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Improving Design Quality in Jordan using Design Quality indicators and other procedures followed in the United Kingdom Submitted to

The University of the West of England In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for The Degree of Masters in Construction Project management By

Moath Khaled Alhajiri Bristol

Nov, 2010


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Abstract Design is considered as a major player in shaping a world where a value-enhanced user perspective is established, hence, cross-functional alliances between countries should be formed to promote a wider appreciation of that value around the world. This thesis intends to improve the building design quality in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by identifying their current activities, obstacles and threats, and suggesting alternate applications adapted from the United Kingdom‘s experience. The study followed a qualitative approach and used semi-structured interviews as a tool for data collection, the interviews, conducted in Jordan, targeted participants of different occupations and experience levels as to perceive the problems in the building design process from different perspectives. One important finding is that the problems faced by the construction sector of both countries are similar; in fact, most of the problems mentioned by the interviewees have been formerly faced by the construction sector in the UK. Problems such as design changes during construction, creating a poor client brief, communication problems, etc‌ have all been discussed and alternate applications based on the practices of the United Kingdoms have been suggested. A design framework adapted from concepts acquired from the Design Quality Indicator tool (DQI) were suggested to improve the current practices in Jordan, the framework should be able to solve or improve most of the problems mentioned in the interviews as it was designed to fit into the design procedure followed in Jordan.

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Acknowledgment I would not have been able to finish this dissertation without the support of many people, I have put a lot of effort in it but it is truly through the grace of God that I reached this far. I thank God for giving me the opportunity to carry out this dissertation and the opportunity to come across the following people who made this dissertation possible. First and Foremost, I express my heartfelt gratitude to my Grandfather, Father and Mother for their unwavering support, unlimited patience and encouragement at every moment of my life, without them, none of this would have been possible. Special thanks to Doctor Kevin Burnside for steering me through the dissertation and encouraging me at every stage of the dissertation process, allowing me to complete the project ahead of schedual. Dr. Peter Fewings, the programme leader, for all his contributions, guidance and encouragement throughout this MSc Program. Architect Mounir Alhajjiri, for his guidance and support throughout the dissertation. My Uncle Bassam Alhajjiri for his support during my stay in Jordan My roommate, brother and friend Ossaid for reminding me that there are things other than studying to do in the United Kingdom. My brother Abed for his endless sense of humour; I needed that funny break every once in a while, my sister Saja for calling me regularly and showing me her new drawings, Zeid and Jad for their International medical assistance. My cousin Nesreen for keeping me updated with the latest news of my home country Jordan. Sometimes the people behind the scenes are forgotten when it comes to extended thanks, however, things would not have been the same without, my aunts, Samar, Mahasen and Khuloud, my ―Tete‖, ―Teta‖ and Aunt Yasira. My friends Ashour, Samar, Hala, Deema and Nour, and to all other individuals who helped me in one way or anotherThank you.

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Statement of Originality I hereby declare that this dissertation represents my own unaided work, except where due acknowledgement is made, and that it has not been previously included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to the University or any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification. [Word count: 17,444]

Moath Alhajiri 23 Nov 2010

Signed……………………………………………………………………………………………

Copyright Statement

Moath Alhajiri has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this work; in addition, he grants the University of the West of England or its agents the right to archive and to make available his dissertation in whole or part in the University Libraries in all forms of media, now or here after known.

First published by the University of the West of England, Faculty of Environment and Technology, Department of Construction and Property in 2010 by Moath Alhajiri

Text Copyright © Moath Alhajiri 2010. All Rights Reserved.

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Contents Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 1 Acknowledgment ............................................................................................................................... 2 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 8 1.1. Background & purpose of the Study ....................................................................................... 8 1.2. Context .................................................................................................................................... 9 1.3. Objectives & research methodology ..................................................................................... 10 1.4. Limitations ............................................................................................................................. 10 1.4. Structure of the Study ........................................................................................................... 11 1.4.1. Chapter 1 (introduction) ................................................................................................ 11 1.4.2. Chapter 2 (Literature Review) ........................................................................................ 11 1.4.3. Chapter 3 (Methodology) ............................................................................................... 12 1.4.4. Chapter 4 (interpretation and Analysis) ......................................................................... 12 1.4.5. Chapter 5 (Discussion) .................................................................................................... 13 1.4.6. Chapter 6 (conclusion) ................................................................................................... 13 1.5. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 13 2. Literature Review ........................................................................................................................ 14 2.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 14 2.2. Definition of Design:- ................................................................................................................ 14 2.3. The building design process ...................................................................................................... 15 2.3.1. Stage one: Brief ...................................................................................................................... 16 Aspects that affect the Design Quality (process and end-result) ............................................ 17 2.3.2. Stage 2: Design ....................................................................................................................... 17 2.3.2.1 Outline Design: ................................................................................................................. 18 2.3.2.2. Detailed design:............................................................................................................... 18 2.3.2.3. Final design:..................................................................................................................... 19 Aspects that affect the quality of the design process .............................................................. 19 2.3.3. Construction Phase ................................................................................................................ 19 Aspects that affect Design Quality during construction .......................................................... 20 2.3.4. In-Use ..................................................................................................................................... 20 Aspects that affect design quality at this stage........................................................................ 20 2.4. Measuring and improving performance ................................................................................... 21 2.4.1. Benchmarking......................................................................................................................... 21

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Internal benchmark: ............................................................................................................. 22

Competitive benchmark: ...................................................................................................... 22

Generic benchmarking: ........................................................................................................ 22

2.4.2. Performance measurement tools .......................................................................................... 23 Key Performance Indicators: ........................................................................................................ 23 Design Quality Indicators: ............................................................................................................ 23 2.5. Design Quality Indicators (DQIs) ............................................................................................... 24 2.5.1. What are the steps of Design Quality Indicators?.............................................................. 25 Questionnaire ........................................................................................................................... 25 Weightings................................................................................................................................ 27 Visualisations ............................................................................................................................ 29 2.5.2. When to use DQI ................................................................................................................ 30 2.5.3. DQI process overview (technicalities) ................................................................................ 32 2.5.4. DQI benefits (different stakeholder perspectives) ............................................................. 34 Owner benefits: -...................................................................................................................... 34 2.6. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 35 3. Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 36 3.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 36 3.2. Research strategy .................................................................................................................. 36 3.2.1. Quantitative research..................................................................................................... 37 3.2.2. Qualitative research ....................................................................................................... 37 3.2.3. A comparison between Qualitative and Quantitative ................................................... 38 3.2.3. Discussion and Rationale for Choice of Approach ......................................................... 38 3.4. Qualitative Research methods & rationale for choice .......................................................... 39 3.5. Research Tools and Rationale for choice .............................................................................. 41 3.6. Selection of Sample (participants) ........................................................................................ 43 3.7. Data analysis process (preparation and analysis) ................................................................. 46 3.8. Ethical Consideration ............................................................................................................ 46 3.9. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 47 4. Interpretation and Analysis......................................................................................................... 48 4.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 48 4.2. Interviewees .......................................................................................................................... 49 4.3. Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 50

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AlHajiri 09034876 4.3.1. Part 1: Jordanian Procurement system .......................................................................... 50 4.3.2. Part 2: Jordanian building design ................................................................................... 51 4.4. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 55 5. Discussion .................................................................................................................................... 56 5.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 56 5.2. Problems of the Jordanian construction procurement framework ...................................... 56 5.2.1. Absence of benchmarking procedures .............................................................................. 56 5.2.2. Presence of unskilled labour .............................................................................................. 58 5.3. Problems in the Jordanian building Design Process .............................................................. 59 5.3.1. Design changes during construction .............................................................................. 59 5.4. Suggested Design Framework (using DQI concepts) ............................................................. 62 5.4.1. Briefing Stage ................................................................................................................. 62 5.4.2. Mid-design assessment .................................................................................................. 63 5.4.3. Evaluating the building before occupation .................................................................... 63 5.4.4. Post occupancy ............................................................................................................... 63 5.5. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 64 6. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 65 6.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 65 6.2. Research Summary & objectives accomplished.................................................................... 65 6.2.1. Chapter 1 (Introduction) ................................................................................................ 65 6.2.2. Chapter 2 (Literature Review) ........................................................................................ 66 6.2.3. Chapter 3 (Methodology) ............................................................................................... 67 6.2.4. Chapter 4 (interpretation and Analysis) ......................................................................... 68 6.2.5 Chapter 5 (Discussion) ..................................................................................................... 68 6.3. Barriers and Limitations of the study .................................................................................... 69 6.4. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 70 6.5. Reflection .............................................................................................................................. 71 Appendix 1 ....................................................................................................................................... 72 Appendix 2 ....................................................................................................................................... 73 Appendix 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 74 Works Cited ...................................................................................................................................... 75 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................... 79

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Table of Figures Figure 1: Project stages................................................................................................................ 16 Figure 2: Consequences of a weak brief quality....................................................................... 17 Figure 3: Evaluation tools ............................................................................................................. 23 Figure 4: The main headings that compose the Questionnaire ............................................. 26 Figure 5: An Example of a completed DQI Section.................................................................. 27 Figure 6: An Example of a completed DQI Section. ................................................................ 27 Figure 7: Overlapping quality fields ........................................................................................... 28 Figure 8: DQI indicator sample.................................................................................................... 29 Figure 9: Project stages .............................................................................................................. 30 Figure 10: Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Paradigms ............................ 38 Figure 11: Differences of sampling strategies........................................................................... 44 Figure 12: Construction procurement framework ..................................................................... 50 Figure 13: Benchmarking procedures ........................................................................................ 56 Figure 14: Main elements of internal benchmarking ................................................................ 57 Figure 15: Implact of cost of change at various stages ........................................................... 60

List of Tables Table 1: Different ways to complete the DQIs .......................................................................... 33

Abbreviations OGC: Office of Government commerce UK: United Kingdom DQI: Design Quality Indicators KPI: Key Performance Indicators GDP: Gross Domestic Product CIC: Construction Industry Council CDF: Corporate Design Foundation RIBA: Royal Institute of British Architects PPR: Post Project Review PIR: Post Implementation Review SPeAR: Assessment tool in Sustainable Master Planning BREEAM: BRE Environmental Assessment Method EPI: Environmental Performance Indicator DTI: Department of Trade & Industry CABE: Commission of Architecture& the Built Environment DfES: Project Advisors FAVE: Fundamental, Added Value, Excellence. CE: Construction Excellence ROI: Return on Investment JEA: Jordan Engineers Association

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1. Introduction 1.1. Background & purpose of the Study

Value for money is the basic goal attached to almost all the actions we undertake, maximizing the value of building is not only about minimizing the cost, the process involves completing the project to time, within budget and with a level of quality that meets the requirements and needs of all stakeholders, particularly the end users (Rick Best & Gerard de Valence, 2002). A well designed project will continue to provide value for money and meet stakeholders‘ needs throughout its lifetime, and will contribute to the environment in which it is located positively with a wide range of social and economic benefits (WBDG, 2010). The design of public buildings is not just a technical issue or a matter of aesthetics, good design has a key role to play in improving the quality of services provided by the public sector, Lord Rea, speaking in the House of Lords in 2003 said: ―Good design may initially cost a little more in time and thought, although not necessarily in money. But the end result is more pleasing to the eye and more efficient, costs less to maintain and is kinder to the environment.‖ (OGC, 2007). Since design is considered as a major player in shaping a world where value-enhanced user perspective is established, cross-functional alliances between countries should be formed (Rodgers, 2007); this will promote a wider appreciation of that value in other countries. And although the gap between the quality and the standards of design seen in developing countries and that seen in Europe and America is fast diminishing due to globalization and professional competition (Network, 2010), the quest for an improved design quality can be further accelerated in developing countries by identifying their current activities, obstacles and threats, and comparing them to other developed countries, hence, supporting a sustainable growth in the building design procedure. The UK is well known for its capabilities in design education and the use of design in industry (Macdonald, 2004), therefore, the first step in this study is to further explore the techniques and procedures used in the UKs building design process (i.e. Benchmarking, Design Quality Indicators, policies of the Office of government commerce (OGC), etc…). The next step is to study the problems faced throughout the practices of a developing

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AlHajiri 09034876 country and suggest alternative applications (using the knowledge gained from UKs experience) that can improve and modify its practices.

It is known that those measures alone will not solve all the building design problems in the developing world. But they can be considered as a hopeful first step that deserves interest and support.

1.2. Context

This research will consider the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (HKJ) as a case study since it is in the midst of an immense boom in construction activity. Construction is one of the main pillars of its economy with more than 1600 building companies contributing 4.8% to GDP in 2009 (Network, 2010). Both residential and commercial sectors are growing within Jordan‘s Construction sector with growth rates in the next 5 years being forecasted to exceed 20% per annum due to growing population, migration and business, in addition, there have been announced project investments of over $ 30 billion, in a market that has seen just $ 2 billion of investments over the last 20 years (Guide, 2010). In other words, the construction in Jordan is progressing at a quick pace and in order to ensure a reasonable quality of life over the upcoming period, it is needed to concentrate on learning from the experience of developed countries. There are many important issues to be considered in the Jordanian construction industry, not the least of which is the absence of procedures that measure building design quality or any other performance indicators. Realizing the problems and integrating procedures that improve the performance throughout the project lifetime can yield many benefits relating to quality, cost, time and sustainable environment. In order for us to attain the purpose of this study, key figures in construction companies with different rankings in Amman (the capital of Jordan) were selected for the interviews since most investments are located in the capital. The participant selection was based on their experience and their occupation in the Jordanian building construction companies.

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1.3. Objectives & research methodology The objectives of the research mentioned in this chapter are as follow: 

To review the measures taken to improve performance in the construction procurement framework carried in the United Kingdoms

To identify the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process

To improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible

To propose a design framework that can fit into the Jordanian procedures followed in Jordan

The approach that will be used in this study is the qualitative approach since its properties enable the researcher to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem(s) in the Jordanian building design process as perceived from a selected group of participants, in addition, semi-structured interviews were used as the data collection tool as it allows the researcher to shape the discussion to some extent, while also giving the participants the freedom to express themselves, which in turn, allows the researcher to gather unexpected answers, The details of the methodology will be explained in Chapter 3 (methodology).

1.4. Limitations

As mentioned earlier, a small-scale qualitative approach was used to study the problems faced in the Jordanian building design process, the study interviewed participants in two companies of different rankings1, thus, the problems mentioned by the participants could not be generalized to the entire construction sector, therefore, this study emphasises on quality rather than quantity, it provides in-depth information from this small sample. One more limitation is that the study will not be able to focus on all the measures used in the UK to improve performance, even if they can be useful if applied to the Jordanian Construction framework since there is a time and a word limit to this study.

1

companies in the Jordanian construction sector are only ranked by the number of employees and the floor area

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1.4. Structure of the Study

The research study has been divided into 6 chapters; the following paragraphs will briefly discuss each chapter and identify the objectives that should be achieved in each chapter. 1.4.1. Chapter 1 (introduction)

Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter providing a brief overview of the research background, as well as the purpose, objectives and limitations of the study. 1.4.2. Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Chapter 2 highlights the literature review; it examines the literature related to Design Quality and ways to improve it, it will be divided into two parts, the first part defines the word ―design‖ since the research focus on the problems allocated throughout the Jordanian building design process. This chapter will review the four primary project stages mentioned by the Construction Industry Council (2006):

Brief

Design

Construction

In-use

Aspects that can affect the design quality of the final product will be discussed in each stage.

The second part of the literature review will discuss the different procedures used in the United Kingdoms to measure and improve performance in the construction industry. It will briefly discuss the types of benchmarking procedures and several performance measurement tools, moreover, it will discuss the procedure of using the Design Quality Indicator tool (DQI) since it is the main tool used for enhancing design quality, aspects such as who should use the tool, the phases that the tool should be used in and the benefits that can be gained will be discussed in details.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Objectives that should be accomplished 

To review the measures taken to improve performance in the construction procurement framework carried in the United Kingdoms

The information gained from this chapter will be used to improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible

The proposed design framework will be based on the information gained in this chapter

1.4.3. Chapter 3 (Methodology) Chapter 3 reviews the ways and methods of research, the focus of the chapter however, will be the methods that can be utilized to address and gather information about the problems faced by the building design process in Jordan. The chapter will also discuss the research ethics followed in this study in terms of: 

Voluntary participation

No harm to respondents

Anonymity and confidentiality

Identifying purpose and sponsor

Analysis and reporting

Objectives that should be accomplished 

This chapter will help identify the problems in the Jordanian building design process by designing the framework used to do so.

1.4.4. Chapter 4 (interpretation and Analysis)

This chapter will present the data analysis in details and highlight the findings emanating from the interviews. Objectives accomplished 

This chapter should identified the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process by analysing and interpreting the information gathered from the interviews

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AlHajiri 09034876 1.4.5. Chapter 5 (Discussion)

Chapter 5 will summarise the problems mentioned by the interviewee in chapter 4, it will discuss each problem closely pointing out the problems that Design Quality Indicator concepts can help improve, moreover, it will recommends better applications for the problems that cannot be enhanced using DQIs based on the literature review and former researches. At the end of this chapter a design framework will be suggested using the concepts acquired from the design quality indicators tool; the framework should be able to solve or improve some of the problems mentioned in the interviews. The design framework will consider the same stages mentioned in the literature review (chapter 2) and will be designed to fit into the design procedure followed in Jordan. Objectives that should be accomplished 

To improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible



To propose a design framework that can fit into the Jordanian procedures followed in Jordan

1.4.6. Chapter 6 (conclusion) Chapter 6 summarises the final findings of the research, the barriers and limitations of this study, in addition, it will show how the objectives set in this chapter (introduction) have been achieved.

1.5. Conclusion

This chapter explained the rationale behind this study, it states the context, objectives and limitations of the study, in addition, it presented an overview of the study as an orientation to the dissertation. The next chapter takes a closer look at the literature studies and theories associated with improving performance throughout the Building design process.

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2. Literature Review 2.1. Introduction The literature review will describe and identify the research findings of others. This will help in defining the weak aspects within the research and locate the gaps that have not yet been taken into consideration in Jordan. It will explain the building design process, the issues that should be considered in the process and their influence on the building design quality, the research focus on the following three areas:

The building design process i.e. Brief, Design, construction and in-use (includes a brief discussion issues that should be considered to enhance quality)

Performance improving techniques: (Benchmarking, Performance measurement tools & Design Quality Indicators)

These three areas of focus will be divided to separate parts according to the findings and information related to them. The research will be based on case studies, industrial documentation, journal articles, books and other related documentations. The first issue that will be tackled is the definition of the word ―design‖ since it will help us understand the scope of the study to ensure the best possible outcome.

2.2. Definition of Design:Much is written about the meaning of the word design, however, it seems like there is no absolute agreement. There are general definitions and more specific ones; each definition has its own benefits and its own drawbacks. Ivan Chermayeff; Graphic designer and founder of Chermayeff & Geismar Inc. define design as ―Design is directed toward human beings. To design is to solve human problems by identifying them, examining alternate solutions to them, choosing and executing the best solution‖, his definition focuses on the ―process of design‖ and highlights its relation with human behaviour and quality of life, on the other hand, Oxford English Dictionary defines design as ―a plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is made‖ or ―the

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AlHajiri 09034876 arrangement of the features of an artefact, as produced from following a plan or drawing‖, both definitions focus on the end product rather than the process. One of the reasons behind the vast approaches to the definition of design, as noted by Bryan Lawson (Lawson, 2005, p.3), is that the word ―design‖ can be regarded as both, a noun and a verb and can refer either to the end product or to the process. Peter Lawrence the founder of Corporate Design Foundation (CDF) combined both the process and the product in his definition of design, he stated that; ―Design is the term we use to describe both the process and the result of giving tangible form to human ideas. Design doesn‘t just contribute to the quality of life; design, in many ways, now constitutes the quality of life.‖ his definition emphasizes the strong relationship between the process and end product of design and their link to enhancing the quality of life. In order for us to enhance the quality of the end product, certain aspects of the building design process should be improved

2.3. The building design process ―Achieving a well-designed project, delivered through an efficient and value-for-money procurement process, depends on approaching procurement and design as a holistic process. Failure to integrate adequately the planning, design and construction processes can lead to conflicting aims, with design often relegated to a subsidiary role.‖ (CABE, 2002)

A thorough understanding of the key stages of any project is essential to achieve a welldesigned project. The Construction Industry Council (2006) divided projects into four primary stages (figure 1 is an illustration of the stages):

Brief

Design

Construction

In-use

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Figure 1: Project stages (CIC, 2006)

This part of the dissertation will start by describing each stage and some aspects that affect the design quality on the long run; however, it will focus on the briefing and design stages due to their relevance to the dissertation topic.

2.3.1. Stage one: Brief The project brief is a key component of any project, Frank Salisbury (1990) defined the brief as being ―everything an architect needs to know about the building a client needs. The client‘s yearnings, ideas and vision should be clearly expressed in it, together with every activity and important piece of equipment or treasured possession to be accommodated‖.

It is a formal statement consisting of the objectives, scope and functional and operational requirements of the finished design or end product; it should be in sufficient detail to enable the integrated project team to execute the specification and detailed design of the work and is therefore an essential reference for the team. Any significant change to the material contained in the Project Brief will thus need to be referred to the project team (OGC, 2007).

With most inexperienced clients the process of brief creation goes well into the schematic design and design development stages, this phenomena, however, creates some of the particular problems that cause risk for the architect (Nelson, 2006, pp.192-95).

The process of creating the brief is not a one way process, the client and the design team need each other to formulate a brief that is acceptable by both, the architect helps the inexperienced client to formulate what he wants into the brief, the client gives the information required for the design team to start working.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Aspects that affect the Design Quality (process and end-result) In order for the design brief to clearly cover the functional and operational needs of the project, it is desired for it to be developed with the selected delivery team and reviewed by the client and relevant stakeholders throughout the process (OGC, 2007).

The project brief is an important document against which the design must be tested in design review, hence, specific quality objectives and processes for the project should be clearly defined and all communications from the client and relevant stakeholders regarding the design must be collected together and preferably be circulated to all team members and – if appointed – external consultants (Nelson, 2006).

Figure 2: consequences of a weak brief quality (Nelson, 2006).

2.3.2. Stage 2: Design After Client decides to invest, designs will be developed in response to the client brief, the design process itself can be sub-divided into as many steps as necessary to resolve all design problems and to integrate the concepts into a functional facility plan; each step represents a particular set of detailed work (Tzortzopoulos et al., 2001).

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AlHajiri 09034876 It is mentioned in the OGC Design Quality document (2007) that two levels of design need to be agreed by the client members of the team, the two levels are Outline Design (equivalent to RIBA: stage C) and Detailed Design (equivalent to RIBA: stage D). Sometimes another level is required, this level is the Final Design (equivalent to RIBA: stage E). The levels are described briefly below:

2.3.2.1 Outline Design: After the client decides to invest, the designs are developed in response to the client brief; the project team starts with developing the early sketch design concepts, they cover the scale, scope, physical attributes and the general layout of the design. The designs will be expressed as sketches, architectural drawings and other 3-dimensional representations. This step concludes with the client approving the outline and forming the basis for development of the design, however, once the design has been approved and started working upon, any changes will most probably lead to added cost and delay (OGC, 2007). In order to reduce the probability of change, clients whom are inexperienced with construction projects should be advised on what they are getting; they should receive full explanations of the architectural drawings and all the design information provided (Tunstall, 2006).

2.3.2.2. Detailed design: Detailed design covers developing in details the approved outline, it has been described by the European Commission (2008) as ―a description of the construction process in drawings and words, to a level that permits fully itemised costing of a project and the preparation of a clear programme of works to implement it‖. Integrated working across the project team is very important at this step, so that details provided relate to the overall design. This step can involve some suppliers or manufacturers‘ providing very detailed designs for their part; the detailed design of the project is then used to assess the quantities of materials required and to establish an implementation timetable (OGC, 2007).

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2.3.2.3. Final design: It is advised by the Office of Government Commerce (2007) that no further changes are allowed after this point; any changes introduced can be very costly, with a high chance of failing to successfully achieve the intended change, leading to wasted construction time and materials. At this step, final decisions are taken on every matter related to design, specification, construction and cost. If a traditional procurement process is used, the production information is prepared in sufficient details to enable a tender or tenders to be obtained, further production information listed in the building contract needed to complete the information for construction is then created, statutory approvals should also be obtained at the end of this phase (RIBA, 2007). Aspects that affect the quality of the design process

Ultimately, the responsibility for delivering high-quality projects rests with the client, hence, it is important for any client that is unfamiliar with construction projects to receive full explanation of the design information provided, the team should be aware that aspects of a high quality design are fully incorporated in the design process (OGC, 2007). The design process should undergo a formal checking process to ensure that the design members properly interpreted and prioritised the objectives, and that the design satisfies the client, the relevant stakeholders and end user. A clear focus on the quality that considers the cost in use of the facility over its whole life reduces risk, it is very important that design quality stays in mind in any value engineering workshops, it ensures that whole life value drives the process rather than cost reduction (OGC, 2007).

2.3.3. Construction Phase This stage begins with the bidding process, and proceeds through the complete construction of the project. The contractor programmes the work according to the contract and starts working onsite, the client or the representative administers the contract till the contractor hands back the

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AlHajiri 09034876 ownership of the site and the completed to the client, information required by the contractor should be supplied when essential (RIBA, 2007). Aspects that affect Design Quality during construction

Design quality does not stop being an issue during construction; the quality of the building process has major effect on the quality of the end product, i.e. sustainability and health and safety affect the design quality of the end product, so in order to achieve better design quality both health and safety and sustainability should be considered as a priority during the construction processes (OGC, 2007). Elimination of accidents on construction sites is a priority, all the element of the building should be designed in such a way as to minimise hazards during construction and at any time during subsequent use (Tunstall, 2006). The specification of sustainable materials for a facility designed to have sustainable functionality over time must be matched by good site practices that eliminate waste and pollution (OGC, 2007). Regular checking is needed to see that designs are implemented as expected. Any problems should be discussed and resolved as early as possible in the process. The fitout timetable must be coordinated with the construction period to achieve maximum efficiency (OGC, 2007).

2.3.4. In-Use After the construction is complete, mechanical systems such as heating and ventilation are commissioned and become active. Once the design specifications of the systems are met the building will handed over to the client for occupation (OGC, 2007). Any defects will have been remedied and the final account settled (RIBA, 2007). Aspects that affect design quality at this stage

A post project review (PPR) is carried out by the project team, it forms a part of the post implementation review (PIR). The purpose of this document is to evaluate the degree of success of the project; it considers how well the project was managed and how well the project performed against the client‘s charter key performance indicators, in addition, it

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AlHajiri 09034876 considers passing on any lessons learned from the team-working/ partnering approach taken (SPRinG, 2009). A post implementation review (PIR) is commissioned after the facility is used for long enough, it determines whether the project has met the original business needs and stakeholders requirements as expressed in the brief. The criteria used for design reviews should be revisited to ensure plans have fulfilled their promise. The results of design reviews can be used to make adjustments, to inform the team of what went well and badly in design terms, and critically to disseminate information to others.

2.4. Measuring and improving performance In his report ―Rethinking Construction‖ (Egan, 1998), Sir John Egan argued that performance measurement systems are essential for the construction industry if improvements were to be realised. Performance measurement is described by the Office of Government Commerce (2007) as ―the activity of checking actual performance against targets throughout the life of the project, during construction and through the operational life of the completed facility.‖ (OGC, 2007). The increasing number of business drivers is pushing clients, consultants, contractors and suppliers towards benchmarking and the usage of a variety of performance measurement tools (Swan & Kyng, 2004). This part of the dissertation will briefly discuss benchmarking and several performance measurement tools, it will, however, thoroughly discuss the process of Design Quality Indicators due to its strong relevance to the dissertation topic.

2.4.1. Benchmarking Benchmarking is one of the most effective tools that improve a company‘s performance, it helps construction firms understand how their performance measure up to their

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AlHajiri 09034876 competitors (Maire et al., 2005, pp.45-60) and enables them to identify their strengths and weaknesses (Edmond et al., 2007, pp.624-38). There are 3 main types of benchmark to compare against when comparing between processes (Swan & Kyng, 2004):-

Internal benchmark: - Carla O'Dell and Nelly Grayson (1998) defined internal benchmarking as the process of identifying, sharing and using the knowledge and best practices inside one‘s own organization. When internal learning is managed in a structured way, there is a significant probability that changes occurring due to learning can be easily implemented within the organization, however, it is unlikely to cause a large scale innovation (Southard & Parente, 2007, pp.161-71).

Competitive benchmark: - Competitive benchmarking was defined by Michael Spendolini (1992) as an external activity that involves identification of the services, products and work practices of an organizations competitors within the same industry and comparing them to one‘s own organization. It is usually difficult to collect comparative benchmarking unless if the organization is a member of a benchmarking club, however, if accessible, it provides large levels of innovations (Swan & Kyng, 2004).

Generic benchmarking: - Generic benchmarking is a concerned about the comparing the same or similar processes against best practices within different industries or markets (Andersen, 2004). It might be difficult to adapt best practice from radically different industries but it usually leads to a high level of innovation (Swan & Kyng, 2004).

Different measures in construction projects can be benchmarked, these measures fall into the following categories depending on what they are designed to measure: 

Building Performance measures - e.g. environmental performance, design quality

Project Performance measures - e.g. time, cost, defects.

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AlHajiri 09034876 

Organisational Performance measures - e.g. Health and Safety, Respect for People.



Relationship Quality measures - e.g. customer satisfaction service.

2.4.2. Performance measurement tools In response to the Latham and Egan reports, the UK construction industry developed its own set of performance measurement tools (Beatham et al., 2004), this section briefly discusses two measurement tools: -

Key Performance Indicators: - KPIs represent a set of measures focusing on those aspects of organizational performance that are the most critical for the current and future success of the organization (Paramenter, 2007, pp.1-14).

Design Quality Indicators: - The Design Quality Indicator is an assessment tool that evaluates the design quality of buildings; it was developed to work with other performance measurement tools, in particular the Headline KPIs which assess the construction process. It also complements sustainability tools such as SPeAR, BREEAM and EPIs (CIC, 2008). Figure 3: Evaluation tools (CIC, 2008)

The Design Quality indicator (DQI) tool is both a predictive feedback tool - i.e. a design success "insurance policy" - as well as a building performance enhancer. It enhances the process as well as the end product; the overall result is an improved product quality, delivered at lower cost and in less time (CIC, 2009). The procedure of applying DQIs in the UK will be discussed thoroughly in the next section of the literature review

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2.5. Design Quality Indicators (DQIs) This interest in performance measurement led to the introduction of different benchmarking techniques and a variety of performance measurement tools. The focus of those measurement tools was primarily on the production process, they did not adhere the design quality embodied in the products or outputs of the construction process (Gann et al., 2003, p.318–333). Members of the UK building design community were concerned that the lack of emphasis on design quality in the early stages of performance measurement and the focus on measuring the physical elements of the building process can result in reducing the value of the end product (Gann et al., 2003). In response to the pressures from the design community and with a growing interest from government to add value by design, a tool for measuring the quality of design embodied in the product has been developed by the Construction industry council (CIC), with sponsorship from Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), Commission of Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), Strategic Forum for Construction, Construction Excellence and the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) (Ashworth & Keith Hogg, 2007). The tool measures the quality of the design embodied in the end product i.e. the buildings themselves, it is also used to assess the design process by helping inform decisionmaking during various stages of design. There are two versions of the DQI: 

The DQI is a generic tool and can be applied to any building project; it was developed by CIC with support from the DTI, CABE, Constructing Excellence and the OGC

The DQI for Schools is a version of the tool which is more applicable to the needs of schools. DQI for Schools was adapted from the DQI by the DfES and can be used on all types of school project including Community, Foundation, Voluntary Aided, Voluntary Controlled, Academy, City Technology College, Special School and Independent Schools

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AlHajiri 09034876 In September (2002), Sir John Egan highlighted in his Report ―Accelerating Change‖ the importance of design quality, The Strategic Forum for Construction, declared that the use of design quality indicators (DQI) should be one of the five major headline targets by which the industry‘s ongoing performance should be judged. The next section will discuss, in details, what the tool consist of, who should use the DQIs, how to use them and when.

2.5.1. What are the steps of Design Quality Indicators?

The Design Quality indicator is a web-based assessment tool that was prepared as a means of measuring and evaluating the design quality of any building type, it is a "Vitruvian‖ 2 assessment that measures design in the broadest sense, it focuses on everything from a building's Functionality (fit for purpose), to its Build Quality (performance of the facility after completion), to the Impact (sense of place) the building has on its occupants and its surroundings (DQI, 2006). The DQI has three parts, a questionnaire, weightings and visualisations. Questionnaire DQIs convert the individual perceptions of design quality into measurable results through a set of questions that enables building owners and planning officials to define and evaluate design quality at all key stages in the development process (CABE, 2002). The DQI Questionnaire is the main data capture tool, it is composed of a short, simple, non-technical set of statements that collect the views from all stakeholders, The questions are grouped under three main headings:

Impact: 1) Character and Innovation 2) Form and material 3) internal environment 4) Urban and social integration.

2

Vitruvius; a roman architect from the 1st century BC, and the author of the ten books on Architecture “De architectura”, dedicates his writings so to give personal knowledge of the quality of buildings (Sallette, 2003).

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AlHajiri 09034876 These refer to the facility‘s ability to create a sense of place and to have a positive effect on the local community and environment. They also cover the wider influence the design may have on the disciplines of building and architecture. 

Build quality: 1) Performance 2) Construction. 3) Engineering systems

These relate to the engineering performance of a facility, which includes structural stability and the integration of health and safety aspects throughout the project lifecycle. They also relate to robustness of the systems, finishes and fittings. 

Functionality:1) Use 2) Access 3) Space

These are concerned with the arrangement, quality and interrelationship of spaces and how the building is designed to be useful to everyone.

Figure 4: the 3 main headings that compose the Questionnaire (Sallette, 2003).

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Weightings After the questionnaires are answered, the respondents are asked to weight the importance of the different aspects in each of the sections of ‗Functionality‘, ‗Build Quality‘ and ‗Impact‘, the DQI is weighted in two ways. First level: The first allows results to be visualised depending how all the respondents judge the success of various aspects of the building.

Figure 5: the example shows that the respondents think that the Internal Environment is the most important aspect and that Character and innovation comes in second

In each of the Sections respondents answer, they are also asked to identify the three most important statements for their building to achieve.

Figure 6: in the Example above, 2, 5 and 9 have been circled because respondents think that they are most important.

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AlHajiri 09034876 The statements in the example apply on a completed building, the statements are rephrased when the questionnaire is used at the inception, design or construction stages, the respondent should rephrase the statement to suit their requirements. Second level: -

The second level of weighting allows you to define a set of values for your project and by assigning the DQI factors one of 4 FAVE attributes to indicate indicating whether aspects are: -

Fundamental: - relates to factors which the building must achieve in order to fulfil its purpose. These factors are basic and are essential to achieve

Added value: - relates to factors that will enhance the building‘s usefulness and pleasure value. These factors are desirable to achieve and would be beneficial to the final building

Excellence: - relates to factors that make the design sparkle as a whole and help create a building of distinction. These factors would make the building exceptional

Some factors may be not applicable to a particular building

Figure 7: Overlapping quality fields (CIC, 2003)

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AlHajiri 09034876 Visualisations

The DQI is visualised in a number of ways, each of which can help comparisons between: 

Groups of respondents, comparing the views of the building‘s eventual users with those of the delivery team

Stages of a project, from the opinions established at the brief stages of a project, and how these are being achieved by the design

Projects from a portfolio of projects

Figure 8: DQI indicator sample (Sallette, 2003)

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2.5.2. When to use DQI The DQI is used by any number of project stakeholders to calculate both the score of the designs and completed buildings, It can measures the quality of the design as the project progress from schematics, through construction, all the way through completion and postoccupancy, however, it is preferred if clients use the DQI early in the consideration of a project, so that to help and enhance structure discussion, establish shared design aspirations and feed into the brief (DQI, 2006).

There are four different versions of the tool that relate to the phases of the project, and the questions are adjusted automatically so that they stay relevant to the particular phase that the project is assessed in, the different versions relate to the following stages: 

Briefing

Design

Construction

In-Use

Figure 9: Project stages (CIC, 2006)

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The four versions and the place where they are used in are summarized as following: -

The FAVE3 + briefing: The Brief version allows the project aspirations to be clearly set, addressing the opinions of all stakeholders and defining the most important aspects to the success of the completed building, this is established using the FAVE Module i.e. what aspects are fundamental, what would add value and what would achieve excellence in the completed building (CIC, 2008).

There is another version of the brief that allows you to any early design solutions. This can be done immediately after establishing project aspirations (CIC, 2006).

Mid Design: For new build or renovation projects: Used to check whether design goals have been met and to make any necessary improvements; can be used throughout the design phase by client and design teams when things are not too late to change.

Ready for occupation: For new build or renovation projects: Used to check whether the brief/original intent has been achieved immediately pre-occupation.

In Use: For new build projects: Used post-occupancy in order to receive feedback from the project team and the building users to help make improvements for this project and the next. For renovation projects: Should be the first step for any renovation project to determine a baseline by which your team will be able to gauge improvement and degrees of success. It will be the time zero assessment of how well or how poorly the current design of the building is faring. The tool will identify and quantify the

3

The FAVE Module is used to set initial design goals for benchmarking, it defines what design aspects are

“Fundamental”, what would “Add Value” and what would achieve “Excellence” in the completed building (FAVE)

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AlHajiri 09034876 most glaring deficiencies and better help the procurement team allocate resources for the upcoming work.

2.5.3. DQI process overview (technicalities) 1. Decision to Use DQIs: - DQIs can be used by any of the stakeholders; however, it needs to be organized by someone from the project delivery team. After the project team decides to use the DQI, they should appoint a DQI leader (a facilitator4) who registers the assessment and distributes the relevant information to the respondents.

2. Purchase a Leader Key to enable access to the DQI: - The tool operates on a pay-

as-you-go basis, so it can be used as often as needed, the DQI is accessed by project keys, every assessment will have two keys, one will be used by the DQI leader and the other one is used by the DQI respondents which ensures that the data goes to the right project. 3. Registration: - the DQI leader uses the key to register the project online and then

generate respondent keys making sure that the data goes to the right project.

4. Recruit Respondents to complete the DQI: - the number of respondents depends on the number of stakeholders in the project, the DQI should be completed by 5 to 25 DQI respondents, but there is no limit placed on this number. 5. Complete the DQI assessment: - There are 2 ways to complete the DQI; they can either be completed remotely or in a face to face workshop, a description of how both ways are used is shown in the table;

4

A facilitator is someone who has been trained to assist in the use of the DQI

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Face to face A

meeting

is

organised

Remotely and

the The DQI leader briefs respondents – by

respondents are given a presentation telephone, or through a ‗virtual classroom‘ by a facilitator on the DQI.

on the internet.

The respondents use internet enabled The DQI leader emails the key to all computers

to

complete

the respondents

questionnaire online. The results are obtained instantly by A DQI facilitator can be used to take the DQI leader.

respondents through the process over the telephone

and

as

the

respondents

complete the DQI, the results are instantly obtained by the facilitator. The team should be able to discuss the results with the facilitator in a telephone conference, a ‗virtual classroom‘, or at the next team meeting. Table 1: different ways to complete the DQIs (CIC, 2008)

Users so far have indicated that the most beneficial approach is when all respondents complete the tool in a facilitated face-to face workshop. 6. Review DQI output and evaluate design flaws as necessary: - a record of the conversations and the results of the questionnaire given to the respondents will be obtained by the facilitator, the tool converts the individual subjective perceptions into objective measurable results through a proprietary algorithm (The Output will be as a spider diagram and the missing ―chunks‖ from the pie represents the deficiencies in the building (DQI, 2006)), the facilitator will compile the results into a report, which included clear actions to be taken by the design team. 7. Schedule follow-up DQI assessments as needed 8. Adjust design goals (OPTIONAL)

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2.5.4. DQI benefits (different stakeholder perspectives) Measuring the design quality benefits the developers, procurement teams, the building owners, the occupants and end users (CE, 2008); some of the benefits for measuring DQIs mentioned by Marc A. Sallette and the construction industry council are listed below (Sallette, 2009) (CIC, 2010): -

Owner benefits: 

Reduce Project costs: - using DQIs can reduce project costs 5 to 10% by reducing change orders and rework during design and construction. This is achieved by realising Design flaws and potential improvements before the construction begins.

Improve Capital-Planning Accuracy: - DQI improves the capital planning by setting goals and objectives based on all stakeholder input. The DQI metrics enables large-scale, rapid feedback and creates harmony across competing stakeholder groups throughout the life of building project. Consensus on the priorities of the project since the early stages of the project leads to better needs assessment and lessens the risk of spending on low priorities (Sallette, 2009).

Improve Decision Making: - DQI provides a framework and a formal method to provide and monitor priorities throughout the project life. It enables the prioritization of resource spending when a across a range of assets or projects.

Reduce Operating Costs: - Design Quality indicators identify and document the operational needs from the key stakeholders (especially clients, end-users and maintenance staff) before engaging the architect. The building operation and maintenance costs can be reduced by including this all-inclusive information into the design solution in an early stage, this leads to a fit-for-purpose building that takes the needs of those who will be operating, using and maintaining the building into consideration.

Target/Decrease Capital Expenditures: - DQI can help prioritize where to allocate renovation money within individual buildings and across a portfolio by recognizing facility areas that are most in need of a design upgrade and critically important to

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AlHajiri 09034876 the business. It helps owners identify underperforming facilities and avoid or postpone upgrades that deliver lower return on investment (ROI). 

Decrease Energy Costs: - DQI can help owners optimize space utilization and location of facilities, including right-sizing the amount of space owned and/or leased and targeting more compact building forms to reduce the overall energy use of a building/portfolio over its life cycle.

Increase Asset Value: - DQI metrics can prove a building is a high performer, leading to more money when it‘s time to sell.

Reduce Occupant/User Complaints: - DQI can help owners identify and then improve key areas where stakeholders are dissatisfied with building performance.

2.6. Conclusion This chapter gave a clear idea of the different phases of the building design process, the general aspects that affect the process and their influence on the quality of the end product. Different performance measurement techniques have been discussed, however, the chapter focuses on Design quality indicators (DQI) due to its relevance to the dissertation topic.

The chapter thoroughly discusses the procedure of using the DQI, who should use the tool, the phases that the tool should be used in and the benefits gained. The review provided general information that can be used as basis to what will be discussed in later chapters; most of the information regarding DQIs was found in journal articles, industry reports and websites. Books where used for general information about design quality and the issues relevant to quality, no information about DQIs were found in books due to it being a relatively new subject ―2002‖.

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3. Methodology 3.1. Introduction This chapter reviews the ways and methods of research, the focus of the chapter however, will be the methods that can be utilized to address and gather information about the problems faced by the building design process in Jordan. Kazdin (2003), defined methodology as the principles, procedures and techniques used for conducting a research, moreover, the research strategy - methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis - chosen needs to be appropriate for the research problem at hand in order for it to be effective (Cryer, 2006). There are two basic research strategies (Kothari, 2004, pp.1-21): 

Qualitative strategy



Quantitative strategy

The choice of which strategy to go with depends on the purpose and objectives of the study, each strategy has its own advantages and disadvantages, so in order to use the appropriate choice, an understanding of both strategies should be considered. The same rule applies to the methods or techniques of data collection; each research technique is designed to get certain kinds of information and does not get others. (Kothari, 2004, pp.96-112). As mentioned earlier, the research strategy and method of data collection should be determined by the objective or purpose of the study and since the literature review adhered the major aspects of each stage of the building design process followed in the UK, as well as the procedure and benefits of using performance measurement techniques (with focus on Design Quality Indicators (DQIs)). This chapter focuses on the methods used for collecting information about the problems faced by different participants during the building design process in Jordan.

3.2. Research strategy In order for us to choose the appropriate research strategy, we should first become familiar with the differences between two major research methodologies i.e. positivism and Interpretivism (also known as antipositivist) (Eisner, 1996).

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AlHajiri 09034876 Blaxter and Hughes (2006) defined positivism as ―the view that social science procedures should mirror, as near as possible, those of the natural sciences‖ based on the idea that it is possible to capture ‗reality‘ using (quantitative) approaches such as experiments and questionnaires. They also argued that the Interpretivists approach to research ―emphasizes the importance of the subjective experience of individuals‖ focusing on (qualitative) analysis, although occasionally it might be quantitative, but the emphasis is on the exploration rather than the experiments and mathematical treatment of data. 3.2.1. Quantitative research Keith Punch (2005) defined quantitative research as an ―empirical research where the data are in the form of numbers‖, it involves studies that make use of statistical analysis and experiments to obtain its findings, its results are usually based on large equitable samples, as this will lead to a more significant conclusion.

The main disadvantage of the quantitative research is that, because the study contains a large number of participants, the answers research participants are able to give do not have much depth. They have to be superficial and minimised, or else the researchers would be overwhelmed by data that cannot be adequately analysed (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009).

In most quantitative research projects, decisions about analysis have to be taken before data collection is undertaken. This is because the types of statistical techniques that are possible vary with the types of data collected. In the case of qualitative research, by contrast, data collection, sorting, analysis and reading can take place simultaneously (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009). 3.2.2. Qualitative research Qualitative research tends to explore the process and the reason behind the choices that led to the outcome rather than the final outcome itself, moreover, it is concerned with collecting and analysing information in as many forms - primarily non-numeric - as possible, i.e. attitudes, behaviours and experiences, it focuses on exploring an in-depth opinion of a smaller number of individuals which are carefully selected (Blaxter et al., 2006). One of the main disadvantages of qualitative research is due to the fact that participant numbers are usually small, specific and non-random; therefore the research findings may

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AlHajiri 09034876 not generalize to the larger population from which the sample was drawn, furthermore, the people who participate may not be similar to the larger population (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009). 3.2.3. A comparison between Qualitative and Quantitative

As indicated earlier, both Qualitative and Quantitative approaches have different strengths and weaknesses, thus, it is essential to choose the approach that best promises to match the objective of the study, however, if using one approach does not promise to give a dependable clear solution, both qualitative and quantitative research can be blended together and used in the same study (Thomas, 2003). Blaxter and Hughes (2006) adapted a comparison between the two approaches from Oakley (1999). Figure 10 illustrates the differences: -

3.2.3. Discussion and Rationale for Choice of Approach As mentioned earlier, the research approach chosen should be relevant to the research question and the purpose of the study, as set out in chapter one, and after considering the

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AlHajiri 09034876 influencing factors of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the qualitative approach seemed to be more appropriate.

The main reason that clarifies this decision is that, in order for us to allocate the problem(s) in the Jordanian building design process from different perspectives, we need an in-depth understanding of the problem as perceived from a selected group of participants (i.e. architects, drafters, projects managers, civil engineers, etc…), as well as an understanding of the building design process in general. The Qualitative approach can be of use in this case because it is subjective (due to the researchers experience through interaction with individuals); it provides different ways of looking at the same problem.

Another reason to choose qualitative approach is because it is inductive, which is described by Scott and Deirdre (2009) as ―a process of reasoning that follows a reverse path — observation precedes theory, hypothesis, and interpretation‖, on the other hand, a quantitative approach is deductive in its nature, which means that the ―reasoning flows from a theory to a systematic empirical observation to conclusion‖. This research is based on the problems observed by engaging a selected group, thus, the theory, hypothesis and interpretation is emphasized by the information gathered from the observation.

This approach is essential for what the study is aiming for, i.e. An understanding of the problems in the Jordanian building design process and if possible to suggest new applications – through the study of the procedures followed in the United Kingdom (basically the concepts of Design Quality Indicators) – that improves and modifies the current practices in Jordan.

3.4. Qualitative Research methods & rationale for choice Scott and Deirdre (2009) argued that in order for us to choose the right data collection tool, we need to define the focus of the study by choosing the research method. The research method depends ―on the nature of the investigation and the type of data and information that are required and available‖ (Naoum, 2007, p.44).

Blaxter and Hughes (2006) identified four commonly used research methods: - action research, case studies, experiments and surveys; though using experiments tend to be

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AlHajiri 09034876 quantitative in nature. As mentioned earlier, the research strategy chosen for this project is qualitative research, thus, the three methods considered are: 

Action research (problem solving approach): - Stephen M. Corey defined action research as ―a process for studying problems by practitioners scientifically to take decision for improving their current practices‖ (singh, 2006, p.10); it does not contribute a new knowledge in the fund of human knowledge but suggests improvements and modifications of current practices. It is usually based on the interaction with the participants in order to gain as much knowledge about the current practices from their experiences (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009).

The case studies approach: - Case study can be seen as both, a method and tool for research; it involves an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, institution, or any other level that can be considered of as a single unit, its goal is to provide an accurate, holistic and complete description of a case and it usually extends over a long period of time (Kothari, 2004).

The survey approach: - Fink (1995) described surveys as ―a system for collecting information to describe, compare or explain knowledge, attitudes and behavior‖, they allow for the collection of a significant amount of data from targeting a sizeable population. Surveys are often conducted as a team work, including a division in labor between survey designers, interviewers and those who capture the data prior to analysis (Grey, 2004)

After having a good understanding of the qualitative methods available, and taking into account that this research aims to improve the current practices of the Jordanian building design process by adopting ideas practised in the UK, the Action research method was ideal for the project; as McNiff and Whitehead (2003) argued: - ―The linking of the terms action and research highlights the essential feature of the method trying out new ideas in practice as means of improving and as means of increasing knowledge‖ (McNiff et al., 2003). Another reason for the decision is because Action research method describes the problem based on the perspective of the participants, and it enables the researcher, to

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AlHajiri 09034876 assist the participants (by suggesting ideas of other applications that can help) with the outcomes of the research. ―There is also an assumption in action research that participation in the research process will empower those studied to implement the findings and make significant changes.‖ (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009)

3.5. Research Tools and Rationale for choice There is a wide variety of research tools, each employing distinctive ways of describing and qualifying data and each tool is particularly appropriate for certain sources of information (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009). Blaxter and Hughes (2006) separated the tools into two types: 

Fieldwork (ethnography): - involves the process of going out to collect research data that cannot be accessed without being engaged without some kind of expedition. The field researcher grasps multiple perspectives of a process in its natural setting (Neuman, 2007).

Deskwork: - consists of research processes that does not necessitate going into the field such as the collection of postal surveys.

As mentioned earlier, this research requires engagement with participants whom are involved in the Building design process in Jordan, in addition, it requires approaching the problems from different perspectives or point of views, thus, fieldwork data collecting tools serves the objects of this research better. Scott and Deirdre (2009) argued that several fieldwork tools can be used within the action research approach, some of the tools mentioned are: 

Observations: - it involves watching and listening to people very carefully in order to discover particular information about their behaviour, it is very time consuming and it primary depends on the type of access to the participants (Patton, 2002, p. 267).

Interviews: - involve ―a presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses‖ (Kothari, 2004, p.97); it collects a variety of data covering any number of content areas. This method can be used through direct personal interviews or as indirect interviews i.e. telephone interviews, using the internet, etc....

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AlHajiri 09034876 

Focus Group: - involves ―interviewing‖ people in a group discussion setting at the same time, it makes use of the interaction between a group as a source of further information.

After taking into consideration the different properties of the tools mentioned above, using interviews as a tool for data collection seemed to be more appropriate for achieving the goals of this research, since it requires less time to gather information about a particular problem than observation, furthermore, the busy nature of the construction industry makes it harder to arrange a focus group attended by all participants required.

Both direct personal interviews and indirect interviews can be used in this research, however, the objectives of this research (i.e. finding problems in the building design process) require enough time for the interviewer to probe or ask follow up questions, telephone interviews need to be relatively slow or the interviewee will feel imposed (Amaratunga et al., 2002), moreover, in Jordan, most people don‘t have publically listed telephone numbers, thus, personal interviews will be considered the primary method of collecting data.

Dr Catherin Dawson (2002) argued that there are different forms of personal interviews, the most common of these are: 

Unstructured Interviews: - ―do not follow a system of pre-determined questions and standardised techniques of recording information‖ (Kothari, 2004, p.98), the questions asked are usually open-ended questions (unstructured, free response) , the participants are free to talk about what they think is important with little directional influence from the researcher who should ask as few questions as possible (Neuman, 2007).

Semi Structured Interviews: - involves asking both open-ended and closed-ended questions (structured, free response) in any order, the questions are usually the same in every interview, yet, flexibility is maintained so that other important information can still arise (Dawson, 2002).

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AlHajiri 09034876 

Structured Interviews: - follows a set of prescribed closed-ended questions, the questions are the same for each and every interview, which renders it common in quantitative researches (Dawson, 2002)

Having considered the upsides and downsides of each form of personal interviews, semistructured interviews seemed to be ideal for this project for a number of reasons, as opposed to structured interviews and unstructured interviews. First, they allow the researcher to shape the discussion (using open-ended questions) to some extent while also giving the participants freedom to express themselves; moreover, using this form allows the researcher to gather unexpected answers. The approach also allows the participants to express their beliefs and feelings and what is really important to them, rather than limiting it to what is important to the researcher.

The planned aim of interviewing the people involved in the Jordanian building design procedure was to investigate the problems they face (as seen from their perspective) and to recognize the general aspects of the construction procurement procedure followed in Jordan. The questions were based on the objectives mentioned in chapter 1, they covered the following:

The construction procurement procedure followed Jordan

The problems in the procurement procedure followed in Jordan

The design process followed in the company

The problem(s) that arise from the currently used design process

The causes of the problem(s)

The effects of the problem(s)

The concepts of Design Quality Indicators

The interviews were conducted in Arabic since it is the first language of the participants, all of the participants were able to speak English, yet, it was not there preferred language.

3.6. Selection of Sample (participants) Cohen et al (2007, p.100) argues that ―the Quality of a piece of research stands or falls not only by the appropriateness of methodology and instrumentation, but also by the suitability of the sampling strategy that has been adopted‖, Kothari (2004, p.141) defines

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AlHajiri 09034876 sampling as choosing ―a representative sample, or a small a small collection of units or cases from a much larger collection or population‖. Qualitative and quantitative researches have different sampling techniques, Quantitative research tend to use ―random‖ or ―probability‖ sampling, while qualitative research tend to use ―non-probability‖ sampling (Neuman, 2007, p.141). Scott and Deirdre (2009) defined non-random sampling as when the ―participants are selected based on characteristics they possess or their availability to participate. Therefore, each population member is not equally likely to be selected to participate‖, on the other hand random sampling is defined as when ―a member of the sampling frame has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in the study‖ (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009). Blaxter and Hughes (2006, p.163) listed a variety of sampling strategies, Figure 11 illustrates the differences: -

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AlHajiri 09034876 The type of sampling should be based on the research strategy, since a qualitative approach has been chosen for this research, the properties of some non-probability sampling techniques are discussed below: 

Convenience sampling: - involves selecting the participants simply based on the ease of access to the researcher (Kothari, 2004, p.15)

Snowball sampling: - involves sampling a core group of people, the participants are then asked to identify others who are eligible to participate, the second generation are then contacted and then asked to identify more people (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009).

Purposive sampling: - is when the researcher handpicks the cases in the sample on the basis of the specific characteristic that they possess (Cohen et al., 2007, p.114).

After taking into considering the properties of the sampling strategies mentioned above, purposive sampling seemed to be most appropriate since the research requires choosing people according to their expertise and their occupation in the Jordanian building construction companies. In order to decrease the scope of selection, the research aimed to target companies with different performance levels. This however, was not possible, since after visiting the Jordan Engineers Association (JEA)5 to find two companies with different performance levels, it was found that companies in the Jordanian construction sector are only ranked by the number of employees and the floor area, therefore, companies with different rankings (i.e. number of employees and floor area) were chosen. The research aimed to allocate the problem(s) in the Jordanian building design process from different perspectives, thus, in both companies, semi structured interviews were conducted to participants of different occupations and experience levels. The data was obtained using notes since they can be less intrusive than recording equipment, thus, encouraging participants to actually communicate with the researcher rather than the recording device (i.e. camera, voice recorder, etc…), in addition, field notes allow the opportunity for the researcher to reflect, interpret and analyse the thoughts that occur during the interview (Vanderstoep & Johnston , 2009).

5

Architects are considered Engineers in Jordan

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3.7. Data analysis process (preparation and analysis) After obtaining the data from the interviews, the data was organized systematically according to the notes; the information was then translated from Arabic, the final transcript was then sent to the participants (by email or by hand), participants were asked to revise the transcript and make any changes or additions required. Most respondents replied via telephone and the transcript was revised or updated with a telephone conversation to ensure a proper response.

3.8. Ethical Consideration Lawrence Neuman (2007, p.48) identified ethics as ―the concerns, dilemmas, and conflicts that arise over the proper way to conduct research‖, James McNamara (1997) classified five ethical guidelines that should be considered.

1. Voluntary participation: - involves giving the respondents the right to answer questions or refuse participation at any time. Permission was granted by the respondents prior any interview.

2. No harm to respondents: - feeling uncomfortable and embarrassment about questions fall within the limits of ―harm‖ (McNamara, 1997). The interview however, did not include any sensitive questions that could cause embarrassment or any uncomfortable feelings.

3. Anonymity and confidentiality: - anonymity involves assuring the participants that they will not be identifiable in the research. Confidentiality involves both ―an individual‘s right to have control over the use or access of his or her personal information as well as the right to have the information that he or she shares with the research team kept private report or thesis‖ (Marczyk et al., 2005, p.244). Participants were informed that the data gathered will be confidential, yet, most of the participants objected to being identified, therefore, for the sake of uniformity; each participant will be identified in the research by the occupation (e.g. Architect 1, Civil Engineer 2, etc…)

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AlHajiri 09034876 4. Identifying purpose and sponsor: - the participants were informed prior the interview the purpose of the interview and that it will be used in a Masters (MSc) dissertation for the University of the West of England.

5. Analysis and reporting: - involves an accurately reporting the methods and the results of the approach chosen (i.e. interview) since improvement can be only achieved through honesty (McNamara, 1997), the researcher accepts the responsibility of reporting problems or weaknesses experienced, as well as the results of the study.

3.9. Conclusion

This chapter explained in details the characteristics of the research approach, methods and techniques used in this study, the choices were identified in relation to the methodological questions sustaining this study.

The research strategy that was appropriate for this study was the qualitative approach; moreover, semi structured interviews were used as the data collection tool. The chapter also discussed the sampling technique used and the participants targeted by the researcher (i.e. participants whom are involved in the building design process in Jordan).

The methodology chapter concluded with a discussion of the data analysis process and the ethical considerations. The next chapter will discuss the analysed data emerging from the respondents.

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4. Interpretation and Analysis 4.1. Introduction This chapter presents the data analysis in details and highlights the findings emanating from this research. As mentioned earlier, the data was collected through semi-structured interviews, therefore, analysing the data seemed to be an ongoing process throughout the interviews; participants raised issues that were not thought of previously, resulting in a refined interview schedule to include these issues in future interviews. The interview 6 was divided into two parts; the first part included a power point presentation of the construction procurement framework followed in the United Kingdom, this part targeted project managers and an engineer working at the Jordanian Engineer Association (since they have a holistic view of the construction procurement system), it discussed the following: 

The problems in the Jordanian construction procurement framework as a whole,

The differences between the construction procurement frameworks followed in the United Kingdom and Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The second part included a power point presentation of Design Quality Indicators (DQI), this part targeted all participants including project managers, and it discussed the following: 

The problems in the Jordanian building design process as seen from different perspectives

The causes and effects of the problem mentioned

The concepts and effects of Design quality Indicators

Interviews varied in length, project managers required more time since their interview consisted of two parts and two presentations, each presentation (i.e. Construction procurement framework and DQI) required 10-15 minutes. The time required for each interviews varied from 45 minutes to 1 hour 30 minutes, interviews that required more time where conducted on two separate days due to time conflicts.

6

A list of the questions and topics covered can be found in Appendix 1

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4.2. Interviewees Since the aim of the study is locating the problems in the Jordanian construction procurement framework, participants in the interview are required to have been working for a long amount of time; therefore, all the interviewees chosen have a minimum of 5 years‘ experience working in the construction industry. As mentioned in chapter 3, most of the participants objected to being identified in the research, therefore, for the sake of uniformity; each participant will be identified by his occupation. The list below gives a brief background explanation of each participant: -

JEA Engineer: A civil Engineer with 32 years of experience in the construction industry, he has been working in the Jordanian Engineering Association as a manager in the Department responsible for Jordanian Construction Firms for 5 years.

Project manager 1: a project manager with 12 years of experience; has a BSc in Architecture and an MSc in Project management from the United States of America; has been working for 10 years on residential and commercial projects in Jordan.

Project manager 2: a project manager with 20 years of experience; Used to work in the United Arab Emirates and has been working in the Jordanian construction industry for 7 years in a Multi-Disciplinary Design Consultancy as the Head of project management.

Architect 1: An architect with 24 years of experience, he works on both public and private projects. He is a partner in a build and design company that works in some projects for the royal families and the army of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Architect 2: an architect with 6 years of experience, working as a designer/ planner in one of the leading firms in Jordan.

Drafter: CAD drafter with 35 years of experience.

Mechanical Engineer: a mechanical engineer with 10 years of experience; works also as a field mechanical engineer in several landmark projects in Jordan.

Electrical Engineer: an electrical engineer with 6 years of experience; works in one of the leading construction firms in Jordan.

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Civil Engineer: a civil engineer with 21 years of experience; works in a multinational design consultancy.

4.3. Analysis In order to have a better understanding of the problem, the analysis was divided into two parts, the first part adhere the problems faced in the Jordanian procurement system as a whole (targeted the project managers and the JEA engineer), and the second part adheres the problems in the Jordanian building design system (targeted all participants). 4.3.1. Part 1: Jordanian Procurement system As mentioned earlier, the interview started with a presentation 7 about the construction procurement framework used in the UK using the framework adapted from the Office of Government Commerce (OGC, 2007, pp.6-7), Figure 12:

Figure 12: construction procurement framework (OGC, 2007, pp.6-7)

After the presentation, the participants were asked about the differences between the Jordanian framework and the English framework, Project Manager 1 mentioned that the first and most important difference is ―that in Jordan you will not find any figure with the

7

The Presentation can be found in Appendix 2

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AlHajiri 09034876 whole process embedded in‖ he added that ―before we can spot and fix the problems, we need to be able to realise the system that we work in‖. Project manager 2 argued that ―we almost have every step found in the English framework, but the difference is that they are not connected together‖ he added that ―there are several companies who do everything up until gate 0, and another set of companies that do everything up until gate 1, and so on… but there are no gates nor feedback procedure, which render the process to be fragmented.‖ Moreover, both project managers agreed that the absence of Benchmarking procedures or as Project Manager 1 described it ―a ranking procedure that is based on Performance rather than the budget, floor area and number of employees‖ has a major effect on the performance of the construction industry in Jordan. In order to acknowledge the reason behind the absence of Benchmarking procedures, the question was directed towards the JEA engineer, his response was that ―the Culture in Jordan does not allow the Jordanian Engineering Association to publish publicly the performance of each company‖ he added that ―if the results were published, both public and private companies who are not at the top of the performance list will object, arguing that the JEA is directing the clients away‖. Nonetheless, when he was told how the process works and that it enhances the end result for the clients on the long-run through fair competition, he agreed and said that ―if Benchmarking is going to be applied in Jordan, the JEA will require time to create a framework for measuring the performance of companies‖ Another problem that affects the performance of the construction procurement system in Jordan was brought to attention by Project manager 1; he argued that ―the presence of unskilled labour causes delay and reduced quality‖ he added that ―in order to reduce on operation costs, clients and contractors prefer unskilled labour since they take a cheaper wage‖ 4.3.2. Part two: Jordanian building design

This part adhere the problems in the Jordanian building design process, it targets all participants. As mentioned earlier, participants were asked about the problems in the building design process in Jordan, which is then followed by a power point presentation about Design Quality Indicators.

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AlHajiri 09034876 The main aim of this part is finding problems that affect design quality, and when participants were asked about it, most of them agreed that the most important problem was ―design changes during construction‖, Architect 1 argued that what makes it so ―horrible‖ is that ―changes during construction affect the quality much more than when they appear during the early stages of design‖, moreover, they all agreed that each and every project will have at least minimal changes during construction. When asked about the reason behind the ―design changes during construction‖, the answers varied, Architect 2, mentioned the ―client brief‖ as a reason for design changes, he argued that clients –specially the inexperienced– often do not know what they want, Architect 1 added that ―clients tend to be inpatient, even if they agree on the brief, when they see the building being constructed, they do not see the whole picture and they try to mend what they see to what they imagine‖ On the other hand, both The Mechanical Engineer and the Civil Engineer pointed out that the client brief should not be considered as a problem in itself, they believed that the ―reason‖ behind a poor client brief is the problem; the Civil Engineer argued that the ―system of meetings with clients‖ followed in most Jordanian design firms can lead to a poor brief, they mentioned that meetings with clients usually consist of the senior architect and the client (and he often brings an external contractor to the meetings) with no consideration to other disciplines. When this problem was discussed, Architect 2 agreed and added that this problem affects designers as well as other disciplines; he argued that ―sometimes the senior architect miss translates the idea given to him by the client, who in turn gives us (the designers) a wrong idea about the client needs‖. Another problem that leads to Design changes during construction pointed out by most participants is ―Communication issues‖; Project manager 1 states that communication problems between departments often lead to design changes during construction, Project Manager 2 added that ―Joint venture projects are more prone to communication problems‖, he provided an example, stating that his firm was once responsible for the landscape in a joint venture project, and that they found a pipe onsite while digging to plant a palm tree around the boundary wall of the project, the problem seemed to be that the company responsible for the infrastructure did not update the shop-drawings given to his firm, and because of the short distance between the pipes and the boundary wall of the project , ordinary construction methods did not work and they were forced to change to hand labour, which increased the cost of works and the time required to get the work done, leading to penalties.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Architect 1 pointed out that there are other types of ―communication issues‖ that affect quality of design, such as having insufficient client meetings; he argued that this issue is more often faced with clients who are abroad since they usually attend the first couple of meetings then appoint other consultants to work with the design team, and when the construction phase starts, the client discovers that many decisions that have been taken on his behalf by the consultants he assigned are not as he imagined, at that point, the client either reduce the quality to co-op with the time limit, or pay for construction changes. Another problem that relates to the client was mentioned by Project Manager 1, he argued that ―an important aspect in our construction industry, is that when the client is involved in the tender process, the lowest bidder is usually the contractor awarded the contract‖, he stated that the reason behind this ―phenomenon‖ is that when the client is inexperienced he does not know the fact that the lowest bidder will usually have ―cut costs, overlooked some aspects, or simply taking a risk‖. Choosing the right contractor seem to be one of the major problems in the Jordanian construction industry since as Project Manager 1 argued; ―contractors are ranked based on their company‘s capital and not on their qualifications‖, moreover, he considered the absence of licensed administrative bureaus for contractors to be one of the most important issues that relate to the Quality of the project. Project Manager 1 and Civil Engineer argued that the financial support by the client/owner is also a problem since it reflect on the quality, cost and time required for the project to finish. Project manager 1 added that problems usually come in a ―chain like system… each and every problem leads to another… and they all reflect on the final quality of the project‖ Design Quality Indicator Presentation As mentioned earlier, the interview consisted of a power point presentation8 describing the concepts of Design quality indicators (DQIs), and at the end of the presentation, participants had different views about what they thought was most important. 

Both Architect 1 and Architect 2 thought that the idea of changing qualitative aspects into a quantitative format was the most important aspect in the Design quality indicators (DQIs) since it turns the client brief into a ―checklist‖ rendering it

8

The presentation can be found in appendix 3

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AlHajiri 09034876 an easier process, in addition, Architect 1 argued that it ―urges‖ the client to focus on design rather than rushing into the construction phase. They believed that checking the project against the client brief or requirements throughout all construction phases can reduce many of the disputes that usually occur between Architects and clients. 

Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer and mechanical Engineer thought that the procedure of DQI guarantees their involvement in the design process at early stages.

Project manager 1 thought that using a feedback procedure as a tool ―to allocate someone‘s mistake‖ will have a ―futuristic effect‖ on the construction industry. Project manager 2 argued that ―feedback procedures were used in some Jordanian companies a few years ago‖, and for some reason they stopped using them, he added that ―it‘s time for feedback procedures to be used again‖.

Most participants mentioned that considering the end-user requirement throughout the design process renders the project fit for purpose, Architect 1 mentioned that ―several projects were designed (without taking into account any consideration to the end-user requirements) and failed, even though, the requirements of the client were met‖, he added that ―considering the end-user throughout the design phases and involving him in the meetings can extend the lifetime of a project.‖ Is Design Quality getting any better or worse over the time? At the end of each interview, participants were asked if design quality has been getting any better or worse over the years in Jordan. The participants gave two different responses, Project manager 2 stated that ―the economic crisis played an important part in enhancing the design quality of buildings‖, he added that ―many Jordanians returned to Jordan from countries such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar bringing their expertise with them‖. Architect 1 argued that ―it depends on many factors and that each and every project differs‖, he added that there will always be changes in design, leading to lower quality, but changes are becoming more often seen in design phases, rather than during construction, stating that ―the more changes occur during the design phase, the less design changes occur during construction since this will help in reviewing the designs on more time‖.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Most participants agree that the design quality is enhancing due to lessons learnt from past projects and because individuals are becoming more aware of why quality matters and how to deal with the issue.

4.4. Conclusion This chapter concentrated on the interpretation of the data gathered in this study. The analysis was divided into two parts, the first discussed the problems in the Jordanian construction procurement framework in general and the second part discussed the problems in the building design process. The interviews intended to only discuss the matters that affect design quality directly, however, the chapter discussed all the issues highlighted by the interviewee since as project manager 1 mentioned, problems usually come in a ―chain like system… each and every problem leads to another… and they all reflect on the final quality of the project‖.

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5. Discussion 5.1. Introduction This chapter summarises the problems mentioned by the interviewee in chapter 4, reviewing each problem closely. It will discuss the problems that the Design Quality Indicator concepts can help enhance and recommends better applications for those problems that cannot be enhanced by DQIs based on the literature review and former researches. The problems will be divided into two parts, the first part adhere the problems of the Jordanian construction procurement framework in general and the second part adheres the problems in the Jordanian building design process.

5.2. Problems of the Jordanian construction procurement framework This part addresses the problems in the Jordanian construction procurement framework as a whole. It will discuss some of the problems mentioned in chapter 4 by Project Manager 1, Project Manager 2 and the JEA Engineer, and suggest alternate solutions when possible.

5.2.1. Absence of benchmarking procedures Project Manager 1 mentioned that companies in Jordan are ranked by their ―budget, floor area and number of employees‖ rather than by their performance, the JEA Engineer argued that publically publishing the performance of construction companies will be opposed for different reasons.

Figure 13: adapted from (Nelson, 2006, p.64)

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AlHajiri 09034876 Proposed alternate application & steps required As mentioned in the literature review, benchmarking consist of three types, Internal, Competitive and Generic Benchmarking, And since publically publishing the performance of companies seem to be the problem, the industry can still make use of Internal benchmarking, nonetheless, there are some ―cultural factors‖ required for internal benchmarking to be successful (Tutcher, 1994):-

Management Involvement: - Managers should facilitate the access to information and resources, since the source of information will be the organization itself.

Openness: - there should be no barriers between departments nor rivalry and suspicion, because employees will be reluctant to share information about what they do.

Understanding: - a detailed understanding of the services and products of an organization, including how they link together is necessary. It is not feasible to look for best practice when the definition of the practice is not known in details.

Integration: - Benchmarking should be a commonly accepted activity at all levels, it should be incorporated in the planning process, annual objectives and performance appraisal.

After having the right cultural factors, the organization should plan the benchmarking process. There are several internal benchmarking models that have been applied in various settings (Marwa & Zairi, 2008), but the following figure describes an approach adopted by Sherif Mohamed (1996) that is both simple and based on good practice (Mohamed, 1996);

Figure 14: Main elements of internal benchmarking

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AlHajiri 09034876 This process will help the organisation to identify its strength and weaknesses enabling it to highlight potential improvement areas. Once this process is established in several organisations in Jordan, they can embark upon the second phase or type of benchmarking – the Competitive Benchmarking.

5.2.2. Presence of unskilled labour Project manager 1 argued that the ―presence of unskilled labour causes delay and reduced quality‖ and that in order to reduce on operation costs, clients and contractors prefer unskilled labour since they take a cheaper wage‖.

A research study by Martin Edwards (2005) mentioned that in the mid-90s highly skilled Jordanians began to migrate in large numbers. At the same time as exporting skilled labour, Jordan imports mainly unskilled labour, he added that ―Although there is a sort of equilibrium between skilled labour export and unskilled labour import, it is not a long-term solution‖ A more recent study by Al-Samari et al. (2010) argues that the problem seem to be that Jordan is facing a puzzle of choice between exporting experts and combating ―brain drain‖. On one hand, exporting experts (skilled labour) increase Jordan‘s income and increase investment potential. On the other hand, exporting skilled-labour results in Brain drain that could reduce the productivity and quality of services at domestic level. However, the government policies in Jordan with respect to labour market are improving and becoming more regulated. Some of the policies that affect the problem mentioned by Project manager 1 are as following (ALSamari et al., 2010):

Regulating the labour market and replacing foreign labour by Jordanian labour.

Enhancing labour market efficiency and increasing labour productivity by providing efficient rehabilitation and training for human resources in fields that reflect market needs.

Building up a database on labour market and relevant information for job-seeking persons, policymakers and researchers.

The characteristics of the Jordanian labour forces market are improving and the effects of such policies will be felt in due time (ALSamari et al., 2010).

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5.3. Problems in the Jordanian building Design Process This part addresses the problems in the Jordanian building design process that affect design quality, it will discuss ―How‖ Design Quality Indicators (DQIs) enhance some of the problems and suggest alternate solutions to other problems that were mentioned in chapter 4 by the participants. 5.3.1. Design changes during construction

Participants agreed that design changes during construction is the most important problem in the Jordanian construction industry since it greatly affects the quality of the design, they agreed that in order to prevent design changes during construction certain current practices in the Design phase should be enhanced. This part addresses those problems mentioned by the participants in chapter 4. 5.3.1.1 Client brief

Architect 2 argued that a poor design brief is a major reason for design changes. As mentioned in chapter 2 (literature review), a good building originates from a good brief, and a good brief emanates from a thorough understanding of the program, the aspirations of the client and all stakeholders, local constraints and a rigorous testing of solutions (CABE, 2006, p.6). The list below shows the problems mentioned by all the participants affecting the quality of the client brief: Unknown Client needs Architect 2 argued that clients – specially the inexperienced ones – often do not know what they want, which in turn, leads to a poor design brief, however, the process of creating the brief is not a one way process, the client and the design team need each other to formulate a brief that is acceptable by all parties. In order to help improve this phenomenon in Jordan, certain aspects of the Design Quality Indicator tool can be used. As mentioned earlier, the Design Quality Indicator tool is divided into four versions, the brief version can be used through strategic briefing stages to complement the brief information and clearly set the project aspirations using DQI questionnaire (since it is the main data collection tool) and the FAVE module mentioned in chapter 2.

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AlHajiri 09034876 System of meeting with clients The Civil Engineer argued that the system of meetings with clients in Jordan requires enhancing since it only consists of only the architect and the client, it does not consider all the stakeholders or other disciplines i.e. structural, mechanical and electrical engineers. This phenomenon can also be improved through the procedure of applying the design quality indicator (DQI) tool since its workshops not only include the stakeholders and the disciplines involved in the building process but it also includes the end-users since they are the people who are left with the building in the end – they have the most at stake in ensuring the building is fit for purpose. Rushing through the Design process Architect 1 argued that many clients rush through the design process thinking that they will finish the project earlier or that it cut on costs. This problem requires more awareness on behalf of the client since as Sir Stuart Lipton (2002) argued, ―design represents a minute proportion of the whole lifetime cost of a building – less than one percent – but when it is done well it has a disproportionate impact on how the building and its surrounding perform.‖ (NAO & OGC, 2004).

Figure 15: Cost of change at various stages

Figure 14 shows that there is a strong relation between change, time and cost. There is no cost of change at the beginning but the further the project is developed; the costlier it is to change. A project requires adequate pre-planning in order for it to achieve value for money.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Using design quality indicators urges the client to focus on design since the workshops, the questionnaires and the FAVE module help increase the design time. 5.3.1.2 Client issues

It was noticed through the interviews that most participants mentioned and agreed that the ―client‖ is the most common reason for design changes during construction, and since the client is a major stakeholder in the design process, The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) has set out principles that clients must follow in order to achieve best practice (CABE, 2002), some of the principles can be used to make Jordanian clients more aware. 1. Understand the role of design: - there is clear evidence that good design has an impact on improved quality of life, familiarity with the evidence and good real-life examples will help the client understand how design improves his project. 2. Recognise the barriers to design: - being aware of the common pitfalls means that the client can work to avoid them, and make sure that the procedures are in place to get an excellent design 3. Insist on the importance of design from brief to on-site construction: - as mentioned earlier in figure 14; the client should show a commitment to design from the start; it should be a properly weighted factor at all phases of the procurement process. 4. Consider whole-life value: - good design improves efficiency and reduce operational costs significantly over the decades of building use. As mentioned earlier design less than one percent of the whole lifetime cost of a building (NAO & OGC, 2004). 5. Get design advice: - ―high-quality design advice throughout the life of the project is invaluable, and clients should always look to hire relevant expertise‖ (CABE, 2002). 6. Think about civic value: - good design should lift people‘s spirit, consider endusers and recognize the buildings impact on the surrounding environment. 7. Go and see examples: - case studies of best practice are great illustrations of how to act since they can provide inspiration and help clients realise their needs.

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5.4. Suggested Design Framework (using DQI concepts) This part of the chapter suggests a design framework from the concepts acquired from Design Quality Indicators; the framework should be able to solve some of the problems mentioned in the interviews. It will consider the same stages mentioned in chapter 2 (literature review): 5.4.1. Briefing Stage

Starting the process 

Since there is no DQI tool in Jordan and no DQI facilitators, the process should be set by any member of the project team, yet, it is important for this member to be able to rally all the key stakeholders and to have a good knowledge of the broader agenda of the project e.g. the project manager, the senior architect, etc…

Gathering the stakeholders 

The leader should make sure that all stakeholders, especially those who had no prior experience of the design process feel willing and able to participate in the session. This step will allow the participants to gain a better understanding of the whole process rather than just the parts relating to each participant.

The respondents should be recognised as experts in their specialist areas

The leader should make sure that all the stakeholders are able to be involved in each session to ensure consistency

The leader should state the aim of the process, i.e. set end user aspiration at the briefing stage and test them throughout the design development

Starting the session 

The facilitator encourages the stakeholders to think about successful and unsuccessful projects encountered in their everyday life to get them thinking about design and how it affects people and organisations.

The stakeholders should discuss their examples in relation to the three measures adapted from the DQI tool i.e. Functionality, Built quality and impact

The facilitator should stress the importance of good design empowering the stakeholders to influence design throughout the session

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AlHajiri 09034876 

The facilitator discusses each set of questions9 with the stakeholders as a group and as individuals to acquire the different perspectives of the stakeholders and to pursue the shared priorities.

A checklist of the stakeholders needs should be developed by the leader (depending on the results of the session) and it should be passed to the project team.

5.4.2. Mid-design assessment 

The leader should start by briefing the participants about the results of the past sessions and a presentation of the design by the architect10

Stakeholders are asked to evaluate the design through a mid-design questionnaire; they should be encouraged to answer the questionnaire independently to highlight their individual perspective

At the end of the session, the stakeholders discussed the results, issues, ideas and questions that were generated by the questionnaire.

The checklist should be developed throughout the design by the leader

5.4.3. Evaluating the building before occupation 

The pre-occupancy evaluation involved a walk around the new building with the architect, who answered questions. This was used to see whether objectives had been met by the final building (using the checklist).

5.4.4. Post occupancy 

The project team should revisit the project after it has been occupied and communicate with the current users. The lessoned learnt should be fed into the development of the questionnaire and other buildings.

End-user consultation is important since it will ensure that key requirements are understood and integrated into future designs

9

The questionnaire should be composed of a set of statements that collect the views from all stakeholders, they can be inspired from the DQI statements used in the UK or developed according to the traditions in Jordan 10 In case of tenders, bidders should be informed through the brief about the stakeholders needs. And the stakeholders will assess each and every design. The result of the assessment will show the preferred bidder.

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5.5. Conclusion This chapter discussed most of the problems mentioned in the interviewees; it reviewed each problem in details and when possible; it suggested new ways to replace or enhance the current practices in Jordan. It concluded with a suggested Design framework adapted from the concepts of the Design Quality Indicator tool, the framework was designed to fit into the Design procedure followed in Jordan.

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6. Conclusion 6.1. Introduction

This chapter is the final chapter of this dissertation, the aim of this chapter is to show how the objectives set at the beginning of this study has been achieved. As mentioned earlier, the purpose of this study was to understand the problems in the Jordanian building design process and to suggest if possible new applications – through the study of procedures followed in the United Kingdom (Basically the concepts of Design Quality Indicators) – that improve and modifies the current practices in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. This chapter focuses and summarises the following: 

A summary of the objectives and findings of each chapter

States the recommendations

Barriers and limitations of the study

Reflections on the researcher

6.2. Research Summary & objectives accomplished This research provides contributions in several areas. The following paragraphs itemize conclusions, the objectives and major identifiable tasks that have been accomplished in each chapter. 6.2.1. Chapter 1 (Introduction)

The first chapter presents an overview of the topic; it explains the aims and objectives of the study and the methodological rationale used to achieve the objectives. The objectives of the research mentioned in this chapter are as follow: 

To review the measures taken to improve performance in the construction procurement framework carried in the United Kingdoms

To identify the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process

To improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible

To propose a design framework that can fit into the Jordanian procedures followed in Jordan

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AlHajiri 09034876 6.2.2. Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Chapter 2 highlights the literature review; it was divided into two parts, the first part begins with the definition of the word ―Design‖ since the research focus on the problems allocated in the Jordanian building design process. It was found out that there is no absolute agreement about the definition of design and that the reason for this phenomenon, as noted by Bryan Lawson, is that the word design can be regarded as both, a noun and a verb; therefore, it can either refer to the process or the end product. The literature review showed that improving the quality of the end product requires a thorough understanding of the key stages of any project, therefore, the chapter discussed four primary project stages mentioned by the Construction Industry Council (2006): 

Brief

Design

Construction

In-use

Aspects that can affect the design quality of the final product were discussed in each stage; yet, the chapter focused mostly on the briefing and design stages due to their strong relevance to the dissertation topic.

The second part of the literature review discusses the different procedures used in the United Kingdoms to measure and improve performance in the construction industry. It briefly discusses the types of benchmarking procedures and several performance measurement tools, moreover, it thoroughly discusses the procedure of using the Design Quality Indicator tool (DQI) since it is the main tool used throughout the dissertation, aspects such as who should use the tool, the phases that the tool should be used in and the benefits that can be gained is discussed in details.

Objectives accomplished 

Reviewed the measures taken to improve performance in the construction procurement framework carried in the United Kingdoms

The information gained from this chapter was used to improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible

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The proposed design framework was based on the information gained in this chapter

6.2.3. Chapter 3 (Methodology) Chapter 3 discusses the research design and examines the purpose of the study; it gives the reader detailed and sufficient information in order to give an estimate of the reliability and validity of the methods used. It explains the different research approaches, methods and tools, and justifies the choices adapted in this research in relation to the objectives and methodological questions sustaining this study. The research strategy found most appropriate for this study is the qualitative approach since its properties help the researcher to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problems in the Jordanian building design process as perceived from a selected group of participants (i.e. architects, drafters, projects managers, civil engineers, etc…); moreover, the qualitative research strategy is inductive in its nature, which relates to the research objectives since it is based on the problems observed by engaging a selected group, thus, the theory, hypothesis and interpretation is emphasized by the information gathered from the observation.

Semi-structured interviews were used as the data collection tool since it allows the researcher to shape the discussion to some extent, while also giving the participants the freedom to express themselves, which in turn, allows the researcher to gather unexpected answers.

The chapter also discusses the sampling technique used and the participants targeted by the researcher (i.e. participants whom are involved in the building design process in Jordan). To conclude the chapter, research ethics were discussed in terms of:

Voluntary participation

No harm to respondents

Anonymity and confidentiality

Identifying purpose and sponsor

Analysis and reporting

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AlHajiri 09034876 Objectives accomplished 

This chapter helped in designing the framework used to identify the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process

6.2.4. Chapter 4 (interpretation and Analysis)

This chapter presented the data analysis in details and highlighted the findings emanating from the interviews. The analysed data was divided into two parts, the first part adheres the problem faced in the Jordanian procurement system as a whole such as the absence of benchmark procedures and the high amount of unskilled labour in the Jordanian construction industry. The second part adhere the problems in the building design process that affect design quality, it was found out the main quality issue raised by respondents is design changes during construction. Respondents related the problem to different reasons such as developing a poor brief, communication issues, the absence of feedback procedures, etc.... Objectives accomplished 

This chapter identified the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process by analysing and interpreting the information gathered from the interviews

6.2.5 Chapter 5 (Discussion)

Chapter 5 summarises the problems mentioned by the interviewee in chapter 4, it discusses each problem closely pointing out the problems that Design Quality Indicator concepts can help improve, moreover, it recommends better applications for the problems that cannot be enhanced using DQIs based on the literature review and former researches. The problems were divided into two parts, the first part adhere the problems - affecting design quality - that arise from current practices in the Jordanian construction procurement framework in general, problems such as the absence of benchmarking procedures and presence of unskilled labour were looked into and discussed in details, when appropriate, alternate practices that can improve the situation were suggested.

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AlHajiri 09034876 The second part address the problems affecting design quality in the Jordanian building design process, it discusses ―How‖ Design Quality Indicators (DQIs) improve the current practices in Jordan and suggests a design framework adapted from the concepts acquired from the design quality indicator tool; the framework should be able to solve or improve some of the problems mentioned in the interviews. The design framework considered the same stages mentioned in the literature review (chapter 2) and was designed to fit into the design procedure followed in Jordan. It was noticed throughout the interviews that most participants mentioned and agreed that the ―client‖ is the most common reason for design changes during construction, therefore, the chapter covers some principles11 that client should abide by during the construction procurement process. Objectives accomplished 

This chapter suggested alternative practices that can improve the problems mentioned in chapter 4

A design framework that can fit into the Jordanian procedures followed in Jordan was proposed taking into account all the problems mentioned in chapter 4

6.3. Barriers and Limitations of the study The barriers and limitations of the research are addressed in relation to the objectives of the research 1. To review the measures used to improve performance in the construction procurement framework carried in the United Kingdoms The study focused on some of the measures used in the UK (i.e. concepts of Benchmarking & the Design Quality Indicator tool); however, there are other measures that can also be useful if applied in the Jordanian Construction framework, but reviewing all the measures used in the UK was not possible due to time constraints. 2. To identify the problems in the Jordanian Building Design process As mentioned earlier semi-structured interviews were used to gather the data about the problems in the Jordanian building design process, the interview process was easier than initially thought, yet, due to the busy nature of the construction industry, only a limited 11

The principles were adapted from The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. (CABE, 2002).

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AlHajiri 09034876 number of interviews were done. Further research with even a larger sample can help broaden the scope of the study; in addition, interviewing clients would have been helpful since problems can be perceived from another perspective, but, it was not possible due to policies of the interviewed firms. The lack of sufficient experience on behalf of the researcher can have a double effect on the research outcome, on one hand; the researcher could not have affected the outcome of the interviews, on the other hand, during the interview, if the researcher had more experience he could have stirred the interview differently and the outcome would have been more specific. 3. To improve the current Jordanian practices by suggesting alternative practices whenever possible Some of the problems mentioned by the interviewees were caused by cultural and social aspects, hence, they were not addressed since they were out of the research scope, in addition, some of the problems mentioned by the interviewees should be resolved over a period of time since they have already been addressed by the government and the Jordanian Engineering Association (JEA). 4. To propose a design framework that can fit into the Jordanian procedures followed in Jordan More time was needed to study the Jordanian building design procedure in details so that a more detailed design framework could be suggested, yet, the design framework could be considered as a starting point that can be expanded when time permits.

6.4. Conclusion This study discussed the construction procurement framework carried in the UK in relation to Design Quality and some performance measures, moreover, it examined the problems in the Jordanian building design procedure as seen from different perspectives, hence, it was noticed that the problems faced by the construction sector of both countries are similar, in fact, most of the problem mentioned by the interviewees have been formerly faced by the construction sector in the UK. An important issue that created a huge gap between the performance of the construction sectors in both countries is that the Jordanian construction industry is still waiting for

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AlHajiri 09034876 reports such as those published in the 1990s by Latham and Egan, as they laid the foundation for substantial on-going changes and developments in United Kingdom‘s construction sector, however, it was mentioned by the interviewees that the quality in the Jordanian building design process has been improving due to lessons learnt from past projects. In order to further accelerate the improvement of the Jordanian building design process; this study discussed general principles derived from the UKs experience in the construction industry; it explained several principles that should be worked by in order to improve the current practices in Jordan, moreover, this study can be considered as a starting point for future work in the area.

6.5. Reflection

The motivation for this topic was derived from the fact that the researcher wanted to have a holistic view of the construction procurement system rather than pursuing a pure architectural route. Participation in this study proved a very positive experience since it offered the opportunity to learn about both, the building design procedure followed in the United Kingdom and Jordan, in addition, the researcher gained valuable insights into the negatives and positives of both procedures through theory reading and the interviews conducted. As mentioned earlier the main aim of the study is to suggest new applications that improve the building design process followed in Jordan, hence, this study serves as an excellent starting point for future work in the area, moreover, when time permits, the scope of the dissertation study can include other measures that were not included in this research. The dissertation study highlighted several important issues that inspired the researcher to pursue participatory action research approaches in the future.

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Appendix 1 A list of the questions and topics covered

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Appendix 2 The diagram used to present the Construction Procurement Framework used in the United Kingdom (Adapted from the CIC)

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Appendix 3 The Power point Presentation about Design Quality Indicators

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Works Cited ALSamari, , Matarneh, B., Safi, W. & Matarneh, R., 2010. New Financial Analysis Approach Using Instrumental Variables for Measuring the Effect of Remittances With Respect to Labour Migration, Workers' Remittances and Economic Activity. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, (43), pp.8-22. Amaratunga, D., David Baldry, Marjan Sarshar & Rita Newton, 2002. Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment: application of “mixed” research approach. Work Study, 51(1), pp.17-31. Andersen, , 2004. Industrial Benchmarking for Competitive Advantage. Report. Norway: Department of Production and Quality Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Ashworth, A. & Keith Hogg, 2007. Willis's Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor. 12th ed. Oxford: Blackwell publishing Ltd. Beatham, S., Anumba, C. & Thorpe, T., 2004. KPIs: a critical appraisal of their use in construction. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 11(1), pp.93-117. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. & Tight, M., 2006. How to Research. 3rd ed. New York: Open University Press. CABE, 2002. Better public building. London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment HM Government. CABE, 2006. Assessing secondary School Design quality. research report. London: Commition for the architecture and the built environment. CE, D.+., 2008. Design + construction Excellence. booklette. New York. CIC, 2003. DQI Online – How well is your building designed? Press release. London: Construction Industry Council Construction Industry Council. CIC, 2006. DQI and DQI for Schools leader guidance notes. London: Construction Industry Council Construction Industry Council. CIC, 2008. Design Quality Indicator Onlind. London: Construction Industry Council. CIC, 2009. DQI Press Kit overview for Realcomm. [Online] CIC Available at: http://www.dqionline.com/downloads/May_2009_DQI_Press_Kit_Overview_for_Realcomm_200 9.pdf [Accessed 21 september 2010]. CIC, 2010. Products and services. [Online] Available at: http://www.dqionline.com/dqi.php [Accessed 27 september 2010]. Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K., 2007. Research Methods in Education. 6th ed. New York: Routledge.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Cryer, P., 2006. The Research Student’s Guide to success. 3rd ed. New York: Open University Press. Dawson, C., 2002. Practical Research method. 1st ed. Oxford: How To Books Ltd. DQI, 2006. We shape our buildings, and afterwards our buildings shape us. [Online] Available at: http://www.dqionline.com/dqi.php [Accessed 3 june 2010]. Edmond, L., Chan, A. & Chan, D., 2007. Benchmarking the performance of design-build projects. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 14(5), pp.624-38. Edwards, B., 2005. A Regional Study prepared for the Global Commission on International Migration. Greece: Mediterranean Migration Observatory Panteion University. Egan, J., 1998. Rethinking Construction. The report of the construction. DETR. Egan, J., 2002. Accelerating change. london: Rethinking Construction Strategic Forum for Construction. Eisner, E., 1996. From Positivism to Interpretivism and Beyond: Tales of Transformation in Educational and Social Research. New York: Teachers College press. Fink, A., 1995. The Survey Handbook. California: Sage Publications Inc. Gann, D., Salter, A. & Whyte, J., 2003. Design Quality Indicator as a tool for thinking. Building Research and Information, 31(5), p.318–333. Grey, D., 2004. Doing Research in the real world. 1st ed. London: SAGE publication. Guide, D., 2010. Safety measures in the Retail Store Design. [Online] Available at: http://www.architecture-student.com/design-guide/safety-measures-in-the-retail-store-design/ [Accessed 2 november 2010]. Kazdin, A., 2003. Methodology: What it is and why it is so important. In Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research. 3rd ed. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. p.5– 22. Kothari, 2004. Research Methodology : methods and techniques. 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Lawson, B., 2005. How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified. 4th ed. Oxford: Architectural Press. Macdonald, S., 2004. Design Issues in Europe Today. Spain: BEDA The Bureau of European Design Associations. Maire, Bronet & Pillet, 2005. A typology of ‘best practices’ for a benchmarking process. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 12(1), pp.45-60.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Punch, K., 2005. Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. 2nd ed. London: Sage publication Ltd. RIBA, 2007. Outline Plan of Work. [Online] Royal Institute of British Architects Available at: http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAProfessionalServices/Practice/OutlinePlanofWork(revise d).pdf [Accessed 30 April 2010]. Rick Best & Gerard de Valence, eds., 2002. Design and Construction: Building in Value. sydney: Butterworth-Heinemann. Rodgers, P.A., 2007. Designing the next generation of designers. Edinburgh: School of Creative Industries Napier University. Sallette, M., 2003. The Economic Value of Investing in Architecture and Design. Independent Study. Chicago: Graduate school of business the University of Chicago. Sallette, M.A., 2009. Design Quality Indicators: Top 10 Benefits for Building Owners. HQ good design is good business, 1(1), pp.6-94. Available at: http://hq.construction.com/advice_opinions/0911_Design_Quality_Indicator.asp [Accessed 27 september 2010]. singh, Y.k., 2006. Fundamental of Research methodology and statistics. 1st ed. New Delhi: New Age International. Southard, P. & Parente, D., 2007. A model for internal benchmarking: when and how? Benchmarking: An International Journal, 14(2), pp.161-71. Spendolini, M., 1992. The Benchmarking Book. 1st ed. New York: Amacom Publishers. SPRinG, 2009. Post Project Review. [Online] department of finance and personnel Available at: http://spring.dfpni.gov.uk/annexd/PI-review-sec3.htm [Accessed 7 September 2010]. Swan, W. & Kyng, E., 2004. An Introduction to Key Performance Indicators. Report. Manchester: Centre for Construction Innovation Construction excellence in the north west. Thomas, M., 2003. Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods in Thesis and Dissertation. 1st ed. London: Corwin Press Inc. Tunstall, , 2006. Design and the designers. In Managing the Building Design Process. 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd. pp.17-41. Tutcher, G., 1994. How Successful Companies Improve through Internal Benchmarking. Managing Service Quality, 4(2), pp.44 - 46. Tzortzopoulos, P., Carlos Torres Formoso & Martin Betts, 2001. Planning the product development process in construction: an exploratory case study. Case study. Salford: University of Salford.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Vanderstoep , & Johnston , , 2009. Research methodols for everyday life: Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 1st ed. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. WBDG, 2010. Project Planning, Management and Delivery. [Online] Available at: http://www.wbdg.org/project/pm.php [Accessed 27 may 2010].

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AlHajiri 09034876 Hyland, P. & Beckett, R., 2002. Learning to compete: the value of internal benchmarking. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 9(3), pp.293-304. INTEGER, n.d. Improving Quality, Performance and Value in Buildings. Watford: INTEGER intelligent and green. Kazdin, A., 2003. Methodology: What it is and why it is so important. In Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research. 3rd ed. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. p.5– 22. Keniger, M. & H.T. Walker, D., 2002. Quality management in construction: an innovative advance using project alliancing in Australia. The TQM Magazine, 5(14), pp.307-17. Kothari, 2004. Research Methodology : methods and techniques. 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Lawson, B., 2005. How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified. 4th ed. Oxford: Architectural Press. Macdonald, S., 2004. Design Issues in Europe Today. Spain: BEDA The Bureau of European Design Associations. Mahmoud, S.Y.M., 2001. Key Performance Indicators. Doctoral Research. Wolverhampton University: University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Maire, Bronet & Pillet, 2005. A typology of ‘best practices’ for a benchmarking process. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 12(1), pp.45-60. Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D., 2005. Essentials of Research Design and Methodology. 1st ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Marwa, S. & Zairi, , 2008. A pragmatic approach to conducting a successful benchmarking expedition. The TQM Journal, 20(1), pp.59-67. Marwa, S. & Zairi, M., 2008. A pragmatic approach to conducting a successful benchmarking expedition. The TQM Journal, 20(1), pp.59-67. McNamara, J., 1997. Surveys and Experiments in Education Research. 2nd ed. Lancaster: Scarecrow Education. McNiff, J., Lomax, P. & Whitehead, J., 2003. you and your action research project. 2nd ed. London: Routledge Falmer. Mohamed, S., 1996. Benchmarking and improving construction productivity. Benchmarking for Quality Management & Technology, 3(3), pp.50-58. NAO & OGC, 2004. Getting value for money from procurement. NAO Information Centre.

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AlHajiri 09034876 Rick Best & Gerard de Valence, eds., 2002. Design and Construction: Building in Value. sydney: Butterworth-Heinemann. Rodgers, P.A., 2007. Designing the next generation of designers. Edinburgh: School of Creative Industries Napier University. Sallette, M., 2003. The Economic Value of Investing in Architecture and Design. Independent Study. Chicago: Graduate school of business the University of Chicago. Sallette, M.A., 2009. Design Quality Indicators: Top 10 Benefits for Building Owners. HQ good design is good business, 1(1), pp.6-94. Available at: http://hq.construction.com/advice_opinions/0911_Design_Quality_Indicator.asp [Accessed 27 september 2010]. singh, Y.k., 2006. Fundamental of Research methodology and statistics. 1st ed. New Delhi: New Age International. Southard, P. & Parente, D., 2007. A model for internal benchmarking: when and how? Benchmarking: An International Journal, 14(2), pp.161-71. Spendolini, M., 1992. The Benchmarking Book. 1st ed. New York: Amacom Publishers. SPRinG, 2009. Post Project Review. [Online] department of finance and personnel Available at: http://spring.dfpni.gov.uk/annexd/PI-review-sec3.htm [Accessed 7 September 2010]. Swan, W. & Kyng, E., 2004. An Introduction to Key Performance Indicators. Report. Manchester: Centre for Construction Innovation Construction excellence in the north west. Thomas, M., 2003. Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods in Thesis and Dissertation. 1st ed. London: Corwin Press Inc. Tunstall, , 2006. Design and the designers. In Managing the Building Design Process. 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd. pp.17-41. Tunstall, G., 2006. Managing the Building Design Process. 2nd ed. Nottingham: Elsevier Ltd. Tutcher, G., 1994. How Successful Companies Improve through Internal Benchmarking. Managing Service Quality, 4(2), pp.44 - 46. Tzortzopoulos, P., Carlos Torres Formoso & Martin Betts, 2001. Planning the product development process in construction: an exploratory case study. Case study. Salford: University of Salford. Valenzuela, D. & Shrivastava, P., 2002. Interview as a Method for Qualitative Research. [Online] Southern Cross University and the Southern Cross Institute of Action Research (SCIAR) Available at: http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/Interview%20Fri.pdf [Accessed 07 october 2010]. Vanderstoep , & Johnston , , 2009. Research methodols for everyday life: Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 1st ed. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Design Quality Indicators  

MSc Construction Project Management Dissertation - Improving Design Quality using DQI's and other procedures followed in the UK.