meet capacity requirements, and prevents plants taking advantage of new technological developments such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and advanced process control (APC), which can improve yields and reduce energy costs. Indeed, there is a range of events in a plant lifecycle that may prompt a migration even while the existing system is technically not obsolete:
1. Mergers and ownership changes
prompting groups to standardize on one technology control engineeering
M More ANSWERS
KEYWORDS: Process control
system migration, DCS Distributed control systems need to be upgraded. Aging process controls cause specific problems. Migration case study shows benefits.
CONSIDER THIS Will these reasons help justify your process control system migration?
ONLINE If reading the digital edition, click the headline for more. www.controleng.com/magazine See the process and advanced control newsletter www.controleng.com/enewsletters
Honeywell’s control system migration for a Middle Eastern steel producer involved moving from a combination of thirdparty control systems to Honeywell’s Experion Process Knowledge System (PKS) and building new logic from scratch to facilitate the migration. With Experion PKS operators can visualize and control plant operations with an intuitive HMI and benefit from improved alarm and event management. Honeywell’s Marjorie Ochsner discusses control system migration opportunities. Images courtesy: Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology
2. New business opportunities, resource constraints or cost changes requiring changes to the operation
3. Changes to regulations requiring new solutions to comply.
Considering risks, alternatives The risk of disruption to the process is another potential cost that acts as a barrier to migration. Mistakes can result in unplanned downtime and lack of availability. This risk not only results in plants persisting with obsolete technology; it also often limits the range of options the company is willing to consider. Even if operators decide to migrate, they will often stick with the existing control system manufacturer’s technology as the lowest risk route to modernization. This is understandable, and in some cases, choosing an updated system from the provider of the existing system may ease graphic and application migration. Ultimately, limiting the choice in this way is misguided for several reasons, however.
For a start, at least part of the reason to migrate may be frustration with characteristics or limitations of the existing system, and these may be replicated with the new system. As the issue of obsolescence shows, operators will live with their choice of control system for years and possibly decades to come. It simply does not make sense to ease the migration at the cost of forgoing real and long-term benefits an alternative system with better capabilities could provide: A new control system is for life; not just for the migration process. It also is not necessarily the case that sticking with the same vendor will result in the lowest risk migration. This ignores the huge influence that skill, experience and technology can have on the migration process and its success.
Migration project scope Plants must decide at the outset on the extent of the work and how it should be completed – from just implementing a new human-machine interface (HMI), providing a short-term extension to the life of the control system and new operator and cybersecurity capabilities, to a rip-and-replace www.controleng.com
overhaul to deliver the benefits of modern controllers and a HMI. In most cases, plants can minimize disruption and control costs with a phased migration. This consists of introducing new controllers to improve support, reliability and control, while integrating with field networks and using existing wiring. With strategic planning, engineering expertise and the right tools, existing investments in applications, wiring and networking infrastructure can be protected even when migrating to a different platform. If operators choose the right partner, there is no reason to restrict technology choice. With the control system, central to the success of the plant, they should instead choose the right solution for their needs from a range of possible options.
Steel plant controls migration Many of these principles can be seen in practice in the work Honeywell has done for a Middle Eastern steel producer, migrating control at its mill. This involved not only moving from a combination of third-party control systems to a modern process control system (PCS), but actually building new logic from scratch to facilitate the migration. Several expansions at the plant had increased capacity in the past, but its control system — a
Better control means getting useful information when needed to the right people, for smarter decisions. Intuitive dashboards showing plant parameters provide faster understanding, as shown at the 2019 Honeywell Users Group Americas meeting in June.
combination of a competitor’s distributed control system (DCS), programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and traditional panel mounted control desks — was frustrating the plant’s ambitions. At thirty years old, it suffered from a lack of available spare parts, absence of technical support,
MONITOR VISCOSITY SIMPLY SENSE MIXER MOTOR HORSEPOWER WITH UNIVERSAL POWER CELL EASY INSTALLATION s .O HOLES IN TANKS OR PIPES s !WAY FROM SENSITIVE PROCESSES VERSATILE s /NE SIZE ADJUSTS TO MOTORS FROM SMALL UP TO HP s 7ORKS ON PHASE l XED OR VARIABLE FREQUENCY $# AND SINGLE PHASE POWER SENSITIVE s TIMES MORE SENSITIVE THAN JUST SENSING AMPS CONVENIENT OUTPUTS s &OR METERS CONTROLLERS COMPUTERS MILLIAMPS VOLTS
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CALL NOW FOR YOUR FREE 30-DAY TRIAL 888-600-3247 input #16 at www.controleng.com/information
The most significant cost of obsolescence is difficult to ccurately quantify: The lost opportunity of gains that could be realized through improvements to operations that a new system would allow through enhanced control or other technologies unsupported by the existing system.
and signal wiring interconnections that made troubleshooting complicated and time-consuming. The system was affecting the plant’s efficiency and reliability as well as its ability to improve production: With no support and technology that had not been updated since the plant’s commissioning, enhancements and logic modification were not options. In most cases, existing control system details, configurations and backups were no longer available. The plant decided migration was its only option and sought to move to a single, integrated, state-of-the-art control system. However, the company was keen to minimize disruption and the shutdown period. The complexities and challenges of the project highlight the importance of the approach to migration. Engineers from the control system provider worked in close partnership with the plant’s operators to enable them to understand the plant’s process and its requirements at the outset. This collaboration enabled them to build new logic that served as the design basis for configuration of controls in the new DCS, and was employed for simulation software used during factory acceptance testing (FAT). The latter was leaned on for extensive training for maintenance and operation teams prior to commissioning. This approach proved to be a significant success for the plant. The migration of the control system was completed in 27 days, against a 30-day schedule. The total shutdown duration was 35.5 days overall, against a schedule of 37 days. The migration enabled the plant to move to the next-generation process automation solution of its choice, delivering new capabilities and one common platform for control. With the new process control system, operators can visualize and control operations across the plant through an HMI and benefit from improved alarm and event management. The move addressed the obsolescence issues, giving the plant an up-to-date flexible system that is supported now, and for the life of the plant. ce Satnam Bhogal is global initiatives leader migrations, Honeywell Process Solutions; Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, email@example.com.
input #17 at www.controleng.com/information
See more New Products for Engineers. www.controleng.com/NPE
NEW PRODUCTS FOR ENGINEERS
Industrial camera for manufacturing processes Sick’s EventCam is specifically designed for the detection and analysis of sporadic errors in industrial processes. It can be integrated with great flexibility into stationary and mobile applications, is network capable, and delivers single frames and video sequences in ultrahigh image quality for detailed error analyses. It is enclosed in an IP65 housing made from cast aluminum and provides numerous mounting options that allow the camera to be installed in different positions, and these positions can be changed quickly. The EventCam has been specifically designed for fast and targeted error analysis. A connected automation system or sensor reports that an error has occurred in the process via the trigger input in the camera itself. It also is useful when commissioning or optimizing them. Sick, www.sickusa.com
Input #200 at www.controleng.com/information
Monitoring and diagnostic system for control loop performance
Cabinet dome for industrial WLAN protection
Control Station’s PlantESP is a leading control loop performance monitoring (CLPM) solution. It detects production issues and facilitates plant-wide process optimization. It is designed to enable process manufacturers to improve operational intelligence and avoid the high costs of unplanned downtime by equipping users with actionable information. It leverages a facility’s existing historical process data to uncover details that are invisible to the naked eye, details that lead to poor control and equipment failure. It can identify and configure a production facility’s PID control loops automatically by applying templates from the asset framework.
The C8210-M001 cabinet domes from Beckhoff Automation support efficient and globally usable wireless solutions for PC-based control technology when combined with the appropriate CU8210-D00x USB-2.0 sticks from Beckhoff for WLAN and 4G mobile communication. Designed for industrial WLAN and mobile communication components, the cabinet dome boasts an IP66 protection rating when installed. The cabinet dome can be mounted in the panel of the control cabinet and also on the machine or outside of control cabinets. The material, which is suitable for radio applications, offers protection against deliberate and accidental damage. It has a USB-2.0 socket type A and can operate from -40 to 60°C.
Control Station Inc., www.controlstation.com Input #201 at www.controleng.com/information
Hardness analyzer for process applications Endress+Hauser’s Liquiline System CA80HA hardness analyzer provides precise online analysis of water hardness in drinking water and process water. It helps optimize the control of water softening processes, such as ion exchange or reverse osmosis, ensures quality of products influenced by water hardness, and analyzes feedwater used in boilers. The analyzer has up to two measuring channels and up to four digital inputs for optional sensors such as pH, ORP, conductivity, oxygen, chlorine, turbidity, etc. Outputs can be used to directly control water processes as the process variables in a control loop, be assigned as a measured variable to a limit contactor, trigger cleaning, and more. Endress+Hauser, www.us.endress.com
Beckhoff Automation, www.beckhoff.com Input #203 at www.controleng.com/information
Input #202 at www.controleng.com/information
Connectors and cables for high-power applications Phoenix Contact’s M12 Power cables and connectors are designed to make it easy to power drive motors, fans, lighting and other distributed control boxes. They are UL-listed and tested under UL 2237, can handle currents up to 16 A or voltages up to 600 V ac/63 V dc. The line includes cable assemblies, field-wireable connectors, and panel-mounted receptacles with a quick disconnect system. Because they are designed for a common 16-mm panel knockout, the new additions simplify panel upgrades. The M12 connectors come in shielded and unshielded versions and are available in five codings (T and L for DC, and S, K, and M for AC) to prevent mismating. Phoenix Contact, www.phoenixcontact.com
Input #204 at www.controleng.com/information
Case studies provide valuable discovery of challenge
situations, recommended solutions, and implementation actions to solve speciďŹ c real-life issues. Control Engineering magazine invites you to learn from the following companies who have shared their case study success stories:
ABB Motors and Mechanical
SEW Eurodrive Inc.
ABB Ability™ Smart Sensors Increase Reliability, Reduce Unplanned Downtime and Increase Worker Safety Summary: The company needed a way to safely and quickly maintain the bearings on the recyclable sorting machine. These bearings are located on banks behind chains and sprockets, making them hard to reach, or near the “waterfall line,” where recyclables spill over, so they are exposed to a lot of contamination. The bearings operate continuously so their reliability and performance are critical.
Challenge: A recycling and waste removal company needed a way to quickly identify and safely maintain banks of identical bearings on a recyclable sorting machine. The bearings are located in hard to reach locations where they are subject to contamination.
Solution: The company installed an ABB Ability™ Smart Sensor on each bearing to continuously monitor them during operation. The ability to monitor remotely eliminated the need for maintenance to access difficult locations unless it was necessary, unlike traditional maintenance schedules that have teams check equipment routinely, even if maintenance is not needed.
Result: Implementing the sensors has resulted in safer and more efficient maintenance practices, as well as longer uptime as the company has experienced instances where the sensors alerted maintenance problems before unexpected downtime occurred.
The ABB Ability Smart Sensor for mechanical products is an easy-to-use, wireless sensor which monitors the health of Dodge® mounted bearings and gear reducers, allowing users to reduce downtime, improve reliability, and operate safely. The sensor gives warnings on decreasing health status, which allows you to plan maintenance before there is a problem and the system is down. The ability to monitor bearings remotely allows maintenance and other relevant personnel to safely get a health check of the bearing without touching the equipment. For the recycle and waste company, the sensors meant that maintenance crews had to access the bearings behind the chains only when needed. This not only increased safety for the team, but also allows them to focus on other areas that may need attention. In three instances, the sensors indicated a rise in temperature in one or more of the bearings. Maintenance crews were alerted to the rise before a failure occurred, allowing them to identify which specific bearing was experiencing health problems. This is a benefit as the team can only perform maintenance during a 45-minute lunch break. Due to the cost savings of avoiding downtime, along with the benefit of increased safety and an overall view of the health of their equipment, the company is now implementing sensors on more bearings in their process. ABB Motors and Mechanical Inc. 479-646-4711 baldor.abb.com • abb.com input #18 at www.controleng.com/information
New Stadium Fire Suppression Control System Summary: The solution uses 4 remote controlled water cannons mounted above the ﬁrst level of seating at the 20-yard lines on both sides of the ﬁeld. When activated the water stream from each monitor must travel 275 ft. to center of the ﬁeld and be controlled remotely. An operator control panel (OCP) with an operator console is located in the stadium security room. The operator would control the direction of each monitor and open/close each water valve.
Challenge: Develop a custom engineered ﬁre suppression system for a new indoor football stadium. Regulations require protection against ﬁre hazards which could occur during monster truck rallies or other events that may have ﬂammable material on the stadium ﬂoor area.
Solution: Akron Brass StreamMaster II Electric Fire Monitors (water cannons) with Style 5177 nozzles (1250 gpm) capable of being controlled remotely and Acromag XT1121-000 Ethernet remote I/O with 16 discrete I/O and i2o peer-to-peer technology.
Result: The system was installed and commissioned ahead of schedule satisfying the stadium owners. After performing actual operation and distance tests, a state ﬁre marshal approved the system.
The system includes four monitors together with four custom electric motor control panels (MCP). The operator console, with four joy sticks and switches, is wired to the OCP. Inside the OCP are four Acromag XT1121-000 Ethernet remote I/O modules that receive discrete inputs from the operator console. Communications between the security room and monitors utilizes a highspeed ﬁber optic network. Each monitor is controlled by a joy stick with four settings, up, down, left and right. Plus, rotary switches for water valve open/close, fog and stream. One XT1121-000 module in the OCP sends commands to another XT1121-000 module located in the ﬁeld MCP. The technology between the two Acromag XT modules is i2o, a peer-to-peer Ethernet communication. The ﬁeld XT1121-000 module has outputs that match the inputs to control the monitor. This i2o pair is repeated for all four monitors. Read more: www.acromag.com/blog/casestudy/
firstname.lastname@example.org 877-295-7057 www.acromag.com input #19 at www.controleng.com/information
Genesis Systems Group reduces cabling and installation time by 50% using EtherCAT P and PC Control Summary: There are few industries where material testing and quality assurance demands are more challenging than aerospace. This is where Davenport, Iowa-based Genesis Systems Group can help. For this market, Genesis specializes in robotic non destructive inspection systems, or NDIs. To inspect aerospace components and materials with high accuracy, Genesis integrates robots with ultrasonic equipment that conducts through transmission ultrasound with a sender and a receiver. The range of materials that can be inspected is vast, but steel, aluminum and composite materials are the most common.
Challenge: Genesis Systems deploys robotic NDI solutions for commercial airplanes and spacecraft, which are often hundreds of feet long. Traditional methods to run lengthy cables back to enclosures are time-consuming and expensive.
Solution: As part of a Beckhoff PC-based control platform, Genesis Systems replaced traditional cabling with EtherCAT P and One Cable Automation.
Result: The Beckhoff solutions reduced NDI system cabling up to 50% for drives, motors, sensors, actuators and pneumatic valves. Genesis Systems also cut electrical cabinet footprints by 20%. Using PC-based control technologies and EtherCAT, the company reported cabling and installation time reductions of 50% for all electronic components.
NDI systems from Genesis are based on EtherCAT, which is accepted by major robot manufacturers around the world. EtherCAT promotes extremely accurate measurements and precise system synchronization, which are critical for test and measurement applications. Genesis Systems was also an early adopter of EtherCAT P and One Cable Automation, which combine power and data transmission on one industrial Ethernet cable. To drastically reduce cable runs, a large percentage of the I/O devices deployed by Genesis Systems are IP67-rated EtherCAT P Box and EtherCAT Box modules from Beckhoff. These can be mounted directly on machinery and robot arms to directly connect sensors, actuators and other ďŹ eld devices. This cuts down required cabling and reduces the size of electrical cabinets or eliminates them completely. Beckhoff One Cable Technology between servomotors and drives further reduces cabling. Link to full case study: www.pc-control.net/pdf/042018/solutions/pcc_0418_genesis_e.pdf
BECKHOFFUSA BECKHOFFCOM s 4WIN#!4 www.beckhoffautomation.com input #20 at www.controleng.com/information
Innovative Medium Voltage Variable Speed Drive Design Opens New Possibilities, and Will Save You Money! Summary: Benshaw’s state-of-the-art Modular MultiLevel (M2L) MV Drive product family is the latest innovation in medium voltage variable frequency drive market. This patented product is designed and developed to enhance reliability, improve safety, and reduce the total cost of the ownership.
Challenge: Expansion of a Cryogenic plant required installation of a 3500 HP, 4160 V medium voltage drive. Utilizing all-indoor MV drive solutions made building a new PDC and bearing its high costs inevitable, and challenging project feasibility.
Solution: Benshaw’s M2L Medium Voltage VFD allows for separation of transformer, rectifier, and inverter. Providing a solution with an oilfilled transformer and a specially engineered NEMA 3R rectifier, both installed outdoor, allowed the end user to install the inverter in the existing PDC with no impact on HVAC capacity.
Result: Project feasibility due to a smaller footprint, and significant cost savings!
The M2L’s architecture differs radically from other multi-level systems in the market today. The drive consists of three independent components: a standard multi-pulse phase-shifting transformer, a standard multi-pulse diode-based rectifier, and a modular power-cellbased multi-level inverter. This modular system arrangement creates tremendous installation flexibility, greatly reduces arc flash energy and substantially improves reliability. Other benefits of the Cryogenic plant project included: • Small footprint - No need for a new PDC, resulting in significant cost savings! • Outdoor installation of transformer - 50% Smaller indoor footprint, 60% HVAC capacity reduction. • Outdoor installation of rectifier - Minimized footprint, granting project feasibility. The end user was so pleased with the result of this project, both in the performance and reliability of the solution, that they have used Benshaw’s M2L MV drive on additional projects. For more information, visit Benshaw.com/M2L
Benshaw, Inc. 412-968-0100 benshaw.com/contact
input #21 at www.controleng.com/information
Turbine Manufacturer Uses Skorpion IP Router to Simplify Machine Integration Summary: FlexEnergy Inc., headquartered in Portsmouth New Hampshire, designs and builds robust small combined heat and power (CHP) products. They faced several issues encountered by machine builders as they incorporate Ethernet networks within their control systems: s (OW TO KEEP AND REUSE THE ADDRESSES AND programming within the control system. s (OW TO INTERFACE THE MACHINE NETWORK TO A WIDER area network. s (OW TO REMOTELY ACCESS THE MACHINE FOR programming, diagnostics, and troubleshooting.
Challenge: A cogeneration unit containing a PLC, HMI, embedded PC and inverter utilizes an Ethernet network within the control system. How do you integrate this control network with the installation site network with minimum effort and conﬁguration?
Solution: A multi-port Skorpion IP Router from Contemporary Controls forms a LAN side internal network for the control system components while the WAN side connects to the customer network on site. At installation, just a single WAN IP address must be conﬁgured.
Result: The same conﬁguration can be used across all devices in every turbine. A single external IP address simpliﬁed site integration. The single conﬁguration helped accelerate testing during manufacturing along with service training and support.
The EIGR / EIPR Skorpion family of IP routers offered a solution to all these needs. The EIPR links two 10/100Mbps Internet Protocol networks while the EIGR adds Gigabit support. Both units feature a 4port switch for Local Area Network (LAN) and a single-port Wide Area Network (WAN). The WAN port can be conﬁgured for a Static IP address or can be assigned a dynamic address via the built-in DHCP client to quickly integrate to the customer’s network. A built-in ﬁrewall prevents unauthorized access to the LAN side devices from the WAN side, but the routers provide features such as Port Forwarding and Network Address Translation (NAT) that allow for WAN to LAN access via the single WAN IP address. The IP router also keeps multicast and broadcast trafﬁc separated between the LAN and WAN, keeping the IP devices running smoothly without having to deal with unnecessary trafﬁc ﬁltering.
www.ccontrols.com 630-963-7070 email@example.com input #22 at www.controleng.com/information
Omron’s Fiberoptic Sensors Improve Automotive Press Production and Create a Safer Working Environment Summary: Damaged tooling is responsible for the bulk of downtime and unplanned work stoppages. Repairs and lost production time are expensive, and workers can be placed in harm’s way. Manufacturers are combatting these challenges by installing sensors that prevent essential equipment from operating when parts are misaligned.
Challenge: An automotive company uses 10-ton hydraulic presses on a production line. Fasteners are inserted into the presses prior to press activation. If any fasteners are misaligned, they can potentially shatter, causing costly damage to the presses and creating a hazard to workers.
Solution: Using a ﬁberoptic sensor, a ﬁber ampliﬁer, and a programmable relay, Omron enabled the customer to detect misaligned fasteners accurately in real time before activating presses.
Result: The customer incorporated the smart sensing solution into their presses, reducing expensive repairs and lost production and improving safety for their employees.
An automotive company uses 10-ton hydraulic presses on a production line. Fasteners are inserted into the presses prior to press activation. If any fasteners are misaligned, they can potentially shatter, causing costly damage to the presses and creating a safety risk for workers. Repairs cost the company an estimated $10,000 per incident, and the hazardous conditions not only put employee health at risk but potentially make the company liable for hefty ﬁnes imposed by OSHA. Omron, a Digi-Key supplier partner, was able to provide the customer with a ﬁberoptic sensor solution that enables the company to reduce work stoppages and mitigate risks to their employees. Omron determined that using ﬁberoptic sensor E32-T16WR enabled detection of misaligned fasteners. Coupled with a CP1L controller, a Zen V2 programmable relay, and an E3NX-FA ﬁber ampliﬁer, their customer can now track misalignments in real time and proactively correct the problem to reduce work stoppages and improve plant output and safety. Read the entire Case Study at https://bit.ly/363eSoG
firstname.lastname@example.org 1-800-344-4539 www.digikey.com input #23 at www.controleng.com/information
Fibox makes difﬁcult easy Summary: A global leader in environmental monitoring required an enclosure for a new project. This innovative remote system would be off the grid and needed to be ultra-reliable to avoid costly ﬁeld maintenance. With the project nearing completion, their design engineers turned to Fibox. They required a secure, pole-mounted cabinet enclosure capable of withstanding harsh weather and especially ﬂuctuating outdoor temperatures. The cabinet had to meet the UL NEMA 4X standards, while the implementation team requested a lighter weight design compared to the cumbersome ﬁberglass used previously.
Challenge: An environmental monitoring systems manufacture required a reliable, light-weight NEMA 4X enclosure for a new project.
Solution: Fibox’s ARCA – IEC Series ﬁt the client’s exact needs. The UL listed, NEMA 4X rated ARCA – IEC is manufactured in light-weight polycarbonate, a robust, impact, and UV resistant thermoplastic that never rusts. Available with all the needed hardware The ARCA – IEC offered the ideal solution for the project.
Result: The ﬁnished design met and exceeded the client’s needs. The ARCA – IEC offered greater protection to the elements, while the Wi-Fi friendly nature of polycarbonate added a costsaving beneﬁt to the project.
Fibox’s application engineers supplied CAD drawings of the ARCA Series. The ARCA Series is a pole mounted, rugged and versatile solution that is manufactured in Fibox’s light-weight polycarbonate, a robust, Wi-Fi friendly, impact and UV resistant thermoplastic that never rusts. The sensitive components stayed dry thanks to the formed-in-place PUR gasket which makes a watertight seal when locked ensuring the NEMA 4X rating. To overcome the possibility of condensation from the temperature and pressure delta, Fibox implemented a ventilation kit. The customer speciﬁed the Fibox ARCA Series in the ﬁnal design. The client ordered the enclosure with its pole mount accessory machined to speciﬁcations and opted for Fibox to install the NEMA 4X ventilation kit. The ﬁnished product arrived machined and weighed considerably less than a ﬁberglass counterpart reducing transportation costs. By choosing the ARCA polycarbonate radio transparent enclosure, the customer further beneﬁtted by eliminating the need for an external antenna. This reduced the project cost signiﬁcantly.
Sales@ﬁboxusa.com 888.342.6987 www.ﬁboxusa.com input #24 at www.controleng.com/information
Graybar Helps Paving Company Crush It Every Day Summary: Most rock crushing operations are mobile, but a customer in Hawaii had the opportunity to create a rugged stationary plant powered by ﬁve shipping containers. Graybar Automation Specialist Mike Wojcik worked with the customer to determine which electrical components to use and how they would work together. Because the quarry would be built into a mountain of lava rock, Mike also had to consider the harsh environment.
Challenge: A large asphalt paving company in Hawaii wanted to automate its machinery to reduce costs and save time while preparing operations for the future.
The automation and control system included switchgear, smart motor control centers (MCCs), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), contactors, starters and variable frequency drives (VFDs) to control the conveyors. Adding intelligence to the electrical solution allowed the company to pinpoint faults. If something tripped, the operator would know the location of the fault, instead of using trial and error to reset individual MCC buckets and hope the system would restart. In addition, sensors were added to check bin levels and monitor how fast conveyors were operating.
Solution: A local integrator tapped Graybar’s specialist to help design an automation and control system that could power and run the rock crushing plant.
“This was a way to speed up the system safely, rather than relying on guys walking around the plant, communicating by radio about how the system is running,” Mike said.
Result: What typically took 20 push buttons and up to 15 workers now takes one touch and fewer than ﬁve people to operate. Sensors monitor bin levels and wear and tear on belts and motors before they go bad.
Mike tested every MCC before the containers were shipped and was on site to help the integration team with startup. “The MCC and PLC equipment has been in operation almost six years, in a harsh environment, and it’s still operating almost perfectly,” said the onsite engineer. “This was built to last.”
email@example.com 1-800-GRAYBAR www.graybar.com input #25 at www.controleng.com/information
Heavy duty enclosure with 3 point handle can provide functional improvement over clamps Summary: Heavy duty enclosures with clamps remain a standard product in North American electrical industrial design for demanding situations. Numerous environments require a heavy gauge material construction along with the security/strength of a full length piano hinge.
Challenge: A service company in the oil and gas sector had issues with on-going contamination inside their enclosures. Frequent need for access combined with improper ďŹ eld door closure practices turned out to be the problem.
Solution: The enclosures being used were appropriate for the environment, stainless steel NEMA 4X, however in practical application the numerous clamps sealing the door were not being properly ďŹ xed after every door opening leaving the box susceptible to external contaminants. The customer moved away from a traditional heavy duty clamp cover enclosure to a rugged, 3 point handle design that carried all the same dimensions as their original speciďŹ cation.
One of the trade-offs with clamp cover design enclosures is the added time it takes to open and properly close the door. To save time, ďŹ eld service/maintenance technicians can sometimes take a short cut when re-sealing the enclosure by not re-clamping all points around the door â€“ particularly on larger doors with several clamps. This improper re-clamping problem becomes a more serious issue when the environment is particularly harsh. When one or more clamping points is not closed properly, the protection level of the enclosure design can drop drastically. You can see in the clamp cover photograph with this article, that one of the door clamps has been removed entirely. When it is likely that an enclosure will be opened frequently in the ďŹ eld, choosing a design with an easy open/close 3 point handle signiďŹ cantly helps maintain the protective integrity of the box. As an example, the HWHK Series (painted steel) and HWSSHK Series (stainless steel) from Hammond Manufacturing provide the rugged features of thicker gauge material, a full length piano hinge, welded mounting feet along with the convenience and added sealing protection of a 3 point handle system. For more information, visit www.hammfg.com/hwhk or www.hammfg.com/hwsshk
Result: This subtle design change has ensure proper sealing of the door every time it is closed and the contamination issue has been virtually eliminated.
DACCURSO HAMMFGCOM s www.hammondmfg.com input #26 at www.controleng.com/information
Blue Bell Creameries produces delicious ice cream. HELUKABEL products endure a lot to help them do this. Summary: Before the ice cream reaches your spoon, it travels a long way from the large tanks where vanilla, milk and cream come together; into the machines that stir everything into ďŹ ne smooth ice cream; and ďŹ nally to the container ďŹ lling machine. Blue Bell Creameries has been relying on HELUKABEL for the last seven years to keep this process moving. In the manufacturing environment of Blue Bell Creameries, cables often have a hard time surviving, and HELUKABELâ€™s quality is simply impressive.
Challenge: Blue Bell Creameries has cold rooms where ice cream is cooled down to minus 40 degrees Celsius. Cables used in this environment have to withstand strong vibrations from the freezer fans and extreme temperatures; conditions which the previous cables were becoming brittle and cracking.
Solution: HELUKABEL provided Blue Bell with an extremely durable cables that can withstand both the extreme temperatures and the strong vibrations of the cold rooms.
Result: Blue Bell Creameries cold rooms have not yet had to have their cables replaced outside of standard maintenance. After such success, Blue Bell began using HELUKABEL glands and other accessories.
There are cold rooms where ice cream is cooled down to minus 40 degrees Celsius. In this environment, cable have to cope with strong vibrations and extreme temperatures. These conditions are a source of constant trouble. The cold temperatures cause cables to become brittle and then the vibrations cause them to crack. Cables previously used by Blue Bell could not withstand these conditions and were changed every other week. Since Blue Bell converted their cables to HELUKABEL cable, they have not had any problems. HELUKABEL provided exactly the right cable for their application. Since using HELUKABEL cables there have been no major incidents in the manufacturing plant. Therefore, Blue Bell is now also using stainless steel cable glands among other HELUKABEL products and accessories.
SALES HELUKABELCOM s www.helukabel.com input #27 at www.controleng.com/information
Leveraging Data from More Than 20 Applications Built on Ignition Summary: JMA Wireless is a global leader in wireless communications, designing and building mobile wireless systems, delivering technologies that enable LTE, 5G, and other services on mobile operator networks around the world. JMA Wireless has deployed systems in numerous industries, including transportation, manufacturing, healthcare, real estate, and sports & entertainment. JMA has products in nearly every NFL stadium, NBA and NHL arenas, Major League Baseball parks, numerous college stadiums, and soccer stadiums around the world.
Challenge: JMA Wireless wanted to move away from its paper-based data collection system and increase the efﬁciency of its manufacturing operations to support growing demand.
Solution: JMA Wireless chose Ignition by Inductive Automation. Ignition enabled JMA Wireless to quickly and easily build applications for SCADA, HMI, and IIoT solutions.
With a rapidly growing business and worldwide demand for its solutions, JMA wanted to increase the efﬁciency of its manufacturing operations. That’s why they turned to Ignition by Inductive Automation® to help build solutions in human-machine interface (HMI), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). JMA has built more than 20 applications on top of the Ignition platform and plans to create even more in the future. The ﬂexibility of Ignition allows JMA to quickly design whatever it needs. The software also gives JMA numerous options when it comes to absorbing data and analyzing it. The result has been a rise in productivity.
The ﬂexibility of Ignition allows JMA to quickly design whatever it needs.
Result: Ignition increased efﬁciency on several fronts: a 30 percent decrease in testing time, ability to integrate with a database system, real-time data acquisition from over 30 PLCs and a substantial improvement in reporting.
JMA also plans to leverage Ignition’s mobile capabilities soon, so service technicians in the ﬁeld will be able to see test data while doing installations. It’s all part of keeping pace.
firstname.lastname@example.org 1-800-266-7798 www.inductiveautomation.com input #28 at www.controleng.com/information
Airline speciﬁes Nexans to improve efﬁciency and security Summary: Increasing security requirements are being compounded by growing pressure to improve operational efﬁciency, passenger safety and comfort. Consequently, airlines continuously looking to enhance LAN networking capability and IT solutions. Security cameras, check-in terminals, wireless access points, VoIP and HMI monitors are common applications. In an effort to improve the customer experience and deploy new technologies, a prominent airline reached out to Nexans for technical expertise to support the redesign of their jet bridge network infrastructure. Nexans’ Applications Engineers helped them determine their critical performance requirements.
Challenge: To meet increasing security requirements, improve the customer experience, and deploy new technologies, a prominent airline reached out to Nexans for technical expertise to support the redesign of their jet bridge network infrastructure
Solution: Nexans’ Applications Engineers helped the client determine their critical performance requirements and suggested an IndustrialGrade High Flex Cat 6A Shielded Ethernet Cable to meet them.
Result: Nexans satisﬁed the airline’s requirements and more, and consequently they have decided to specify Nexans cables across various airport locations and jet bridges in the US.
The solution had to be suitable for industrial harsh environments; therefore, a commercial-grade Ethernet cable could not meet the customer’s requirements. Several technical meetings and conference calls were held between Network, Applications and Design Engineers to ensure the solution met or exceeded the requirements mechanically and electrically. Nexans recommended its Industrial-Grade High Flex Cat 6A Shielded Ethernet Cable that met or exceeded all of the airline’s requirements: s Highly ﬂexible cable to accommodate daily movement of the jet bridge s High operating temperatures to accommodate extreme weather conditions of harsh winters and summers s Ability to sustain extended sun exposure s Network scalability to support the demanding applications of today and the future (including video, voice and data) s High performance alongside other high voltage cables typically used to operate the bridge s High supply s Reliability during an aggressive deployment schedule
Nexans Industrial Solutions 717-354-6200 www.nexans.us/industrial input #29 at www.controleng.com/information
netDNA automates water management for fracking and water transfer, reducing costs and improving safety Summary: In the oil and gas industry, technological advances like hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have fueled a boom in exploration and drilling, but until recently most operations have been manual, not automated. Water pumping and treatment are essential to successful production, and automating ďŹ elds of remote pumps, tanks, and water sources is difďŹ cult.
Challenge: Automation has not kept pace with oil and gas industry technological changes. Widespread, isolated assets are difďŹ cult to network; most monitoring and control has been manual.
Solution: In the Permian Basin, integrator netDNA automated large trailer-mounted pumping units for water transfer. Opto 22â€™s groov EPIC controls pumps via Modbus/ TCP, monitors levels and ďŹ‚ow, communicates data using MQTT, and provides a mobile HMI. groov EPICs also automate water pits and tanks, monitoring air quality and avoiding spills.
Result: Publish-subscribe protocol MQTT and Node-RED communicate data with mobile and remote equipment. Automation reduces costs, tracks data, and improves worker safety.
To provide mobile automation that can handle these widespread assets and changing processes, netDNAâ€™s customer, New Wave Energy, built huge trailer-mounted units for water transfer. Dan Arbeau of netDNA in British Columbia, Canada, automated the trailers using Opto 22â€™s groov EPIC (edge programmable industrial controller) system. netDNA also automates water pits and tanks using groov EPIC, monitoring levels to avoid spills and sampling air quality to protect workers from ďŹ‚ammable and potentially deadly hydrogen sulďŹ de (H2S) gas. In addition to real-time monitoring and control, netDNA uses software included with groov EPIC for two key tasks: operator interfaces and data communications. netDNA uses groov View software to easily build custom HMIs. Authorized ďŹ eld technicians can control multiple assets from one screen on a mobile device. Node-RED software and the efďŹ cient publish-subscribe protocol MQTT provide data communications with trailers, pits, and tanks. Data is tracked for quality and regulatory purposes. Moving from manual to automated operations reduces costs, improves safety, and increases efďŹ ciency for netDNAâ€™s customer. Read the complete case study at https://op22.co/netDNA.
SYSTEMSENG OPTOCOM s WWWOPTOCOM 800-321-6786 or 951-695-3000 input #30 at www.controleng.com/information
Upgraded compressor protection system meets Class I, Div. 2 and SIL standards Summary: Xenon Inc. recently undertook a project to replace a customer’s obsolete compressor control cabinets. The upgraded system needed to meet Class I, Division 2 and SIL-rated standards. Xenon turned to Phoenix Contact for reliable and innovative components that also fulﬁlled important safety requirements.
Challenge: When upgrading a dated compressor control system, Xenon Inc. needed to ensure that the new system met Class I, Division 2 and SIL-rated standards.
Solution: The QUINT power supply line, featuring selective fuse-breaking (SFB) technology and preventive function monitoring, ensures high reliability. Phoenix Contact surge protection and circuit breakers further increase the system’s availability. To meet the qualiﬁcations for a safety instrumented system, Xenon selected Phoenix Contact SIL-rated relays.
Result: In an application requiring the highest level of safety and reliability, Xenon trusted Phoenix Contact components.
Xenon selected the QUINT power supplies for reliability and the Class I, Div. 2 certiﬁcation. Because the compressor protection system is a safety instrumented system, Xenon Inc. chose Phoenix Contact SIL-rated relays. Phoenix Contact circuit breakers provide circuit protection for all AC equipment in the panel, and Class I, Div. 2 Phoenix Contact surge protectors provide downstream equipment protection. Phoenix Contact distribution and fuse terminal blocks are the industry standard, and they are easy to use. In the competitive industry of engineering and ﬁeld services integration, Xenon Inc. is challenged with staying ahead of the curve with updated, modern technology to meet the demands of oil and gas companies, reﬁneries, and other clients. In these industries, safety and reliability are essential. “We like working with Phoenix Contact because we get good technical support. We have a good sales support staff, and their products are typically available at a good price,” said Jordan Wiens, P.E., the Managing Partner for Xenon’s Instrumentation & Automation Division.
email@example.com (800)888-7388 www.phoenixcontact.com input #31 at www.controleng.com/information
Leveraging Predictive Analytics for Early Warning Detection Result: TasWater, Tasmania’s primary water and sewerage network provider, manages more than 200,000 water connections and 176,000 sewerage connections across the state. Following a sewer spill at an environmentally signiﬁcant site at Midway Point in August 2017, TasWater sought a way to reduce the likelihood and impact of spill events occurring in the future.
Challenge: Managing sewer blockages and subsequent spills that occur in the mains system was difﬁcult and often the ﬁrst notiﬁcation of a spill came from a member of the public, hours and sometimes days after the ﬁrst spill, intensifying public health and environmental impacts and the cost of clean-up.
Solution: Build a sewer blockage detection system by developing a model to detect the blockage faster than current methods.
Result: The model detected a historical blockage 13 hours before the time it was reported by a customer, without false positives, and will help to avoid spill incidents by providing real-time early warning for ﬁeld teams of statistically signiﬁcant partial or full blockages in the sewer network.
A model was developed and tested using data from the Midway Point spill event in August 2017. The goal was to see if the model could detect the blockage faster than current methods. The model identiﬁes blockages by detecting the absence of ‘normal ﬁll and pump behavior’ in real-time. For example, the absence of pump runs or extended ﬁll time during peak times would signify an abnormality and possible blockage. Using the August 2017 blockage event, the model was validated as an accurate, reliable and fast method of identifying potential blockages. Given its superior performance, the on-peak/off-peak model was selected for the online sewer blockage detection system and applied to each SPS in the Midway Point region. Each site’s speciﬁc behavior, deviations and grace periods were accounted for to reduce false positives. The solution is integrated with PI notiﬁcations for early alerting, allows for fast time-to-insight on time-series data, reduced time spent in spreadsheets, and process improvements leading to better operating efﬁciencies.
firstname.lastname@example.org +1 (206) 801-9339 www.seeq.com input #32 at www.controleng.com/information
American Airlines reduces energy consumption by nearly 40% at Los Angeles airport (LAX) using MOVIGEAR® Summary: Terminal 4 in the LAX airport needed a thorough upgrade to the baggage handling system for both American Airlines and TSA operations. Complying with strict California energy standards and reducing the load on the existing power station were both high priorities. The existing system used typical asynchronous motors that were oversized to handle large starting torque requirements. Unfortunately, that means they operated well below their ideal efﬁciency after the load started. Their high starting current plus low efﬁciency created excess heat that required extra cooling. Thus, the goal was to increase efﬁciency, which would provide a double beneﬁt by reducing operating costs and cooling costs.
Challenge: The new LAX baggage handling system required high starting torque and high efﬁciency. The old system contained oversized asynchronous motors that created excess heat and noise. Reducing energy consumption to comply with California energy standards was very important.
Solution: Around 450 mechatronic drives consisting of MOVIGEAR® and DRC permanent magnet IE4 motors were used as the centerpiece, since they are compact and highly efﬁcient.
Solution: The new drives create less noise, radically decrease energy consumption, and ﬁt into the tight space required for a checked baggage inspection area. Furthermore, the system requires fewer unique spares to reduce inventory.
Through the combined efforts by CAGE, Inc. consultants and SEW-EURODRIVE, the goal became reality. Nearly 450 MOVIGEAR® mechatronic drives and DRC motors were used in the new outbound installation. Both drives contain a permanent magnet motor with an IE4 efﬁciency rating. Their unique design delivers high starting torque while halving the full-load amps, requiring less incoming power. TSA employees appreciate that the new drives create less noise and radiate less heat due to their advanced electronics and their ultra-high efﬁciency during operation. By reducing incoming power, excess heat, and extra cooling, the new system reduced energy consumption by nearly 40%. A new inbound system is currently being constructed with the same technology.
email@example.com 864-439-7537 www.movigear.com input #33 at www.controleng.com/information
Spiroﬂow Automation Improves Snack Production Line for Large Food Manufacturer Summary: Spiroﬂow Automation Solutions, Inc., an emerging leader in Control Systems Integrations, recently supported a large food manufacturer in the modiﬁcation and upgrade of four snack production lines.
Challenge: A large food manufacturing facility sought to improve efﬁciency and productivity while modifying and upgrading four snack production lines. The existing conveyors needed to be removed and replaced to deliver product to the seasoning systems prior to packaging for sale.
Solution: The Spiroﬂow Bulk Bag Discharger Model T6/3 was the best solution to address all of the manufacturer’s needs. Spiroﬂow was able to deliver product to an existing seasoning system that had its own PLC and HMI using Spiroﬂow Automation Solutions’ engineering services.
Result: The system was installed and performed well satisfying the customer. As a result, there was an increased efﬁciency and productivity in the facility with the integrated systems provided by Spiroﬂow.
Spiroﬂow sought to integrate safe, ergonomic solutions to modernize their plant process. They provided hardware design and programming to produce schematic and layout drawings, documentation services to prepare a sequence of operations, PLC programming for the new equipment using the customer’s existing line PLCs, and HMI programming for the new local PanelView Plus 7. The existing conveyors were removed and replaced with the Spiroﬂow Bulk Bag Discharger Model T6/3 to deliver product to the seasoning systems prior to packaging for sale. The customer was looking to unload the product from super sacks, elevate and convey from bulk bag unloaders, and vibratory feeders to Fastback conveyors with respect to electrical controls and integration. The Spiroﬂow Bulk Bag Discharger Model T6/3 was the best solution that could address all of their needs. Each line was controlled by an existing PLC system which was modiﬁed to control the new or relocated equipment. The elevators were fully guarded and safe-stopped with an E-stop 1-hole PB station. With Spiroﬂow’s system and integration, the manufacturer’s conveying system maximized reliability and simple operation with easy cleaning and low maintenance. All of Spiroﬂow’s equipment also comes with the industry’s ﬁrst 3-year warranty.
(704) 246-0900 sales@spiroﬂow.com www.spiroﬂow.com input #34 at www.controleng.com/information
Trident installs one of ďŹ rst Siemens SPHA systems Summary: MilliporeSigma produces chemicals used in the life sciences industries and tasked Trident Automation with upgrading control systems. The company previously relied on APACS using Windows 95 running the MycroAdvantage HMI. Before ďŹ nding a solution, Trident engineers had to learn the MycroAdvantage systemâ€”an older platform that none of them had ever worked on before.
Challenge: A large chemical company was looking for a control system upgrade that was scalable, ďŹ‚exible, intuitive, required minimal downtime for installation and reduced cost of ownership. Doors, valves, and even motion detectors needed to pass through the systemâ€™s safety checks. The plant also had maintenance challenges.
Solution: Trident engineers opted for a new Siemens product that offered longer lifecycle, fast cabling, easy set up, high performance transmission of large volumes of data, and a compact size.
Result: Trident was able to customize the system for MilliporeSigmaâ€™s unique needs. The install was executed with minimal delays and Trident teams are currently working on upgrading another plant the company.
â€œWe do this all the time,â€? said Nathan Nutter, Trident engineer. â€œWe learn a lot of legacy systems in a short timeline to reverse engineer a process for newer systems.â€? To do so the team divided responsibilities among different people each focusing on instrumentation, code, and HMI. The solution was to use Siemens ProďŹ net ET200SP HA I/O, one of the newest platforms on the marketâ€”a product designed to use under extremely tough industrial conditions. Since this was one of the ďŹ rst installations in the US, teams learned new hardware, new IO conďŹ gurations, and new networking. â€œIt was important we were proďŹ cient in this system because the ET200SP HA ProďŹ net will be the next wave of IO for years to come,â€? said Yogesh Maheshwari, Trident engineering manager. Prior to install, the Trident team created a virtual environment so the customer could learn the product. Constant communication with the customer and help from Siemens created optimum efďŹ ciency in design and installation.
WWWTRIDENTAUTOMATIONCOM s input #35 at www.controleng.com/information
Numerous Protocols – and a Simple One-Solution-for-All Summary: “We couldn’t easily integrate these two systems because each one of them lives on different networks,” Mahmoud Hadi, Control and Automation Manager at Patterson-UTI explained. “We want to have restricted exposure while each system can access the other system.” The WAGO PFC200 is an IIoT gateway collecting data from all of their systems, working as an aggregator sharing data with stakeholders who needed that information while protecting the systems that needed to be isolated.
Challenge: At Patterson-UTI, engineers needed the various systems of their land based drilling rigs to communicate with one another, while also keeping them isolated. This created quite a challenge when the control system and the data collecting hub needed to be on separate networks, but because of this, could then no longer communicate directly with each other.
Solution: The solution for Patterson-UTI came from using the WAGO PFC200 as an IIoT Gateway.
Result: With WAGO’s PFC200, Patterson-UTI is now able to collect data from all of their systems while keeping those systems safely isolated from each other.
“It’s a really fantastic win for WAGO and Patterson-UTI,” WAGO Regional Sales Manager John Hagar said. “The PFC200 can talk either MODBUS or Proﬁbus, so they can put one of these on existing oil rigs and very easily – over OPC UA and MQTT – make the data available to the end customer.” “I would say that the biggest advantage would be the access to all the different protocols….” Hadi said. “Also the price and the support we received is really why we chose WAGO in the end.” Patterson-UTI’s access to WAGO’s extensive online libraries was another reason for deciding to use the PFC200 according to Wayne Steed, Patterson-UTI Control Engineer. “Making sure that the libraries are speciﬁc to each protocol we were using and the different logic we were trying to implement in the gateway was very valuable to us,” he said. “WAGO designed-in OPC UA and MQTT capability in its PFCs in order to make them IIoT-ready,” Hagar explained. “This enables them to talk to Amazon (AWS), IBM (Bluemix), Microsoft (Azure), or other cloud-based data center solutions.” Visit www.wago.us/pfc200 for more info. firstname.lastname@example.org 1 800 DIN-RAIL (346-7245) www.wago.us input #36 at www.controleng.com/information
MEDIA SHOWCASE FOR ENGINEERS Spreadsheets werenâ€™t designed for analyzing time series data. Seeq is.
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Honey, Iâ€™m home! Tired of working nights and weekends on motion control projects? Itâ€™s time to contact an automation specialist at SEW-EURODRIVE for help. We provide a complete package from start to finish, including project planning, software, components, commissioning, troubleshooting, and worldwide support. Let our specialists be an extension of your team.
seweurodrive.com | 864-439-7537 input #38 at www.controleng.com/information