Interview With President An Exclusive
Jan./Feb. 1917 Issue $.47/Issue $.47/Issue
Interview With President Cleveland
A BLOW BY BLOW ACCOUNT SPANISH AMERICAN WAR â€˘
Heroes or VILLAns? Heroes or Justifying the U.S.'
In Mexico Justifying the U.S.'
What You Didn't
Motives In Mexico
Michael Hughes; Riley Wilson
In the small Central American country of Panama lies a 50 mile channel cut into the rocks. Many know it as the Panama Canal, a path from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean. Many use the goods that pass through this “gate” but are unaware of the difficulty of making the canal a reality. The cost of building the canal was approximately 400 million dollars in total, but some would argue that the cost of human lives and the toll it took on the environment far exceeded any dollar amount. One of the more costly factors was the number of human lives lost. In the original French attempt at building the canal, many lives were lost due to diseases and rock slides that occurred frequently. Eventually, the French gave up their efforts at the canal and abandoned it, leaving their equipment and the land for the United States to buy. The French weren’t the only to suffer at the hands of disease and other hardships, however. The nearly 44,000 workers hired by the US also were faced with these same problems. Although the amount of the dead for the US was considerably lower than the death for the French, it was still high; the death toll for the US was around 5,600 for disease alone. The main diseases that plagued the houses, working spaces and even hospitals included both malaria and the yellow fever.
These two diseases combined to form a fatal brew of death. The diseases were only a portion of the “killers” while building the Panama canal. The mountainous terrain meant large boulders on the slopes of hills and the TNT sometimes served its purpose all too well, loosening too many rocks and causing avalanches, killing men and ruining thousands of dollars worth of equipment in an instant.
Losing men wasn’t the only challenge faced when excavating and building the canal. There were many factors that added to the challenge of building the canal, both natural, as well as accidents with machinery. The first hardship that the U.S. had to go through in the process of building the canal actually occurred before the canal was even built. The United States had to first buy the land from France which they couldn’t use due to Colombian rule, then the US went and did what it did best, shadily supported the Panamanian rebellion and won them over and paid off Colombia for their recognition of Panama as an official country. With that said, the second challenge is the location of the channel. Due to the tropical area of the Panama canal, rainfall was common and would rust the metal that composed the steam shovels and would transform the solid dirt ground into a muddy mess, disabling the worker’s progress that day, essentially halting all progress on the canal. Another natural factor triggered by man would be the rock slides mentioned earlier. These avalanches could easily kill people and ruin expensive equipment that would have to be shipped back down to the canal, slowing down progress for weeks until one was constructed on site or a new one was shipped from the United States.
Although taking part in a historic event, being a worker on the canal was a hard life to live with. Apart from the dangerous working conditions and the diseases that were abundant in the camps, the treatment of the workers was also a problem. Even though most workers were paid well, they were worked to the limit in hot, humid, and dangerous quarters; a worker could pour concrete from 80 feet off the ground without safety equipment or would plant and detonate TNT from standpoints that weren't always safe. The original living areas were not much if anything which contributed to the very high amount of deaths during the French occupation of the canal. While the original quarters weren't sanitary or safe, the newer housing units were much better, but were segregated by race; African-American workers would get the older and more dilapidated houses while the white workers would get the better houses. But most bad stories have a silver lining and this one is no exception, no matter how thin that lining may be. The pay for the workers was not bad and it came with housing, dining, and many other luxuries that most other jobs do not provide. All of this adds up to the rich getting richer, swimming in their pools of money not caring about the people who drowned filling it. Sure, now the U.S.' government can move warships more quickly, which is needed seeing as to how we are great at making enemies, but can anyone explain why the lives lost in war are any more important than those lost due to the greed and negligence of those in power? The answer is no.
Article by Maya Danner and Co-Authored by Michael Hughes
The United States might not be considered by historians to be one of the main imperial powers of the late 19th century, however at one point, the United States ruled the Philippines. Even though the US no longer does today, the history of the Spanish-American war and the PhilippineAmerican war are greatly influential on the current United States. The Philippine American war gained land for the US and was one of the first colonial wars in which the US took part. The war was the result of the Philippines dissatisfaction with the idea of an imperial power moving out, only to have another one take its place. The military leaders on both sides of the conflict such as Emilio Aguinaldo and George Dewey and their played important roles in the outcome of the war. Their utilization of war strategies, and the somewhat treacherous tactics used by both sides in the conflict are both important factors.
During the Spanish American war, America had allies and enemies, Emilio Aguinaldo was both. Born in the Philippines Aguinaldo was a mayor, military leader, and later, a president. Aguinaldo led the Philippine's revolution against Spain with his army the Katipunan. Even after signing a treaty with Spain, agreeing that he would leave the country, Aguinaldo didn't stop fighting. While traveling, Aguinaldo met with American commodore George Dewey. Aguinaldo decided to become allies with the US to fight Spain. After fighting along side America against Spain and winning, the Philippines declared their independence on
June 12, 1898. Just months later Commodore Dewey came back after having signed the Treaty of Paris with Spain, giving the United States ownership of the Philippines. Outraged, the Filipinos once again declared a revolutionary war - this time against the US. It would be easy to argue over who had the better war strategies, but what is a more important factor still is who had the advantage. Those who favor the cut-throat, "keep your friends close but your enemies closer" tactic would probably be on Dewey's side. Those who prefer the "once-an-allyalways-an-ally" way of thinking would probably be on Alguinado's side. One could also think about how Dewey's actions could be disputed from multiple points of view. The Americans would naturally say that Dewey's tactics were better which is why he won, while the Filipinos would have been more likely to say that Alguinado had better strategy but was crossed by Dewey. You could also think of this war as a battle of wills, saying that the country that was more passionate about its cause won. In the end it was the battle of Manila Bay that ended the Philippine American war. It was Theodore Roosevelt's idea was to send out Commodore Dewey's ships prematurely. Dewey also was an extremely smart and thoughtful leader during this fight. He knew to wait out of range while the Philippine ships wasted their ammunition, then to attack, knowing that the Filipino wooden ships were no match for Dewey's of steel. When all the fighting was over, the Philippines had endured two revolutionary wars within the span of 10 years and all the fighting was for naught.
This conflict involved an imperialist power versus nationalist interests of a people, the imperialists being the Americans. Our leaders seemed very intent on conquering foreign lands much like certain countries had in Europe in the previous two centuries. This trait could be interpreted as a flaw in the government. Ironically, since we helped the Philippine's in their first quest for independence, we could have managed to bargain for their land since the thought of us helping them was fresh in their minds. Even though America won that war and gained the Philippines as a country we didn't manage to keep it for very long. It could be said that the 4,000 American casualties were not worth the country from which we never benefited. This war was one of the first where our allies became our enemies.
Interview by: Riley Wilson; Archie Weindruch Hawaii: A Breif History 2000 miles off of the western coast of the United States in the pacific ocean, there is a small group of islands not claimed by any other empire of this world. This small island nation is named Hawaii. The United States government has taken an interest in possibly acquiring this small island nation as a United States territory for its involvement in the sugar trade, to acquire the port of the island for the American navy, and also to keep the influence of other foreign countries from reaching the islands. Clearly, this is a large matter for the Americans populace in general, as well as the American government. So we decided to consult President Grover Cleveland to answer some questions we had about this topic. Interviewer: Hello President Cleveland. We thank you for making the time to see us for this interview. We simply have a few questions about the Hawaiian annexation debate. The first question we have for you is about why the United States is taking interest in acquiring Hawaii as a territory. What is it about Hawaii that is interesting to the U.S.? PC: The people want to annex Hawaii because it has a port on the island of Oahu, and that port would serve perfectly for a naval base. There are already a large amount of Americans inhabiting the islands as well, and they are working the local sugar trade. The island practically belongs to the U.S. as it is. I: What is standing in the way of the United States going after these Islands? Is there a problem that is not allowing this nation to be annexed? PC: As you may know, at this point the government passed a bill that increases tariffs on sugar imports, which severely affected the sugar trade with Hawaii. The only natural way to avoid this tariff would have been for Hawaii to apply to become an American territory. So now we are just waiting for them to appeal to us. However, the local monarchy is what's preventing this from taking affect. I: We know that the Americans that have been living on the islands do not agree with the local monarchy. Have there been any tensions between the Americans and the Hawaiians? And what do you, as President, think about these actions the men have taken?
PC: There are definitely tensions. Some of the American sugar traders living in Hawaii banded together and created the Hawaiian League. These men forced the King of Hawaii, King Kalakaua, to sign a treaty at gunpoint called the Bayonet Constitution, which dismantles much of the king's own powers. It also forced Kalakaua to give custody of the harbor to our navy. And as president, there is nothing legally that I can do about this matter, all due to the fact that we do not own Hawaii. And all this time, they have been acting without jurisdiction of the United States government. I think that these men did a terrible wrong to the natives of the island nation, and the fact that they did all of this without . I: I understand that this must be a difficult situation. We also intended to ask you about Sanford Dole. We heard that he was elected as the president of Hawaii. Is this true? And if it is, how did this happen? PC: It started when King Kalakaua died a couple of years ago, in 1891. When this happened, his sister, Liliuokalani, took up the throne as the queen and tried to restore power to the monarchy. Liliuokalani wanted to keep Hawaii independent from the U.S., but because of that tariff on the sugar trade, the Hawaiian League wanted to be a part of the U.S. to avoid the tax. To destroy Liliuokalani's efforts, the Hawaiian League overthrew her and elected Dole as president. Then, Dole started appealing to the United States to be a territory. I: Has this appeal been accepted or denied thus far by the government? PC: No, as of now they have not decided this. I will not accept this appeal. As president, I strongly disagree with what the Hawaiian League has done and I also disagree with the idea of imperialism. However, I also understand that my presidency is coming to a swift end, and I may not be able to prevent the government from annexing Hawaii when the next president is elected. I: I understand. This has been a very fruitful interview. We thank you again for making time for this interview.
Alexis Tansey; Maya Danner "The war of the United States with Spain was brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world wide meaning." This quote, stated by Henry Cabot Lodge, basically sums up the gist of . The Spanish American War. The Spanish American War only lasted about four months, but it was a very brutal four months in which many lives were lost. American President McKinley was reluctant to involve the U.S. in the Spanish conflict, though most Americans were sympathetic to the Cuban cause. Cubans had been itching for freedom since 1868 but revolts had mainly settled down until the 1890s. Cubans then agitated for freedom once again. They exiled many leaders for the independence movement, a famous one being Jose Marti. He established the Cuban Revolutionary Party, writing poems and newspaper articles about their struggle for freedom and persuading many people to join the cause. Cubans were tired of the Spanish dictatorship that was ruling them. The Spanish even forced Cubans into camps to keep them from joining the rebels. There, nearly 1/3 of them died from starvation and disease. Cuba needed to break free and gain independence. The Spanish American War started when the USS Maine exploded, carried on with many battles such as the Battle of San Juan, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898
On February 9, 1898, a newspaper called "The New York Journal," published a letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome. Dupuy was Spain's minister to the United States. In his letter, he bluntly ridiculed President McKinley for "being weak and catering to the rabble". Americans were infuriated, claiming it was "the worst insult America could receive." Americans started clamoring for war with Spain right then. The last straw for McKinley, however, was the explosion of The USS Maine. The USS Maine was an American ship sent to Havana to protect American lives and property. On February 15, 1898, it mysteriously blew up, obliterating 260 American lives. No one could prove how the ship exploded, but everybody knew the Spanish were to blame. Commodore George Dewey, commander of the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squandron, was ready to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines if war broke out. On President Roosevelt's word that the war began, he rushed his squadron to Manila Bay. On May 1, 1898, American military inched toward the Spanish army, holding their fire. The Spanish fired at will, totally missing the out-of-reach American army. When the Americans finally got close enough, they opened fire killing/injuring nearly 400 Spaniards. Not a single American life was lost during the Battle of Manila Bay.
After Theodore Roosevelt's navy post working on the Naval War Board, he started a regiment called the "Rough Riders". Members of this regiment were the toughest men around. Some were college athletes or cowboys, and others were ranchers or miners. Not a single army could take down the Rough Riders. These soldiers functioned as foot soldiers, for they had no horses. They traveled to Cuba to carry out the mission of capturing the port city of Santiago. On July 1st, 1898, 8,000 U.S. soldiers fought to take control of Kettle and San Juan Hills. The unstoppable American army was lead by Buffalo Soldiers, or experienced African American troops, and closely followed by the Rough Riders. By nightfall, U.S. troops controlled the ridge above Santiago. On July 3, the U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet causing the Spanish troops in Cuba to surrender two weeks later. Soon afterwards, U.S. troops defeated Spanish forces in Puerto Rico. The Treaty of Paris, signed December 10, 1898, was the official end to the war. It stated that the Americans pay Spain twenty million dollars for the possession of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Cuba also became independent. The consequences of this war did not come out all great for the Americans though. The monetary costs of the war were two hundred and fifty million dollars. Also two thousand soldiers had died in the war. The cause of their death was not from battle but from diseases such as yellow fever.
Archie Weindruch; Alexis Tansey
Did Woodrow Wilson do the right thing by involving the United States with the Mexican Revolution as he did? This a question that many might find themselves asking, as it was a large part of the defining of America's foreign policies. Before we can reach the answer, though, we must first analyze the information. Key factors include our nation's vast investment in our neighbor to the south, turmoil regarding the nation's new leaders, our military presence, and Pancho Villia's raids. Much of Mexico's industrial advancements were made possible by financial investments stemming from the pockets of citizens here in our country. The new infrastructure could have made Mexico a much stronger nation, but instead it was used to make the rich richer. President Profiro Diaz had been reaping the benefits of the controlled society he created. The people were fed up. Francisco Madero, a wealthy but progressive man, was imprisoned because he was too much of a threat to Diaz's presidency. After he got out, he called for a revolution and declared himself the leader of Mexico. The U.S., of course, decided it needed to find an excuse to get involved to protect its precious money. "The Tampico Incident" , as it is called, involved a small misunderstanding in which several U.S. sailors were arrested and released shortly with no harm done. The politicians in Washington however, saw it as an opening to become militarily involved. Before Congress could approve anything, though, a different conflict was underfoot. A German ship laden with weapons was on its way to the Mexican port of Veracruz. U.S. Naval and Marine forces seized the city, and occupied it for six months. During this time Victoriano Heurta killed Madero and took the reigns of a country at war with itself. He was not received warmly, and the countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile acted as mediators, forcing Heurta to abdicate his presidential seat. The next at bat was Venustiano Carranza, but Emiliano Zapata and "Pancho" Villa also wanted to occupy the plate. Due to the latter two wanting to redistribute the land amassed by the rich to the poor who once owned it, which, if done, would mean that our investments would be worthless, Wilson did not support Villa. This made the champion of the people furious. He struck back by capturing the town of Columbia, NM and killing 17 Americans. 100,000 U.S. troops hunted him for a year without success, and then withdrew to focus on World War I. Wilson was right by trying to hold accountable the man who killed our fellow citizens, regardless of his past merit, but I do not think that our investments were worth more than the quality of life for millions of Mexicans.
Throughout our great country's history, many times have we have placed the growth and wealth of our nation above the welfare of the "little people". Now, as we have established ourselves as a stable sovereign power, we must focus on the advancement and well being of those who lack the means to support themselves, else we risk becoming the very tyrants from whom our forefathers fought for our independence. Now, we must not be selfish with our privileges. It is imperative that we apply the morals and values from which we derive so much benefit to our dealings with others, even if they happen to reside on the other side of our border.
WORKS CITIED Panama Canal Lead Author (Michael Hughes) Research links: http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photogallery/panama-gallery/ Co-author (Riley Wilson) Research links: http://www.canalmuseum.com/ http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html Picture Sources: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photogallery/panama-gallery/ Hawaiian Annexation Lead Author (Riley Wilson) Research links: http://www.ushistory.org/us/44b.asp http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHI D=189 http://www.hawaiiforvisitors.com/about/annexation.htm Co-author (Archie Weindruch) Research links: http://my.hrw.com/tabnav/controller.jsp?isbn=0030779596 http://www.ushistory.org/us/44b.asp http://www.hawaii-nation.org/betrayal.html Picture Sources: http://www.hawaiialive.org/viewer.php?resource=617&hostType=s ub&hostID=95 http://www.hawaii-guide.com/oahu Philipine Insurrection Lead Author (Maya Danner) Research links: http://www.historyguy.com/PhilipineAmericanwar.html#filam1 http://www.military.com/Resources/HistorySubmittedFileView?file =history_philippineinsurrection.htm http://www.filipiniana.net/microsite/prr/index.jsp Co-author (Michael Hughes) Research links: http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/army_flag/pi.html http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/exhibits/past/Span_Am_WAr/ philippine_insurrection/philippine_insurrection.html Picture Sources: http://www.japanfocus.org/site/view/1745 http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/SEAiT/data/images/nara/large/ph00 099l.jpg The Mexican Revolution Lead Author (Archie Weindruch) Research links: http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexicanrevolution-1910 http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-davi.htm Co-author (AlexisTansey) Research links: http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-davi.htm http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/2824-the-mexicanrevolution-1910 Picture Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porfirio_D%C3%ADaz http://www.emersonkent.com/history_notes/pancho_villa.htm http://www.authentichistory.com/1898-1913/4-imperialism/2saw/2-philippines/index.html
The Spanish American War Lead Author (Alexis Tansey) Research links: http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.ht ml http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq711.htm Co-author (Maya Danner) Research links: http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/dewey. html http://www.spanamwar.com/tr2.htm
Picture Sources: http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&hl =en&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=800&q=the+ de+lome+letter&btnG=Search+Images&gbv= 2&aq=f&aqi=g1g-S3&aql=&oq= http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&hl =en&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=800&q=roug h+riders+san+juan+hill&gbv=2&aq=2&aqi=g1 0&aql=&oq=rough+riders http://www.google.com/search?pq=that&hl= en&qe=dGhlIHRyZWF0eSBvZiBw&qesig=I5H_ qG1Yom3vKqhMoKGsTg&pkc=AFgZ2tndafMtNo38dr5_cuUZADmLntKUQ_8do8ZyUXvDFstHZgs_Bk5bb Hc1WFeuF_I9weJt5yQ8-HdMFllECbO_cxJXutw&cp=15&gs_id=3v&xhr=t&q=the+trea ty+of+paris&client=tablet-androidasus&v=132203673&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav= on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&biw=1280&bih=800 &um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=E 7MZT9KXM9Dy2gXwuOnBCA