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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

15 February 2019 Brussels, Belgium

Scientific Journal

of the Modern Education

& Research Institute

ISSN 2506-8040


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

In cooperation with our members:


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

If there was one life skill everyone on the planet needed, it was the ability to think with critical objectivity.      Josh Lanyon, Writer Critical thinking is a much broader concept than logical analysis because it implies the ability to go beyond our usual way of thinking and acting, asking questions and, based on their interpretation, think and act differently. Critical thinking is an attempt to answer the question «why?»

We say that students have developed the competence of critical thinking when they are interested in the nature of things, analyze their own ideas, as well as the thoughts, actions, judgments and assessments of other people. Students today have unprecedented access to information. According to Professor Karl Fish, a person receives more information in one week of reading the New York Times than people in the 18th century in their entire lives. The Forbes magazine reports that the total number of pages indexed in Google is more than one trillion. It difficult to cope with that stream of highly contradictory information without possessing critical thinking.





How to integrate teaching critical thinking in the academic process? The advantage of this competence is that there is no need for materials at hand for its development. Here are a couple of simple methods that every professor can apply in his or her teaching practice: Create an information base. It is difficult to think critically, without having the necessary information at hand. Taking into account that information is no longer a rare resource, it is recommended to ask students to read the study material before the class at home, go only through the key points in the classroom and give students a task to solve based on the prepared material. Work in groups. Professor Eric Mazur from the Harvard University does not answer the students’ questions after giving a lecture. He asks those students who understood the material to explain it to those who did not understand. According to his observations as well as based on the research of a number of scientists, students learn better from each other than from a teacher. This phenomenon was described in the 1970s and was called the «curse of knowledge». By learning from each other, students develop key interpersonal skills like leadership skills and of course critical thinking. Role-playing games. Role playing is an excellent method of developing critical thinking. No wonder that actors spend a lot of time studying the personality, character, interests, and historical background of the period when their hero lived. The need to become someone else does not stimulate only critical and analytical thinking but also creative thinking. Give your students a task to represent conflicting points of view from the perspective of different historical figures. The task of the students is to study the personality that they represent, his or her point of view on the issue under consideration and try to convince the opponent or to work out a compromise. Carry out a reflection. Every year, a «Reflection Week» is held at the Stephen Austin State University in Texas. The main goal is to help students reflect on what they have learned during the year and how it has changed them. Students are invited to reflect on who at the university has had the greatest influence on them and what exactly associated with this person influenced them. Every day during the week, students participate in various reflecting activities supervised by teachers. They are invited to reflect on how they see their development in the context of learning outcomes. Many students report that after such exercises, they look at their studies from a completely different perspective and receive additional motivation to learn, because they begin to understand how the knowledge gained in the selected educational program can be used not only in the classroom, but also in their day-to-day life outside the university. In any discipline, there are opportunities for the development of critical thinking. Make it a priority for your teaching methods. Constantly ask open questions to your students and create space for discussion, even if that discussion does not last long. Consider development of critical thinking as a culture of your pedagogical work, and not as an activity.

Ekaterina Tsaranok

Director Modern Education & Research Institute 5

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute Рђб The Kingdom of Belgium


Barlybayeva Saule Khatiatovna

NEW MEDIA DEVELOPMENT AND MEDIA EDUCATION (EXAMPLE OF THE AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY) Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty............................................................................................. 8

2. Keikimanova M.T., R.Zh. Nametkulova, D.S. Uzbekova, A.K. Kadirimbetova, S.J.Kulmanova, J.A. Silkymova, G.K. Masatbaeva


Taraz State University named after лю.Kh. Dulaty, Taraz........................................................................... 14


Kumisbekov Serik Arginbaevich, Tassybayeva Sholpan Bakibuldaevna, Serikuly Zhandos


M.Auezov South-Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent........................................................................ 37

4. Naviy L.N., Baimanova L.S., Talpakova M.Zh.


Kokshetau State University named after Shokan Ualikhanov, Kokshetau.............................................. 44

5. Smagulov Nurlan Kemelbekovich, Adilbekova Aynur Akynovna


Karaganda State Medical University, Karaganda......................................................................................... 48

6. Suynova Gulnara


Pavlodar State Pedagogical University, Pavlodar......................................................................................... 53


Vonog Vita, Prokhorova Olga


Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk..................................................................................................... 57


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

NEW MEDIA DEVELOPMENT AND MEDIA EDUCATION (EXAMPLE OF THE AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY) Barlybayeva Saule Khatiatovna (tv.headmaster@gmail.com) Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (KazNU), Almaty

Abstract The article deals with the nature of the socio-cultural impact of communication infrastructure on society and education. Cardinal shifts in technical ensuring communication process led to emergence of essentially new mass media. Every new mass medium doesn’t cancel previous, and differentiates their mission, ways of delivery of information. Purpose of the article: to show an active development of new media and changes in media education in Kazakhstan, for example in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Keywords: globalization, communication process, new media, media education, information technologies, Kazakhstan.

INTRODUCTION Global information process strongly influenced development of national mass media. Around the world there is a liberalization and globalization of information markets. Such integration leads to that the information industry extends, erasing rigid borders between sectors of traditional systems of mass communication and creating new media systems. Historically these sectors developed separately, but now due to technological innovations, borders of these sectors were washed away, there is an active process of their integration. Integration process in much more degree covers technologies and information transfer systems. In mass media appear tendencies which are expressed in strong increase in information streams, in emergence of new independent mass media, the media organizations, new participants of information process, in emergence of electronic newspapers, Web editions, blog spheres, social networks, in formation of the new information markets, services are shown. Research is a very effective method when we are every day confronted with hundreds of different types of messages through media and live in the world of overloaded information the potential of information and communication technology (ICT) is among the state priorities. There is a growing production of information products and services in Kazakhstan. Each year, the information technology industry is growing at 13-18% in the country. These results provide confirmatory changes in life of Kazakhstan society caused by the spread of ICT which have economic, socio-political and cultural nature. The latest information and communication technologies allowed to pass to the large-scale translation of information saved up by mankind from electronic into a digital form. Social-cultural nature of influence of communication infrastructure on society is shown in increasing the opportunities of communication and cooperation, the use of various information and knowledge for the solution of different questions, problems. In recent years, advanced information and communication technology which ensuring rapid socio-economic and cultural development, has become as the motivating force of develop8


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

ment of society. Innovative information and communication technologies make their adjustments in the life of Kazakhstan society: cable-satellite broadcasting is expanding and mobile Internet, cellular communications, digital broadcasting are implementing, also the elements of interactive TV are gradually introducing. In most cases considerable attention has been paid to multiplication confidence of the media as an important source of information about happening events in the country and abroad. The major drawback of the ICT electronic media affects our lives much more than other types of communication, so that the rapidly changing values and consumer needs.

Content The definition represents that the word convergence (from lat. «convergere» to approach, to converge) means «convergence», «rapprochement « that, in the context of media reform provides different types of media, a new concept in interaction with their organizational and structural convergence, or a full merger, including the establishment of new management techniques to create an original information product to its placement in different media environments and capture the attention of potential audience. Convergence is a merging of markets. The modern industry of media is moving towards the greater integration with the telecommunication sector, production of household appliances, information technology. The result is a new integrated market, where multimedia services, network services, the creation of software products are inseperably bounded up. According to the Professor E.L. Vartanova, the Dean of the faculty of journalism in Lomonosov Moscow State University – «increasingly», the concept of «convergence» has become synonymous with the main transformations in the media sphere... Convergence is a process that may completely change not only the system of mass media and communication, but also various associated industry in the coming decades» [1]. We first prove that digital, multimedia, interactive communication technology expands the frontiers between countries and becomes more available in different regions of the world. The Sector of Mass Media Communication becomes complementary. Unlike traditional media, Internet users from just passive recipients are becoming its active converters, creators and distributors of information. «The integration of all types of communication cable in the telecommunications on the base of opto-fiber structures acts as a kind of «Central nervous system of the whole society» [2]. The use of new ICT enhances the process of convergence and leads to the building of a global information society. It was the free market of ideas in the age of the global information infrastructure which is more and more determined by commercial goals and dictate the desire for liberalization. Researcher S.L. Urazova reveals a number of characteristics that causes the transformation of the media market, which reveal a cause-effect relationship of convergent processes. From the research the following characteristics had been carried out: 1. Modification of mono media environment to multimedia. 2. Replacement of classification title of media –they are transformed from the media to the MMS. 3. A new form of communication – interactivity occurs. 4. The processes of globalization have been changing the parabola of the information product in response to the use of modern digital technology [3]. Many researchers have come to the common characteristics about new media. Firstly, they are «tied» to the screen. Secondly, they simultaneously offer text, sound, video as a shifting image, and moving image. New media is interactive to varying degrees. As noted by the representative of the magazine «Sovetnik» (Moscow) in Kazakhstan and Central Asia – V.N. Pavlenko at the seminar «New media of special purpose» (Almaty, 16th of March 2012.): «New media is a term which means the advent of the digital computer, information, network and communication at the end of twentieth century. New media is any media product which is interactive and digitally distributed. For several years great effort has been devoted to the study of mew media by V.N. Pavlenko, according to him four directions are being formed in journalism: 1. interactive services (various possibilities of the websites); 2. citizen journalism (edition attracts bloggers); 9

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

3. data journalism (work with inaccessible sources, journalistic investigation); 4. crowd sourcing (collective discussion in network prior to processing and collection of information on topic given in advance)». In this article and in related references it was observed that a striking example is the rapid development of the blogosphere, citizen journalism in the world and in Kazakhstan. According to analysts of the Association of border cooperation M. Shibutov, the volume of Kazakh blogosphere by 2017 will reach 1 personal online blog 100 Internet users, by 2020 – 2 personal Internet blog on 100 users. Increased average attendance of Kazakhstani Internet resources, and in 2017 it will reach 40%, and by 2020 – 50%. With the rapid development of the Internet, social network have developed a new media type of professions. So since 2010 was declared by social media Agency, social media managers (SMM – social media manager). Marketing in Social media (social media) drew removing leading companies, public authorities and banks, who have to hire special employees to interact with the online audience, to engage the services of specialized agencies. The main priority for Kazakhstan is the country‘s transition to digital broadcasting by 2020, was based on the approach presented in the global trends – the International Telecommunication Union in the framework of the agreement «Geneva-2006» the transitional period (2007-2015) for the introduction of digital broadcasting. The State Programme of development of digital broadcasting for 2008-2015 years has been developed in Kazakhstan. The gradual change was observed that Kazakhstan‘s transition to digital broadcasting by the end of 2020, has determined the necessity of understanding technological, socio-economic, and most importantly, cultural and information processes in Kazakhstan. If technical problems of communications have international similarities, those issues of their social content vary depending on the countries, the nature of the social and political system of society. The key direction of the forthcoming stage of the republic‘s development will be the creation of a number of high-tech industries in the priority sectors of the country. Currently, state programs are being implemented: «Electronic Government», «Information Kazakhstan-2020», «Digital Kazakhstan». In the program «Information Kazakhstan 2020» it is planned «by 2020 to increase the volume of television production of Kazakhstan production to 60% of the total airtime. The number of Internet sites in .kz and .kaz domains should increase by 50% compared to 2012, the number of Internet media will make up 95% of their total number [4]. The country has developed the State Program Digital Kazakhstan, its main goal is the progressive development of the digital ecosystem to meet the challenges of sustainable economic growth and enhance the country‘s competitiveness in the international arena. In the course of the implementation of this program, «Digital Kazakhstan is expected to make the following changes: the share of Internet users in 1981 will be 81%, the level of digital literacy of the population in 1981 is 81.5%, the growth of labor productivity in ICT in 2021 is 5.9%; the number of employed people in the ICT industry in the year 2021 is 110 thousand people, the share of state services received electronically from the total volume of public services will be 80%. [5] The main leitmotif of this program is the need for the development of a digital economy in Kazakhstan using IAOD global network of economic and social activities carried out through the Internet, mobile and social networks. The rapid growth of Internet users takes place in Kazakhstan. According to the report of the Ministry of communications and information of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the beginning of 2011, the country had 4 million 300 thousand Internet users. Nowadays, the constituted Internet users in Kazakhstan have been exceeded 13 million people and it follows the number of cellular subscribers exceeded more 32 million people (the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan is more 18 million). The development of mobile communication has made possible individual access to global information resources using cell phones. The spread of mobile communications brings a new element to the development of modern MMC, bringing readers, listeners and viewers to the movement flow of the information and allowing you to manage their attention and selection of information more effectively. The desire for the new, the progressive characteristic of the professional, and the vision and understanding new things, fighting for its dissemination, for its bold movement of society forward, give the opportunity to journalists to get rather high educational and cultural level. 10

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

The research shows that work of converged journalist requires skills that are developed through continuous training and accumulation of practical experience, in addition to a broad range of interests, apart from ideological positions, natural abilities, and educational level. The development of the journalistic profession is only possible as a result of study of the course of theoretical disciplines in combination with a daily creative practice. Often the students of the faculties and departments of journalism are judged on the profession of tele-radio journalists only by what they see on television or hear on the air, but this is only the visible part of the professional electronic media. The main part of the work remains on the other side of the screen and the air, and this is a huge, painstaking, hard work with their creative, technological, moral features. Work that requires from a journalist of strong nerves, physical stamina, patience, diligence, ability to work in a team, communicability, sense of humor, because a journalist‘s work is both individual and collective, especially on television and radio, which involved producer, director, editor, TV host-moderator, artist, illuminator, operators, sound engineers and many other experts in their field. The professionalism of each member of the creative team provides the success of the transfer program, the plot of the material as a whole. So under the influence of active development of new information technologies, modern trends of mass communication the traditional journalism becomes convergent journalism. There are two major trends in the work of converged editions that follow in recent years: it is the leading role of coordinating, collecting distributing themes, news and information. As well as the universalization of reporters, who must be able to collect information for all types of mass media as recording comments on audio and video media, writing articles for the online media and newspapers, and also making a report for TV. Journalists should expand the range of their professional activities, nowadays they are in the process of preparing the content to the Internet and further materials for the broadcasting, and printing press. Such types of the professional activities lead to the real development of the multimedia, the creation of a «universal» journalist, able to work in any multimedia format, having a specific theme. Now, the work of journalists became operational, mobile. The reader, listener and viewer can ask any questions to the content of creator, journalist, moderator, and TV and radio journalist, sending him the message by e-mail, mobile phone, on the Internet. This feedback became more efficient, more interactive due to the introduction and rapid development of new information technologies that facilitated the journalists‘ work, but brought them new technical and multimedia requirements, new approaches to the creative process, new forms of information management, communication management process. This has required a new level of training multimedia journalists, for whom the future development of electronic media. There is a television and radio studio (TRS) at the faculty of journalism of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University which contribute a new approach in the training of television journalists. The television and radio studio of Al-Farabi KazNU named after M.K. Barmankulov of journalism faculty is a teaching-production television Studio and radio Studio with the latest digital equipment and all the technical conditions for the creation of television and radio programs. Every day the students of journalism faculty of Al-Farabi KazNU produce radio and TV news in the Kazakh, Russian and English languages about the life of the University, and all TV shows are broadcasted on monitors located in the territory of Al-Farabi KazNU. Program TV release TRS Al-Farabi KazNU come under the headings: «Official news», «Science», «Report from the student audience,» «A portrait of the scientist», «No comment» and others. The whole life and activities of the University (scientific, educational, public, cultural, sports), all its 15 faculties illuminated by the television and radio complex. Programs of TRK Al-Farabi KazNU of the faculty of journalism has a big social significance for the conservation and enhancement of academic, cultural values, knowledge and traditions of the best examples of world science and education, education of youth on the ideals of science, education and culture. The TRK of KazNU, first and foremost, it is an educational television studio and radio Studio. Every day training on radio and television journalism are conducting on TV and radio studios, where the theoretical and practical classes are taught by the teachers of the Department of television and radio journalism of journalism faculty. At studio students’ meetings are weekly held with the leading journalists of the country. Their training seminars are conducted by television and radio journalists of broadcasting company «Kazakhstan», «Khabar», «31 channel» broadcasting company «Astana», «KTK», «Almaty» and others. All meetings and workshops are dedicated on the special web portal of journalism faculty of KazNU www. 11

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

jurfak.kz and also on the University website – www/kaznu/kz. Using modern digital equipment, students learn to prepare television, radio materials as taking interviews, reports, notes, TV spots and programs. The development of tele-radio materials, students of journalism prepare and network materials, i.e., Internet products, information, news bulletins, which are prepared once a week on three languages: Kazakh, Russian, English. Thus, students have the opportunity to prepare materials in various formats: television, radio, and newspaper and Internet format. Today‘s media in Kazakhstan are aimed to: • use the media to develop the creative, social, scientific, legal potential of the individual and social adaptation possible in the youth association; • development of young people‘s ability to see the new in everyday life; • motivation to create new spiritual and material values; • the formation of the ability to productive activities, the ability to find a variety of ways to solve a variety of tasks; • Replenishment of the life experience of adolescents, giving the opportunity to enter into various spheres of life; • development of tolerant personality qualities necessary to establish contact with strangers in order to accumulate information material; Thus, the mass media in the rapidly changing modern world are becoming an increasingly important factor of existence and influence on the younger generation. The work of the broadcast journalist requires professional skills that are developed through continuous training and accumulation of practical experience, in addition to a broad range of interests, apart from ideological positions, natural abilities, and educational levels. The mastering of profession is possible only as a result of course study of theoretical disciplines in combination with a daily creative practice. Kazakhstan‘s media are actively implementing a converged, multimedia newsroom. Almost all the major media holding companies began to create multimedia space. Convergent editorial office allows you to prepare more informative materials that combine the depth of newspaper journalism, emotion and online interactivity. The creation of different media and informational contexts requires special skills, professional journalistic skill. Multimedia journalists are actively changing over to converged journalism, because preparing TV material requires knowledge of technology, various television equipment and editing. And these skills are the basis of mastery of multimedia journalism, allow faster learning in the field of newspaper, publishing, photo business, as well as Internet design, network content.

Conclusion As reported by scholars, convergence as a concept begins to dominate in the media management, including a content production. Significantly affecting the collection, creation and distribution of information product, convergence is not only radically alter the approaches to the management of information, fundamentally reconstructing the organizational structure of the media, but also creates a new model of journalism. Based on the approach presented above the new requirements in preparing multimedia journalists are created. Communication media offer a variety of interactive relations of the user and producer and distributor of content. In recent years, the work of journalists became operational and mobile. The reader, listener and viewer can ask any question to the content creator, journalist, and moderator by sending him a message by email, mobile phone and on the Internet. This feedback became more efficient, more interactive due to the introduction and rapid development of new information technologies that facilitated the journalists‘ work, but brought them new technical and multimedia requirements, new approaches to the creative process, new forms of information management, communication management process. This has required a new level of training multimedia journalists, for whom the future development of modern journalism in the country. 12

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

This research was concerned that the digital age has fundamentally changed broadcasting environment, blurring the lines between types of media, print and electronic communications, however new model of multimedia journalism is formed and begins to work in the educational system that allows to prepare multimedia experts. In conclusion we can identify that further study of preparing multimedia universal media people will be still necessary to be verified. The reforming countries can be successful while maintaining your identity in the context of globalization, with the active development of multimedia journalism.

References 1. The basics of the media industry: Textbook for students/Edited by E. L. Vartanova.-M.: Aspect Press, 2009-P. 356. 2. Kolesnik S. G. The basic tendencies of development of television in the USA (1995-1996) // Herald MGU. Series 10. Journalism, 1998 – № 1 – P. 36. 3. Urazova S. L. Convergent journalism in the digital media environment.-M. IPK, 2010.-P. 11 4. Kazinform, November 27, 2012. 5. State program «Digital Kazakhstan-2020». https://zerde.gov.kz/activity/management-programs/ digital-kazakhstan/#hcq=CVIYxFq


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

PECULIARITIES OF THE PROCESSES IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC EXCITER OF LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS IN ITS FUNCTIONING MODE Keikimanova M.T., R.Zh. Nametkulova, D.S. Uzbekova, A.K. Kadirimbetova, S.J. Kulmanova, J.A. Silkymova, G.K. Masatbaeva M.Kh. Dulaty Taraz State University, «Physics» Department

Abstract In the motoring functioning mode electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency oscillations in its single-phase and three-phase versions also, always held its own particular niche and in some cases successfully competed with induction motors and other types of actuators. This work is devoted to the peculiarities of the processes in the electromagnetic exciter of lowfrequency oscillations, there are presented and described the theoretical principles on which are revealed opportunities for research and development at its base of a fundamentally new type of vibration alternator with alternative design. Keywords: electric magnet, resonant frequency, tractive effort, subsystem, flux, gap distance, harmonic composition.

INTRODUCTION In terms of simplicity of its design and implementation schemes choosing electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency oscillations (EME LFO) as the base unit of vibration alternator’s function module is quite reasonable and promising and provides opportunities to develop EME LFO operating in generator mode with the view of its practical use as a universal highly effective tool for converting mechanical energy of natural origin, such as moderate and weak wind flows and water flow in the rivers. Consideration of the peculiarities of the processes in the electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency oscillations (EME LFO) and theoretical propositions forms the basis for the practical implementation of a whole class of original design solutions built on its base, with a new demanded quality of generator mode of its functioning. In the works of authors [1, 3-7 and 10], it is shown the principal capabilities of the circuit of electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency mechanical oscillations with series capacitor in relation to the creation of devices with vibro effect as vibration engines for different technological processes. In these works there are also specified conditions which must be satisfied by applied in this case vibration exciters, and it is the realization of these conditions that predetermines the success of the functioning of the entire vibration device as a whole. Presented in the annotation formulation of the task of the research shows that there are some difficulties in the designing of the above devices, as determined by the lack of sufficiently expanded theory of their functioning. Therefore it is required to clarify a number of theoretical propositions in relation to the considered type of electromagnetic exciters of low-frequency mechanical oscillations for the purpose of further development of these propositions, the above is the content of subsections of this article. 14


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency mechanical oscillations with series capacitor. Main dependencies Electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency oscillations is a system: ÂŤAC electromagnet with series capacitorÂť. Structurally, it is shown in Figure 1. Functioning feature is that there are many variables that become factors that determine non-sinusoidal working processes under sinusoidal power. Since taking into account all the features of variables is difficult, and in some cases not reasonable, we choose from the entire set of these factors the basic factors and note their features. For this purpose, first and foremost form the equation system (which hereinafter will enable to obtain the mathematical model) proceeding from the presence of three physically dissimilar subsystems [2] of the vibro-exciter design: electric, magnetic and mechanical (Figure 2). According to [2] electromagnet may be substituted by a chain-theoretic model (CTM, Figure 2) containing the above cascaded subsystems in the form of electric circuits (by analogy), interconnected by ideal transformer (in the section of electromagnetic energy conversion) and gyrator (in the section of magnetomechanical energy conversion). This representation is convenient, as it enables to specify the conditions: identify the main factors and discard the secondary.

Figure 1. Electromagnetic exciter of low-frequency oscillations structure


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Figure 2. Chain-theoretic model

Consequently, the above system must include three equations for these physical subsystems. They are: for the electric subsystem (Figure 2) (1)

where Uag = U Net , Uab = Uab. i , Ubd = w Udg =

dФ dt

1 ∫ idt – voltage in the CTM sections; c

ф. – magnetic flux in the electromagnet coil; i – current in the circuit of the electromagnet coil; r, c – active resistance and capacitance; w – the number of windings of the magnet; b) for magnetic subsystem (2) U m = Φ. R m∑ ( Rd ' + Rd '' + Rsteel)


where – air gap in the magnetic system of traction electromagnet of the EME LFO, , – air gaps under the first and the second poles, respectively; S m – the area of the ends of the electromagnet’s core, directed towards the movable armature; Rd – magnetic resistance of the air gaps; R steel – magnetic resistance in the steel of the magnetic conductor of the EME LFO, including the core and the armature of the electromagnet; m0 – constant magnetic conductivity; m – magnetic conductivity (constant) of the steel; U m = i. w – magnetizing force of the electromagnet coil. Note that the requirements for the constructional implementation of the EME LFO regarding its core and the armature and the conditions of their functioning are defined as follows: =


and >> 16

scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

In addition, in the further theoretical studies we will take:



Then (2) takes the form: (3) for the mechanical subsystem (4) where


, F spring = k '∑ x – forces (efforts) in the CTM sections;

x – armature’s shift (Figure 1); m∑ – the total mass of the moving parts; ' k ∑ – stiffness of elastic elements;

F ∑ (t ) – tractive effort exerted by the magnetшс system. In this equation tractive effort’s value is expressed by the relation, in accordance with Maxwell’s formula:


– the value of the magnetic flux in the air gaps, determining tractive effort; – total traction area of the poles (





Natural frequency of the mechanical part of the system is determined in accordance with: fn

1 = 2p


k∑ m∑

Given the above, represent the equations of the subsystems in a single system of equations: (5)




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Note, however, that the presented recording doesn’t form a system of equations in the mathematical sense for the following reasons. First, consider that the magnetic flux in the coil «Ф» is connected with the magnetic flux in the gap « » by the following relation: (8) where

– stray flux in the gap and in the space between the poles of the yoke.

Stray flux is generally not small and can be [4]: (9) However, its significant share is in the space between the planes of the core, extending outside the frame of the winding, but remote from the movable armature. Therefore shared value of the from the value of the Ф can be taken as independent of the armature movement and allowed for by the introduction of the constant coefficient K stray , i.e.: Therefore,

and under the assumptions taken above K stray = (0,1 ÷ 0,3 ) in the case K stray = 0,2

i.e. (10) where



= 0,8 .

The above arguments are forcing to take into account that the variables inserted into the presented equations are unequal in the various subsystems, giving the number of unknowns larger than the number of equations. Given this, we compare the unknowns occurring in these equations to simultaneously reduce their total number (and, consequently, the number of equations). Referring to the equation for the magnetic subsystem, note that a member of its right side, the magnetic flux is recalculated by using a section of the air gap ( , ). And therefore, it is the magnetic flux . However , in the left side of this equation parameters of the winding w are being used. Since in the further analysis for the comparability of the results of the experiment with the calculated data it is reasonable in the equation for the electrical subsystem to operate with the full value of the current i, then the equation for the magnetic subsystem should use the same value of the current . Then to eliminate inconsistencies in the variables (5), (6) and (7) we use (10), which allows us to reduce all three equations to one variable relatively to the magnetic flux «Ф». However, there are two other variables not allowing to reduce (5), (6), (7) to a closed system of equations without the introduction of an additional bond. These are the value of the air gap and the value of armature’s shift x (Figure 1) (11) where – the value of some initial air gap (Figure 1). Expression (11) completes the equations (5), (6) and (7) to the closed system by the number of equations, as in this case, in (5), (6) and (7) and (11) the number of independent variables and the number of equations becomes equal. 18

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Replace variable x for that – , and (10):

in the equation (7) for the mechanical subsystem of a variable by (11), given

(12) Thus, it is possible to define the frame of reference in the mechanical subsystem makes relative to the air gap , which is agreed with the definition of the value of the magnetic flux , so it is advisable to introduce the variable , which is agreed with the definition of the value of the magnetic flux , and into taking into account (10) and the magnetic flux Φ . Therefore, it is advisable to insert the variable the parameters of equations for the electrical subsystem (5). Here it is advisable to use some trick to simultaneously reduce the total number of equations in the system. Insert, using (10): (13) where


L – inductance of the electromagnetic coil; and taking into account that (14) Substitute (14) into (5), using (13), we obtain: (15) or identical expression relative to the magnetic flux Φ and the air gap

: (16)

Thus, we obtain the following two types of systems of equations, which can be considered mathematical models of the EME LFO. Based on (14), (15) obtain:




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The resulting system of equations includes values of the current i and the air gap as unknowns. Therefore , it reflects the processes in mechanical and electrical subsystems explicitly. Since according to [40] at armature stationary vibrations in the EME LFO current i and the air gap can be represented in rows, as conditional solutions of the system (17), then the analysis of the functioning of the process hereinafter should refer specifically to this system of equations as a synchronizing communication in the parts with vibro effect in this case is implemented via the electric subsystem. However, analysis of processes in a single EME have to refer to the factors, determining force action on the armature of an electromagnetic exciter of oscillations. In this case it is advisable to use an explicit form of the magnetic subsystem factors, namely the value of magnetic flux. Then it is more convenient to form the mathematical model based on (12) and (16). Then we have: (17)


Note that this form of the mathematical model is the most informative for the analysis of processes in EME LFO to establish regularities in the distribution of harmonics ÎŚ (t ) according to [3, 4]. Since in this case discussion of a number of additional circumstances is required, we consider these issues in a separate section.

Formation conditions of the electromagnetic tractive effort of the exciter of the low-frequency oscillations at the frequency of the functioning Before considering the distribution of the harmonic components in the representations i (t ) and ÎŚ (t ) (which essentially act as solutions of systems of equations (17) and (18)), we turn to the establishment of the conditions that must be met in a stationary workflow in the sense of rational generating of an electromagnetic tractive effort influencing on armature and, consequently, on the working body through the mechanical gears system. Since we considered vibrational mechanical subsystem with a vibration effect in a low frequency oscillations area, we assume its output units to move(in the sense of main harmonic component) with the frequency of the desired process or in Hz. Later this frequency range will be considered in the interval . In this case, the movement of the armature is adequately reflected by graph (Figure 3), which shows the air gap change with required for the workflow. Note that the graph shows the air gap change in the area where > 0 (which is associated with the physical meaning of the considered quantity). Thus, in accordance with (11)

Setting in accordance with the above, (19)


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we have

Figure 3. Dependence of the air gap change on time

Figure 4. Dependence of tractive effort change on the air gap

(20) where X – amplitude of armature’s shift; armature is oscillating;

– in this case, the average value for the air gap when

– modulation coefficient. To ensure shown in Figure 3 type of movement on the input of the mechanical subsystem (Figure 2), with the help of the magnetic subsystem there should be formed changing tractive effort , features 21

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of which become the same frequency as of the movement x(t ) (19), i.e. , and amplitude sufficient to carry out the work on the movement of the working body. When imaging in Figure 3 superposed graphs of the air gap change and tractive effort in the right half-plane of coordinates system ( ), (which corresponds to the range of definition , there should be formed closed «oval» type curve, which has all coordinates positive and intersected by static characteristic of the electromagnet’s tractive effort change not less than in two points [6]. Tracking of this oval must satisfy the conditions at armature’s retraction (decrease of at armature’s dropout (increase of

) and ).

If there is an the elastic element in the mechanical system such as springs and others, which graph is presented as a line (with negative ordinates, as the resilient element must return the armature in the area of big gaps ), the armature is affected by resulting effort (21) The meaning of the oval is that the effort (Figure 4) in order to ensure armature’s oscillations should be sign-alternating relatively to the x-axis for a series of oscillations of the armature, which is possible only if has a property of two-valuedness (which is satisfied by the above-noted oval). Thus, F ∑ in (21) becomes two-valued due to the shape of the curve


should be matched so that said twoAt the same modules and F spr for changing values of valuedness is implemented. The stated above makes have such factors (members of expansion of the solution of equations (18) will become such factor later), which, when used in (10), make it possible to make a closed curve of the «oval» type (21) on the graph (Figure 3). Graph F ∑ (t) satisfies this, having alternating nature and frequency equal to (or ). For this we turn to the definition of electromagnet’s tractive effort based on its harmonic composition. Considering that the tractive effort is generated by magnetic flux (10), and the magnetic flux itself can be formed by the aggregate (sum) of the harmonic components [8], that is (22) where with frequency of power, i.e.


ference combination frequency

– harmonic component of the total magnetic flux ,


– harmonic component of the total magnetic flux

, with dif-

– natural frequency of mechanical oscillations of the EME LFO (11);

– harmonic component of the total magnetic flux with total combination frequency ω(к,+1) = ω(к,0) + ν; tractive effort’s value will be determined as: (23) In order to reduce the volume of further calculations, this expression can be represented in the form (24)




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Such representation after Squaring gives a set of summonds, some of which are the square of members the expression, and the other part will be products of these members. Squaring each member of (24) gives the characteristic form to the summonds, for example, for the k-st member,


Thus, this part of (24) corresponds to the components of the tractive effort, which carry out continu1 ous attraction of the armature ( 2 component), or imlements alternating force action on the armature with a frequency much greater than the natural frequency of the mechanical subsystem of EME LFO, as at . Consequently, these summonds in (24) and the corresponding components of the effort do not have a practical effect on the basic type of the EME LFO armature’s movement, and may be omitted in the further 1 consideration. However, the first summond in (25) of the type 2 , that has no components depending on time , carries out constant attraction of the EME LFO armature and determines the sign constancy of coordinates of the oval in Figure 4 , which should be taken into account when designing EME LFO of the considered type. But the set of members in (24) which are the mutual products, gives the opportunity to see the formation of combinational components of the electromagnet’s traction effort at the energy input of the mechanical subsystem of the oscillations’ exciter . Consider this in detail. Selecting in (24) the set of mutual products of members, corresponding to combination harmonics of the magnetic flux and its harmonic component at the frequency of the power = , after transformations, for the tractive effort’s harmonics with frequency (11) we have:


where tem of the EME LFO;

– effort’s oscillations frequency in the mechanical subsys-

– components’ amplitudes – of the depending tractive effort; – phase of one of the components F1 of the electromagnet’s tractive effort F∑ ; – phase of the other component F2 of the electromagnet’s tractive effort F∑ . It is known [5,6,8], that when adding two sinusoidal waves of the same frequency but with different phases, there are formed sinusoidal oscillations with the same frequency but with changed amplitude and phase. In this regard, we transform (26), separating operators with time independent phases from the operators – dependent, we obtain: (27а) 23

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and (27б) where fort effort

– amplitude of oscillations of the – dependent component of electromagnet’s tractive efof the EME LFO; – phase of the – dependent component of electromagnet’s tractive of the EME LFO.

Expressions (27) allow us to see the possibility of separating (23) through (26) in the form:

– dependent harmonic component in (28)

If we now turn to (20), as well as to its graph (Figure 3), and put them into correspondence with (28), it is not difficult to see the possibility of obtaining of the above mentioned «oval» type curve in the coordinates (which is considered on Figure 4). In mentioned coordinates using (20) and (28), it becomes possible to construct the «oval» . It is ellipse (as both and in their variable parts depends on the same frequency ), the area of which is determined by the phase in this case. By appropriate choice of scales on the axes and F this ellipse can take the form of circle, when the angle is zero (in the case of the operators (20) and (28)) , (or in the case of substitution of the « sin » или « cos » type operators by the operators of the same type in (20) and (28)). Since the objective of this subsection is to find conditions for rational functioning of EME LFO at the frequency of workflow , the last remark makes us look for patterns in the implementation of the above ellipse in axes. Therefore, we consider at greater length possible theoretical approaches to the detection of links between angle and various factors, characteristic for the processes under consideration. We mention that the above-mentioned possible obtaining by ellipse the shape of circle is desirable, in principle, as in this case, the above required two-valuedness of closed curve, , as well as acquires the greatest development, armature oscillations have the greatest amplitude and energy saturation. First, note that the angle in accordance with (27) is connected with the phases and from (26), and through them with angles, , , . However, the amplitudes of the harmonic components of magnetic flux and also play a role in forming this angle. Therefore, we turn to additional conditions that may be identified if we use another analytical technique of forming the expression (28). It is known [9, 10, 11], that in the case of equal amplitudes of the two sinusoidal waves with different arguments, their sum can be represented by the product of operators: FA cos A+ FB cos B = 2 F cos

A+ B B− A cos 2 2


where F = FA = FB . If we turn to (26) in the conditions of F1m = F2 m = Fm and apply the above written expression, then



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From (26) we have:


Then (29) takes the form: (30) But provided the compliance with above written conditions, the expression (27) can also be represented as follows. Amplitude of tractive effort of the – dependent harmonic can be rewritten through phases of components of magnetic flux , и as:



of this tractive effort’s component can be presented as:

Taking into account the equality of effort’s components F1m = F2 m = Fm (which can be interpreted as equality of the magnetic flux’s components at the frequency of ) and:

and, therefore: (32) Comparing form of presentation of the – dependent component of tractive effort of the EME LFO (28) and (30), and taking into account (31) and (32), we note the coincidence of the results of revealing the dependence of these quantities on the amplitude of the magnetic flux’s Φ ( k , −1) m and Φ ( k , +1) m combination components and phases of these components и . But the coincidence of the results of this comparison is based on the requirement of equality and correspondence to each other of and , which requires special consideration. As will be shown later, this equality of amplitudes and is rational, but its establishment is only possible as a result of the study of the frequency characteristics of the resonant circuit of the EME LFO. 25

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Figure 5. The phase parameters dependence from common circuit detuning parameters of an oscillatory circuit

Figure 6. Distribution of combinational components on a frequency axis

However, the above consideration in the case of relations (29) additionally allows to see the legitimacy of the general direction of the analysis of the problem under consideration. We turn back to the properties of the electrical subsystem. Note that when capacitors with traction winding in EME LFO are connected in serial mode in the electrical circuit, there is formed resonant type circuit, phase-frequency characteristic of which is known and presented in Figure 5. If we assume that the frequency of the component of the magnetic flux Φ (k , 0 ) in (22) is close to the resonant frequency ωр (5), then the mentioned combination components Φ(к,-1) и Φ(к,+1) have the frequencies conditionally equidistant from ωр. At the same time the phase in the range of positive valis in the range of negative values ​​(left of ωр ) and the phase ues (right of ωр) on the same figure. In this case, by substituting in (31) and (32) values of phase angles and in accordance with their signs from Figure 5, we get an indication that the phase angles, in particular, the angle , must approach to their rational values, when setting EME LFO circuit by changing the value of capacitor in series​​. It also requires the creation of conditions for the implementation of rational relation between and . However, there is a number of factors that are connected with forms of amplitude-frequency curves, and it is necessary to consider them additionally to understand reasonability of fulfillment of the above conditions. Consider these questions in the next subsection, specially covering them.


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Features of the frequency characteristics of the resonant circuit in the EME LFO First of all, we note that in the works [5,6,8] there was established and described the fact of existence of the conditions under which the current’s harmonic structure in the winding of the EME LFO with series capacitors contains components with the frequency subjected to the following regularity:

f í = ...= f( + 2 ) − f( +1 ) = f( +1 ) − f( 0 ) = f( 0 ) − f( −1 ) = f( −1 ) − f( −2 ) = ...


where – frequency of the main (the first) harmonic of the oscillation movement in the mechanical subsystem, implemented by electromagnet’s armature (causing variability of the parameter in the magnetic subsystem) (Hz); f(0) – frequency, which is the basic in the harmonic representation of the current and magnetic flux of the EME LFO and matched with the frequency of power system, i.e., f ( 0 ) = f net (Hz); f (+2 ) , f (+1) , f (−1) , f (−2 ) – frequencies of combination harmonics concomitant to the magnetic parameter variability in the magnetic subsystem, and included into the harmonic structure of the current and the magnetic flux in the functioning EME LFO (Hz). At the same time we should remember that in this type of EME LFO in accordance with (10) = f ( 0 ) . Presented above record (33) can be illustrated using Figure 6, which shows the frequency axis and located on it values of basic f ( 0 ) ​​and combination frequencies f (+2 ) , f (−2 ) . This indicates that on the frequency axis there are arranged values of combination frequencies f (+1) and f (−1) , as well as f (+2 ) и f (−2 ) equidistant from the conditionally central value f ( 0 ) , as it was noted at the end of the previous section 2. Without referring to the interpretation of this phenomenon (it is done in [3,5,6,7] note that it is necessary to compare it with the location relatively to the frequency axis f of the amplitude (and phase) – frequency characteristics of the EME LFO’s resonant circuit, which, as it is known, has a «bell-shaped» type. Note, however, that for more general comparisons it is necessary to compare the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the circuit at its various values of quality factors Q . It is convenient to carry out such a comparison [9,10], if the amplitude-frequency characteristics are presented in a coordinate system ( ). Here we use the concepts of circuit detuning


f fp


and relatively to the magnetic flux (34b) where

– circuit detuning; f – circuit frequency’s current value; – circuit’s resonant frequency;

– relative magnetic flux;

– current value of magnetic flux’s amplitude; – amplitude value of the magnetic flux at resonance. Before referring to the above specifications, we note that the form of amplitude-frequency curves ( can be obtained from the following considerations.



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Referring to the well-known relation [10] for the amplitude of the current in the series resonant circuit, we have

Note, that:

where – value of the coefficient of self-induction, corresponding to the average gap LFO’s stationary mode of operation.

Φm Φ pm = Hence (taking into account Im I p

at EME




Φm I m = = Φp I p m


1 1 1+ Q (Ω − )2 Ω 2


Thus, the forms of amplitude-frequency characteristics (known for [10]) are also valid for the construction of amplitude-frequency characteristics of the magnetic flux in the axes ( ) when considering the distribution of harmonic components Ф(к1-1), Ф(к) and Ф(к1+1)F (k1-1) of the magnetic flux relative to the axis of the detuning . The above allows us to refer to what was said at the end of § 2 on the location of the combination harmonics in the ( ) plane. But here it is necessary to take into account the following considerations. First of all, note that detuning for any combination frequency can be represented as (33):

Ω( −1 ) =

Ω( 0 ) = Ω( +1 ) =

f ( −1 ) fr


f( 0 ) − f ν fr

f( 0 )


fr f( +1 ) fr


f( 0 ) + f ν fr

This shows that there is one more parameter in the coordinate system ( quency 28

), which is a resonant fre-

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fr =

1 1 2π L0С


which depends on the value of the capacitance C of the series-connected capacitor and the structural factors of the electromagnet through the quantity L0 . By changing this quantity, we have the opportunity to shift the resonant frequency f r relative to the frequency f ( 0 ) = f net , but since the combination frequencies f (−1) and f (+1) are shifted relative to the condi(Figure 6) to the left tionally central frequency f ( 0 ) by the same quantity of the mechanical movement and right, the above change in the resonant frequency f r causes a change in the coordinate of detuning , , relative to the coordinate «1» on axis « Ω » (at a constant frequency of the power system f (net) = f ( 0 ) and, therefore, constant values , , in their mutual relation). Figure 7 contains the relevant points’ migration at f net = const and change in the frequency f r . The , , (without dashes) on the axis « Ω » and case f(net) = f( 0 ) = f p is corresponded by the points the points , , relative to the axis « ». In the case of f ( net ) = f ( 0 ) > f r the points (with dashes) on the axis « Ω » move to the right, but the corresponding values , , moves according to the , , is «bell»-shaped curve. If we assume the quality factor Q= const , migration of the points carried out as shown in Figure 7 and 8. , , migrates as shown in If we consider the case f (net) = f ( 0 ) < f r , then the points Figure 8. However, we should remember that quality factor is defined by the relation


2π f r L0 r


which, taking into account (37) take the form

Q= where ρ =

1 L0 ρ = r С r


L0 – wave resistance /Ohm/. С

Therefore, only the capacitance C change along with the change in resonant frequency f r and, consequently, detuning leads to change in the quality factor Q of the resonant circuit. The latter, in turn, leads to a change in position of the branches of «bell»-shaped curve, and to some additional shift of values , , decrease; with decreasing C values , , ​​(with increasing C values of , , increase slightly). However, all these changes may have as a result rational tuning of the circuit only if criterion of this rationality is set. Given the above, it can be assumed that such a case of the detuning on the axis Ω will lead to the best use of the combination components’ values and . If we turn to the expressions (30), (31) and (32) of the preceding paragraph, relative to the above mentioned the equation (40) obtains further evidence, particularly that the angle in (30) and (32) makes it possible to establish the optimality of the process , approximating the form of «oval» in Figure 4 to an ellipse.


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Figure 7. Relative flux dependence from common circuit detuning parameters of an oscillatory circuit

Figure 8. Relative flux dependence from common circuit detuning parameters of an oscillatory circuit

First of all, we note that according to (28) the value of tractive effort is alternating due to operator (Figure 11). At the same time (20), being generally of a constant sign, but having in its structure significantly changing summond with the operator , in conjunction with (28) make it possible to build in the coordinate system ( ) an elliptical closed curve, alternating through , which was mentioned above. But this curve is significantly approaching to the circle, if we select the corresponding scales on the axes and and keep appearing in (20) and (28) and operators, and in (20) put the phase angle as (41) 30

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In this case, in (26) and (27) the phase angles ditions (from (32) and (30))

θF =

α( +1 ) − α( −1 ) 2


=θ F opt.


must be chosen based on the con-


That is (42а) Moreover, the phase angle

must also be minimized


To determine the feasibility of this and the attendant circumstances we take a detailed look at the impact of change in on the formation conditions of harmonic components , , in a separate subsection, in which it becomes necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the formation of harmonic components of the currents i (t ) in the electrically connected windings of EME LFO’s synchronized modules.

Determining an optimal state of the system of the parameters of the module and through the rational choice of the reference frame of generalized detuning parameter and the construction of the vector diagram Assigned at the end of the previous subsection questions about rational choice of the phase angles and amplitudes of the magnetic flux’s harmonic components can be resolved by reference to the search for the most appropriate form for the dependences of these quantities on the generalized parameters of considered chains. Basic parameter can be an oscillation circuit’s detuning , experience of using of which (in our case) was considered in the previous subsection with respect to amplitude-frequency characteristic (Figure 9). Given that in this case influence of oscillation circuit’s quality factor Q becomes explicit, it is advisable to present these curves taking into account the parameter of quality factor. Analyzing working points’ migration on these two assemblages, depending on the location of detuning , , on the x-axis in accordance with the experience of section 4 (Figure 7 and Figure 8), note that the points corresponding to phase angles and are located in the first and third quarters of the coordinate plane of the assemblage , and therefore the above angle values ​​have different (that is ). signs. Note also that to the resonant value of flux = 1 corresponds the phase angle In accordance with this all phase angles in relations starting from (26) , including as dependent on , (32) and (42A) , have a reference point , that is Ω =1 . Thus, it is possible to present all the above , и (moreover , the phase on a conditional vector diagram with rotating vectors F∑ , angles on it should be , , , , respectively) , if we take as a reference point of the angles take an arbitrary location of the vector , which is the unit vector(Figure 11) . However, such a vector diagram is becoming more informative when it is supplemented by several more vectors. To identify them we turn to the following reasoning. As stated above [7] for the current’s harmonic components forming the electrical subsystem there was inserted the phase angle (in the expression ) , which did not receive due disclosure in 31

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the mentioned work. If we continue this disclosure , then it would be possible to interconnect phase angles in the electrical , magnetic, and mechanical subsystems in the process of interrelated oscillations in them. This can be done if we insert into the approximation (20) of the movement of the EME LFO’s armature, that is into the proposed law of change in the air gap , the phase angle and rewrite the expression (20) as: (43) Then, following [7], the determining of harmonic components of the current i (t ) in the electrical subsystem will be implemented as follows:

i(t)= kδΦ∑ = kδ0 [ 1− β sin ( ν t + θ x )][...ψ( −1 ) sin (ω( −1 )t + α( −1 ) )+ +ψ 0 )sin ( ω ( 0 ) t + α( 0 ) )+ψ( +1 ) sin( ω( +1 )t + α( +1 ) )] = β =T рез.{...ψ( −1 ) sin (ω( −1 ) t + α( −1 ) )− ψ( −1 ){ cos [(ν − ω( −1 ) )t + θ x − α( −1 ) ] − 2 β − − cos [(ν + ω( −1 ) )t + θ x + α( −1 ) ]}+ψ( 0 ) sin ( ω( 0 )t + α( 0 ) )− ψ( 0 ){ cos [(ν − 2 − ω( 0 ) )t + θ x − α( 0 ) ] − cos [(ν + ω( 0 ) )t + θ x + α( 0 ) ]}+ψ( +1 ) sin (ω( +1 )t + α( +1 ) )− β − 2 ψ( +1 ){ cos [(ν − ω( +1 ) )t + θ x − α( +1 ) ] − cos [(ν + ω( +1 ) )t + θ x + α( +1 ) ]}+ ...} where I res. = kΦres.δ0 .

Figure 9. Typical resonance «bell»-shaped characteristic



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Continuing the transformation, in particular, by replacing the operators of type «cos» on the operators of the type «sin» to give uniformity (and, therefore, comparability) to the basic and combination components of the current i (t ) at the same frequencies, we obtain:

β i(t) = ... + I рез.{ψ( −1 ) sin [ω( −1 )t + α( −1 ) ] + ψ( 0 ) sin [ω( −1 )t −θ x + 2 β o + α( 0 ) + 90 ] + ψ( 0 ) sin [ω( 0 )t + α( 0 ) ] + ψ( +1 ) sin [ω( 0 )t − θ x + α( +1 ) − 90 o ] + 2 β o + ψ( −1 ) sin [ω( 0 )t + θ x + α( −1 ) + 90 ] +ψ( +1 ) sin [ω( +1 )t + α( +1 ) ] + 2 β + ψ( 0 ) sin [ω( +1 )t + θ x + α( 0 ) + 90o ] − ...} 2


Last relations for harmonic components of current acquire additional shifts of its components due to phase angle « », which could be interpreted as an interconnection (and hence interdependence) between the phase angles , , и , constituting in combinations the above mentioned angle . However, pay attention to an important for this work fact. Phase angle is the angular characteristic of the conditional displacement vector. But in oscillatory processes it is of interest to consider the conditional velocity vector in the same time plane as the vector X , angle characteristic of which is . It is known that the vector V advances the vector X by 900 , therefore, the angular characteristic of the vector V is (46) We note in passing that in the case of coincidence of phase angles (phase characteristics) of the vector of effort F∑ , the exciting oscillation and the vector , there occurs a resonance phenomenon in the mechanical subsystem of the EME LFO. Referring to (42a) and (42b), we can assume that the phase characteristics, i.e. angles , , , , may be considered on a time plane of the vector diagram (Figure 10). The same figure also presents phase characteristics – angles , , with their corresponding vectors , , . Represented location of the vectors and phase angles is real, but taken as an example for the arbitrary case ( Hz , Hz, Hz, Q =5 ). There is the same opportunity for consideration of the harmonic components of current i (t ) , if we turn to the following. In (45) there are presented the current’s components, characterized by frequencies , and . In this case the phase shifts of the type for the component with the same frequency should be the same, therefore, the following system of equations is correct (at t =0 ): a) for


and taking into account (46) (47) b) for

: (48)

c) for

: (49)


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Specified in (47), (48) and (49) interconnections allow to obtain the expressions (50а)

(50b) These expressions (i.e. (50a) and (50b)) show that there is an explicit relationship between the angles and or through the phase angles , и . Using the relationship it seems possible to distinguish rational modes of functioning of the EME LFO to ensure the necessary conditions for synchronization of multi-module EME LFOs in order to provide the necessary conditions for synchronization of their modules and defining more precisely the parameters affecting the quality of synchronization. To accomplish this, let’s create an overall picture of the mutual arrangement of vectors in various subsystems based on (47), (48), (49) and (50a) and (50b) . Using these expressions, we supplement the vector diagram (Figure 11) with vectors X and V taking into account (43) and the previously agreed condition of t = 0 . The shape of this diagram is shown in Figure 12. When it was built it was considered that all the counting of phase angles , , , and , was relative to the vector with a modulus |1| and that can be arbitrarily inclined (in Figure 12 there was taken a horizontal location of the vector as conventional), for relative fluxes , и , phase angles , и , the resulting F and depending on the frequency of power system f net , resonant frequency effort ∑ , angles 1 f res. = , frequency of mechanical oscillations and oscillation circuit’s quality factor Q . 2ð L0C Based on them there can be built a space of surfaces and . Figure 12 shows a vector   ). On the diagram constructed for the non-resonant case (vectors F∑ and V do not match, that is and this state is stable in the range of basis of the methodology[10] we see that when f net ≈ f res. , quality factors and more, as well as in the range of frequencies of mechanical oscillation’s of the EME LFO’s armature Hz or more. Given these tables’ data it should be noted that, for example, in the case Hz at Hz, or more, there will be , which is indicative of the stability of the resonance state in these modes. Consequently, the vector diagram (Figure 12) could be presented at . This mode is the most favorable for the functioning of the EME LFO in

Figure 10. Typical resonant characteristic for mechanical subsystems


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Figure 11. Vector diagram of state of the parameters of the electromechanical system, built on the basis of the initial data

Figure 12. Vector diagram of states of mode parameters of the electromechanical system, built on the basis of calculation and analytical results

the frequency of multi-module implementation of its construction. Here it is worth noting that the tables show the presence of condition for this mode. This fact matches with the considerations expressed in Subection 3 regarding the possible equality of combination components F1 and F2 of the total effort F∑ . But, it is the presence of such equality that allows to proceed to consideration of functioning conditions of EME LFO’s individual modules. 35

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Conclusion Based on the stated above and detailed consideration of features of processes in the EME LFO in a motor mode, we can formulate the following conclusion 1. The theoretical interpretation of the functioning processes in the EME LFO in a generator mode is realizable and can be constructed based on the principle of reversibility of the electro-mechanical system 2. From the point of view of practical implementation it is necessary to consider the options of technical solutions, including solutions, allowing instead of the elastic system (which is characterized by inactivity and complexity of manufacture) to consider and use in its construction, for example, polarized element.

References 1. Nitusov U.E, 1958. Teoreticheskoe I experimentalnoe issledovanie electromagnitnogo vibratoratora c kondensatorom, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 2. Katsubinski A.I., 1977 Issledovanie energeticheskih osobennostei I dinamicheskih rezhimov tiagovyh electromagnitov pri ih primenenii v kachestve privodov, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 3. Komarov A.A, 1974. Issledovanie parametricheskogo electromagnitnogo vozbuditely nizkochastotnyh mehanicheskih kolebanii, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 4. Kuliev Z.A., 1981. Nastraivaemyie electromagnitniye vozbuditely nizkochastotnyh kolebaniy dlya system upravleniya peredachey i orientachiei izdelyi v avtomatizirovannyh kompleksah, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 5. William McC Siebert, 1985. Circuits, Signals, and Systems. Part I and Part II. The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusets London, England//McGraw-Hill Book Company New York St. Louis San Francisco Montreal Toronto, pp:124. 6. Melkina V.Ya.,1982. Dvurezhimniye electromagnitnye vibratory dlya system upravlenya sborochnymi golovkami, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 7. Smirnova L.A., 1983. Teoretiko-tsepnoe modelirovanie electroprivodov avtomatizirovannyh kompleksov soderzhachih mehanicheskie peredachi s nelineinostyami, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 8. Babayev I.S., 1987. Trehfasniye reguliruemyie electromagnitniye vozbuditely nizkochastotnyh mehanicheskih system kolebaniy dlya system upravleniya tehnologicheskimi protsessami s vibrovozdeistviyem, M. S. thesis, Moscow state technical univ., Moscow. 9. Tumanov I.E, 2013. Parametricheskii electromagnitnyi vozbuditel nizkochastotnyh mehanicheskih kolebanii dlya system kontrolya i dozirovaniya massy mnogofrikcionnyh zhidkih produktov. Journal «ELECTROTECHNIKA», №8:48-52. 10. Tumanov I.E., 2001. Mnogomodulnyi vibriprivod na baze electromagnitnogo vozbuditelya nizkochastotnyih kolebanii, M. S. thesis, Almaty Univ. of Power Engineering & Telecommunications., Almaty.


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MASS EXCHANGE IN APPARATUS WITH REGULAR PACKINGS AND THEIR CALCULATION Professor Kumisbekov Serik Arginbaevich, cand.of techn.scien. (serik_argin@mail.ru) Associate Professor Tassybayeva Sholpan Bakibuldaevna, cand.of chem.scien., (tasybaeva_s@mail.ru) Ph.D., Associate Professor Serikuly Zhandos (drzhan@mail.ru) M. Auezov South-Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Republic of Kazakhstan

Abstract The article discusses the study of mass transfer characteristics of devices. The mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases for plate, tubular and ball packing elements are investigated. Studies have been carried out taking into account the vortex gas flows and the location of the packing elements in the vertical and radial direction. The coefficients of mass recovery in the gas and liquid phase were also investigated depending on the gas flow rate and the location of the packing elements. The mass transfer coefficients were calculated and the optimal values of the location of the packing elements were determined.

 esearch of the mass exchange characteristics of apparatus from tank farms was carried out on the testR ing installation including column with diameter of 1,0 m. Research of the mass exchange coefficients in the gas and liquid phases is given for plate, tubular and ball packed elements. To determine the mass exchange coefficient in the gas phase related to the apparatus section bgs or its volume bgv, there was used widely applicable methodic based on the research of adiabatic evaporation of water into the air [1], and to calculate the mass exchange coefficient in the liquid phase equivalent to to the mass transfer coefficient bls (in a case when the mass transfer resistance is centered in the liquid phase) was carried out according to the methodic given in the works [2,3-5]. During the research of hydrodynamics of apparatus with various types of packed elements in the searched range of gas flow velocities and water concentrations, it was determined that solid stream in the apparatus is gas, and liquid is in the disperse state. A vortex formation after the packed elements characteristic for all regular packings fosters to repetitive breaking of drops, jets and film of liquid creating extended boundary surface. The repetitive breaking of drops leads to the flattening of concentrations distribution inside the drop and the process seeming to begin again. Vorts appearing during flow-around of the packed elements contribute significantly to surging of the gas-liquid layer under the effect of which there appears sloshing a fluid surface tilt with periodically changing their forms. That is why, the oscillation frequency should determine the section surface-renewall rate, and therefore, also determine the transfer rate. One of the factors influencing on the frequency of flow surge is its rate. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consider effect of the gas flow rate on the mass transfer coefficients in the gas (bgs) and liquid (bls) phases. A graph of bgs against WG is shown on the figure 1, and bls = f (WG) is shown on the figure 2. Analysis of these lines shows that the mass transfer intensity increases with increasing of the gas flow rate. It is evident, as in a case of the mass transfer limited by the gas phase resistance occurs significant laminar-turbulent transition at increasing of the gas rate that decreases diffusion



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resistance. At that the structure of the gas-liquid layer changes, the mean diameter of the drop decreases, and therefore the phase boundary turbulence grows.

– ball at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/db=4,7; tr/db=2; – cylinder at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/dc=2; tr/dc=2; – sheet at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/b=2; tr/b=2;. Figure 1. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas phase bg.s from the gas rate WG of apparatus with regular swing packing

– ball at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/db=4,7; tr/db=2; – cylinder at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/dc=2; tr/dc=2; – sheet at L=25 m3/m2∙hour; tb/b=2; tr/b=2;. Figure 2. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase bжs from the gas rate WГ of apparatus with regular swing packing


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Increasing of the mass transfer coefficients bгs and bжs (Figures 1 and 2) occurs in all range of the searched gas flow rates. It is characteristic for the most of the mass transfer apparatus [6]. In a case of the mass transfer limited by the gas phase resistance there is chosen as far as possible higher rates of the gas, but in a case when the resistance is limited by the liquid phase, the gas flow rate plays less significant role. A work of apparatus with regular swing packing in the drop mode is more effective. Here is possible attaining of high value of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas bгs and liquid bжs phases providing reasonable drop entrainment. The values of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas bгs and liquid bжs phases with increasing of water concentration L grows. It is because of surface of the phase contact is significantly determined by the liquid drops surface, which amount increases with the growth of L. In its turn, growth of the drops amount is defined by the growth of the liquid motion rate along the packing and by the intensity of the fresh liquid influx into the contact zone. It is known [6,7], that increasing of the water concentration at the adsorption of very soluble gases insignificantly influences on the efficiency and at the increased values involves additional expenses on the transmission of liquid. At the adsorption of poorly soluble gases increasing of the water concentration leads to the growth of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase and in that case frequent use of higher water concentrations is reasonable. Observing general recommendations, a selection of optimal water concentration can be realized on the base of testing data directly at the research of the gaseous component adsorption by the given absorbent and data on the hydrodynamics. Besides the mode parameters (of the gas rate WГ and water concentration L), a significant influence exerts on the mass transfer processes on the relative position of packing elements (step of location of packing elements in the vertical tв /b and radial tp /b directions).

Mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase

Vertical step

– ball at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/dш=2; wг=4m/s; – cylinder at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/dц=2; wг=4m/s; – plate at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/b=2; wг=4m/s. Figure 3. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas phase bгs from the tв


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Mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase

Radial step

– ball at tв/dш=4,7; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s; – cylinder at tв/dц=2; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s; – plate at tв/b=2; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s. Figure 4. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas phase bгs from the radial step tр

Mass transfer coefficient in the liquid phase

Vertical step

– ball at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/dш=2; wг=4m/s; – cylinder at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/dц=2; wг=4m/s; – plate at L =25 m3/m2.h; tр/b=2; wг=4m/s. Figure 5. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase bжs from the vertical step tв


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Mass transfer coefficient in the liquid phase

Radial step

– ball at tв/dш=4,7; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s; – cylinder at tв/dц=2; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s; – plate at tв/b=2; L =25 m3/m2.h; wг=4m/s. Figure 6. Dependence of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase bжs from the radial step tр

The analysis of the dependence lines bгs = f (tв /b) in Figure 3 and bжs = f (tв /b) in Figure 5 testifies about similar character of changing the lines obtained a the research of hydraulic resistance DPL = f (tв /b) and the amount of retained liquid h0 = f (tв /b). A periodic mode is characteristic for apparatus with the regular ball packing, and also semiperiodic and periodic modes in apparatus with the plate and tubular packing are characterized by higher values of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases. The maximal amount of vorts, recoverable in these modes, promotes to the intensive development of the interfacial surface at the expense of a great number of fracturing drops and films, that allows significantly intensify the mass transfer processes. Out-of-phase in the vortex formation leads to decreasing of the coefficients bгs and bжs. The way of the lines bгs and bжs changing at the changing range tp /b from 1,5 to 4 in Figures 4 and 6 is also similar to the lines DPL = f (tр /b) and h0 = f (tр /b). The more sudden drop of the values as of bгs, and as of bжs occurs in the range tр /b from 1,5 to 2, while at tр /b >2 the drop of the lines occurs more smoothly. The increased values of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas bгs and liquid bжs phases at tр /b from 1,5 to 2 are defined by significant turbulation of the gas-liquid flows vorts, which amount increases proportionally to the gap width between streamlined elements. In the given case, the amount of the retained liquid increases and the hydraulic resistance is growing. Increasing of the radial step tр /b from 2 to 4 leads to the case that the process of the vorts formation and separation depends on the width of the streamlined elements and decreasing of the values bгs and bжs occurs proportionally to the growth of the packing porosity. The backing zone presents itself a system of the streamlined bodies and therefore at the interaction of the gas flow and liquid there an oscillatory motion of the whole layer is generated [8]. Besides, there occurs separated stream of the gas flow after the drop and packing elements with the liquid film in a result of which occurs deformation of free surface of the phases separation. In this case in the boundary layer neighboring to the surface of the phases contact occur small vorticities which according to [9] play primary role in the mass transfer. From the depth of the vorticy immission being the oscillating boundary layer measure of width depends the intensity of the mass and warmth transfer as in the disperse, so in the solid streams. 41

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Being based on the first law of Fick and Kolmogorov-Obukhov’s theory of locally isotropic turbulence we have derived equations for calculation of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas phase bгs: (1)

is a coefficient of proportionality determined by the testing way. By the processing of the where experimental data there were obtained values of the coefficients of proportionality for the plate packing .


; hollow beam with round tubes


; ball packing


Derivation of the equation for calculation of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase bжs is based on Higbee model of the surface-renewall [6,10] and on Kolmogorov-Obukhov’s theory of locally isotropic turbulence. The equation for calculation of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase for the plate packing is (2)

is the plates width, m. where is a volume porosity of the plate packing; =14,4. Testing coefficient in the equation (2) is Using common approach, we have derived equations for calculation of the mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase for the hollow beam and ball packing in the following kind: (3) which difference from the equation (2) is that instead of the volume porosity there is used the porosity in the apparatus section. It is bounded with constructive peculiarities of the packings. =21,03; for the ball packing is Testing coefficient in the equation (3) for the hollow beam is =23,4. So, at the research of the mass transfer process in the apparatus with regular swing packing of various geometrical forms (plates, tubular and ball elements) there were established regularities of changing the mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases depending on the mode and constructive parameters. With the help of laws of gas and liquid mechanics there were obtained design equations of the mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases, where correlating coefficients were determined on the basis of the experimental data processing.

References 1. Yakushenko S.I., Nikishin P.A. Metodika issledovaniya protsessa massootdachi i bryzgounosa na krupnomasshtabnykh stendakh // Tez. dokl. Vyyezdnogo zased. nauchn.-tekhn. komissii po massoob. kolon. apparature GKNT SSSR. – Angarsk, 1985. – S.28 – 30. 2. Kulov N.N. Gidrodinamika i massoobmen v niskhodyashchikh dvukhfaznykh plenochno-dispersnykh potokakh. Avtoref. dis. … d-ra tekhn. nauk. – M., 1984. – 45s. 3. Kulov N.N., Maksimov V.V., Malyusov V.A., Zhavoronkov N.M. Massootdacha v stekayushchikh plenkakh zhidkosti // Teor. osn. khim. tekhnol.- 1983. –T.17. № 3.- S.291 – 302. 42

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4. Kholpanov L.P. Gidrodinamika i teplomassoobmen pri dvukhfaznykh plenochnykh i struynykh techeniyakh v kontaktnykh ustroystvakh teplomassoobmennykh apparatov: Avtoref. dis. ...d-ra tekhn. nauk. – M., 1983. – 45s. 5. Kholpanov L.P., Ratnov A.G., Malyusov V.A., Zhavoronkov N.M. Raschet koeffitsiyenta massootdachi v plenke zhidkosti, tekushchey po stenke s regulyarnoy sherokhovatost’yu //Zhurnal prikl. khim. – 1980. – T.53, № 7. – S.1557 – 1562. 6. Ramm V.M. Absorbtsiya gazov. 2-ye izd. pererab. i dop. – M.: Khimiya, 1976. – 656s. 7. Kafarov V.V. Osnovy massoperedachi (sistemy gaz-zhidkost’, par-zhidkost’, zhidkost’-zhidkost’). 3-ye izd. pererab. i dop. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1979. – 439s. 8. Balabekov O.S. Gidrodinamika, massoobmen i pyleulavlivaniyepri protivotochnykh i pryamotochnykh dvukhfaznykh kapel’nykh i plenochnykh techeniyakh v sloye podvizhnoy nasadki: Dis. ...dokt. tekhn. nauk. – M., 1985.– 430s. 9. Brahm D., Prosner. Ctas Absorbtion in to Turbulent Liguid //Chemical Engineering Science. 1973, v. 28, №5.- P.12-30.


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WAYS OF FORMATION MULTILINGUAL PERSONALITY BY TRILINGUAL EDUCATION Naviy L.N., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professo Baimanova L.S., Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor Talpakova M.Zh., Master of pedagogy and psychology Kokshetau State University named after Shokan Ualikhanov

Abstract The article examines the importance of a trilingual education in the formation of a multilingual personality. The goals and main tasks of the trilingual education are defined. The conditions of the educational process are presented, their basic forms and didactic components are shown. Keywords: trilingual education, multilingual personality, technological approach, multicultural society.

The current political, social and cultural processes in the world determine the relevance of language engagement. Obviously, learning a language and getting into a modern society is a challenge. Therefore, knowledge of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages ​​is one of the main prerequisites for living in a modern society, especially for the younger generation. It is shaped as a personality in the society and promotes a rise in cultural and professional level. Thus, the importance of multilingual education is determined by the upbringing of a person with an outlook, capable of being competitive, ready to engage, active in living, being a member of a multiethnic and multicultural society, not only know languages and cultures, but also respect for other languages ​​and cultures. In his message to the people of Kazakhstan «Let's Build the Future Together!» In 2011, the President of Kazakhstan said: «I have always said that knowledge of three languages ​​is a prerequisite for everybody's success. Our task is to increase the number of Kazakh-speaking people to 95% by 2020. I believe that by 2020, the number of English-speaking people should be at least 20 percent»[1]. Nursultan Nazarbayev emphasized the development of the multilingual education system and pointed out that «multinationalism and multilingualism are one of our values ​​and the main advantage of our country in the development of human capital in Kazakhstan». «Development and use of languages ​​for 2011-2020 State Program» is divided into three stages. It was planned and implemented a set of measures aimed at increasing the legal and methodological framework for the development and use of languages ​​for the period 2011-2013 (the first stage). In 2014-2016 (the second stage) the implementation of technologies and methods of teaching and learning of the state language was carried out to implement a set of practical measures and to preserve the diversity of languages. In addition to maintaining the use of other languages​​ during the period 2017-2020 (the third stage), it is planned to systematically monitor the needs of the state language in all spheres of public life, the quality and efficiency of its application. According to the program, the state language will be used by Kazakh people in 2014 – 20%, in 2017 – 80%, in 2020 – 95%, and usage of the English language in 2020, 10% in 2017 and 15% in 2020 and 20% in 2020. It is expected that the proportion of people who speak three languages ​​will be 10% in 2014, 12% in 2017, and 15% in 2020 [2]. 44


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On the basis of this, one of the main goals of modern schools is to adapt the growing generation to the values ​​of globalization, to develop the skills of children and adolescents with the culture of neighboring countries in the global space. The main purpose of teachers and pupils is to develop a person who has knowledge of three languages ​​at the level of the requirements of the state obligatory secondary education of the Republic of Kazakhstan, who knows the history and traditions of his country, has a multilingual communicative competence, self-development and self-improvement skills. The content of multilingual education should include the systematic knowledge, skills and abilities, both in the mother tongue and the state language, as well as one or more foreign languages. The main idea of ​​multilingual education in multiculturalism is to encourage the use of different languages ​​in accordance with the needs and interests of learners, to build intercultural communication skills, to learn cultural values​​ of their people and to learn cultural values ​​of other countries. An important event in the country is the implementation of linguistic policy, incentive for language acquisition, comprehensive development, competitive personality, identification and support of three languages ​​– Kazakh, Russian and English – speaking young people. The relevance of the introduction of the trilingual education model in general education schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan is as follows: • increasing demand for a multilingual, multicultural person in today's Kazakhstan society; • the need to address the issues of integrating national school graduates into general Kazakhstan and global education and information space; • the upbringing of future generations into Kazakhstani patriotism, cultures of interethnic communication is a topical issue; • preservation of ethnic identity of the representatives of national minorities, creation of conditions for their full integration into the whole Kazakhstani economic, social and cultural processes; • sufficient access to communicative and information competences of schoolchildren; Establishing a comprehensive system of trilingual education in general education schools of Kazakhstan does not only require deep studying in this direction, but also requires the presence of scientific and methodological research and development, taking into account the peculiarities of the national education system. International best practice will certainly allow you to get acquainted with various models of mobility and multilingualism in different countries [3, 16]. Multilingual education is a targeted learning system that provides training and education of multilingual personality that is designed to simultaneously learn multiple languages ​​and cultures. The content of multilingual education is a systematic knowledge, competence in the mother tongue (state language), as well as one or several foreign languages ​​in accordance with the intercultural paradigm of modern linguistic education. The main purpose of trilingual education is to provide access to information in Kazakh, Russian and English languages ​​and targeted access to the world educational space. In this regard, we can define the basic tasks of trilingual education: • Theoretical substantiation of multilingual education; • Determine the educational organizational format of multilingual education in general secondary schools; • Designing and providing methodological support for multilingual education. The methodological system of organizing multilingual education offered by A.Zh. Murzalinova is considered as the basis of the student's thinking management technology. Here is a meta-cognitive strategy, which helps to regulate and manage the thinking of students. According to the author, such a methodological system improves communicative competence, helps students manage mental health, overcome communication barriers, and manage not only cognitive but also social-affective aspects of teaching [4, 35].


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The basic conditions for multilingual education include the following: • Motivation and motivation to use several languages ​​according to the student's interests and needs; • Formation of intercultural communication skills; • The strategy of understanding the peculiarities of culture through language; • To possess the qualities of a mediator through the loss of their cultural identity and access to other cultures; • Provide the content of language learning, depending on the socio-cultural situation of the country. Trilingual education should be integrated into technology in three-dimensional education, organization of school earning and teaching. On the basis of this you can show the following didactic components. • Knowledge, actualization of axes through the materials of the past; • Formation of new concepts, techniques of formation and shaft; • Ability to apply new skills and abilities. The organization of effective multilingual education can be accomplished by the following methods and techniques. • A set of individual, group, group work types; • Working with different sources of information (electronic and digital resources); • Heuristic conversations (discussion); • Reading dialogue; • Case studies; • Communication projects; • Games, role-playing forms (holiday-lessons, travel-lessons, interview-lessons, essay-lessons, integration lessons, etc.) • Virtual excursions; • Circles within linguistic disciplines; • Inter-ethnic club of interethnic friendship; • Use of audio and video materials; • Use of refreshing moments in other languages; • Organization of independent work to improve language skills. Based on the above, it is possible to create a multilingual personality by promoting multilingual education. And it is a means of achieving language goals. Thus, respect for the language of the expected results and respect for another language; Finding the right information in any language; availability of qualified specialists; respect for cultural peculiarities of each nation; a positive attitude towards the peculiarities of other cultures; the absence of high standards of engagement with other cultures. The aspiration of the younger generation to learn three languages: the Kazakh language – the state language, the Russian language as a language of interethnic communication and the study of English as an international language – is a requirement of modernity and necessity for future generations. Today, multilingualism is a need to enable younger generation to freely pursue education space, to engage in secrets of world science and to demonstrate their ability. Education in three languages ​​is a modern one whose main purpose is to develop and develop a multilingual, socially and professionally oriented, cultured person. Being multilingual is a requirement of time. By connecting the growing generation with universal, global values, it is possible to build communication skills and communicate with representatives of the world space and neighboring cultures. Multilingualism helps to solve the main problem of the modern world – the understanding and understanding between people. Finally, in multilingual education, language is regarded as a culture factor because it is an inheritance from our ancestors. Second, language is culturally important tool. Thirdly, it is an integral part of culture as an important phenomenon of cultural order.


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References 1. Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Building the Future Together!» http://adilet.zan.kz/ 2. State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, http:// adilet.zan.kz 3. An analysis of existing training programs (analytical information) as a basis for organization of preparatory work on transition to a trilingual education. – Astana: National Academy of Education named after Y. Altynsarin, 2016. – 25 p. 4. Murzalinova A.Zh. Organization of polylingual knowledge based on language acquisition and use strategy // Problems of pedagogy-2017-№3-.35-38 pp.


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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF HEALTH OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS Smagulov Nurlan Kemelbekovich (msmagulov@yandex.ru), Adilbekova Aynur Akynovna (adi-ainura@mail.ru) Karaganda State Medical University

Abstract One of the varieties of mental labor is labor with constant contact with people, high responsibility, lack of time and information for decision-making, resulting in a high degree of neuro-emotional stress. This category includes teachers. In recent years, higher education has undergone significant changes in learning, increased information load, stressful, and requirements to professional competence of teachers, which causes overstrain of the body and creates stress reactions that adversely affect their health. With this regard, the health status of University teachers in need of immediate attention, while the health of University teachers as independent professional groups is not well developed. There is no detailed ecological and physiological assessment of the functional state of the body of University teachers, in particular, age-related changes of the functional state of the organism, the role of unfavorable environmental situation at the place of residence, low physical activity. Not the role of exercise as a means of positive correction of the condition of the body of teachers of the University and reduce the physiological cost of their professional work. For decision-making for health promotion professors the necessary evidence-based approach based on a comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing their health. Keywords: mental work, academics, health, environment, professional burnout.

In modern conditions in the structure of employed population specific weight of intellectual workers related to the high level of psychoemotional stress and increasing volume of information, responsibility for the work performed, need for decision-making increased in the conditions of time shortage (management, creativity, teaching, science, study, etc.). This type of the work significantly impact on the functional state of the body. For example, the brain's need for energy rises with intense intellectual activity, and amounts for 15-20% of the total volume in the body. So, while reading aloud energy consumption is increased by 48%, while speaking with a public lecture – by 94%, for computer operators – by 60-100% [1]. Moreover, while a person performs mental work with a neuro-emotional strain, shifts in the autonomic functions of a person take place: increase blood pressure, changes in ECG, increase pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption, increase body temperature[36]. After cessation of the mental work, fatigue lasts longer than during physical work. As a result, a decrease in the functional reserves of organs, systems and the organism as a whole, a violation of its reactivity and resistance, self-regulation and adaptation processes occurs [3, 4] There are different forms of intellectual labor, which are subdivided into operator, managerial, creative, labor of medical workers, work of teachers, etc. These types differ in the 48


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organization of the work process, the uniformity of the load, the degree of emotional stress. For example, the work of the institutions and enterprises heads (managerial work) is determined by the excessive volume of information, the growing shortage of time for its processing, increased personal responsibility for decisions, periodic emergence of conflict situations. The work of teachers and medical workers is characterized by constant contacts with people, increased responsibility, often shortage of time, which determines the degree of neuro-emotional tension. According to statistics, at the beginning of 2015-2016 academic year in 127 Kazakhstan universities with a total number of students 459,369 people, 3,807 teachers and 5,250 part-time workers employ. In recent years significant changes in the learning processes have occurred, information loads have increased, stress-strain of the modern life has risen, and requirements for the professional competence of teachers have grown, this causes an overstrain in the body and creates stress reactions that adversely affect their health. [5]. Despite the existing standards, the work of teachers is not standardized. This is due to the fact that the available standards cover only the training (classroom) workload, and all other production activities remain unregulated. Thus, according to a questionnaire survey, despite the long working day of 100 respondents it was revealed that the majority (80.3±2.1) of them were delayed in the university after the end of the working shift, 70.1±5.1% continued to work also at home. The main reasons for this were abundance of reporting and increase in the standard load (in 26.2±3.6 cases, respectively), preparation for classes (80.4±2.9), verification of student assignments (38.4±4.2). [6] According to the hygienic classifications P 2 2 755-99 and P 2 2 2006-05 teaching work refers to harmful (hard work) 3rd (last) degree by classes of working conditions and by indicators of the intensity of the labor process [6, 7] Among the established risk factors for the occurrence of chronic pathology the leading ones were a work experience in the university more than 20 years, a presence of psychoemotional stress, a voice load over 4 hours, bad habits (alcohol, smoking) and low level of medical activity. [8] Currently global trend is an increase in life expectancy, a decrease in the birth rate, which leads to an increase in the proportion of elderly people in the total population. [9]. This trend is also observed in universities. So, according to the Federal Education Agency of the Russian Federation, the age of the teaching staff of universities has steadily increased in recent years. The same tendency is observed in Kazakhstan universities. Certainly, with increasing age the functional capabilities of the body are reduced. However, the speed of this regress among different people is various and depends on innate data, working conditions and lifestyle. [10]. The main problems are a decrease in workability in the aging process, deterioration of the body adaptive capacity, age-related changes in mental and physical workability, change in the system of motivation for employment, etc. [9, 11]. At the same time studies show that the deterioration of a number of functions of the intellectual workers body concerns primarily quantitative, and not qualitative, capacity indicators [12]. So, workers of intellectual work of elderly age kept a great mental working capacity in comparison with manual workers due to the advantages in indicators of short-term memory, mental productivity and its quality, individual aspects of thinking, simple and complex attention. [13]. For scientific workers the age of 60 to 70 years is the period of the peak of professional activity, for persons of manual labor is old age. [14]. But despite the considerable success of gerontology in solving this problem, the characteristics of mental performance have so far been little studied in general aging, and among university professors in particular. [13, 15]. It should not be forgotten that universities are located mainly in large cities, where an unfavorable ecological situation is observed at the expense of industrial enterprises located close to the city, and often in the city itself (fffor ex). According to the published monitoring on the state of the environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan prepared by a group of Kazakhstan and Russian scientists and UNDP experts in Kazakhstan, it's time to declare Kazakhstan a zone of ecological disaster. The main pollution of the atmosphere is associated with emissions of highly toxic gaseous and solid substances from the enterprises of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, heat power engineering, oil and gas complex and transport. The highest level of pollution is noticed in 10 cities (8 of which with a high level of air pollution), for example, Almaty, Ridder, Shymkent, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Karaganda, etc. [16]. 49

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A significant part of the population of industrial centers lives in the zone of increased influence of harmful emissions. According to available estimates 75% of the country's territory is vulnerable to increased risk of environmental destabilization. In modern conditions deterioration of the quality of the environment and the production environment in combination with unfavorable socio-economic conditions determine the negative dynamics of the population health status, increase in the incidence of respiratory organs, blood circulation, etc., especially in the industrial regions [17]. Experts have found out that the impact of ecology on human health today is only 25-50% of the aggregate of all affecting factors. The main risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include pollution of atmospheric air with pollutants. [17]. The age factor plays a big role in the occurrence of these diseases, in addition to unfavorable environmental conditions and occupational hazards. In combination, they account for 62% of the structure of morbidity in older age groups [17]. About 85% of all diseases of modern person is associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, arising from his own fault. People’s health falls catastrophically and also previously unknown diseases have appeared, and their causes are very difficult to establish. Many diseases are cured more difficultly than before. Therefore, now «Human health and the environment» problem is very acute. Mental (intellectual) work is characterized by hypokinesia, it is a significant decrease in the motor activity of a person leading to deterioration in the reactivity of the body and increasing emotional stress, besides hypokinesia is an unfavorable production factor. Hypokinesia increases the age-related changes in general mental workability. [13]. Reduction of motor activity became a factor in the appearance of many diseases and pathological conditions of modern man, such as arterial hypertension (AH), ischemic heart disease, obesity, atherosclerosis, osteochondrosis, respiratory system diseases. Physiologically, hypokinesia and hypodynamia can be regarded as one of the leading risk factors for teachers' diseases. [10] Unfavorable environmental conditions of the environment, factors of the teachers’ professional activity cause certain functional changes, which eventually manifest themselves at the organic level, causing a decompensation of the functioning of the whole organism. It is logical to assume that the work of teachers primarily affects the central nervous system. According to M.A. Sorokina [29] at the end of the school year many teachers need activities to prevent the development of fatigue or overstrain associated with professional activities. [5] The health status of the teaching staff of universities has been poorly studied. It must be stressed that the level of general and primary morbidity of the university faculty is latent in nature because of the underreported cases of diseases and they cannot be reliably analyzed [5]. This is due to the low activity of registration work incapacity certificate by teachers. And, indeed, this is confirmed by the results of the sociological survey. So, only 18.3 ± 3.1 specialists issued work incapacity certificate in exacerbation of chronic disease. A third of the 100 doctors-teachers continued to work frequently or constantly in a state of sickness, 19.1 ± 3.4 were treated at home independently. The main argument was high teaching responsibility regarded as the need to maintain an appropriate level of knowledge of the students of the taught subject, and the lack of an adequate replacement. [6] At the same time, there is no reason to believe that there is a low incidence of teachers. The results of the in-depth medical examination, carried out in 2009, confirm this statement. It was found that only 7.7±2.6 out of 100 examined specialists were assigned to a group of practically healthy people. In general, according to the data of the in-depth medical examination, the incidence was 136.2 per 100 surveyed, which is 3.1 times than the reported incidence according to the morbidity with temporary disability data. The combination of two chronic diseases was found in 34.2±5.9, three in 9.1±1.1, four in 3.6±1.9 of 100 teachers. At the same time among the teachers, only 37.2 ± 2.9 suffering from chronic diseases, consisted of dispensary records, of which only 21.3 ± 4.3 were observed with the trusted doctor, the rest were observed at the place of residence. [6] Data indicate that the nature of the work, the factors of the environment and the working environment affect (more often adversely) the health of a person working in mental labor. First of all, it is a problem of chronic fatigue and overwork, which is often described as a chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), or as an emotional burnout syndrome (EBS) in English-language sources [18]. Teachers are susceptible to the development of the syndrome of emotional burnout to a large extent. This reflects the fact that the 50

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professional work of teachers is characterized by very high emotional tension. It should be noted that this is one of the altruistic type occupations, where the probability of mental burnout occurrence is high enough. Professional experience plays a big role in causing this syndrome. Thus, S.V. Maslovskaya and M.V. Fomina note that «pedagogical crises», «exhaustion», and «burning» are characteristic for teachers with experience of 15-20 years [19]. According to L.M. Mitina, et al., the indicator of the social adaptation degree in a third of teachers (more than 30%) is equal to or even lower than that in patients with neuroses [20]. According to V.V.Boyko burnout is constructive in itself, and its consequences are considered dysfunctional when «burnout» adversely affects the performance of professional activities and relations with partners. At the same time, emotional burnout leads to a professional deformation of personality [8]. The issues of diagnosing occupational health have great clinical, socio-economic and legal significance [21]. For example, Irish researchers found that teachers retired an average of 52 years because of poor health and the most common causes were mental disorders (46%), circulatory system diseases (14%) and musculoskeletal disorders (10%) [22]. Methodical solution of the problem of integral assessment of occupational health and detection of «aging» symptoms of the working organism in real conditions of the environment and production environment and the developed automated software and hardware complex will allow to carry out procedure of early detection of the «risk»groups which will reduce the financial burden for this category of people and for health authorities for diagnosis and subsequent treatment [23]. The development of the preventive recommendations for the expansion of the motor regimen will allow reducing the rate of aging by mental performance, and will contribute to the preservation of all indicators within the age limit. [13] The state of health of university teachers needs close attention in Kazakhstan and the health protection of university teachers as an independent professional group has not been practically developed [5]. First of all, there is no detailed ecological-psychophysiological assessment of the functional state of the body of university teachers, in particular, there is no evaluation of age-related changes in the functional state of the organism, there is no assessment of the role of an unfavorable ecological situation at the place of residence and low motor activity. The role of physical exercises as a means of positive correction of the body state of university teachers and a decrease in the physiological value of their professional work is not presented [10].

References 1. Bezopasnost' zhiznedejatel'nosti: Uchebnik dlja vuzov /S.V.Belov, A.V.Il'nickaja, A.F.Koz'jakov i dr.; Pod obshh. Red. S.V.Belova. 7-e izd., ster.– M.: Vysshaja shkola, 2001. 616s. 2. Julián Preciado-López. Epidemiological Study of Voice Disorders Among Teaching Professionals of La Rioja, Spain Journal of Voice, Volume 22.2008, Pages 489-508 3. Lucini D., Norbiato G., Clerici M. et al. Hemodynamic and autonomic adjustments to real life stress conditions in humans // Hypertension. 2002. V.39. № 1. P.141-188. 4. Rosenthal Talma., Alter Ariela. Occupational stress and hypertension. Review Article. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2012, P. 2-22 5. Lisnjak M.A., Gorbach N.A. Sovremennoe sostojanie psihicheskogo zdorov'ja PPS sostava vuzov. Prof. i klinich.medicina. 2012; 1 (42): S.58-64. 6. Tolmachev D.A. Kompleksnaja ocenka zdorov'ja i kachestva zhizni prepodavatelej medicinskogo vuza: avtoref. dis. ... k. med.nauk. Moskva 2012. 21s. 7. Rukovodstvo po gigienicheskoj ocenke faktorov rabochej sredy i trudovogo processa. Kriterii i klassifikacija uslovij truda. R 2.2.200605. 8. Fetiskin N.P. Diagnostika jemocional'nogo vygoranija lichnosti (V.V.Bojko) / N.P.Fetiskin, V.V.Kozlov, G.M.Manujlov // Social'no-psihologicheskaja diagnostika razvitija lichnosti i malyh grupp. – M., Izd-vo Instituta Psihoterapii. 2002. C.394-399 9. Zharkova S.L., Cygankov V. A. Klassifikacija i sistematizacija trudosposobnogo naselenija po vozrastnym truppam // Omskij nauchnyj vestnik. Ser.: Obshhestvo. Istorija. Sovremennost'. 2009. №4 (79). S.67-70 (0,25 pl.). 51

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10. Shverina O.V. Vozrastnaja harakteristika funkcional'nogo sostojanija organizma s uchetom ego sub#ektivnoj ocenki (na primere prepodavatelej vuza). Avtoref. diss. kand.biol.nauk. Tver'. 2007. 20s. 11. Kramarow E, Lubitz J, Lentzner H, et al. Trends in the health of older Americans, 1970–2005. Health Aff (Millwood). 2007 Sep–Oct; 26 (5):1417-25. 12. Michie S. Causes and management of stress at work // Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002. Vol. 59. P.67-72. 13. Belozerova L.M. Osobennosti umstvennoj i fizicheskoj rabotosposobnosti v vozrastnom aspekte. Avtoreferat diss. … d.med.nauk. Kazan' 1993. 20s. 14. Krasovskij V.O. O prognoze professional'noj trudosposobnosti cheloveka / V.O. Krasovskij, G.G. Maksimov, G.A. Janbuhtina, Ju.G. Aznabaeva // Medicinskij vestnik Bashkortostana. 2009. S.11-16. 15. Wegman D.M. Older Workers. Occupational Medicine, 1999, V. 14, 13, p. 537-557. 16. Baimbetov N.S., Idirisova B.Sh. Problemy jekologicheskoj bezopasnosti Respubliki Kazahstan // Vestnik KazNU. Serija juridicheskaja. 2012. №2 (62), S.129-138. 17. Kolganova, Je.V. Vlijanie faktorov okruzhajushhej i proizvodstvennoj sredy na formirovanie kardiorespiratornoj patologii u rabotnikov umstvennogo truda: avtoref. dis. ... kand. biol.nauk. Moskva 2004. 20s. 18. De Oliveira GS Jr, Almeida MD, Ahmad S, Fitzgerald PC, McCarthy RJ. Anesthesiology residency program director burnout. J Clin Anesth; 23:176-182., 2011 19. Maslovskaja S.V., Fomina M.V. Zdorov'e kak faktor razvitija professional'noj kompetentnosti // Vestnik OGU. – 2009. – №1. – S. 81-86. 20. Mitina L.M., Mitin G.V., Anisimova O.A. Professional'naja dejatel'nost' i zdorov'e pedagoga. M., 2005. S. 7. 21. Nedra R. Lander, Danielle Nahon. An Integrity Model perspective on working with occupational stress in men. Original Research Article. Journal of Men's Health, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2008, P. 141-147 22. Maguire М., O'Connell Т. Ill-health retirement of schoolteachers in the Republic of Ireland // Oxford Journals Medicine Occupational Medicine. Vol. 57. № 3. 2007. P. 191-193. 23. Santos M.C., Barros L., Carolino E. Occupational stress and coping resources in physiotherapists: a survey of physiotherapists in three general hospitals. Original Research Article. Physiotherapy, Volume 96, Issue 4, 2010, P. 303-310


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THE LANGUAGE GAME IN THE NOMINATIONS OF PAVLODAR-RELATED URBONYMS Suynova Gulnara (suynova_gulya@mail.ru) Pavlodar State Pedagogical University (PSPU), Kazakhstan

Abstract The language game is considered by linguists from different points of view, with prevailing interest in implementation thereof in the artistic and advertising texts. The author of this article considers the manifestations of the language game in the nominations of intra-city objects. The specifics of this phenomenon is pointed out with respect to urbonyms, with the assumption that the symbol-based interplay with its subspecies is increasingly implemented in their names. Keywords: language game, urbonym, functioning, nomination, symbol-based interplay.

The language system and its elements have always been and, we believe, will remain in the focus of ongoing scientific research in the area of linguistics. The shift in scientific paradigms in linguistics has been associated with a change in the analysis perspective, but the language, being an existential phenomenon closely related to human life, will never lose its scientific attractiveness. Inescapability of human life and language in which this life is fixed, reflected and proceeds, causes inconclusiveness of linguistics as a science as well. This becomes even more obvious every time we consider one or another linguistic fact, phenomena and process. The urbonymic system of Pavlodar has been the subject of our research in recent years, and in the course of this work we reviewed the theoretical and practical aspects of the functioning of the said system [5]. In this article, we would like to raise the issue of virtually unstudied aspect of functioning of urbonyms of our city, namely the use of the language game in nominating thereof. In modern linguistics the phenomenon of the language game has been thoroughly studied, its essence, types, and functions clearly defined. Therefore, we can only be creatively different when dealing with specific factual material, which has never been considered previously. We would like to particularly emphasize as follows: traditional views on language game (L.Vitgenstein, G.Austin, J. Searle), as well as modern views on this phenomenon, related to its primary function in fiction and advertising texts should be reconsidered when it comes to using the language game in creating urbonyms. We would like to remind that the latter are defined as names of intracity objects. Thus, the initial understanding of the language game as «interlacing of linguistic and non-linguistic actions carried out in accordance with the rules» is considered by the researchers to be too broad. According to A.V. Usolkina, the language game is a «special form of linguo-creative thinking resulting from programmed alteration of the linguistic scheme and deliberate deviation from linguistic norms in order to achieve a certain effect (often comic)» [4, p.7]. We believe that such approach to the language game is not quite applicable in terms of analyzing the processes of nomination, because the process of object naming is not (usually) intended



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to attain a comic effect, even though this may be aimed at in the course of the nomination process. We are certain about one thing: use of the language game in nominating Pavlodar urbonyms is an evidence of linguistic creativity of nominators and clients that receive such nominations. In modern Russian linguistics, there are many interpretations of the term «language game», among which study by V.Z. Sannikov «Russian language in the mirror of language game» is more often referred to. In it the author considers the language game as a kind of linguistic experiment and notes that «the language game, as well as comic as a whole, is a deviation from the norm, something unusual» [3]. V.Z. Sannikov also drew attention to the fact that this deviation from the norm should be clearly understood and deliberately allowed by the speaker (writer), while the listener (reader) should, in turn, understand it as a «deliberate» effect. To avoid considering this expression as a mistake, he accepts this game and tries to uncover the deep intention of the author. This seems to us important, because it reveals the essence of the game itself and the language game in particular. There are certain conditions for the functioning of this phenomenon: the creator of the text featuring the language game should in addition to knowledge of the language system and the rules of its functioning be linguistically creative. The latter may manifest itself in the nominator’s attempt to create linguistic structures unusual in terms of content, structure or graphical form (or a combination of all of these characteristics), alter the linguistic structures and associated patterns of speech perception. It should be particularly emphasized that: the nominator should in creating the language game take into account the addressee’s certain level of knowledge, as well as features of the cultural space in which communication takes place. It is primarily concerned with the perception of texts featuring the language game. We emphasized above that the nominations of intra-city objects are linearly shorter than traditionally understood phenomenon of the language game, singled out by researchers within the advertising (mostly) and fiction texts. Names of urbonyms are usually one to tree-word names carrying out functions associated with the functions of the language game. The latter performs the following functions: aesthetic, gnostical, hedonic, pragmatic, expressive, pictorial, poetic, masking [2]. This list of functions of the language game can be reduced with regard to the names of intra-city objects. In our opinion, the main function of the language game is, in this case, of pragmatic nature, aiming to draw the attention of others to the name on the sign. In order to be implemented this feature of urbonyms should be bright in form and content, catchy, memorable, which is not easy to do, given the size of the name (this has been mentioned repeatedly). In general, three main functions of onomatemes have been referred to in onomastics: nominative, informing and pragmatic. A successful nomination should combine the last two functions¸ while it is with the help of the language game that the pragmatic function can be implemented. Thus, we examined the nominations of a number of Pavlodar-related urbonyms: the names of commercial establishments, entertainment facilities, beauty salons, jewelry stores, hotels, sports clubs, drug stores, pawn shops, betting shops, banks, kindergartens, totalling over one and a half thousand units. We consider it impossible to perform full analysis for the signs of the language game therein in this article, and we can only provide some of the preliminary results of the review of the problem referred to in the title. 1. The phenomenon of the language game may be present at different levels of the text: at the phonetic level in the form of onomatopoeia, at the morphological level (author’s occasionalisms, at the lexical and stylistic (pun) level, at the graphic (font change) level. This primarily relates to detailed texts, mainly of advertising nature. As for our linguistic material, we can cite some interesting figures. Thus, we have by now determined 383 nominations of food stores, of which 364 are one-word names (95%). Of these, 360 nominations (97%) are nouns, preferably anthroponyms, with 9 cases of nominations-adjectives (3%). It is obvious that based on this material implementation of classic kinds of the language game appears to be quite problematic, which was discussed above. We found only one example of the actual language game, namely the use of imperative sentence as shop name Давай зайдем (Let’s go inside), which is considered in the advertising business to be the simplest way to get potential buyers interested in the product or institution. Thus, in the course of consideration of the factual material we found that there are virtually no traditional kinds of the language game in the urbonymic system of Pavlodar that would manifest themselves in the detailed texts. 2. Nominations of Pavlodar urbonyms demonstrate the presence of symbol-based interplay, which is defined as a special kind of the language game, deliberate alteration of applicable rules of spelling and 54

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graphics to achieve the language game effect. It has informational, stimulating, language-creative functions. We have previously discussed some aspects of functioning of symbol-based interplay in the urbonymic system of Pavlodar and identified types of symbol-based interplay used in nominations of Pavlodar-city. The symbol-based (graphic) interplay, as an expressive technique of writing, shall be understood to mean a font-, color-, space-, and punctuation-based (quotation marks, brackets, dashes, hyphens) actualization of an itdm forming a new word. In Pavlodar most represented are nominations the design of which features the results of application of supragraphemics, the mechanism of font variation. Change of fonts as well as variety and location thereof can greatly affect individuals perceiving such names. The types of symbol-based interplay are as follows: 1) graphical combination – the combination in a word of two different units based on their structural, functional or associative affinity. In Pavlodar, those include a) combination of elements of Latin and Cyrillic fonts, which is the most common phenomenon (BleskСтудия, Пальчики nails, BeerХана, Beerlandia, Музzone etc.).; b) combination of elements of modern and old Russian graphics: Трактиръ (name of the restaurant), Провиантъ (shop). Such cases are rare. 2) graphical borrowing – presentation of a foreign word without translation and graphic adaptation that is not uncommon in nominations of urbonyms of Pavlodar. Two types of nominations in this case are as follows: a) an actually foreign word is used in the title (restaurant Alpenhof, ChicaGo bar, My Town, Residence hotel, the CITY SCHOE, Beauty Room) and b) the nomination is a Russian word written in Latin letters (restaurant Assorti, cafe RAZ– DVA, Zебра, Malina, Gaziza). The phenomenon of title case selection ranks second in terms of the use frequency, being a technique of modern occasional derivation, in which the word segment is highlighted using capital letters or one of the bases in the course of their formation, such as БарНалей (BarNaley) cafe, БешБАРмақ (BeshBARmaқ), АппетитО (AppetitO). The latter nomination is, in our opinion, an imitation of the Italian word. Let us remember a song from the cartoon: Мы бандито, мы стрелянто пистолето… Thus, there are virtually no phenomena of the language game in urbonyms of Pavlodar created using linguistic tools. Symbol-based interplay is present when designations of various symbolic systems, including alphabetic, are used to create a nomination. Scientists consider non-linguistic factors as the reason for the active use of various techniques of graphic transformation in the course of creation of new nominations. Firstly, this is due to the peculiarities of the physiology of the human eye, which sees combinations of letters or words rather than individual letters and is, of course, more responsive to their unusual shapes, combination, as well as bright presentation. Second, the modern generation reacts more readily to bright, expressive, comprehensive text, which is very important for the nominator or the creator of the text, because the name must necessarily attract and hold the attention of the recipient. Activation using graphic elements allowed researcher T.M. Grigoriyeva to specify such graphic-orthographic signs of our time as the use of pre-reform spelling, graphic-orthographic foreignism in the nominations of the modern city and activation of the paragraphemic component [1, p. 48]. There is no doubt that the pictorial technique is supported by «text» graphics revealing a particular activity in the titles and names of cafes, restaurants, shops and other facilities.


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References 1. Grigor’eva T. M. Grafiko–orfograficheskie primety sovremennosti // Aktivnye processy konca HH v. : dokl. mezhdunar. konf. M., 2000. S. 47–48. 2. Kurganova E.B. Igrovoj aspekt v sovremennom reklamnom tekste: Uchebnoe posobie. – Voronezh: VGU, 2004. 124 s. 3. Sannikov V.Z. Russkij jazyk v zerkale jazykovoj igry. M: Izdatel’stvo: Jazyki slavjanskih kul’tur. 2011. 640 s. 4. Usolkina A.V. Jazykovaja igra kak tekstoobrazujushhij faktor. Na materiale literaturnyh skazok L. Kjerrola i ih perevodov. avtoreferat dis. ... kandidata filologicheskih nauk: 10.02.20. Ekaterinburg: UgGPU. 2002. 20 s. – s.7. 5. Suynova G., Temerhanova S. The symbol-based interplay in the nomination process (based on the example of pavlodar-related urbonyms). The scientific heritage (Budapest, Hungary) No 26 (2018) R.3. 51-55 r.


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TEACHING ENGLISH TO PHD STUDENTS IN A DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT Vonog Vita (vonog_vita@mail.ru) Prokhorova Olga (oprokhorovasfu@gmail.com) Siberian Federal University (SibFU), Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Abstract The paper focuses on the use of information technologies in terms of foreign language classes with postgraduates at Siberian Federal University by means of blended learning course «English for PhD students». Digital and language educational environment contributes to the development of cross-cultural foreign-language competence of future scientists and increase motivation of students to autonomous training due to which the development of the professional personality becomes more efficient. Keywords: digital environment; a foreign language; LMS Moodle; blended learning; a post graduate course. Nowadays the increase of cross-cultural communication caused the growth of the number of collaborations in the educational environment of universities. In connection with this, the modern higher school faces a difficult task: to create conditions for the future specialist of a non-language profile for successful educational and professional activities. This point of view is supported by other scientists who believe that a modern technical University must train professionals who apart from having a high special competence, also have the understanding of the common cultural issues [3, p. 485]. Due to globalization, higher education internationalization, student exchange programs and academic mobility and international projects students and academics tend to search for new ways of studying and teaching English language as means of academic and professional communication. Analysis of recent research devoted to the problems of pedagogical guidance shows educational benefits in terms of teaching a foreign language in a digital environment: an increase in learner autonomy; a more personalized learning experience; instant feedback; immediate diagnosis of learning problems and design of new assessment models. The increasing influence of digital worlds means that young people are seen to be taking on new participatory and collaborative roles in learning online and outside the classroom, and there is a growing interest in incorporating these roles and practices inside education. There is an interesting and powerful confluence among theory, research, technology, and practice, especially when it comes to the integration of curriculum, instruction, and assessment [2, p.130]. The incorporation of digital technology into the classroom is inevitable [1, p.14]. However, as it has been demonstrated by the introduction of many new ‘innovative’ technologies, the view that educational reform through technology is ‘inevitable’ and pre-determined is usually tempered by the challenges in implementation and complexity of change in education systems. In these terms blended learning has become popular among teachers of Russian universities due to a variety of tools in teaching and assessing (face-to-face, online learning and self-study learning) [4, p.28]. The task of the teacher is to operate the blended learning successfully, to control self-study and group work of students, to create online support for students. Watson J. states that a teacher



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and students work together, thereby providing the quality of teaching and accompanying the educational process an independent, useful, effective and motivating to the development approach [5, p. 14]. During the study period (2014 – 2018) about 600 post graduate students of non-linguistic specialties of SibFU participated in blended learning course «English for PhD students». Blended learning enables to use many different forms and methods in foreign language teaching. This course uses practical tasks to develop the language and communication skills of students who need to use English in a scientific research and professional environment. Course instructions were designed to help post-graduate students navigate in the interface of the system and use all its capabilities to improve their overall performance in the learning environment. They include learning objectives, suggestions for e-learning on the LMS platform, detailed planning for an academic year, deadlines when material needs to be learned by, assessment criteria. Postgraduates studying by correspondence receive support and carry out assignments online. This course is divided into eight theme modules: The scientific community; Writing up research; Writing a scientific research article; Preparing reports and presentations; Attending the conference; International cooperation and research visits; Translating scientific papers. Each module contains various activities for communication, assessment, self-study and administration (Table 1). Table 1. The Blended Learning Course «English for post graduate students»

During the classroom face-to-face sessions post-graduate students show their progress, have an opportunity to communicate with a teacher, to work in a team, etc. Supplementary materials, tests, interactive lectures, video, hyperlinks are given on the on-line platform. The blended learning and synchronous online learning, which combines computer-mediated activities with traditional face-to-face classroom methods, gave us a great opportunity to use the best of current assessment tools. Testing provides an array of benefits for both the learner and the teacher and can be used in traditional, blended and online learning contexts. We designed varying types of tests, such as multiple-choice tests, fill-in-the-blanks, true or false, or essay questions. Testing can be made unique by randomizing question and answer order. This is especially useful when a learner has to re-do a test when he previously had poor performance on. Catering to the needs of different learning styles gives us a chance to engage everyone in an online class (Table 2 and Table 3). Through a reporting system a teacher can overview of test scores, has the ability to analyze which students scored highest/ lowest, and which questions were hardest/ easiest for the majority of students. Re58

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porting is a handy tool that allows us to see trends and act upon them to improve the course. Online testing is good for students because it allows them to know what they did wrong immediately, what they need to focus on, and how to improve should they have to retake the test. Table 2. Four-optional multiple-choice test

Table 3. Fill-in-the-blanks

Thus, virtual environments create a number of new possibilities for assessment that allow teachers to see meaningful student responses quickly and adjust teaching based on their needs. While working online students will find a Glossary with automatic hyperlinks containing explanations of useful words and expressions common to all fields of scientific research studies. E-learning has a variety of tools for promoting teacher-student interaction and collaboration like the Discussion Forum, Chat Room and Wiki. Using Discussion Forums, Chat Rooms postgraduate students discuss difficulties and peculiarities of translating scientific and professional texts. In traditional face-to-face classroom teaching due to lack of time in class not all students have a chance to speak. Conducting chats and forums allows a postgraduate student to manage the process of self-education by searching information in web and receiving comments from a teacher 59

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and other students. Unlike the Discussion Forum the News Forum is an interactive tool that allows a teacher to deliver information messages and announcements to postgraduate students immediately. The blog as a tool for administering and monitoring the educational process allows us to organize a personal educational space for the teacher and the student, since all the necessary materials are kept in one place and are available from any computer that has access to the Internet. We can quickly improve the materials, add links to a variety of Internet resources, including slide presentations (for example, lectures), multimedia (photos, diagrams, graphs, audio and video). Wiki is a powerful means for collaborative work of students, aimed at developing core competencies and skills needed for a successful scientist: finding necessary information, identifying and analyzing problems, solving them, working in a team. Postgraduate students are engaged in independent search for information concerning scientific methods and research, they create and develop Wiki content together. Thus, the proposed course of scientific English language for post graduate students assumes the following learning outcomes: development of various reading strategies (studying, familiarizing, searching and viewing) on the basis of authentic general scientific and scientific texts in the specialty of different volumes; development of oral speech perception skills in general scientific and highly specialized subjects on the basis of lectures by native speakers and students’ acquaintance with generalized algorithms of vocational speech behavior in situations of foreign-language communication; formation of skills of public speech in the format of scientific presentation, report at scientific conferences; development of skills of foreign-language communication on scientific topics (conducting discussions in the group on topical scientific topics and making reports with presentations); development of skills and abilities of productive written speech, including through the abstracting of the contents of scientific articles in English, annotation of scientific articles; writing scientific articles on the problems of scientific research; ability to correctly fill out various application forms, documents for a grant and a patent; ability to make out information extracted from foreign sources in the form of a translation or resume; expansion of the lexical minimum associated with the conduct of scientific research; an extension of the grammatical minimum used in the field of scientific communication. The use of the Moodle system in the framework of blended and distance education (that is Wiki, chat, forum, peer review, peer feedback) enables the post graduate students to develop the skills of mastering all types of speech activity that are professionally relevant for the future specialization, skills of independent search for knowledge through working with additional information resources, working offline, efficient planning and time management. It will also contribute to increasing motivation and will allow any post graduate to strategically determine further self-development, which will ensure university mobility and competitiveness in the international labor market.

References 1. Bennett, R. E. Inexorable and Inevitable: The Continuing Story of Technology and Assessment. Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 1 (1), 2002. Online journal article retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla /article/view/1667 2. Pellegrino, J. W., Quellmalz, E. S. Perspectives on the Integration of Technology and Assessment // Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43 (2), 2010, P. 119-134. 3. Sergeyeva, S.V., Voskrekasenko, O. A. The formation of students’ social competences in a technical university as a multilevel educational complex // Integration of Education, 20(4), 2016, P. 484-492. DOI:10.15507/1991-9468.085.020.201604.484-492. 4. Vonog, V.V., Prokhorova, O. A. The use of LMS MOODLE in teaching foreign language in a postgraduate course in terms of blended and distant education // Bulletin of Kemerovo state university, 2015, 2 (62), P. 27–30. 5. Watson, J. Blended learning: The convergence of online and face-to-face education. North American Council for Online Learning, 2008, 16 p.


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The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute 10/2019, 15.02.2019  

On the results of the Scientific Conference “Modernization of teaching profession: approaches, best practices, challenges” 28 November 2018.

The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute 10/2019, 15.02.2019  

On the results of the Scientific Conference “Modernization of teaching profession: approaches, best practices, challenges” 28 November 2018.