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August 20, 1914


A S PLENDID L ITTLE WAR: A Tale of Horrific Spanish Atrocities and American Bravery

What you didn’t know Editor: Josh Kinyon about Co-Editor: Jake Hayles imperialism in Research Director: Jess Jacobsen Art Director: Kylee Cangas Japan and Production Editor: Addy Bailey China


Panama Canal


Q&A with the 1 Queen

Men were flying into the air, the Maine's large hull burning. A black smoke covered the sky. Before the day was done, 260 Americans would lose their lives in the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine. This could only be the action of the enemy. Spain had deliberately placed mines in the vicinity of American vessels. Spain has violated the rights of the Cubans, and America intervened to end the horrific tragedies brought upon by the Spanish people. Another sharp blow came to America when the de Lome letter was released. This letter falsely criticized President McKinley as being weak and catering to the rabble. Cuba had been struggling for independence since 1868 and deserved freedom from Spain. America is the police of the world, stopping countries like Spain from committing harmful acts, and this is why on April 25, 1898, a declaration of war was issued by Congress, issued from President McKinley in a letter stating, "I now recommend the adoption of a joint resolution declaring that a state of war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain, that the definition of the international status of the United States as a belligerent power may be made know and the assertion of all its rights in the conduct of a public war may be assured". Thankfully, due to American intervention, Spain was punished for their wrongdoings. In the Spanish-American War, our forces overcame Spanish forces in two fronts, the Pacific, and the Caribbean. The results of the war shaped America forever. With the United States at war, it was now time to get prepared. Thankfully, American forces under George Dewey were in the region. Dewey defeated Spain at the battle of Manila Bay despite concerns over ammunition. Although no lives were lost, America has used up enormous supplies of ammunition to thwart Spanish attempts at causing damage to the American navy. The Philippines were taken with the help of Filipino rebels despite fierce Spanish resistance, with the largest battles being in Manila and the surrounding bay area. In the land battle at Manila, the Filipinos and the Americans took over 100 combined casualties and there had been reports of the Spaniards mutilating the American bodies. Despite the constant fear from Spanish forces, our men held up and later took the island of Guam in a heroic battle. The Pacific was not the only front in the war. Many other battles were staged on the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Above: Spanish kill Cuban spies without trial 2

San Juan Hill: A detailed battle

A Splendid Little War: A Tale of Spanish Atrocities and American Bravery(cont.) Cuba had been rebelling from Spanish rule for nearly forty years when the United States intervened. Within days of the start of the war, thousands of troops had landed on various ports in Cuba, including Guantanamo Bay. Our strategy was to take the port city of Santiago. To do this, the United States had to take the hills around the city including Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill. The American soldiers put on a stunning display of bravery and determination at San Juan Hill as the 9th and 10th African American cavalry divisions charged head on at the Spanish troops while the Rough Riders, a group of volunteers led by former naval commander Theodore Roosevelt followed. Never had such bravery been displayed by any division of armed forces. The Americans eventually took the hill and eight Americans ended up being decorated with the Medal of Honor. After the Americans took the hill, a large naval battle took place around Santiago. The Spanish fleet was annihilated and America had won the war. America wound up winning in Cuba despite the Spanish sending thousands of Americans to the grave. American forces captured Puerto Rico soon after, ending the war in the Caribbean. Although the war was very brief, it had huge effects on the United States and the former territories of Spain. The Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898, almost 16 years ago. The United States had been left with many decisions to make regarding the annexation of the former Spanish territories. Many Imperialists believed that we should protect the former territories and promote Democracy in these lands through annexation, while those opposing believed these new states can govern themselves. Finally we made the decisions to annex the territories of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Even though the United States made acquisitions in land, it took a large blow economically. The terms of the treaty required the United States pay $20,000,000 to Spain, and the United States lost $230,000,000 in other war-related costs. Due to the treacherous acts of the Spanish Empire, the United States had been put in a position in which they must recover, even though they were the victors. Also, they lost something that cannot be replaced. The Spanish savagely killed massive heaps of American soldiers, and some others were lost to disease. The Spanish mocked and jeered at America while committing vicious actions elsewhere, and for that they had been appropriately punished. The war, summarized in words of John Hay in a letter to Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed, " It has been a splendid little war; begun with the highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by that fortune which loves the brave." The Spanish-American war started solely due the acts committed by the Spanish Empire and ended with an astounding America victory in the Pacific and the Caribbean. The United States intervention provides a model to countries everywhere that they cannot use the people of other lands without regard to laws and the personal interests of those people. The war was one of endurance and courage and in that our men were not lacking. New national heroes were born in the Rough Riders of Theodore Roosevelt, Commodore Dewey's men, and the African American regiments nicknamed, "Buffalo Soldiers". The United States finally avenged the losses in the explosion of the Maine. While the United States was the victor, the outcome was bittersweet, as America suffered massive losses.


Philippines: New US territory?

The Panama Canal is one of the United States’ greatest constructions, but it came with a high price that it’s workers had to pay. France was the first to make an attempt at the shortcut; with an estimated 20,000 lives lost, the company eventually went bankrupt. Led by Ferdinand de Lesseps they worked for a total of nine years, but yellow fever and Malaria took most of the workers, and the French did not have the correct tools or building strategies to complete the canal. However, The United States did not give up their dream of completing the difficult task and they were determined to get it done by all means necessary. The U.S. takes pride in the Panama Canal but what most people don’t know is just how corrupt the whole process was, how terrible worker conditions were, and how over budget it was. Theodore Roosevelt believed that naval power was key in having a strong country, and he pushed for the construction of the Panama Canal. He had a dream that ships could pass from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean without traveling all the way around South America. One of the main reasons this canal was so necessary was because of the USS Oregon in 1898. The USS Oregon was ordered to sail through severe weather around South America to the Atlantic Ocean. The lengthy voyage from the Pacific to the Atlantic was done without any radars or radios and helped the U.S. recognize the importance of a Central American canal. So, in 1902 the U.S. bought the rights to the French’s previous canal and their equipment. Then, Secretary of State John Hay began working on a treaty so the U.S. could permanently own the canal zone, and in 1903 it was finished, but Colombian senate would not ratify the treaty. Meanwhile, Panamanians were hoping to break free of Colombian rule. Roosevelt supported the revolution which started on November 2, 1903 and ended the next day. Conveniently, U.S. army was sent in to “oversee” the revolution, in reality they prevented Colombians from fighting back. Not long after, the treaty was back in place and the U.S. was ready to begin construction. It is interesting how the United States steps in to another countries problems only when the outcome will benefit their own economic interests. This shows the great integrity of our government, always looking out for others. Aside from our countries shady acquisitions another topic is brought up about worker health. Work on the Panama Canal was perilous, around 80,000 people worked on the canal and an estimated 30,000 people died while working, this was over eight times the amount of people that died in the Spanish-American War. In the earlier stages of work, yellow fever and malaria took huge numbers of workers. These diseases were transmitted by mosquitoes in the canal, and were very contagious. Malaria did not always cause death, but it still caused great suffering. Yellow fever almost always resulted in fatality, giving victims a yellow skin tone and causing kidney failure, internal bleeding, and vomiting. The first Chief Engineer, John Findley Wallace resigned after only a year because he was afraid of getting the terrifying diseases. Thankfully, John F. Stevens replaced him and actually thought about the health of the workers.


Workers on the canal

Panama Canal: Exposed!(cont.)

He had houses and hospitals built, he worked on sewage and water ways, and he hired William Crawford Gorgas. This was probably one of the best decisions made while working on the Panama Canal. He recognized that yellow fever and malaria were transmitted by mosquitoes and he set out to solve the problem. Spreading oil on marshes and breeding spiders and lizards; yellow fever was gone within a year. For once, the workers were actually cared about. Even so, workers still faced hardships through the whole building of the canal. Working six days a week and some even through the night, it was back-breaking work, and it was almost always raining. Not to mention the constant risk of landslides and dynamite jobs that workers never came back from. West-Indies were given the hardest work and they also faced racism with the American workers. The workers were the victims of some of the most treacherous work there was, all for the benefit of the United States government who didn’t even get their hands dirty.

The new canal

Patient with yellow fever

The Panama Canal construction was extremely over-budget, and over the time limit. In fact it was 106% over budget. How it was so over budget, is unknown. Even though the terrain was difficult to work with, there is no excuse to be that much over budget. Sources of fault could be things like John F. Wallace being paid $25,000 annually, which was higher than any other government politician except the president. That’s quite a bit for someone who gave up on the job after only a year. Logistic problems also conflicted the building, thankfully second Chief Engineer John Stevens realized that making a sea-level canal would be impossible, and devised a lock-and-dam system for the canal. But even he resigned after the stress of the job finally got to him. George W. Goethals replaced him, who was called “the genius of the Panama Canal,” but rumors have said that he ran the canal in a somewhat dictator style. Even though his workers typically liked him and he made work speed up significantly, our country was built off of the idea that dictatorships were unnecessary and inhumane. The Panama Canal is a great achievement by the United States, and they take great pride in it. However, the U.S. was somewhat corrupt in how they acquired the land to build the canal. Also, worker conditions were always dangerous. Apart from The Panama Canal’s glory masked some of the scandalous operations that went on behind the scenes.


Not too long ago, the United States was still ruling by President Washington's famous speech about remaining a closed country. Although this was a good thought at the time so the United States would be able to shape their government as they were still a 'baby' country, they are now beginning to miss out on big business opportunities from other countries. The United States realizes neither China nor Japan has expanded outside of their country, nor are they willing to. As a result President Millard Fillmore sends Matthew C. Perry to Japan to form a diplomatic relationship with them, forcefully. Forcefully meaning neither of the countries wanted to, but America would make them or they would fight. Matthew C. Perry bribes China and Japan with gifts: rifles, swords, pistols, books, whisky, wine, potatoes, and much more. He also brings big ships with him to sit in the bay. These briberies show China and Japan what they could have if they agree to form a relationship with the United States, but it also shows them what they must fight against if they do not agree. Fortunately, when Perry returned he had an even larger navy force, and he had the signatures of the leaders of Japan and China to the Treaty of Kanagawa signed on March 31, 1854. The Treaty of Kanagawa is a compromise between Japan and the United States that improved America's access to energy resources, and gave America two coaling ports for the Navy. America did not get open trade with Japan, though. But overall, America has gotten what they desired at this point.

Spheres of influence in China- 1910


Not too long ago, the United States took over parts of Japan and China making them follow their policies. The advantages to this are: free trade with foreign countries, better access to the natural resources of the foreign countries, and provides a group of people to buy products from the United States. First, the United States gets free trade with foreign countries. Without the expense of trade a lot of money is able to be saved and put to more important things like production of materials to be traded. The goods are free to the United States because they own the regions, and they cannot buy things from themselves. It is also an advantage because more things will be traded, since America will not have to worry about having enough money to trade. Without the worry of obtaining the correct amount of money to make a trade, more trades will be made because it will be like having a bottomless sum of money. Second, the United States gets better access to the natural resources of the foreign countries. Although the United States does not have full ownership over the countries, they still have a signed treaty showing they have access to the land which gives them the right to use the given land and the resources on the land. For example, say the United States is running low on oil and China has extra oil, the United States would have the right to use some of that oil since they have regulation over that part of the land. These rulings over a specific amount land that is influenced by the ruling country can also be called spheres of influence. Third, this gives the United States a group of people to buy their products. If the United States has a relationship with another country they are more likely to team together and help each other out. This means they buy products from each other. This is an advantage to the United States because it gives them assurance that they always have another way they are making money. This also benefits China because it means they are being able to make money on the goods America buys from them.


The Boxer Rebellion

Imperialism in China and Japan (cont.)

When America formed a relationship with China and Japan, there were a few disadvantages. The disadvantages to forming a relationship with them include: rebellions, getting in fights over things that would not have originally been their business, and the fact that they are not very strong since they joined late. First, groups of Chinese inhabitants began rebellions. The Boxers are a group of people in China who resist foreign influence, and who fight against Christianity. This group began spreading all throughout China, and soon they threatened the foreign countries telling them they needed to leave. In response, the eight foreign countries team together and defeat the Boxers. Now, China owes each of the eight countries large sums of money, which the country does not even provide in a year's time Second, America is at a disadvantage because now they are more prone to getting in fights that would not have originally been their business. When John Hay proposed the idea of a free, open market, and trading opportunities with any operating merchant in China, he tried to consider the reactions of foreign countries. This proposal is also known as the Open Door Policy. John Hay said the Open Door Policy would be good because it said several imperialist countries could have access in China without ruling them. So as a result, the countries would not fight over the land. But the problem is the European powers started to divide China and Japan into two. The United States felt their rights were being violated, so they requested that Europe leave the Open Door Policy since America was the one to come up with the policy, from the beginning. Third, America is at a disadvantage because they do not have very much power since they joined late. America was busy expanding from coast to coast and living by President Washington’s speech about remaining an individual country, so they never worried about power in foreign countries. But now that they have decided to form a relationship with foreign countries, they have to fight for power against the foreign countries that have had relationships for a long time. 8

Me: Aloha, Queen Liliuokalani, and thank you for your time. Queen: Thank you for having me. Me: Were going to get straight into the questions here, starting out with a little background for the people who do not know about the history of monarchy in Hawaii. Queen: Yes, as I understand it, shortly after an English explorer by the name of James Cook landed on our Republic, our Chief Kamehameha united the eight major islands of Hawaii under his leadership, and then began the monarchy that ruled Hawaii for almost 200 years until the United States wrongly overthrew me from the monarchy. Me: How did the United States get involved with Hawaii and when? Queen: The United States began getting involved with our Republic in the early 1820s, with ships coming to our ports filled with traders and missionaries. Often times, the missionaries would settle in Hawaii, and they brought a new crop called sugarcane to the Republic. Our population on the Republic steadily declined as years went on, because they brought diseases we were not immune to. Me: You seem to know quite a bit about the history of your Republic, how did you learn of all of this? Queen: Being born and raised on the Islands, I have deep roots into this area and it’s people. When you live here your whole life, you learn its past along the way. That's just the way it is around here.

9 Queen Liliuokalani and King Kalakaua, respectively

Hawaii: Q&A with the Queen(cont.)

Me: Now, as I understand it, the interests of the Americans economically and the interests of your own were much different? Queen: Yes, very different. I wanted to restore the power of the Republic of Hawaii, just the way it was before the United States intervened with us. The Bayonet Constitution took away all of the power of the monarchy, all because of the economical interests of the United States. As I said before, many of the missionaries who settled grew sugarcane, and became very wealthy because of it. With their increasing wealth, they got increasing power in the Hawaiian government. Because monarchy does not allow them to have increased power, they overthrew me and set up a regime to rule Hawaii, which gave them all ruling rights. Me: Now, as I understand it, Sanford B. Dole had much to do with overthrowing of your power? Queen: Yes. After I was overthrown from the monarchy, Sanford B. Dole was elected to be the new president of the regime. He refused to step down from his position when U.S. president Cleveland asked him to, therefor, elongating the restoration process of becoming free. When William McKinley took office, the republic was annexed and Hawaii lost its independence and God given rights. As I said earlier, it all began with the Bayonet Constitution. Me: For those who don’t understand what that did to the Republic, could you go into a bit more detail about the bill? Queen: Yes. The monarch before me, King Kalakaua, was held at gunpoint and forced to sign a bill known as the bayonet constitution. It stripped most of the ruling power of the monarchs, while taking away most voting power from all Hawaiian citizens. It was the first major step of losing the Republic to the United States. Me: Once again, thank you for your time.


Hawaiian Islands

“ALL FOR ONE, ONE FOR ALL� BY JESS JACOBSEN AND JAKE HAYLES Back in 1910, Mexico was in turmoil. A revolution had been sparked and the government would have no way of stopping it. The Mexican nation would be heard. This is the story of this revolution and how the U.S.A. got involved. President Profirio Diaz was the president of Mexico for 31 years. He modernize the nation, but at the cost of the people. Diaz got funds from foreign sources and very quickly the railroads expanded, the production of goods doubled, and cotton production doubled. This hurt the people because he left most of them in poverty. There was only an elite class of individuals above the rest. All the power was in their hands. At the next presidential election, Francisco Madero ran for president. He had created the "anti-reeleccionista" party. His biggest goal was to get Diaz out of office and make Mexico a democratic country. Right before the election, Diaz put Madero in prison. Diaz then won the election. When Madero got out of prison he escaped to Texas where he then declared himself the president of Mexico. But while he was in Texas, there were rebellions all over Mexico. In the south, Emiliano Zapata and his army of Native American peasants wanted their land back. So they took it by force. In the north, Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Pascual Orozco led a big revolt against Diaz. The whole country was revolting because he left all the wealth of the country in a select few. The rebellion grew and in May 1911, Diaz fled Mexico and went to France where he died 4 years later. Francisco Madero was elected president and attempted to establish a democratic government. But, Madero got overthrown by his commander Victoriano Huerta in 1913. Huerta then took over as president but was soon challenged by 4 different armies. Mexico was in trouble.

Profirio Diaz

Victoriano Huerta





The president of the U.S., Woodrow Wilson, didn't view Huerta as president, but as an assassin. To try and make Huerta's reign as short as possible, he allowed the sale of arms to Huerta's enemies. On April 9th, 1914, Huerta made a dire mistake. 9 crew members of the USS Dolphin stopped at a Mexican port for supplies. They all got detained and were released soon after. Huerta apologized but Henry Mayo, a U.S. Admiral, wanted to give all of the men a 21 gunsalute. Huerta refused. Wilson then went to congress to authorize the use of armed forces On Mexico. But more happened before Congress agreed. Wilson got wind of a German ship takingweapons to Huerta. Wilson then set troops to Veracruz where the shipload would be Coming in. Between April 20th and April 22nd, the U.S. forces then took over the town and only had 17 casualties while Huerta suffered over 300. Huerta was trying to stay in power, but couldn't. Huerta then fled to Spain in July. Once Huerta was gone, Venustiano Carranza declared himself president. But when he became president, he faced opposition from Villa and Zapata. The U.S. sided with Carranza because Zapata and Villa wanted more land than Carranza did. Villa got mad and attacked Columbus, New Mexico killing 17. Villa fled in late July of 1914. Wilson then ordered a hunt for Villa. 10,000 troops went into Mexico in search. The U.S. has still not found him. In my opinion, I fully support the U.S.'s actions in the Mexican Revolution. Huerta was a cheat and should not have been considered a president. He was never voted in and didn't run. He just tried to take it by force. Wilson should have opposed what he did. And when Huerta detained men from America, it was great how Wilson when straight to Congress to be able to retaliate. Then the quick decision made by Wilson when we find out about the German boat sending weapons to Huerta. In my opinion, Wilson made all the right moves. Plus the oil in Mexico is a resource that helps make these decisions. I don't think that we would have been as aggressive had there not been some natural resources that we needed. It’s also good that the U.S. got out when they did because World War 1 was right around the corner. Wilson in my opinion did everything to the best of his ability. After 10 years of turmoil, a little bit of quiet, if not peace came over Mexico. The people of Mexico went through many hardships on its journey to a better country. After Diaz and Huerta were both gone, then Mexico was in a lot better political standing. Mexico needed the help of the Americans and we were glad to give it. And now thanks to the people of Mexico and Woodrow Wilson, Mexico will have a better tomorrow.


A LL ”( CONT.)

Francisco Madero


Bibliography •

Spanish American War

Main-author sources: Josh 1. 2. 3. Co-author sources: Addy 1. VS. 2. Picture Sources: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Panama Canal

Main-author sources: Kylee 1. 2/ 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Co-author sources: Josh 1. 2. 3. 4. Picture Sources: 1. 2. 3.

Imperialism in China and Japan

Main-author sources: Addy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Co-author sources: Kylee 1. 2. 3. Picture Sources: 1. 2.


Bibliography(cont.) •

Hawaiian annexation

• Main-author sources: Jake • 1. • 2. Co-author sources: Jess 1. 2. • Picture Sources: • m=isch&tbnid=2X5w8FS6GLbkgM:&imgrefurl= 1883&docid=nGpvQ57l_LKQfM&imgurl= 1.jpg&w=480&h=640&ei=9WMdT6DYJMzOgAefh7mEDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=108&vpy=121&dur=135&h ovh=259&hovw=194&tx=120&ty=117&sig=113002627340178944615&page=1&tbnh=147&tbnw=134&start =0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 • h&tbnid=dPfLnLvO0IXVIM:&imgrefurl= UjyroHFYMgM&imgurl= 7DYIZDrggfpOyCDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=235&vpy=122&dur=927&hovh=273&hovw=185&tx=118&ty=134&sig=1130 02627340178944615&page=1&tbnh=163&tbnw=96&start=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0 • =isch&tbnid=hdPogXvAJVcyxM:&imgrefurl= 20of%2520Sandwich%2520Islands%25201898%2520%28Hawaii%29.htm&docid=L5PbjXZmLMb0M&imgurl= h%252520Islands%2525201898%252520%28Hawaii%29.jpg&w=1100&h=1075&ei=6mUdTfVDcLUgQeE6onbCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=105&vpy=26&dur=3131&hovh=222&hovw=227&tx=148&ty=1 21&sig=113002627340178944615&page=1&tbnh=149&tbnw=152&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

Mexican Revolution

Main-author sources: Jess 1. 2. Co-author sources: Jake 1. 2. Picture Sources: 1. 417&page=1&tbnh=151&tbnw=131&start=0&ndsp=59&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=68&ty=68 2. dur=637&hovh=209&hovw=176&tx=99&ty=133&sig=115494253680411908417&page=1&tbnh=149&tbnw=130&s tart=0&ndsp=54&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 3. 009/11/facial-hair-of-weekend_20.html&docid=GT1BLTgYAKy2M&imgurl= 600/Porfirio_diaz.jpg&w=1214&h=1600&ei=ZS4eT8uFJIaRsAKul6GqDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=185&vpy=454&dur= 36&hovh=258&hovw=195&tx=121&ty=139&sig=115494253680411908417&page=1&tbnh=150&tbnw=125&start= 0&ndsp=65&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0


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