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PLANNING AN ECODISTRICT: Integration of Critical Infrastructure Proposed for the Commune of

The City College of New York, City University of New York 2012


forward The not-for-pro t Global Energy Model Institute (GEMi), www.globalenergymodel.org, works with developing nations to implement decentralized, low-carbon, cleaner energy systems with proven reliability and resiliency in order to promote self-suf ciency, economic growth, local control and affordability with environmental and cultural protection over the long-term. The Ecodistrict represents a powerful idea for sustainable development. The CCNY had been devastated by the earthquake. The integration of sectors necessary for successfully realizing this concept showcases both the strengths of GEM and the Sustainability Masters program. As an interdisciplinary project, the students had to work in groups with multiple specialities to develop projects outside their scope of expertise. The collaborative spirit of GEM is showcased in the work of the students. While GEM exercise only, not intended for implementation.

Daniel E. Lemons CEO, Global Energy Model Institute

Special thanks to CCNY Professor Michael Piasecki for his support SUS 7400 A Case Studies in Sustainability Spring 2012 The City College of New York, CUNY

Students: Maria Bueno Rosas, Nuri Celikgil, Steven Cummings, Jie Gu, Julia Ivleva, Priya Kacker, Dania Khan, Danish Kinariwala, Heather Korb, Jessica Mauricio, Ariel Miara, Lisa Morasco, Ayan Owens, Ana Pena, Daniel Plaat, Christopher Sedita, Caleb Stratton, Artemis Velivasaki Teaching Assistants: Miriam Ward, Caleb Stratton Professor Hillary Brown FAIA Hillary Brown, Miriam Ward, editors

Issued September 1, 2012 1

All Rights Reserved Š 2012


table of contents 3

background

4

project information

5

overview: integrated upland infrastructure

6

renewable energy generation and micro-grids

7

wind turbine energy

9

solar photovoltaic energy

11

pumped-storage hydroelectric energy

13

river stabilization

15

habitat and biodiversity restoration at the rouyonne and momance river deltas

17

storm water management, flood mitigation and top soil stabilization

19

riparian buffers: habitat and biodiversity restoration along the rouyonne and momance rivers

21

permaculture ecovillage

23

integrated service infrastructure overview

25

node 1: community hub

27

node 2: town square

29

node 3: nursing school campus

30

node 4: upland rural node

32

node 5: intermodal hub

33

node 6: road improvements and transfer station

36

node 7: eco-industrial park

38

citations and attributions

2


background

Haiti Overview

This Case Studies in Sustainability which was at the epicenter of the devastating January 2010 earthquake. With 70% of the buildings destroyed and basic infrastructure systems damaged, the innovative approaches envisioned by the students, inspired by the Global Energy Model (GEM), show how critical public services might be restored or established anew. Many of these systems would be collocated to capture potential synergies across the sectors of energy, waste, water, sanitation, transportation, agriculture, ood control and habitat restoration.

plain of and into the sea. The electri grid. Energy base load energy is supplied by an upland hydro-pumped storage driven by wind and solar farms, a system with designed-in redundancies. This autonomous power system supports new industry and reduces/eliminates dependence on imported fossil fuel. Multiple energy delivery points are located to support local civic functions (community centers, town market and town center) with collocated internet cafes, water services and a waste collection system. These services will be linked by a network of newly paved roads. Collection of organic ( eld and kitchen) and plastic waste will be incentivized through rebates at small local stations and delivered to a waste processing site at an eco-industrial park attached to an existing sugar mill. Here an industrial sized biodigestor produce biogas for back-up generation and other uses, with organic fertilizer as by-product. River stabilization with ood control relies on local materials to restructure eroding banks, provide irrigation channels for farming, capture peak ows upland for additional micro-hydro power generation and remediate hazardous ooding conditions from tropical rain events. Riparian buffering will reinvigorate marginal areas while agriculture, agroforestry, aquaculture, irrigation and new rural settlements (arranged according to the and hydrology. These village areas foster biodiversity, habitat, crops, food and biofuel energy in an area of depleted natural resources. 3


project information

Integration of Critical Infrastructure Overview

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4


overview: integrated upland infrastructure

Upland Intervention Sites

problem

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recommendation

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synergies across sectors

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challenges

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5


renewable energy generation and micro-grids

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Upland Site Overview

Renewable energy production will provide a controlled source of energy for a given daily time period across a limited grid system. Reliance on renewable resources for domestic, commercial and industrial uses will reduce dependence on imported fuel sources, limit carbon emissions and provide diversification and redundancy. Wind energy production in the mountains coupled with solar energy production in the lowlands, serve a pumped-storage hydroelectric generation station, which balances these dynamic and fluctuating loads.

Wind Farm Power Station

Pump Station

To LÊogâne

PVs

Wind power is utilized to pump water from lower to higher reservoir with excess energy fed into the grid. Section of Power Systems

6


wind turbine energy Diameter =20 m

Spacing

di = 20 m 7di = 120 m = 400 ft

Site 1 Site 2

Wind Direction

Wind Turbine Site Plan

problem

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recommendation

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synergies across sectors

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challenges

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7


Wind Site 2 45 Turbines = 4.5 MW Both Sites: 86 Turbines= 8.6 MW

Wind Site 1 41 Turbines = 4.1 MW

Issues

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Benefits

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The Turbine Specifications: 100 kW KCS56 R&$( _.+.-4(&!-4+$1#$$#&+ %O&(&%`'4:.$ !&;.R&+(-&'%U5$(.1

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Rotor and Blades

Lattice Structure

Foundation

Turbine Elevation and Plan

8


solar photovoltaic energy

40 Acre Solar Farm

problem Haiti is located in a prime latitude for photovoltaic energy, yet to date has very little solar capacity and no industrial-scale production of PV panels. Energy generated by solar farms and pumped-hydro storage would reduce fossil fuel emissions while increasing base load capability. recommendation A solar farm of 10 MW of generation capacity comprised of 44,000 230 watt commercially available panels will provide electricity during the 11-13 hours of daylight. It will be dedicated to power pumps that drive piped water from a lower reservoir to an upper one. Water stored in the upper reservoir will be released on demand, flowing through turbines to generate a controlled base load. Any excess solar power not needed for water pumping will augment the grid dedicated to Léogâne town center. synergies across sectors The solar farms are designed to integrate and not displace agriculture, effectively achieving a kind of ‘inter-cropping’. The arrays are located at such a height as to partly shade some of the crops grown under the panels and partially within the service pathways. Rainwater flowing off the panels will be collected in a gutter system for diversion to a cistern and thence to drip irrigation for the collocated crops. The pumped-storage hydroelectric system driven by the complementary sources of solar and wind power will stabilize load production for approximately 8 daytime hours of energy distribution. This reliable service will help spur commercial development and create a Haitian labor market for national goods and services as well as export markets. challenges Lack of transportation infrastructure is an impediment to erecting the solar/wind pumped-storage hydroelectric system. The upland corridor identified for the energy generation has little in the ways of roads and no existing electrical transmission cables. A technically trained labor force will be needed for the local operation and maintenance. Gaining clear title to the land with legal contracts for stable operation and maintenance will also pose a challenge. Security concerns must be considered and addressed at all stages.

9


Floating Solar Array

Example of Upper Reservoir

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Panel Dimensions: 990mm x 1650mm x 46 mm Panels: 5233 Capacity: 1.2 MW

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Solar Panels with Agriculture

10


pumped-storage hydroelectric energy

Energy System Co-location Benefits

problem

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recommendation

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synergies across sectors

U(&-1;4(.-% 14+4/.1.+(@% H%&&:% )&+(-&'@% $&#'% $(49#'#04(#&+% 4+:% -.,&-.$(4(#&+% 4-.% +.).$$4-5% 3-.-.J2#$#(.$% ,&-% (".% c.+.-/5% )&--#:&-E% '4+:$)43.%(&%$233&-(%4''%(".%)&13&+.+($%&,%4%VFU%$5$(.1<%!".%'4-/.%-.$.-*&#-$%A233.-%4+:%'&;.-B%;#''%9.%34-(#4''5%)&*.-.:%95%H%&4(#+/% V[%4--45$%("4(%)&+$(#(2(.%34-(%&,%(".%$&'4-%,4-1<%!"#$%)&''&)4(#&+%1.4+$%'.$$%4/-#)2'(2-4'%'4+:%#$%:#$3'4).:d%#(%'&;.-$%(".%(.13.-4(2-.%&,% (".%V[%4--45$@%#13-&*#+/%(".#-%.,!%)#.+)5%4+:%(".#-%$"4:#+/%&,%(".%;4(.-%-.:2).$%(".%-4(.%&,%-.$.-*&#-%.*43&-4(#&+<%

challenges

V213.:>$(&-4/.% "5:-&.'.)(-#)% $5$(.1$% -.J2#-.% 3-&(.)(#&+% ,-&1% H%&&:@% .*43&-4(#&+% 4+:% $.4$&+4'% 4+:% '&+/>(.-1% )'#14(.% )"4+/.> #+:2).:%:-&2/"(<%!&%&3.-4(.%.,,.)(#*.'5@%'&)4'%.+*#-&+1.+(4'%)&+:#(#&+$%12$(%9.%$(49#'#0.:%4+:%;.4(".-%(".$.%1.(.&-&'&/#)4'%$(-.$$.$<% !".%-.$.-*&#-$%-.J2#-.%4%1.4$2-.%&,%3-&(.)(#&+%4/4#+$(%$&#'%4+:%$.:#1.+(%4))212'4(#&+@%4%$.-#&2$%3-&9'.1%:2.%(&%:.,&-.$(4(#&+<%U&#'% 3-&(.)(#&+%12$(%3-.).:.%)&+$(-2)(#&+%&,%(".%VFU%$5$(.1<%V#3.'#+.$%12$(%9.%3-&(.)(.:%,-&1%)&--&$#&+%4+:%(".%;4(.-%9.#+/%.S)"4+/.:% ;#''%-.J2#-.%!%'(-4(#&+<%

11


O4#+%#+32(%#+%67&/8+.%g%L<Z]%1YW$.)%A\Z%"-%-4#+,4''@%KLL%5-%.*.+(B a%I2-#+/%(".%-4#+#+/%$.4$&+@%#(%;#''%(4C.%h\%"&2-$%(&%!%''%23%(".%'&;.-%-.$.-*&#a%R&''.)(%;4(.-%,-&1%-4#+,4''%(&%-.3'4).%;4(.-%'&$(%95%.*43&-4(#&+ a%f$.%H%&4(#+/%V[$%(&%$"#.':%;4(.-%,-&1%.*43&-4(#&+%4+:%(&%/.+.-4(.%.+.-/5

Rendering of Pump Water System

Pumped Hydro System

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Pumped Hydro Storage Plan and Elevation

Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Eye View of Pump Water System

Horizontal and Vertical Distance Between Two Reservoirs

12


river stabilization

Proposed Reservoirs

River stabilization is focused on the Rouyonne and Momance Rivers, due to the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. Efforts will rely on natural and readily available materials to restore eroding riverbanks, provide irrigation channels for farming, limit upland erosion, capture peak flows upland for power generation and address hazardous flooding conditions during tropical storm events. Upland reservoirs are built to reduce downstream flooding in both rivers; they will supply agricultural irrigation during dry seasons. With small micro-turbines, the dams can be used to power irrigation pumps.

13


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Momance River Delta

Reservoir Capacity

14


habitat and biodiversity restoration at the rouyonne and momance river deltas

Shoreline Interventions

problem

U#/+#!%)4+(% :414/.% "4$% 9..+% $2$(4#+.:% #+% 9&("% (".% M&14+).% 4+:% O&25&++.% -#*.-% :.'(4$% 4'&+/% $&1.% XX% C1% &,% 67&/8+.<% N"#'.% +4(2-4'%)42$.$%,&-%"49#(4(%:./-4:4(#&+%#+)'2:.%$.#$1#)%23'#,(%("4(%:-4#+$%(#:4'%14-$"@%.S3&$#+/%$29>(#:4'%$.4%/-4$$%4+:%)42$#+/%'&$$% &,%)&-4'%-..,$@%4+("-&3&/.+#)%)42$.$%#+)'2:.%14$$#*.%#+H%2S%&,%-#*.-%$.:#1.+(4(#&+%,-&1%(".%:.,&-.$(#+/%;4(.-$".:%1&2+(4#+$%4+:% "4-*.$(#+/%&,%14+/-&*.$%,&-%!%-.;&&:<%

recommendations

O.$(&-4(#&+%&,%(".%#13.-#'.:%)&-4'%-..,$%4+:%14+/-&*.$@%4'&+/%;#("%H%&&:%1#(#/4(#&+%4+:%94+C%-.$(&-4(#&+%4-.%#13.-4(#*.<%^&-%-..,% -.92#':#+/@%&+.%3-&1#$#+/%4-(#!%)#4'%3'4(,&-1%$5$(.1%"4$%9..+%:.*.'&3.:%)4''.:%iO..,%`4''j<%?(%)&+$#$($%&,%4%3.-,&-4(.:%)&+)-.(.%,&-1% #+(&%;"#)"%3'2/$%&,%".4'("5%+.;%)&-4'%,-4/1.+($%4-.%#+(-&:2).:%9.,&-.%9.#+/%3'4).:%&+%(".%&).4+%H%&&-<%M4+/-&*.$%$"&2':%9.%3'4+(.:% #+%9#&:./-4:49'.%94$C.($%2$#+/%4%-4+/.%&,%$4'(>(&'.-4+(%4+:%$4'#+.%-.$#$(4+(%$3.)#.$%94$.:%&+%'&)4'%)&+:#(#&+$<%

synergies across sectors

M4+/-&*.% -.$(&-4(#&+% ;#''% ".'3% 3-&(.)(% (".% ,-4/#'.% )&-4'$% #13'4+($% $#+).% (".5% 4)(% 4$% !%'(.-#+/% $5$(.1@% (-43% :.9-#$% 4+:% $#'(@% 3-&:2).% +2(-#.+($@% #13-&*.% !%$".-#.$% 4+:% 3-&(.)(% )&4$(4'% 0&+.$% ,-&1% $(&-1$% 4+:% 14D&-% ;.4(".-% .*.+($<% O.,&-.$(4(#&+% 4+:% -#*.-% 94+C% -.)&+$(-2)(#&+%;#''%-.:2).%&2(H%&;$%&,%$.:#1.+($<%

challenges

M4+4/.1.+(%4+:%.+,&-).1.+(%&,%(".%k4(#&+4'%U5$(.1%&,%V-&(.)(.:%T-.4$%,&-%R&4$(4'%T-.4$%#$%.$$.+(#4'%(&%-.:2).%,2-(".-%14+/-&*.% "4-*.$(#+/%4+:%&*.-4''%,&-%#+*.$(1.+(%(&%$2))..:<%T::#(#&+4''5@%9&("%14+/-&*.%4+:%)&-4'%-..,%-.$(&-4(#&+%;#''%-.J2#-.%(-4#+.:%3.-$&++.'<%

15


Zone 1: Arial View

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Reef Ballâ&#x20AC;? NGO System Proposed for restoring biodiversity

Zone 2: Momance River Delta

Reef Ball Mold System

Spread river mouth due to deposited sediment because of lack of soil stabilization

16


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riparian buffers: habitat and biodiversity restoration along the rouyonne and momance rivers

Application of Bank Stabilization and Flood Control

problem

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recommendations

>%)(-/)96/9)*"&%%2%4,"7%0%47*"&-%,4%"&%/0(-(%)*1()-@%*"6497*"&%?"%>/)(-+,--*"&@%6%"-()1,/*%"%=%"(-%3,5%:(%)(A9*)(7%/%%2%-/()%)(-/%),/*%"% ,"7%4%"&>/()3%3,",&(3("/%%2%/0(-(%6%))*7%)-<%<0(%6)(,/*%"%%2%1(&(/,/(7%,"7%2%)(-/(7%:922()%-/)*+-%,"7%+,/60(-%A:(/.(("%BL%/%%YLL% 2((/%,6)%--B%,4%"&%)*1()W-/)(,3%:,";-%,)3%)-%/0(%:,";%-/)96/9)(@%,:-%):-%H%%%7%.,/()-%,"7%-4%.-%()%-*%"@%*3+)%1(-%.,/()%A9,4*/5% A+%449/,"/%)(3%1,4@%/(3+(),/9)(%3%7(),/*%"B%7%."-/)(,3%,"7%6)(,/(-%0,:*/,/%6%))*7%)-<%

synergies across sectors

!"%,77*/*%"%/%%/0(%-/)96/9),4%,"7%(6%4%&*6,4%-()1*6(-%)("7()(7%:5%/0(%)(-/%)(7%)*+,)*,"%:922()-@%/)((-%,"7%+4,"/*"&-%*"/(&),/(7%9-*"&% ?,&)%>2%)(-/)5@%3%7(4-%A*"/()6)%++*"&%%2%/)((-%,"7%2%%7%+4,"/-B%6,"%+)%796(%2%%7@%29(4%,"7%6)(,/(%C%:-<%D)9*/%+)%796/*%"@%/*3:()%2)%3% E,/)%+0,@%1()/*1()%,"7%6%*)%*"79-/)*(-%6,"%:(%*"/(&),/(7%.*/0%,7C,6("/%*))*&,/*%"%60,""(4-%"((7(7%/%%:%%-/%,&)*694/9),4%+)%796/*1*/5<%

challenges

F(-/)96/9)*"&%,"7%)(,44%6,/*"&%4,"7%%."()-0*+%,4%"&%/0(%)*1()%6%))*7%)-%.*44%)(A9*)(%+%4*/*6,4%,"7%,73*"*-/),/*1(%-9++%)/%.*/0%(*/0()% G%","6*,4%%)%-%6*,4%*"6("/*1(-<%<0()(%*-%,"%%1(),)60*"&%"((7%/%%60,"&(%("1*)%"3("/,445%9"-%9"7%,&)*694/9),4%+),6/*6(-%,"7%*"6946,/(% ,"%,++)(6*,/*%"%%2%,%?-0,)(7@%0,:*/,/<%<),7(>%22-%"((7%/%%:(%3,7(%:(/.(("%-4%.>&)%.*"&%",/*1(%-+(6*(-%1-<%2,-/>&)%.*"&%(H%/*6-%.0("% -/,:*4*=*"&%/0(%)*1():,";<

19


Riparian Buffer Physiology

Haley Heard, MIT

20


permaculture ecovillage

Proposed Permaculture Ecovillage Compound for Rural Upland Site

problem

I()3,694/9)(%*-%,%7(-*&"%,"7%(/0*6,4%-5-/(3%2%)%(6%4%&*6,4%4*1*"&@%*"/(&),/*"&%2%%7@%-0(4/()@%("()&5@%64*3,/(@%.,/()%,"7%-%*4<%<0(%+)%:4(3-% %2%8,*/*J+%1()/5@%3,4"%9)*-03("/@%+%449/*%"@%7(2%)(-/,/*%"@%()%-*%"@%7(&),7,/*%"%%2%6%,-/4*"(@%)*1():,";-%,"7%4%-/%:*%7*1()-*/5J,)(% *"/()6%""(6/(7%,"7%:(&%+()3,694/9)(%-%49/*%"-<%<0(-(%,)(%(-+(6*,445%(22(6/*1(%*"%-/,:*4*=*"&%,"7%)(*"1*&%),/*"&%3,)&*",4%,)(,-<

recommendation

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

synergies across sectors

D*-0%2,)3*"&%,"7%)*6(WG%-0%6%>2,)3*"&%,)(%*"/(&),/(7%6%3+%"("/-%%2%/0*-%1*-*%"@%,--*-/*"&%.*/0%+%1()/5%,44(1*,/*%"@%*"6)(,-(7%+)%/(*"% 6%"-93+/*%"@% +)%/(6/*%"% %2% /0(% ("1*)%"3("/% ,"7% ",/9),4% )(-%9)6(-% ,"7% 4*1(4*0%%7% +)%1*-*%"<%>% .,-/(>/%>2%%7% 6564(% /0,/% *"6497(-% (H60,"&*"&%"9/)*("/%.,-/(%2)%3W/%%,&)*694/9)(%,"7%,A9,694/9)(%+)%6(--(-%(4*3*",/(-%.,-/(%,"7%+%449/*%"<%

challenges

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

21


a%<5+*6,4%4,"70%47*"&%+()%2,3*45%N%K%0, a%KYL%0,%+)%796/*1(%4,"7%N%KYL%2,3*4*(a%<5+*6,4%2,3*45%-*=(%N%O%+()-%"a%M%339"*/5%-*=(%Â&#x192;%PLL%)(-*7("/-

Permaculture Site Overview

Permaculture Ecovillage Compound

Compounds Arrayed Around Man-Made Water Bodies

Compound Layout

Compound Perspective

22


integrated service infrastructure overview

Downtown Infrastructural Nodes

problem Official Official waste collection systems are lacking in Léogâne and the waste stream is rapidly expanding, polluting waterways, degrading public health and eliminating the potential economic benefits benefits of utilizing this otherwise lost material stream. With 75% of the total waste produced per capita being organic, it must be handled in accordance with best practices for conversion to final final end-use. recommendations Multiple infrastructural “nodes” have been identified identified as community service points for water, power, food, waste collection and other utilities. Nodes create an integrated web connecting dispersed links across existing and new infrastructure and developed around existing services and functions. The whole waste collection system includes processing at the source, separation and handling, storage, transformation of solids, transport, disposal and energy generation. . synergies across sectors Nodes are designed to maximize synergies, making the best use of limited resources and with the goal of transforming them into useful commodities. Nodes are also the catalysts for deployment of community services in key city center locations. Waste management managementsfosters fosterseconomic economicrevitalization revitalizationthrough throughcommunity communityinvolvement involvementand andenvironmental environmentalstewardship. stewardship. challenges Social waste habits are slow to change, so incentivizing the system and an educational campaign will be necessary to inculcate the benefits benefits of resource conservation. To address the waste management issue, related systems road system upgrades necessary for transport waste, as well as collection administration will be vital to success.

23


Web Of Infrastructural Nodes

Multiple infrastructural â&#x20AC;&#x153;nodesâ&#x20AC;? have been identified to become the service points for community water, power, food, waste collection and community services. The nodes have been organized according to create a dispersed infrastructure for overall town resource management. These service points function as localized interventions forming an integrated web to connect disperse links across existing and new infrastructure.

Existing Site Functions

24


node 1: community hub

Existing Site Context

problem The community hub is a functional civic and commercial center without a source of power which limits its economic potential. This locus of activity must be outfitted outfitted with amenities to make the best use of the space. recommendations In the community hub, biodigestors capable of producing methane from human and organic waste are integrated into the on-site organic waste management plans. The soccer field retrofitted field has been retrofi tted with underground shipping containers utilized for water seamlessly through impoundment in rain events. These elements become part of an system for utilizing on-site waste integrated seemlessly community services. synergies across sectors The natural gas from the biodigestor is diverted to a community kitchen which in turn creates organic waste. The rain catchment from the soccer field field (an otherwise well-utilized recreational facility) provides both drinking water (with proper filtration) filtration) as well as storm water management. Integrating community services with underutilized resources fosters stewardship while building resiliency. challenges While challenges are are manageable, manageable, this this node node demands demands upfront upfront investment investment along along with with technicians technicians to to service service and and maintain maintain While technical technical challenges the the biodigestor biodigestor and and rainwater rainwater harvesting harvesting facilities. facilities.

25


Community Hub Proposed Site Plan

Site Material Flow Diagram

Stormwater Storage Under Soccer Field in Cisterns for Irrigation

26


node 2: town square

Perspective of Proposed Site

Section with Program Relationships

problem

M*1*6% ,"7% 6%33()6*,4% 29"6/*%"-% %2% /0*-% 6("/),4% -*/(@% 7*-)9+/(7% :5% /("/% 6,3+-% /%% ,66%33%7,/(% 7*-+4,6(7% *"7*1*79,4-% 2%44%.*"&% /0(% (,)/0A9,;(@%39-/%:(%)(:9*4/%.*/0%"(.%-/)96/9)(-<%

recommendations

F(2%69-*"&%,77*/*%",4%6*1*6%*"2),-/)96/9)(%,)%9"7%)(3,*"*"&%+9:4*6%:9*47*"&-%.*44%6)(,/(%,%"(.%3,);(/%,"7%6%339"*/5%6("/()@%,-%.(44% ,-%,%6("/),4*=(7%.,-/(%6%44(6/*%"%+%*"/%2%)%/0(%4%6,4%,)(,<%I4,-/*6%.,-/(%*-%6%44(6/(7%%"%-*/(%,"7%/),"-+%)/(7%/%%K,):%""(@%.*/0%%)&,"*6% .,-/(%6%44(6/(7%/%%2((7%/0(%%">-*/(%:*%7*&(-/%)<%>"%*"6("/*1(%-5-/(3%*-%7(1(4%+(7%/%%3,;(%/0*-%1*-*%"%+%--*:4(<

synergies across sectors

<0(%:*%7*&(-/%)%.*44%&("(),/(%:*%&,-%2)%3%/0(%%)&,"*6%.,-/(%7(4*1()(7%/%%/0(%-*/(<%<0*-%6,"%:(%9-(7%/%%-9++%)/%,%)(-/,9),"/<%<0(% /%."%-A9,)(%.*44%0%-/%/0(%?*"6("/*1(-@%,73*"*-/),/*%"%%2G%6(@%+)%+%-(7%6%339"*/5%64,--)%%3-@%6,/()*"&%/%%,)/%,"7%.,-/(%(796,/*%"@% ,"% *"/()"(/% 6,2(@% +9:4*6% )(-/)%%3-% ,"7% ?-9-/,*",:4(% 6%%;*"&>29(4% -/%)(2)%"/<% Q)&,"*6% .,-/(% &("(),/(7% *"% /0(% 3,);(/% .*44% 2((7% /0(% :*%7*&(-/%)

challenges

#%6,4-%39-/%:(%+)%+()45%*"6("/*1*=(7%/%%:)*"&*"&%.,-/(%/%%/0*-%6("/),4%4%6,/*%"@%)(A9*)*"&%"%/%%"45%?0,)7>.,)(%/%%7*-+("-(%+,5%9/-%:9/% (796,/*%"%%"%6%44(6/*%"%-/,"7,)7-%2%)%/0(%-5-/(3%%+(),/(%(22(6/*1(45<

27


New Market Center and Civic Buildings Plan

=>?!"#8$%9!&%'( :67;!&))*'*&+'9<

City Center Population: 30,000 Organic Waste: 80%; 3,780 kg/day Plastic Waste: 350.55 kg/day

34567!"#8$%9!&%'( :67;!&))*'*&+'9<

Node 2 Population: 2,000 people Organic Waste: 252 kg/day Plastic Waste: 23.37 kg/day Organic Waste Generation â&#x20AC;˘ Assumed Capture Rate: 80%; 12,600 kg/capita/day

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Organic Waste Logistics and Quantification

28


node 3: nursing school campus

Proposed Nursing School Campus Site Plan

problem

W9)-*"&%-/97("/-%/),1(4%,%&)(,/%7*-/,"6(%/%%/0*-%-*/(<%!/%*-%"%/%9"6%33%"%2%)%-/97("/-%/%%(,/%%"45%%"(%3(,4%*"%,%7,5%,"7%0,1(%4*3*/(7% %++%)/9"*/5%/%%)(-/%,"7%)(2)(-0<%

recommendations

>"%*"/(&),/(7%6,3+9-@%.*/0%7%)3*/%)*(-@%,%6,2(/()*,%,"7%%/0()%,3("*/*(-%.*44%+)%1*7(%-()1*6(-%,"7%,%6,3+9-%,/3%-+0()(%/%%-9++%)/% /0(%-/97("/-%,"7%-/,22<%Q)&,"*6%.,-/(%6%44(6/*%"%-5-/(3-%.*44%6%44(6/%2%%7%.,-/(%2%)%6%"1()-*%"%/%%6%%;*"&%+%.()%,"7%&,-<%D49-0%/%*4(/-% .*44%7*)(6/45%2((7%/0(%:*%7*&(-/%)-Y%&)(5%.,/()%.*44%:(%6%44(6/(7%2)%3%)%%2/%+-%,"7%-%4,)%,)),5-%+)%1*7(%("()&5<%

synergies across sectors

<0*-%4%.>*3+,6/@%64%-(7%4%%+%-5-/(3%/,;(-%",/9),4@%%)&,"*6%)(-%9)6(-%2%)%6%"1()-*%"%/%%-*/(%6%%;*"&%29(4%,"7%("()&5<%

challenges

X*&"*G%6,"/%60,"&(-%*"%%">-*/(%.,-/(%3,",&(3("/%+),6/*6(-%,"7%/(60"*6,4%-/,22%,)(%"(6(--,)5%2%)%/0*-%6%%+(),/*1(%-5-/(3%/%%29"6/*%"<% Z+2)%"/%/(60"%4%&*6,4%*"1(-/3("/-%,"7%%">&%*"&%,73*"*-/),/*%"%.*44%:(%"((7(7<

29


node 4: upland rural node

Plastic Waste Logistics and Quantification

problem Abundant, uncollected waste is periodically set on fire by the locals in order to manage waste. Plastics along with other household waste, such as human and animal excrement, clog canals and prevent proper drainage, creating major health hazards in the surrounding areas.

recommendations !7,-;0)>-)?)<-:;<)<176+0):/16/;<)<17616<-:6-<+).D)6,8=*41+:-;<:775;?01+0+)6*-=;-,16-@+0)6/-.7:84);<1+?);<- %=+0.)+141<1-;;07=4,*-47+)<-,16):-);?1<001/0<:).+<0)<):--);14A)++-;;1*4-*A<0-,1;8-:;-,878=4)<176#4);<1+;?7=4,*- )++-8<-,16=84)6,47+)<176;)6,<0-6<:)6;.-::-,<7<0-5)16.)+141<A16):*766-<7*-<:)6;.7:5-,16<7*:1+3;#4);<1+;)++-8<-,16 =84)6,47+)<176;):-<:)6;.-::-,<7)5)16.)+141<A16):*766-)6,<:)6;.7:5-,16<7I*:1+3;J

synergies across sectors #4);<1+:-+A+416/,-5)6,;5)6=)44)*7:.7:;-8):)<176)6)*=6,)6<:-;7=:+-16)1<16<0-):*766-I-+716,=;<:1)48):384);<1+; ):-.7:5-,16<7*:1+3;*A);1584-+758:-;;16/8:7+-;;67<0-:5)47:+0-51+)4+7587;1<176+0)6/-;6-+-;;):A:1+3;):-;74,.7: <0-+76;<:=+<1767.+7587=6,?)44;:-<)1616/?)44;)6,*):6;)6,7<0-:?1;-);;1;<16<0-:-*=14,16/8:7+-;;?014-16+-6<1>1B16/+4-)6 =8)6,;)61<)<176&0-;-+744-+<17667,-;?1448:7>1,-27*;;=884A:-;7=:+-;<76-?16,=;<:A?014-,-41>-:16/*);1++:1<1+)4;-:>1+-; 16:-57<-):-);

challenges %A;<-5;7.16+-6<1>-;):-6--,<7.7;<-:+4-)6=8)6,+0)6/-8-:+-8<1767.<0->)4=-7.84);<1+;)6,7<0-:?);<-:-;7=:+-;#)A5-6< .7:?);<-+744-+<-,8-:87=6,8:7>1,-;)6--,-,16+-6<1>-*=<<0-;A;<-56--,;)16>-;<7:<7*=14,)5):3-<.7:<0-6-?84);<1+ 8:7,=+<

30


The Upland Node has been designed around an existing infrastucture to minimize construction time and cost

Upland Node Context

a%F%%2/%+%,)(,\%KLL@%H%YL@ a%<%/,4%"93:()%%2%+,"(4-\%OB%+,"(4-%AY@%H%B@B a%I()%0%9)%&("(),/*%"%+()%+,"(4\%\YL%.,//a%X5-/(3@-%3,H%6,+,6*/5\%K\%;R

Upland Node Plan

Upland Node Section

31


node 5: intermodal hub

New construction integrated with permeable pavement and stormwater management system

Public Restrooms with onsite biodigestor to provide cooking fuel for the market

Market Areas

Bus terminals with integrated seating

Barriers made with plastic bricks

Elevation of New Intermodal Center

problem

<0(%(H*-/*"&%:9-%-/%+%7%(-%"%/%0,1(%,"%%)&,"*=(7%("/),"6(%%)%(H*/%,"7%4,6;-%.,*/*"&%-+,6(<%!/%2%-/()-%,%&)(,/%7(,4%%2%6%"&(-/*%"%,"7% 4*3*/-%/0(%9/*4*/5%,"7%(22(6/*1("(--%%2%+9:4*6%/),"-+%)/,/*%"<%

recommendations

K(1(4%+3("/% %2% ,% 394/*>3%7,4% /),"-+%)/,/*%"% 09:% .*/0% +)*%)*/*=(7% ,66(--% 2%)% +(7(-/)*,"-% 6%3*"&% 2)%3% /0(% 6*/5% 6("/()% .*44% &)(,/45% *3+)%1(% /),"-*/% 29"6/*%"% *"% #$%&'"(<% <0(% 09:% *"/(&),/(-% ,66(--% /%% :9-(-@% 3%/%)6564(-@% +()-%",4% 3%/%)% 1(0*64(-@% :*6564(-% ,"7% +(7(-/)*,"-%.0*4(%+)%1*7*"&%-,2(/5%*3+)%1(3("/-<%Q">-*/(%.,-/(%*-%3,",&(7%/0)%9&0%:*%7*&(-/%)-%,"7%.,/()%/0)%9&0%,%4%6,4%-/%)3% .,/()%3,",&(3("/%-5-/(3<

synergies across sectors

T94/*+4(%29"6/*%"-%,)(%%1()4,*7%*"%/0(%/),"-*/%09:<%<0(%:,6;%,)(,%%2%/0(%/()3*",4%*-%7(-*&"(7%.*/0%,%7(-*&",/(7%+*6;>9+%,"7%7)%+>%22% ,)(,-@%3,);(/%-+,6(@%.,*/*"&%,)(,%,"7%+9:4*6%)(-/)%%3-%.*/0%,"%,//,60(7%:*%7*&(-/%)<%<0(%:*%7*&(-/%)%.*44%:(%9-(7%/%%29(4%/0(%6%%;*"&% -/,/*%"-%*"%/0(%3,);(/%,)(,%,"7%7(+("7*"&%%"%/0(%,3%9"/%%2%/),2G%6%*"%/0(%-/,/*%"@%*/%3,5%0,1(%/0(%+%/("/*,4%:(%9-(7%,-%29(4%2%)%:9-(-% *"%/0(%29/9)(<%

challenges

F%,7%6%"7*/*%"-%,)(%-(1()(45%7(/()*%),/(7%,"7%4,6;%7(-*&",/(7%,)(,-%2%)%+(7(-/)*,"-<%>%)(&94,/%)5%:%75%*-%"(6(--,)5%2%)%+9:4*6%-,2(/5% /%%:(%*"-/*44(7@%7)*1()%/),*"*"&%-/,"7,)7*=(7%,"7%:9-(-%+)%+()45%3,*"/,*"(7<%

32


node 6: road improvements and transfer station

Waste Collection Network

problem LĂŠogâneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing inner-city and immediately outlying road conditions are degraded. No sidewalks exist and roads are rutted, with water-pooling supporting water born disease vectors and mosquito nesting. Without a shoulder, accidents are frequent recommendations For the city center, hexagonal concrete pavers along main and side streets are recommended as water permeable surfaces easy to repair. On the peripheral roads, line-based soil stabilizers will provide soil stabilization with low environmental impact. With roads stabilized, waste collection in the city center will rely on small vehicles to deposit collections in a municipal transfer facility for transport to a processing station. synergies across sectors The waste management will support sanitation efforts in the city and the countryside while creating a potential resource. Roadbed improvement with stormwater drainage helps in erosion control and facilitates economic development with safe thoroughfares. challenges Significant changes in transportation infrastructure will be required to aid waste management practices that can help redefine waste as a resource. Centralized management and enforcement of laws that define transportation are imperative.

33


Waste Collection Incentivization

Waste Collection Points

34


Transfer Station North

Section through Transfer Station

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Biodigestor Calculations

35


node 7: eco-industrial park

Potential â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Eco-Industrialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; park at Existing Darbonne Sugarmil

problem

<0(%K,):%""(%X9&,)%T*44%*-%.%);*"&%:(4%.%6,+,6*/5%.*/0%,%1()5%4%.%5*(47%),/(%(1("%/0%9&0%K,):%""(%*-%)(-+(6/(7%/0)%9&0%9/%8,*/*% 2%)%*/-%-9&,)%+)%796/*%"<%!"%8,*/*@%OBS%%2%39"*6*+,4%-%4*7%.,-/(%*-%%)&,"*6<%X*&"*G%6,"/%,3%9"/-%%2%%)&,"*6%.,-/(%&("(),/(7%+()%6,+*/,% ,)(%6%3+4(/(45%9"7()>9/*4*=(7%(1()5.0()(%,-%*"%/0(%6*/5%%2%#$%&'"(<

recommendations

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

synergies across sectors

<0(%9+&),7(-%/%%/0*-%/(60"%4%&5%3,5%:(%6%9+4(7%.*/0%/0(%2,6*4*/5%9-(%2%)%6*/5%%)&,"*6%.,-/(%7*-+%-,4<%D)%3%,%-()*(-%%2%7(6("/),4*=(7% -,"*/,/*%"%-%49/*%"-@%9-(294%:*%&,-%*-%+)%796(7%,4%"&%.*/0%,&)*694/9),4%.,-/(%,"7%:,&,--(<%Z-(7%2%)%6%&("(),/*%"@%:*%&,-%3,"92,6/9)(% ,4-%%)(-94/-%*"%/0(%6%+)%796/*%"%%2%2()/*4*=()<%T,",&(3("/%%2%+4,-/*6%.,-/(%%"%/0(%-,3(%-*/(%.%947%29)/0()%6("/),4*=(%.,-/(%,73*"*-/),/*%"% 2%)%#$%&'"(<

challenges

[,-*6%-()1*6(-@%-960%,-%)%,7-%,"7%-,"*/,/*%"%39-/%:(%3,*"/,*"(7%,"7%G%","6(7%/%%-9++%)/%/0(%6%"1()-*%"%%2%/0(%K,):%""(%,)(,%,-% ,%3,C%)%.,-/(%3,",&(3("/%09:<%T,);(/%,",45-*-%*-%"((7(7%/%%7(/()3*"(%%1(),44%1*,:*4*/5%%2%/0(%*"/(&),/(7%-5-/(3%,"7%/%%*7("/*25% 3,);(/-<%<0*-%)(A9*)(-%+9:4*6%("&,&(3("/%,"7%(796,/*%"%/%%,4/()%.,-/(%3,",&(3("/%0,:*/-%/0,/%.*44%:("(G%6*,445%)(7*)(6/%.,-/(%H%%.-<

36


I%/("/*,4%4%6,/*%"-\%-9&,)%3*44@%7,*)5% 2,)3@%6("/),4*=(7%%)&,"*6%.,-/(% 3,",&(3("/ a%],-%2%)%0(,/*"&%%)%6%3:*"(7%0(,/% ,"7%+%.() a%F(A9*)(-%?(H+()/%6%"-/)96/*%"@% %+(),/*%"%,"7%3,*"/(","6(%-;*44-

Industrial Scale Biodigestor

I%/("/*,4%4%6,/*%"-\%-60%%4@% 0%-+*/,4@%6%339"*/5%6("/() a%K%3(%^%+4,-/*6%7*&(-/()a%T94/*+4(%*"4(/a%],-%2%)%6%%;*"& a%])(("%-+,6(%%+/*%"

Biodigestor Benefits a%F(796(%7(2%)(-/,/*%" a%!3+)%1(%-,"*/,/*%"%+),6/*6( a%!3+)%1(%39"*6*+,4%.,-/(%3,",&(3("/ a%X3%;(4(--%6%%;*"& a%8*&0%A9,4*/5%2()/*4*=() a%F(796(%]8]%(3*--*%"Medium Scale Biodigestor at Darbonne

!2% /0(% %)&,"*6% .,-/(% &("(),/(7% *"% /0(% 6*/5% *-% 9-(7% ,/% K,):%""(% 2%)% +)%796*"&% (4(6/)*6*/5@%/0(%/%/,4%5(,)45%(4(6/)*6%%9/+9/% .%947%:(%\O\%]R0W5) <0*-% *-% (A9,4% /%% /0(% )(6%)7(7% (4(6/)*6% 6%"-93+/*%"% %2% ,:%9/% _% 3*44*%"% 8,*/*,"-% *"%\LLP%A%22>&)*7%&("(),/*%"%"%/%/,;("%*"/%% ,66%9"/B

Energy Output Burning vs. Biogas

37


citations and attributions 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16

17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

37

Haiti Overview Integration of Critical Infrastructure ... Upland Intervention Sites Upland Site Overview Section of Power System Wind Turbine Site Plan Wind Site 1 Wind Site 2 Turbine Elevation and Plan 40 Acre Solar Farm Floating Solar Array Example of Upper Reservoir Solar Panels with Agriculture Energy System Co-location Bene ts Rendering of Pump Water System Pumped Hydro Storage Plan and Elevation

Alberto, Dominic; Capobianco, Rocco Pena, Ana C.; Ward, Miriam Pena, Ana C. Owens, Ayan Plaat, Daniel Plaat, Daniel Plaat, Daniel Plaat, Daniel Plaat, Daniel Pena, Ana C. Todd Weedy, NY Times Gu, Jie Korb, Heatther; Owens, Ayan Pena, Ana C. Gu, Jie Gu, Jie

Horizontal and Vertical Distance ... Proposed Reservoirs Momance River Delta Reservoir Capacity Shoreline Interventions Zone 1: Arial View

Gu, Jie Korb, Heatther; Pena, Ana C.; Velivasaki, Artemis Pena, Ana C.; Velivasaki, Artemis Korb, Heatther; Pena, Ana C.; Velivasaki, Artemis Korb, Heatther Bliham, Rodger

Reef Ball Mold System Zone 2: Momance River Delta Riparian Strategy: Patch, Corridor, Matrix Riparian Buffer Layout and Illustration Flooding and Temperature Control Ecological Services Application of Bank Stabilization ... Riparian Buffer Physiology Permaculture Ecovillage Compound Proposed Permaculture Ecovillage... Permaculture Site Overview Permaculture Ecovillage Compound Compounds Arrayed Around Man-Made... Compound Layout Compound Perspective Downtown Infrastructural Nodes Web Of Infrastructural Nodes Existing Site Functions Existing Site Context Community Hub Proposed Site Plan Site Material Flow Diagram Stormwater Storage Under Soccer Field... Perspective of Proposed Site Section with Program Relationships New Market Center...Plan Organic Waste Logistics and Quanti cation Proposed Nursing School Campus Site ... Plastic Waste Logistics and Quanti cation Upland Node Context Upland Node Plan Upland Node Section Elevation of New Intermodal Center Waste Collection Network Waste Collection Incentivization Waste Collection Points Transfer Station North Section through Transfer Station Biodigestor Calculations

Reef Ball, 2011. http://www.reefball.org/ NASA; Digital Globe Kacker, Priya Pena, Ana C.; Kacker, Priya Kacker, Priya Riparian Buffer, http://en.wikipedia.org/ Pena, Ana C. Haley Heard, Riparian Urbanism, Massichusetts Institute of Technology, 2010. http://www.asla.org/2010studentawards/400.html Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Kinariwala, Danish; Korb, Heather Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Ward, Miriam Kahn, Dania; Mauricio, Jessica Kahn, Dania; Mauricio, Jessica Kahn, Dania; Mauricio, Jessica Kahn, Dania; Ward, Miriam Cummings, Steven Ivleva, Julia; Ward, Miriam Ivleva, Julia Ivleva, Julia Ivleva, Julia Morasco, Lisa Celikgil, Nuri Celikgil, Nuri Celikgil, Nuri Celikgil, Nuri Celikgil, Nuri Miara, Ariel

Industrial Scale Biodigestor Medium Scale Biodigestor at Darbonne Energy Output Burning vs. Biogas

Ameresco Intelligent Systems, 2012. http://www.epsway.com/products-solutions/ Ashden, 2012. http://www.ashden.org/biogas Miara, Ariel

38


Š 2012, All rights reserved.


Planning an Ecodistrict