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studio air 2014 sem 1

mitran m kiandee

studio 14 finnian & victor


studio air Land Art Generator Initiative 2014 CPH.

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AIR

design journal

Version 3.0 21 June 2014 Copyright © 2014 Mitran Kiandee Special thanks to Design team: BingQing Yan HuiLi Yeoh XiaoJuin Low Supervisors: Finnian Warnock Victor Bunster

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AIR’NERGY huili - mitran - juin - yan

LAGI . 2014

Land Art Generator Initiative 2014 Society for Cultural Exchange Architecture Design Studio: Air Bachelor of Environments University of Melbourne Semester 1 2014 www.issuu.com/mmmitran mkiandee@student.unimelb.edu.au

Any copy of this journal issued by the publisher is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwise be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including these words being imposed on a subsequent purchaser. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.


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AIR

contents

air an annoyingly affected and condescending manner.

n., (É›)


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A0.0 introduction

8

A1 design futuring

16

A2 design computation

24

A3 composition generation

30

A4 conclusion

31

A5 learning outcomes

32

A6 algorithmic sketches

38

B1 research field

40

B2 case study 1.0

46

B3 case study 2.0

54

B4 technique development

64

B5 technique prototypes

72

B6 technique proposal

78

B7 learning objectives

80

B8 algorithmic sketches

90

C1 design concept

112

C2 tectonic elements

124

C4 brief requirements

154

C5 learning outcomes

x

150

C3 final model

X bibliography

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A0.0

introduction

About Me Education My own experience traveling often around the world has exposed me to a diversity of the way cultures translate the idea of living. Growing up in Malysia and after 5 years studying in Melbourne, I have developed a fond interest in how different ways of thinking can be integrated into one community. Mies Van der Rohe has become one of my most admired architects which encourage me to always think with simplicity and awareness to design in a practical and efficient manner.

2005-2009 All Saints Secondary School, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. 2010-2011 Huntingtower Highschool, Mount Waverley 2012-PRESENT Bachelor of Environments, University of Melbourne JAN-FEB 2014 Winter Exchange Program, Stuttgart Universit채t

Experience Work I still consider myself a rookie in architecture. Much of my previous studios have been more of an exploration of interests with attempts to understand why certain designs are executed by architects in their specific ways. Contrary to the current architectural trends, I am disinterested with biomimicry and more akin towards the simple poetics of prefabrication and rhythmic repetition.

2013-PRESENT Committee member of OCF DEC 2013 Intern at HJL Architecture, Melbourne DEC 2012 Selected Virtual Environments Lantern, Melbourne GPO Exhibition JUL 2012 Model maker at F-20 Sdn Bhd, Malaysia

Knowledge Manual It is exciting to see the emergence of parametric designs with computational programs and BIM interfaces. In recent times, I have been introduced to the limitless potential of this digital age but have yet to develop a fondness towards the new culture of designing. Studio Air will hopefully become an eyeopener to for me adopt new possibilities. Virtual Environments and self-practice encourages familiarity and understanding to think like computers. I am very interested to see how we will all progress and come up with different designs from the same concepts http://issuu.com/mmmitran mkiandee@student.unimelb.edu.au

Sketching Hand Models Laser Cutting 3D Printing

Programs Microsoft Office InDesign Photoshop Illustrator Rhinoceros 5.0 Autocad Revit Google Sketchup Grasshopper


Fig 0.0.a Self-potrait featuring Virtual Environments lantern Fig 0.0.b Unearthing Gallery for Studio Earth Fig 0.0.c Proposed Studley Park Boathouse inspired by Mies Van der Rohe Fig 0.0.d Virtual Environments lantern in the dark

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A0.1

expression of interest

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WIND ENERGY

SOUVOINUS TURBINE


A collaboration has been made with other like-minded students to respond towards the LAGI competition brief. I hope to design a land art that harnesses the superfluous wind energy and exhibits renewable energy that meets the requirements of efficiency, accessibility, aesthetics and safety. At present, the general public are still misinformed or sceptical about the benefits of wind energy. Energy source “Flutter is a self-feeding and potentially destructive vibration where aerodynamic forces on an object couple with a structure’s natural mode of vibration to produce rapid periodic motion.”[1] Aeroelastic flutter is a vibration caused by wind that can cause big trouble for airplanes and to bridge stability. Vortex shedding, buffeting and galloping are unsteady aerodynamic phenomenons that demonstrated destruction in aviation machines and the infamous Tacoma Bridge. Humdinger Wind Energy has found a way to collect this flutter [1] Proefrock, Philip (2010), ‘windbelt: Innovative Generator to Bring Cheap Wind Power to Third World’

and generate power without the use of turbines. The Humdinger Windbelt has been designed for different scales, ranging from micro applications to larger and modular installations. Piezoelectricity is permitted by the ability of some materials to generate electric fields in response to mechanical strain or kinetic energy.[2] This technology can easily be adapted to use the kinetic energy of the wind to move them. However, piezoelectric materials only produce minuscule amounts of energy, and while advances are being made in this technology, piezoelectric materials are only fully efficient are certain levels of resonance, with slight variations away from the optimal frequency causing significant drops in energy production.[3]

Fig 0.1.a Ned Kahn’s Technorama Facade in Switzerland 2002,Articulated Cloud is a network of panels that fluctuate according to wind pressure. Fig Set 0.1.b Savonius Wind Turbine appropriate for maximum harness at low wind velocity. Fig 0.1.c Wind energy is beginning to show popularity in the design industry but the public has yet to show support of it. This wind farm proposal incorporates public spaces with the windmills as an attempt to encourage firsthand participation and a better acceptance towards these mega structures.

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Part A of this journal will be a personal discourse on conceptualising design ideas with respect to future needs, present technology and revolutionary methods of composition. [2] Proefrock, Philip (2010), ‘windbelt: Innovative Generator to Bring Cheap Wind Power to Third World’ [3]Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’ pp31

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A

conceptualisation

VIVA LA EVOLUCION BJARKE INGLES


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A1

design futuring

“DON'T FIGHT FORCES, USE THEM.” 7R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER


Over 3000 years, the concept of architecture has been a response to the requirements of society to own a dignified, civic and public space, and the discourse of the architect is the methodology of constructing such a response. The market however intends to erase this ideology and instead, pressures designers to be extravagant and spectacular, offering unlimited amount of attention but yet not taken seriously. [1] There is urgency for a new culture of architecture. Perhaps it is necessary to perceive architecture as a driver for innovation, the spur for post-modernist movements and the catalyst of an eternal future. Are we designing places to save the dignity of the profession or are we starting a revolution to change the way architecture is traditionally looked at? Architectural discourse is necessary to establish a dialogue that bridges this linguistic chasm. Ultimately, architecture is the one discipline which coordinates the hands, eyes and mind in unity of everyone under one medium. It should be understood beyond the physical building and be extended forward with their comprehension of future ideas. There is an urgency to create a better work ethic when designing. In ‘Design Futuring’, Fry emphasises that we “must recognise that we are now on the cusp of one of the most dramatic changes in our mode of earthly habitation”.[2] Architects are trapped in a titanic struggle on a reduced battlefield of the natural landscape. Our method of architecture seem redundant and lack innovation. The art of thinking becomes critical as we seek for alternative methods to approach design processes. Designs should be fragmented off from the media’s

hunger to always see something new. It seems we ought to redefine the way we perceive architecture to be a communication of design ideas rather than a platonic form to explore further possibilities for autopoietic architecture. “The death wattle of modernism has yet to be replaced by a new paradigm.” Peter Eisenman [3]

[1] Koolhas, ‘Rem Koolhaas and Peter Eisenman on today’s critical architectural discourse issues’, 2011 [2]Fry, ‘Design Futuring’ pp6 [3]Eisenman, ‘Rem Koolhaas and Peter Eisenman on today’s critical architectural discourse issues’, 2011 [4] Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture [5]Fry, ‘Design Futuring’ p12

Tools of the digital era, namely parametric modelling and Building Information Modelling interfaces, should really encourage fresh architectural responses to meet the present needs of ‘sustainability’ and large scale planning. Reality reveals that they are still at infant stage and are awaiting more participation from current architects. These tools are the way to break free from the 2 Dimensional responses to facilitate ‘anthropological mode of worldly habitation’. [4] The digital platform heals the ideology of architecture as a mere facility and transcends it into a wave that transfigures how future designers will execute imagination. We need to understand the political mise-en-scene that confines the architecture. We must understand the lifetime of architecture that extends beyond our finite lifespan. “Irrespective of how you currently think and feel about design, you need to measure your own understanding against what follows and the face of design’s continually growing importance as a decisive factor in our future having a future.”[5] To understand that architecture does not conform to a requirement or style is a revelation. Architects are empowered with the ability to break free from social stigmas. The power should be used to mobilise the righteous to depreciate the process of defuturing and to essentially create a landscape that has a sustain-ability. 15


A1.1

design futuring

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RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER VITRA FACTORY DOME WEIL A M RHEIN, GERMANY, 1975/2000


Richard Buckminster Fuller is an avant-garde 20th century experimental engineer. He pioneers geodesic structures which are employed to create self-supporting domes. This iteration by Thomas C. Howard was manufactured in 1975 and originally erected in Detroit, USA. In 2000, the building was installed as a space for events on the Vitra Campus.[1] [Expanding future possibilities] Using lightweight poly-truss space frame construction, the rethinking of traditional architecture and open space disobeys classical orders. Collaboratively, they reveal an innovation for future possibilities. These elements are intelligent translations of archetypal concepts approached logically. Yet, they still artistically encourage new ideas of inventing structures in tension beyond atypical truss frames. Looking in detail, the geodesic dome is an “anti-representational, pure matter-energy assemblage that is reduced to the techniques” of construction.[2] It is arguably a template for the future. It encourages interesting ideas that “redirect us towards far more sustainable modes of planetary habitation.”[3] The extent of Fuller’s

ridiculous dream to enclose many metropolitan cities within his geodesic domes have nevertheless fostered reconsiderations towards the conception of an enclosure for human living. [Contribution to field of ideas] The synergy between atomic characteristics & spatial functions is a conscious turnover for social technology.[4] It propels emotive sentiments and spiritual awareness within visitors through futuristic designing techniques. Further references to micro detailing of biological organisms unravel geometric possibilities of human ‘mind-matter’ connectedness. Indeed, the dynamic basis of biological organisms and its ability to make interconnections is a realm that is at present rapidly explored.

Fig 1.1.a The geodesic dome exterior Fig 1.1.b Interior canvas lining mimics micro detailing of webs and leaf veins [1] Vitra,Vitra Campus Architecture. [2]Hans &Miller, ' Buckminster Fuller', p8 [3]Fry, 'Design Futuring' pp6 [4] Hans &Miller, ' Buckminster Fuller', p10

[Continuous appreciation] The interior mirrors the minimal exterior. My first-hand journey through this structure convicts me to rejoice in the purity of geometry that transcends from a fine emulation of nature. The lining, separation and framing reflect a flow of compression and tension forces through the structure. The detailing captures sentiments prevalent in many preceding designs. /b

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A1.2

design futuring

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GEOFFREY BAWA KALAMANDA HOTEL

DAMBULLA, SRI LANKA, 1991


Geoffrey Bawa’s vocation responds highly towards contextual climate, resources and socio-culture. With a flourishing design and a highlight on unconsidered typologies, Kandalama Hotel has become a scenic getaway that is landscape sensitive and appreciates the environment as it is.[1] [Expanding future possibilities] The design is a response to the Dry Zone climate. Fry argues that architects ought to “deal with human beings making ever greater demands on the environments of their dependence”[2]. Kalamanda Hotel is an opposing monument of how natural a solution to this predicament can bloom. It pioneers current ideas of having a blend between the inside and the outside environment by coupling elements of the site into its structure. This design style reflects that instinctive solutions emerge from adopting a sensitivity towards the local landscape. [Contribution to field of ideas] Although lacking in aesthetic extravagance, there is a strong depiction in the precious interaction between the landscape and users. The large expanses of naked rock [1]Robson, David (2002). ‘Geoffrey Bawa p27 [2] Fry 'Design Futuring' p12

material signals a contrasting austerity with the lushness of the encroaching vegetation. Bawa has revolutionised a culture of buildings which articulate gratitude towards their site. “Theory is no reflection of the given order of the world. Rather, it is a designed apparatus to give order to the phenomena we experience”.[3] Bawa simply implores common architectural techniques. His theories respond by relating the unpredictability of nature with the rigidity of architecture. Platonic architectural motifs are derived from an understanding of the cohesive ability of architecture with its site.

Fig1.2.a Exterior of the hotel communes with nature to remain in a equilibrium state of sustainability Fig1.2.b Geological rocks on the site encroach the reception counter of the hotel Fig1.2.c The tectonic embrace between the volcanic rocks and the building foundations

[Continuous appreciation] Unscreened transition and various detailing are only recently adopted as trendy ‘green architecture’ with aesthetic wealth. This Hotel proves that Geoffrey Bawa is the unsound perpetrator of sustainable architecture. He exemplifies that designing for the future has to have an excellent unity of various parameters. The tectonic embrace between the volcanic rocks and the building foundations express a romance of compressive strength and load bearing components. [3] Schumacher, 'The Autopoiesis of Architecture' p4

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A1.3

design futuring

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HERZOG & DE MEURON ALIANZ ARENA

MUNICH, GERMANY. 2005


The design is a critical response towards an immediate need for a new stadium that houses two different teams. The architects poetically responds by emulating existing details of the Munich Olympic Stadium built 30 years ago.[1] [Expanding future possibilities] The soft aesthetic appeal of the exterior cushion facade is a victory in translation of an ordinary stadium building into a pristine expression of modernity. The design process employed by Herzog and de Meuron particularly fascinates the architecture community with their maximum exploitation of parametric technology. The simple process of sweeping tensile members through the exterior building frame infuses a new identity for the local football clubs. [Contribution to field of ideas] Alianz arena expands prefabrication possibilities through the design methodology. The form is extrapolated from a conceived single section. Lofting this cross section rewards the architecture with structural consistency that underpins a highly buildable stadium. [1]Burrows, Stephen et. al., ‘The Arup Journal 1/2006'

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The collaborative work with Arup Engineers explores new composite materials with an appearance that deceives function. The practice of Herzog and de Meuron motivates many other like-minded architects to consider new and efficient alternatives available with the advancement of material technology. [Continuous appreciation] The built architectural works that architecture releases into the wider social world lead a communicative double life: they speak to and intervene in communication systems outside the autopoiesis of architecture, while at the same time circulating within the architectural discourse as points of critical reference[2]

Fig1.3.a The 0.2mm thin skin is ethylenetetraflourehtylene, ETFE is soft, lightweight, very fire resistant and requires low maintenance. Fig1.3.b Such as the light-works on the facade contend with one another as a conversation of independent identity in a unified space. Fig 1.3.c The interior with a 66 000 seat capacity. Fig 1.3.d It is fascinating to see the architects not restrict ornamentation on the ordinary geometric form but instead, extend it to the realm of immateriality. Fig 1.3.e The lofted section configuration

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The summation of construction and design investigation here embodies the future of designing. We need to capture the delicacy of form making, buildability and materiality. These details speak of simplicity, interactivity and versatility of form that are always pursued in many architectural proposals. It is best for the design community to engage in a continual dialogue through built works and raw ideas to continually elevate the quality of architecture. [2] Schumacher, 'The Autopoiesis of Architecture' p3

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A2

design computation

"FORMATION PRECEDES FORM, AND DESIGN BECOMES THE THINKING OF ARCHITECTURAL GENERATION THROUGH THE LOGIC OF ALGORITHM" OXMAN & OXMAN


The digital realm has penetrated through the design process in architecture. Technology is now used almost as a compulsory means to the end design. The challenge is to find a balance between human and computational contributions to the process of creating an architecture. Benefits will emerge as designers adopt a design technique that unifies the merits of human thinking and the advantages of computer aid. Creativity encourages innovative solutions. Architectural design is an activity that deals, in equal measures, with externally imposed constraints (e.g., site conditions, climate, functionality, cost, building codes, and so forth) and internally drawn inspirations.[1] With reference to more traditional examples selected in Section A1, it is clear that design at its origins are dependent on human thinking and are able to be responsive towards the aforementioned restrictions. The solutions that emerged are unique. While computer assistance reveals a potential to hasten the design documentation process, it is still limited to the intentions of designers.

Gordian knot of new ideas.[3] There is refinement from iterations. It is therefore best to work out a symbiosis between talents of both sides to heighten the quality of design. Computers will contribute their superb rational and search abilities, and humans will contribute all the creativity and intuition needed to solve design problems.[4] The following precedences demonstrate digital capabilities to respond to a list of requirements, devoid from any constraints. The cultural change in design tools has allowed recent architectural projects to be more responsive. Design is conceived as a process of responding towards variables rather than an emerged solution towards a human need.

[Computers] are extremely efficient and competent but [are only programmed to] follow instructions precisely and faultlessly.[2] Computers at present have been refined and rewired to also contribute towards the creative design process. BIG architects in particular advocates computation because of its ability to iterate and select good attributes. Design can feed from tangible and abstract parameters; differences are incorporated and integrated not by compromise or choosing sides but by tying conflicting interests into a [1] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp7 [2] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp7

[3] Ingles, Bjarke 'Yes is More' pp16 [4] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp11

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A2.1

design computation

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AMMAR ELOUEINI DIGIT-ALL STUDIO

J- HOUSE

NEW ORLEANS, LA, UNITED STATES , 2014 UNDER CONSTRUCTION


In 2009, the J-House received the AIA (American Institute of Architects) New Orleans Chapter: Project Design Excellence Award (Award of Merit).[1] Though still at its construction stage, it has been well recognised and is anticipated to win more awards. [Computing on design process] Ammar Eloueini begins with basic principles of 2D templates which later develop to more complex 3D compound joineries. The construction frames are the aftereffects of a personal signature; a technical expertise and new formal and material sensibilities.

[Computing on conception] Formation precedes form, and design becomes the thinking of architectural generation through the logic of the algorithm.[3] Although J-House is inspired by the typical New Orleans shot-gun house typology, consideration of unusual needs morphs the form of the building. It is possible to fabricate this boolean of two twisted containers with a parametric breakdown into individual panels and frames, as evident in the construction images. In essence computation has enhanced the building template by evoking a coherent and rigorous architecture.

[Computing on performance] Design, accordingly, is a purposeful activity, aimed at achieving some well-defined goals.[2] J-House was approached as an opportunity to study the possibilities around new hurricane proned building height codes and risk to flooding. The use of computation generates a network between multiple requisites to transform Eloueini’s original template into a receptive solution.

[1] AEDS| Ammar Eloueini Digit-all Studio, Architizer, [2] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp5

Fig 2.1.a First floor waterproofing stage

interior

view

at

Fig 2.1.b conjoined tubes twisted at the epicentre exhumes an aesthetic wow factor Fig 2.1.c Steel frame conceptualised through BIM modelling Fig 2.1.d Computing process breaks down the construction process of a parametric design, comprising of unique components.

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[3] Oxman & Oxman, 'Theories of Digital Architecture' pp3

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A2.2

design computing

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BJARKE INGELES GROUP

AMAGERFORBRÆNDINGEN WTE PLANT

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK, 2300 PLANNED


Bjarke Ingles Group has always been a firm that seeks to dialogue with their designs. The proposed buildings are devoid from form or aesthetic details. The focus is on the process of design being the general framework. This far-sighted project is extremely relevant to the LAGI competition brief. Amagerforbrændingen is an icon for education. It aims to break the social stigma from all negativity towards renewable energy within the community of Copenhagen. [Computing on design process] The excess and selection process adopted by BIG architects is supported by Kalay’s theory of puzzle making.[1] Although the design primarily functions as a power plant, the intent of an artificial ski slope, research laboratory, or smoke signal is unapparent from its inception. These features emerged through the process of finding missing information within the uncertainty of designing. Digital computing platforms facilitate these motifs by accommodating the rapid demand to customise one iteration after another.

[1] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp15

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[Computing on performance] The power plant idea is highly controversial. The local argument on the definite increase of CO2 emissions reflect Copenhagen’s concern towards a ‘sustainable’ future of architecture. A special smoke stack will track the amount of CO2 released. For every 1 tonne of CO2 is released, the smokestack will emit a 30m-wide smoke ring in solemn memory of waste and energy production.[2] The iconic chimney is a ricochet from digital simulative tests. Computerisation has enabled Amagerforbrændingen to be designed beyond material constrains. BIG has not only managed to design their route towards an all-pleasing proposal but also actualised a gadget that designs a vista display of effluents. [Computing on conception] Digitisation permits an invention of a future sighted building that discourses present sustainable needs and educates the local community with a wealth of ideas. It inspires active participation of visitors which the LAGI design also aims for.

Fig 2.2.a Render of ‘Amagerforbrændingen Waste to Energy’ releasing rings of smog. Fig 2.2.b Exterior facade with overgrowth Fig 2.2.c Recreational ski slope peak Fig 2.2.d Mechanics behind chimney Fig 2.2.e Process diagrams; designing with computer aid allows for responsive iterations

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[2] BIG, 'Amagerforbrændingen Waste-toEnergy Plant, Denmark

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A2.3

design computing

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NERVOUS SYSTEMS KINEMATICS P ROJECT

MASSACHUSETTS, UNITED STATES, 2014


The fascination of Kinematics Project lies within the capability of 3D-printed panels to move dynamically with complete resemblance to a regular cloth. Collaboration with Motorola’s Advanced Technology and Projects demonstrate the prospective future of computation in every field concerning human needs.[1] The soft draping of a solid material illustrates its potential to be applied as a wind energy collector by emulating wind motion. The mimicry of the fluid movement could potentially capture the flow of kinetic energy from all angles. [Computing on design process] Instead of searching for a solution to the problem, they looked for problems within a solution. It is accomplished by narrowing constraints until few solutions remain.[2] In spite of the variations in tessellation, size and frequency of Voronoi panels, Nervous Systems focuses only to preserve the main properties of a garment, and therefore gathered enough information to resemble an actual cloth.

proven to be beneficial by identifying iterations of 3D panels that can achieve high degree of compression with folds in a Kinematics skirt design. [Computing on performance] The design computation advancement equips fabricators with an ability to exploit textile tectonics. The fabric-like continuum was made possible by the detailing of loose joints which facilitated free movement of each panel. Digital testing softwares have allowed them to link form generation and performative form finding which controls the product’s performance. [3]

Nervous Systems permutes folding actions into the design much like folding a piece of paper. In the Figure 2.3.d designing digitally has

[Computing on conception] Symbiotic relationships between human creativity and computer capability have generated trends in the design industry. Digital modelling facilitates stimulation of how materials will respond with human motion. The ability to produce quick parametric renditions has enabled material design to become an integral part of the perpetual digital architectural design process.[4] It becomes apparent that computerisation can decipher human creativity into a language of digital coding that can produce physical composition.

[1] [2]

[3] [4]

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Fig 2.3.a Simulation of tessalation variance that restricts folding of panels differently Fig 2.3.b hinge joint mechanism Fig 2.3.c Sample of a Kinematics Project worn by the designer Jessica Weiser Fig 2.3.d Example of digital simulations to test compressive ability of the form. Video available at: http://n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com/ blog/?p=4516 [1] Park, Rachel ‘Stunning Kinematics from Nervous System’ [2] Kalay, 'Architecture’s New Media' pp5 [3] Park, Rachel ‘Stunning Kinematics from Nervous System’ [4] Oxman & Oxman, 'Theories of Digital Architecture' pp6

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A3

composition generation

“WE SHAPE OUR BUILDINGS; THEREAFTER THEY SHAPE US.” WINSTON CHURCHILL


With the recent propagation of utilitarian computing, architects rejoice as the digital era opens its doors to a plethora of new possibilities. This new and exciting milestone however should still be viewed upon with rationality and understanding towards how computerisation can be adopted in architecture. Computerisation and computation needs to be approached in gradual ad hoc manner.

This shift from composition to generation is a paradigm in designing. Experts are diverted into a realm of unexpectedness through adaptive algorithmic thinking parametric modelling and scripting cultures.

[1] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p10. [2] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p10. [3] Kolarevic, Branko, 'Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing", pp13 [4] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p10.

The following case studies in Part A3 will reflect the advantages and shortcomings of adopting this generative style of conceptualising an idea of space making.

Computerisation simplifies the task of humans through the use of technology as "virtual drafting board making it easier to edit, copy and increase the precision of drawings"[1] It is a top-down organisation method of prescribed formulas that resolve known problems. Computation on the other hand, “extend[s] their [architect] abilities to deal with [a] highly complex situation�.[2] It is a vague process where the pathways of concepts and forms intersect in a series of algorithms and scripting. It is seen as form finding rather than form making.[3] Achim Menges and Sean Ahlquist define computation as ‘the processing of information and interactions between elements which constitute a specific environment.[4] As discussed before, a symbiosis between computation and human creativity will yield a more efficient and responsive design. Studio Air delves deeper into this technology through the use of grasshopper algorithms. [1] p10. [2]

Peters, Brady Computation works brady p10

[3] Kolarevic, Branko, 'Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing", pp13 [4] brady p10

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A3.1

composition generataion

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HARRISON & WHITE

FOYN-JOHANSON HOUSE NORTHCOTE, VIC 2011


This AIA Victoria award winning design makes clear attempts to form a house around the idea of preserving light into a garden space.[1] [Generation reaction] The unnatural form of the rear façade is an aftermath of computerisation. It is a parametric subtractive solar solution (Subtracto-Sun) that computes the casting of shadows on a South facing facade.[2] Algorithmic thinking in this project has taken an interpretive role to understand, modify, explore and speculate the results of the generating code on the potential design.[3] Harrison and White revealed their ability to produce a form that is derived from the decomposition of morning sunlight casting. The result typifies a well-composed design workflow for architecture, and not the structure.

characteristics of blobs and irregular splines. The created surface further becomes the external screen – and this acts both as a balustrade and sun screening to the deck and western façade. [5]

Fig 3.1.a Sun path induced form of Western Facade. Fig 3.1.b Balcony through the Backyard reveal effectiveness of natural lighting experimentations.

The process of making is within the design process and becomes integral to the design itself[6] The final form is an abstract of design process through in-vitro experimentations.[7] Foyn-Johanson House reflects an insightful consideration of performance issues quintessential for a comfortable home living through the inspiring application of parametric tools.

[Advantages] Foyn-Johanson House demonstrate the application of a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, with the capacity to generate complex order, form, and structure.[4] It does not conform to the [1] Foyn-Johanson House, Architizer [2] Harrion & White, ‘Foyn-Johanson House’ [3] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p10. [4] Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges, 'Computational Design Thinking'

[5] Harrion & White, ‘Foyn-Johanson House’ [6] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p11. [7] Hansmeyer, 'Building Unimaginable Shapes'

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A3.2

composition generation

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ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS

DONGDAEMUN DESIGN PLAZA

SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA, 2007-2013


The discourse on architecture would be incomplete without an analysis of Zaha Hadid’s work. DDP is yet another exuberant result of ZHA form exploration through parametricism. It houses exhibition halls, media centres, seminar rooms and design markets; catalysing instigation and exchange of ideas for new technologies in the culturally vital city of Seoul. [Reaction towards generation] The generative process claims to have responded to surrounding building topology. The form does slightly infer a development of parametric families of components and in the requisite control of data.[1] Yet, Hadid’s “wave of titanium is a wholly disproportionate response, displaying a complete lack in sensitivity towards its context”.[2] This indicates that although the use of algorithms can generate flamboyant shapes, it is essential to first have a thoughtful composition of valued variable inputs. Yet, macro management and evaluation of creativity is still mandatory in order to link virtual ideas to the physical environment. [1] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p14 [2] The Angry Architect, ‘Zaha Hadid’s Seoul Design Park: Urban Oasis or Metallic Monstrosity?’

Parametric modelling is further exploited with the performance and simulation of: material, tectonics, and production parameters.[3] ZHA conceals the structural integrity of this plaza with sanitised cladding treatments and bombastic display of lights across its perforated panels. The debauchery in generative form making reflects ZHA’s confidence in the computational prediction of load bearing paths of the overall structure and disproportionate dead loads from material.

Fig 3.2.1 Aerial view of DDP induces thoughts of an extraterrestrial invasion Fig 3.2.2 Pulsating light display by night, overwhelming static appearance by day. Fig 3.2.3 contemporary antiseptic interior treatment

[Disadvantages] ZHA designs are still appreciated by the public because they encapsulate their elite status quo through the ownership of rare and unorthodox monuments. The haphazard practice of ZHA and their fetish towards organic, streamlined, curvaceous buildings hallmark parametric means as an easy way of achieving a symbol of status. Much of Hadid’s designs mark a warning to withdraw from evocative outcomes and focus instead on the ability of computation to actualise a sophisticated organisation of performance criteria, like that of Harrison and White. [3] Peters, Brady 'Computation Works', p13

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/c

35


The daunting process of designing for the future remains an enigma. It is a relevant challenge for architects to tackle sustainability issues through designs that are sensitive towards structure, landscape and materiality. A union with current technological tools can extend our creativity by offering not only quicker means to an end but also stimulate unthinkable outcomes through the symbiosis of human creativity and computer ability. We ought to acquire mutualism between design composition and generating processes. By thinking parametrically, designs are equipped with an ability to respond towards performance issues and constructibility whilst maintaining a unique display of social, cultural and aesthetic response. When designing for the LAGI initiative, it is mandatory to establish a design intent that dialogues with algorithmic definitions and parameters. Grasshopper is an unbounded platform that enables the theories of design futuring to be translated into a series of iterations, selection and refinement. It is therefore my core focus to generate a land art that will contribute towards the discourse of architecture and sustainable developments, circumscribed by the concept of being approachable and adaptable to the public. It will be explicitly linked to a renewable and site-conscious energy generation. The solution should evoke a longlasting memory and cleanse the preconception towards alternative energy sources in Copenhagen and the broader world.

A4.0

conclusion

"DESIGNED THINGS GO ON DESIGNING" TONY FRY


Studio Air has thus far rekindled a Zeitgeist for modern means of drafting and designing. Initial experiences with algorithmic modelling were undoubtedly tedious and mundane but will nevertheless be a premium towards my design vocabulary for LAGI brief and future designs.

A5.0

learning outcomes

I have apathetically preconceived both parametric modelling and computational architecture as a tool to simplify the meticulous process of detailing. I now realise that it is also a ‘plug-in’ for the limitless creativity that we already have. It is necessary to frame computation within the clear ideas of a discourse to create a culture of architecture that epitomise concepts that could perhaps influence the future of architecture and other professions. In retrospect, my new-found ability with algorithmic modelling and understanding the importance of an architectural discourse would have encouraged a more in-depth research of the parameters that define the context of design sites before stepping into the perpetual process of presenting iterative designs.

37


A6

algorithmic sketches


‘The selected algorithmic sketches reveal a personal experience through the process of problem solving and puzzle making. There is partiality between problem solving and puzzle making but this creates the dialogue that eventuates in an outcome that is union between both human creativity and computing abilities.

Iterations highlights potential outcomes from the algorithms and offer an insight to what the generated design can become. Endless permutation expose capabilities to use computation as a design tool, to “design the process not the outcome.� [1]

// Please refer to algorithmic sketchbook for further algorithmic explorations

[1] Hansmeyer, 'Building Unimaginable Shapes'

39


X

bibliography

LAUGHTER IS TIMELESS. IMAGINATION HAS NO AGE. AND DREAMS ARE FOREVER. WALTER ELIAS “WALT” DISNEY


IMAGES

TEXT AEDS| Ammar Eloueini Digit-all Studio, Architizer, viewed 22 March 2014, <http://architizer.com/firms/ aeds-ammar-eloueini-digit-all-studio/>.

2011, viewed 8 March 2014 <http://www. archdaily.com/162656/video-rem-koolhaasand-peter-eisenman-on-todays-architecturalissues/>.

0.1.a http://catrinastewart. tumblr.com/post/23742283882/ articulated-cloud-ned-kahn

The Angry Architect (2014), ‘Zaha Hadid’s Seoul Design Park: Urban Oasis or Metallic Monstrosity?’ viewed 26 March 2014 <http://architizer.com/blog/ angry-architect-zaha-hadid/>.

Kolarevic, Branko, ‘Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, pp13

0.1.b,c <http://inhabitat.com/windbeltinnovative-generator-to-bring-cheap-windpower-to-third-world/>

Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp.1–10

1.2.a-c <http://30.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ l7s3ykj9cD1qzprlbo1_r1_500.jpg>

BIG (2013), ‘Amagerforbrændingen Wasteto-Energy Plant, Denmark’, viewed 23 March 2014, <http://www.designbuild-network.com/ projects/waste-to-energy/waste-to-energy1. html>. Burrows, Stephen et. al. (2006). ‘The Arup Journal 1/2006’, Arup Engineers, viewed 24 March 2014, <http://www.arup.com/_ assets/_download/download502.pdf>. Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014 viewed 14 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGIFieldGuideRenewableEnergy-ed1.pdf>.

Park, Rachel (2014). ‘Stunning Kinematics from Nervous System’, viewed 26 March 2014 <http://3dprintingindustry.com/2013/11/28/ stunning-kinematics-nervous-system/>. Proefrock, Philip (2010), ‘windbelt: Innovative Generator to Bring Cheap Wind Power to Third World’, viewed 28 March 2014, <http://inhabitat.com/windbeltinnovative-generator-to-bring-cheap-windpower-to-third-world/>. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Foyn-Johanson House, Architizer viewed 27 March 2014 <http://architizer.com/projects/ foyn-johanson-house/>.

Robson, David (2002). ‘Geoffrey Bawa: The Complete Works’ (Thames & Hudson), pp. 27,200-209

Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16

Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp.1-28

Hansmeyer, Michael, ‘Building Unimaginable Shapes’, TEDGlobal, 2012, viewed 15 March 2014 <www.ted.com/talks/michael_ hansmeyer_building_unimaginable_ shapes>.

Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges (2011). ‘Introduction’, in Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges (eds), Computational Design Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (Chichester).

Harrion & White (2011), ‘Foyn-Johanson House’ viewed 27 March 2014 <http://www. haw.com.au/pdf/HAW_Project-Sheet-FoynJohansonHouse.pdf>.

1.3.a-e <http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/ articles/0910_f2_allianz_arena.html> 2.1.a-d <http://architizer.com/firms/ aeds-ammar-eloueini-digit-all-studio/> 2.2.a-e <http://architizer.com/projects/ amagerforbraendingen-waste-to-energyplant/> 2.3.a-d <http://3dprintingindustry. com/2013/11/28/ stunning-kinematics-nervous-system/> 3.1.a,b <http://architizer.com/projects/ foyn-johanson-house/> 3.2.a-c <http://designdiffusion.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/03/DDP_HADID2.jpg>

Vitra Campus Architecture, Vitra Campus, viewed 22 March 2014 <http://www.vitra. com/en-us/campus/arc hitectur>.

Hans, Michael K. & Miller, Dana (2008). Buckminster Fuller : starting with the universe (Yale University Press), pp. 1-19 Ingles, Bjarke (2009). ‘Yes is more : an archicomic on architectural evolution’, (Evergreen), pp4-25

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Koolhas, Rem & Eisenman, Peter, ‘Rem Koolhaas and Peter Eisenman on today’s critical architectural discourse issues’,

41


B

criteria design

ARCHITECTURE NEEDS MECHANISMS THAT ALLOW IT TO BECOME CONNECTED TO CULTURE FARSHID MOUSSAVI


43


B1

research field

PATTERNING & STRUCTURE

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


As the magnificent journey of Part B begins, patterning and structure are adopted as specific research fields of interest to express wind energy generation. Ornamentation “do[es] not remain as pure acts of consumption, but rather are disassembled and reassembled to produce new sensations that remain open to new forms of experience.”[1] Patterning explores the potential to be a clear expression of ornament. Differentiation in pattern of various scales; from a micro panel to the distribution of spaces, articulate the complex layers of how architecture continues to effectively relate to culture by creating sensations and affects.[2]” Rather than being restricted to an outer facade, it pivots as an identifiable membrane that facilitates an interaction between the material and immaterial realms. As such, patterning is a desired pursuit to perhaps create an experience or a visualisation of wind energy through kinetic motion.

welds research field ideas with the brief and group criteria. Parametric is scripting or computation[5]. As such, the design algorithms can be a system of abstraction; generating a class of instances, leaving out inessential details.[6] This enables fellow group-mates to tackle LAGI brief pragmatically free from artistic or aesthetic bondage. There is no attempt to conform to the ideas of Adolf Loos to “not emphasise individuality [and] suppress it” [7] but rather, expect ornamentation as a by-product of being critically responsive towards a functional and specific design intent. The research fields, design intent and response towards a ‘green’ energy pedagogy are unified with the following Selection Criteria: • structure feasibility • design flexibility; hybrid systems • response to brief • energy generating efficiency • interactive & educational • potential for further developments

Architecture needs mechanisms that allow it to become connected to culture.[3] Structure is the cohesive link between design and its building material. The value of a design can be channelled through the wealth of visual and performance qualities of the construction. It is a thorough sensibility towards a consolidated expression of ideas “to visualise technology as a cultural force.”[4] Parametric tools of the present day and age will be the driving factor that [1] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" p7 [2] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" p5 [3] Moussavi," The Function of Ornament" p5 [4] Moussavi," The Function of Ornament" p8

[5] Woodbury, "How Designers Use Parameters", p,140 [6] Woodbury, "How Designers Use Parameters", p159 [7] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" p9

45


B2.1

case study 1.0

/a

HERZOG & DE MEURON

DE YOUNG MUSEUM SAN FRANSISCO, 2005


This particular design has been of a personal interest to the team due to the clear dramatised effect from its selective perforation and indentation on panels. Both these textures merge through a “fragmentation [that] is contained and focused by the panoramic tower.[1] This cladding membrane fosters interaction. The porous thickness of the outer layer formed by panels of beaten copper which absorbs variations in the ambient light.[2] This correlates with our team’s selection criteria for the design to be interactive.

underpins both a functional and a decorative purpose. It becomes clear through de Young Museum that ornament is a part of an auto-genesis of form. Ornamentation is expansive, it overflows boundaries.[5] The celebratory yearning for decoration is rendered trivial as compared to the intricate connection between details that is customised to generate an overall affect on users of the space.

Fig 2.1.a de Young Museum cladding panel with peforation and indentations Fig 2.1.b Geometry of the building is funny Fig 2.1.c Depiction of the panels interacting with other elements of the museum; itself, views, landscape and users. Fig 2.1.d Casting of sunlight on interior spaces

In essence, [Herzog and deMeuron] discovered the potential of decoration as the tool for the destruction of ‘valid’ form. [6]

Furthermore, the steel panels give the building’s complex structure a monumental, ‘organic’ quality.[3] Herzog explains that “[w]hen ornament and structure become a single thing, strangely enough the result is a new feeling of freedom. Suddenly you no longer need to explain or apologise for this or that decorative detail; it is a structure, a space.”[4] There is a liberation from the confines of an archetypal design of a museum because every detail [1] El Croquis Editorial “Herzog & de Meuron” p154 [2] El Croquis Editorial “Herzog & de Meuron” p35 [3] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" p19 [4] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" 33

[5]Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" 34 [6] Moussavi,"The Function of Ornament" 35

/b

/c

/d

47


B2.2

case study 1.0

species A: base geometry b

species B: indentation

a

a |c

species C: slider type 1 c

av

species D: slider type 2

species E: image sampling

species F: equations a

b


Fig2.2 Matrix

c

b

The additional information needed to complete the goals statement must either be invented as part of the search for the solution or adapted from generalized precedents, metaphors, and symbols. [1] Thus, to further analyse the qualities of de Young Museum design, a process of decoding a provided algorithm of the perforation and indentation has been done to create permutations and generate iterations that could perhaps inspire or even respond to the LAGI design brief. The process is to firstly identify variables of base plane, indentation geometry, scale and density of parameters, image sampling and growth equations.

b

Our group advanced through a specialisation of specific genes to produce different species. By flexing and stretching parameters to its limits, we revealed the gift of working parametrically to subtly change the intensity of parameters to increase the outcomeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s propensity to respond towards the Selection Criteria.

[1]

Kalay p15

c

49


B2.3

a

case study 1.0

b


Fig2.3 Elite 3 iterations that are a product of blending best qualities of each parameter.

To further exploit design through algorithms, a genocide attack has been done to exterminate weak genes from individual iterations. Divine iterations are selected to cross-pollinate with streams of other species to produce the following three elite proposals. It is apparent that the fusion of nonpareil qualities clashes and hence deformed its offspring. Although the intricate process of selection has been made through specific consideration of numerous qualities, it is still necessary to perpetually evaluate the performance and qualities of the emergent forms. “You work within ambiguity. You seek unity, a gathering together, a form of permanence.[1] - Jacques Herzog As suggested by Herzog, perhaps the initial discourse on Adolf Loos was not about being anti-ornament but rather urging a focus “to restore the link between ornament, the sacred and nature” instead.[2]

c

This case study specifically has unveiled that the “[o]rnament makes the introduction of doubt possible.”[3]

[1] el croq p36 [2] el croq 35 [3] Moussavi, p35

51


B3.1

case study 2.0

/a

JAPANESE PAVILION 2000 EXPO

SHIGERU BAN & RAY KAPPER

HANOVER, GERMANY, 2000


This Japan Pavilion embraces the idea of a paper lantern and extends it on a larger scale design to portray sustainability through design in the Expo 2000. Similar to the practice of Herzog and deMeuron, this design confesses that there is often an ornamental aspect ... the designs could perhaps be visually driven. However the strong geometry and material configurations are definitely performance driven and conspicuously manifested through visual rhythms. [1]

application of our team dynamics in being successful to produce the matrix of iterations. Inspired by a continuation of stretching previous algorithms, this design is an extension of panelling onto a large scale system of framed enclosure. The Japan Pavilion demonstrates a sensitive realisation of the idea of panelling through the pragmatic execution of structure.

Fig 3.1.a Interior of Shigeru Banâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Japan Pavilion expressing structure internally as a form of decorative yet structural ornament Fig 3.1.b The envelop of fireproof paper with glass fibre reinforcement and a laminated fireproof film of polyethylene gently shields the pavilion from external climate conditions

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Since paper tubes can be fabricated to any length, Ban also thought that they should employ a 3D grid shell wing long paper with joints which sensibly eliminates the cost of fabricating wood joints. [2] These joints are manufactured with low tech material.[3] This case study has been selected because of its extreme potential to comprehend how individual surface and structural layers interact with each other. It is also a further [1] Peters, "Realising Architectural Intent", p60 [2] Jodidio, "Shigeru Ban: Complete Works 1985-2010", p62 [3] Jodidio, "Shigeru Ban: Complete Works 1985-2010", p62

/b

53


B3.2 FORM component 1: form

component INNER FRAME 2: inner frame

CENTRE STRUCTURE component 3: centre structure

component OUTER PANELS4: outer panels

reverse engineering


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Fig3.2 Reverse engineering process through 4 streams if detail.

The reverse engineering process started off through the same process of identifying the possible parameters of the design; form, inner frame, centre structure and outer panels. Each team member then specialises on a parameter, capitalising on a maximum output that best fit Shigeru Banâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original intent. Later, the layers are merged into a series of offset from the base geometry. Form Form making is approached through close emulation of the visual outlook of the exterior, starting with the union of geometric forms. Later, an algorithm of a sinusoidal curvature is introduced and morphed through a differentiation of amplitude, frequency, and period. Inner frame This shell is explored through the change of density of a diagrid. Centre structure Series of waffle ribs and vaults are explored as the structural frame Outer panels Panelling and tessalation of the base surface is augmented multiple times to find a best fit cladding for the surface

55


B3.3

re-engineered case study 2.0

/a

BIG - BJARKE INGELES GROUP

AMAGERFORBRÆNDINGEN WTE PLANT

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK, 2013 UNBUILT


An algorithm through specialisation of independent shells generated the desired identical outcome. However, upon completion, the team has come to a realisation that the layering process is proven to have restrictions. Individual shells are isolated and there might be high disparaging rates. Feedback during studio were positive and encouraging, advocating the process and outcome as a success. There were recommendations to propel forward beyond the qualities of the Japan Pavilion design. Shigeru Banâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desired intent, is commonly patronised and limited

to the thinking of components as individual elements. Joints in particular prove to be ironically limited in the case of designing with parametric tools. The team is conflicted between the perks of having a traditional nondigitised joint and having a modular panel system that will be populated on panel. It is therefore appropriate to leap forward with a hybrid solution. The next step is to impose an amalgamation of all layers to generate a single piece solution.

Fig 3.3.a Interior render of reverse engineered pavilion showcasing the multilayer shells of structure and panels. Fig 3.3.b Orthogonal view of pavilion entrance. Fig 3.3.c Side view of reverse engineered pavilion Fig 3.3.d Merging of three shells through an offset distance

/b

/c

/d

INNER FRAME

CENTRE STRUCTURE

OUTER PANELS

57


B3.4

case study 3.0

/a

BIG - BJARKE INGELES GROUP 8 HOUSE

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK, 2011


8-House makes for one architectural idea which results in an orgy of various spaces; Plazas, courtyards, stepped streets and mountain paths ... Where the public life traditionally is tied to taking place on the ground floor, flat as a pancake, with everything above privatised. [1] The team opted for this precedence to be included because of the limitations of the geometry of lofted arches along a sine curve from the Japan Pavilion. Ideally, our proposed LAGI design should advocate function at its optimal niche in regard to needs and wishes

in a form of architectural symbiosis. It should especially consider the potential for our design to act as an energy generator based on wind power.

Fig 3.4.a 8 House architectural program that considers all possible factors that influence circualation, comfort, climatic conditions and visual axes. Fig 3.4.b Overall view of 8-House model Fig 3.4.c Visual continuum from the inside apartments.

Architectural lessons from this design probes a purely responsive design towards building systems and site context to create an emergent form devoid from desires and to produce an aesthetic sculptural block.

[1] Ingles, "Yes is More", p99

/b

/c

59


B4.1 species A: sinusoidal tunnel

species B: sinusoidal sweep

species C: sinusoidal charges

species D: sinusoidal field

form development


Fig4.1 Form making matrix

The following is an endeavour for a form that is apt to be a wind sensitive centre, considering the elements of panels, pattern, structure and joints. The original Japan pavilion shape is an arch with a sine curve base. The curve is therefore projected outwards based on variables such as frequency, amplitude, period and embodied qualities of energy: Adopting Bernoulli’s principle. A smaller area results in a higher velocity. Thus, the wind velocity will increase as the ‘tunnel’ narrows down and goes smaller in section. This encourages a higher efficiency energy generation system. Consider the sine curve as a base geometry that is reminiscent of a Sine curve. Extrapolating sine curves into what it represents, a series of energy with the tools of point charges. To improve this effect, the team used the ‘Flowl field lines’ plug in. Points were referenced from 3 sine curves of varying magnitude and direction. Curves depend on the intensity of wind movement, view from mermaid and position of nearby buildings. Through selection, the dominant form finally goes through a series of lofting and surfacing to include further details in algorithms of joints, panels and structure onto this surface to create a design that fits the aforementioned Selection Criteria. 61


B4.2 species A: cyclic holes

species B: geometric perforation

species C: density of perforation

panel development


Fig4.2 Iterations for a discovery of a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;best fitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perforated panel system. The lacking element in the teams iteration here is the identity and place-making ability of these samples.

On a micro scale, the following are further attempts to incorporate better wind harvesting that alludes to a reduction of panel details down to just perforations. The Venturi effect motivated the exploration of perforations on panel. The laws of physics dictate that a fluid or gas flowing in a tube will accelerate if that flow is constricted. When this occurs, the pressure of the fluid in the constricted area should be reduced to conserve energy. The constriction in a tube is known as a Venturi and the simultaneous increase in flow velocity and decrease in pressure as the Venturi effect.[1] Image sampling, amalgamation of sliders and density of parameters are refined to produce a fine panel that encourages a greater harness of wind energy.

[1] <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-aventuri-tube.htm>

63


B4.3 species D: curve referenced lofts

species E: diagrid tessalation

patterning development


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Fig4.3 Instantly gratified iterations of form testing and patterning research.

The first two rows are tests on the system and its ability to flex. Upon setting the standards, all the parameters of the reversed engineered Japan Pavilion algorithm are stretched on the geometry to identify the limits and possibilities of its metamorphosis into a pedagogical wind energy harvester. The next two rows are pursuits for structure and patterning as an integrated system. The Diagrid multiplication not only subdivides the surface but also incorporates volume for structural members to sustain the tension and compression forces from individual panels. It is a battle to achieve a perfect grid that has structural integrity of individual members such that they are not frail or prone to buckling.

65


B4.4 species F: orthogonal panelling

species G : structural panelling

structure development


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Fig4.4 Products of dense algorithms that consider the breakaway from a Pavilion into a Land Art Generator Initiative

Algorithmic designing has revealed its abilities to make more puzzles throughout the process, revealing gritty flaws of components that needs further refinement.[1] This spread comprised of two species, underpinned by concerns of panelling and structure on the base geometry. More polishing has to be done on this aspect because of an extreme translation from a fibrous paper of the Japan Pavilion into a population of a kinetic 3D windmill panel. This phase has enabled the team to identify possible ways of separation on surface springing forward from the Japan pavilion.

[1] Kalay, "Architecture's New Media", p22

67


B4.5

technique development

THE SUPREME ITERATION

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig4.5.a Species L: The supreme iteration that integrates all micro-elements of the system Fig4.5.b High-end iterations that integrate all parameters of form making, panelling, joints, structure and system.

species H: projected voronoi culling patterns

species I : equilateral panels on semi-regular surface

species J : growing panels, growing wind energy

species K : equal panels on loft divisions

At the final stage of the teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technique development, good traits of individual species that match the Selection Criteria are mutated to establish a co-opted generation of elite iterations.[1] The dense convergence of several parameters has once again revealed flaws in the algorithms; especially in the circulation of users. The supreme iteration clearly outruns other options as it encourages a transitory experience of wind and motivates the staying of users. The genesis of this disparity between the temporal and impermanent is the driving factor that underpins aforementioned Selection Criteria, especially for the LAGI proposal to be flexible.

[1] Moussavi, "The Function of Ornament", p39

69


B5.1

technique prototypes

/a

PATTERNING

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig 5.1.a Interlaced panels create an offset pattern that is a celebration of structural joints within the large scale initiative. Fig 5.1.b,d Panels are aimed to be populated on an inward enclosure and also an overhanging arch. This prototyping reveal the geometric intentions Fig 5.1.c Another option of incorporating separate joints instead of slicing over structural members

/b

As advocated by Moussavi, self-organised patterns can be regarded as a kind of computation performed by the interactions of physical particles.[1] The teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s series of prototyping emphasises the constructibility of the design proposal. These prototypes of patterning reflect the original design intent to create a modular system of panels which are identical and can be repeated throughout. The struggle with algorithms and irregular surface accentuates the limitations of parametric modelling that considers little on modular means of construction. Perhaps this could be eradicated with further explorations of the cohesion between Panelling Tools and Weaverbird Plug-ins, or could instead be celebrated as an embodied identity of a parametric design. [2]

/c

/d [1] Moussavi, " Architecture and Affectsâ&#x20AC;? [2] Daniel Davis, "Parametric Modelling"

71


B5.2

technique prototypes

/a

STRUCTURE

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig 5.2.a Weaving System of a cross bracing to accommodate space for an infill windmill system. Fig 5.2.b-c Frail system in extreme compression and tension. Fig 5.2.d Series of Vaulted arches with deep footings. Fig 5.2.e Tension system.

/b

/c

A structure of any design is driven by engineering needs to produce an architectural output. The simple weaving of fine balsa wood motivated the teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s testing of members in tension and compression. The very fluid and mobile nature of the structure as shown in figure 5.2.b-c alarms the design to be sought after for a solution. This risk revealed the importance of having separation joints to reduce the potential of buckling. A footing system could also be a programme that eliminates this concern.

/d

/e

73


B5.3

technique prototypes

/a

3D PRINTING

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig 5.3.a 3D printed 100x100mm section on a 1:500 scale Fig 5.3.b Low resolution of 3D printer shows a lack of detail Fig 5.2.c Poorly monitored system caused misalignment midway through printing Fig 5.2.d Excess strains of SLA material at underside destroys the geometric form. Fig 5.2.e Origins of 3D printing; edge lines Fig 5.2.f Sectioning and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;watertightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; phase

/b

Delving into unfamiliar deep waters of 3D printing technology has heightened our understanding on computational designs. There is a wide chasm between composite forms and forms with an assemblage of components. [1] A benefit of embed systems in a fluid resonance matrix such as 3D printing is that it removes hardware from architectural assemblies. There is not a need to consider the interlacing or joints of this model but rather consider it as a single block of digital information translated into a material form. The flaw of this machine product is evidently its lower resolution as opposed to engineer designed. [2]

/c

/d

This technology would be better off designing micro-components that are in greater need to be a solid block rather than a network of components. [1] Moussavi, "The Function of Ornament", p36 [2] Moussavi, "The Function of Ornament", p42

/e

/f

75


B5.4

technique prototypes

/a

JOINTS AND SYSTEMS

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig 5.4.a Savonius Windmill laser cut fabrication Fig 5.4.b Exploded axonometric of windmill components Fig 5.4.c detail shots of joints and brackets Fig 5.4.d other options of windmill

2 5 6

1 outer frame 2 brackets 3 disc joints 4 connecting plate 5 windmill frame 6 windmill panels 7 inner frame

/b

/c

4

7

Ornament is the figure that emerges from the material substrate, the expression of embedded focus through processes of construction, assembly and growth. it is through ornament that material transmit affects. Ornament is therefore necessary and inseparable form the object. [1] Our team incorporates the wind turbines as the basic form of ornament that is modular and ready to be installed within the structure and arrangement of an emergent geometry. Fabrication of this system has been done through computational tools to craft a Savonius wind turbine system incorporating joints and connection pieces as part of the future direction of realising the project.

3

1

Opting for laser cutting to gave a higher precision and exact fit especially on the joints. Disc brackets were later added to the digital design to accommodate for a possible curvature between panels. Rotating panels experiments: https://vimeo.com/93277811

/d

[1] Moussavi, "The Function of Ornament", p8

77


B6.0

technique proposal

/a

fix map diagramatic analysis

OBS TRU CTI NG BUI LDIN GS

WIND

CIR

CUL

ATIO

N

SCAL E 100 50

0 100

0 METE RS 200 FEET

100 400

MERMAID RMAID S A STATUE

N

CENTRIFUGAL CIRCULATIONS

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Fig 6.0.a site plan with brief contextual analysis Fig 6.0.b factors that have been centralised throughout the development of our team technique to produce our thus far proposal.

/b

+ form

structure

“Yes is More.” -Bjarke Ingles By agreeing to all parameters, our team adopts his maxim and incorporates various layers of information without discounting the importance of form, structure, site, joints and system. Our technique proposal displays an integration of the “naively utopian and petrifyingly pragmatic”[1] ideas to generate a stable design that fits all Selection Criterias.

OBST

RUCT

ING

WIND

BUILD

INGS

CIRC

ULAT

ION

SCALE 100 50

0 100

0 METERS 200 100

FEET 400

MERMAID STATUE

N

site

+ joints

[1] Bjarke Ingles, "Yes is More", p12.

system

79


Fig6.1.a North-East aerial view Fig6.1.b South-West aerial view

81


Fig6.1.c North-East aerial view Fig6.1.d South-West aerial view

83


Develop “the ability to make a case for proposals.” Exploration of case studies to adopt a familiarity towards a parametric design approach and from thereforth motivate a collaborative exploration that blooms from the basis of case studies, after a finesse through Selection Criteria. Especially paradigm of self-liberation form the shackles of Japan Pavilion shell system constraints. Develop “a personalised repertoire of computational techniques.” Focus on form making to explore further possibilities of the geometry and sinusoidal curves as a representation of collision against all significant parameters. Develop “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation.” Iteration process to develop a plethora of iterations with large variations and further crosspollinating to create elite class iterations in all algorithmic processes of Part B. Develop “skills in various threedimensional media.” A new-found familiarity with fabrication process through hand crafting, card cutting, laser cutting and 3D printing of prototypes. These are all quintessential components of a utility belt ready for a seamless fabrication process for the final submission. Develop “foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming.” Going beyond mere foundations, Grasshopper is now a personal algorithmic thinking tool that can produce iterations and sequences of modelling. It can merge multiple algorithms to create a megaalgorithm that is flavourful in digital

B7.1

learning objectives


qualities that are responsive towards the site, brief and requirements.

B7.2

learning outcomes

Feedback Our team is encouraged to hear the panel of critics expressing their appreciation for the visual qualities, quantity and depth of iterations, prototype and detailed refinement. There was exceptional commendation for architectural qualities to respond towards the brief and context to create the emergent form. Our team was also encourage to consider a duality in the teams approach; possibly with differential effects at the centre and at the edges. This could probably be done through an introduction of more parameters to control the twisting and elongation to create a contrast in the design and the approachability of the system. Another suggestion was also to have a transition between the inward channel of wind and the passing through of people or vice versa. To highlight the desires for experience against protection. Direction With all learning experience and feedback at this stage, our team is inspired to drive our design to its limits by inventing a modular panelling method and express more structural integrity in the design to encourage lower embodied energy, higher sensitivity towards carbon emissions and more user friendly characteristics. Our technique of approaching the design as details within a detail will certainly continue to mobilise a micro-scale approach of a macro managed system. We desire not to be well versed with algorithmic designs but rather aiming to capitalise parametric modelling as a tool to actualise design dreams. 85


B8

algorithmic sketches


Fig8. Algorithmic iterations

For the Part B of algorithmic sketches, much of my personal exploration have been to exploiting the ability of iteration to refine qualities of species. Most of the skills learnt from online video tutorials are not applied outside the focus of LAGI design brief. These are selection of iterations of density of a trigrid system on selected lofted surfaces. The higher densities reveal more resolution and resemblance to its original surface whilst the lesser ones generate a more individualistic identity. This resolution could therefore be an aspect that the group could further consider as the LAGI proposal undergoes through a further refinement process. //further explorations available in algorithmic sketchbook

87


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bibliography

SAD END OF ARCHITECTURE QUOTE OR OPTIMISTIC


TEXT

IMAGES

El Croquis Editorial (2010), ‘Herzog & de Meuron: 2005/2010’ (Madrid, Spain), p3237, 154-181.

0.1.a http://catrinastewart. tumblr.com/post/23742283882/ articulated-cloud-ned-kahn

Ingles, Bjarke (2009). ‘Yes is more : an archicomic on architectural evolution’, (Evergreen), pp4-25

0.1.b,c <http://inhabitat.com/windbeltinnovative-generator-to-bring-cheap-windpower-to-third-world/>

Jodidio, Philip (2010) ‘Shigeru Ban: Complete Works 1985-2010’ (Koln: Taschen), p60-67

1.2.a-c <http://30.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ l7s3ykj9cD1qzprlbo1_r1_500.jpg>

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

1.3.a-e <http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/ articles/0910_f2_allianz_arena.html> 2.1.a-d <http://architizer.com/firms/ aeds-ammar-eloueini-digit-all-studio/>

Moussavi, Farshid (2012), Architecture and Affects by Farshid Moussavi @ the 13th Venice Architecture Biennale <https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=jWyuNKR79MU>.

2.2.a-e <http://architizer.com/projects/ amagerforbraendingen-waste-to-energyplant/>

Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 pdf

2.3.a-d <http://3dprintingindustry. com/2013/11/28/ stunning-kinematics-nervous-system/>

Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61 pdf

3.1.a,b <http://architizer.com/projects/ foyn-johanson-house/>

Special Issue: ‘Patterns of Architecture’, Architectural Design,79,6,2009, <http:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu. au/doi/10.1002/ad.v79:6/issuetoc> Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170

3.2.a-c <http://designdiffusion.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/03/DDP_HADID2.jpg>

3.1.a <http://www.designboom.com/history/ ban_expo.html>. 3.4.b <http://www.bustler.net/images/news2/ world_architecture_festival_awards_2011_ day_two_04.jpg> 3.4.c <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/uU9XS33W3dw/UJSqW-aeEZI/ AAAAAAAAAJM/gv8pcu_sCvY/s1600/ Blog+3-+Image+1.jpg>

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C

detailed design

VIEW . PLAY . LEARN AIR’NERGY


91


C1.0

design concept

/a

view, wind, sun parameters points of intersection

circulation axes emergent form & excess surfacing

REFINING CONECPTS & TECHNIQUES LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK


Part C of this proposal considers three key areas: Finalising the design proposal and how it integrates within the ideas behind LAGI Re-evaluation and refinement of conceptual approach and algorithmic techniques, in relation to context. Architectural detailing of tectonic elements, materiality and fabrication [Energy System] It is agreed that the implementation of either a horizontal or vertical windmill panel system requires a further deliberation on the overall form-network. Issues might arise where the verticality of panels at certain positions would justify the gravitational force as greater than the subtle wind motion within this lowlaying pavilion. Having many small rotating panels would also require more connection points and might even interfere with unnecessary light and sound effects. The group has therefore cohesively decided to opt for a piezoelectric panel system instead. It will sever a more receptive energy translation and does not have a minimum threshold to generate energy. Further details of the energy harvesting process shall be discussed in the later sub-chapters. [Research Field] Another concern from Part B was the design’s progression with the assistance of computational architecture. Infant stage researches were motivated by original interests in exploring the potentials of parametricism to create a structure that has a load bearing coherency. The appeal of the structure to human emotive senses continues in Part C.

Generative algorithms such as the previously explored field of linework exploration and the tri-grid distribution are complex derivatives from simple parameters. Often these complex mutations and outcomes appeal with an approachability with nature and life.

Fig1.0.a Diagrammatic analysis on site context and generative form placement

The design process derive its expression not from its form or ornamentation, but from its interaction with the environment. The process remains true to search for a proposal that has succinct detailing that may serve as a pedagogy in the ways it functions and translates wind into electrical energy for the visitors. Revelations of this interaction with the natural realm will lead the direction towards a mutual understanding between the landscape and ourselves. A living expression of wind energy is translated into a realistic future of highly sensitive organisation of ‘cells’ that seeks to depict life. They thus generate electricity and propel the urban life of the city of Copenhagen. These panels are representational of the identities and the utter dependency of communities on electricity that originates from nature and the quintessential interaction that is the driving force of the living culture of cities. Through the team’s visual articulation of the identity of wind in a physical form, the underlying intention remain as to breathe life into virtual innate concepts into a conceptual inspiration for the future of harvesting energy.

93


C1.0

field lines

tri-grid rationalisation

design concept

refining field line placements

insertion of panels on grid

creating ba

inclusion of para


ase loft

ametric joint system

Fig1.1.b Initial form making process diagrams Fig1.1.c Detailing technique diagrammatic description

/b

creating tri-grid network /c

[Algorithm Refinement] The following diagrams reveal a simplified process of generating the emergent wind-induced design. The same algorithm was iterated further with extra criterion introduced: 1. A conditional statement which integrates the generated form with the ground and the site boundary. 2. A condition which steers the generated form away from a specified boundary (can be a surface which envelopes the road - thus preventing obstruction of the road). 3. Consideration that the emergent field line has an ability to house energy generators, interior spaces and still act as an open public space. 4. Computational information within the process sketches - offering more sensitivity towards the surrounding context and scale throughout the generative/parametric process. Upon satisfactory generation, refinement within the panel, joint, and structure detailing have been made to further realise the conceptual ideas a parametrically designed energy generation network. Further algorithmic detailing of panels and joints available in sketchbook.

detailing substructures

95


C1.0

design concept

DESIGN CONCEPT

AIRnergy is a synergetic pedagogy that fosters a dialogue between wind energy generation and the community of Copenhagen and the greater world.


Fig1.1.d Aerial view of positioning of AIRnergy on site and relation to its surrounding context

[Form Emulation] Extending beyond part B and moving into Part C of the studio, the design becomes more realistic and explores beyond the realm of conceptualisation. It extends towards the future with a perpetual emergence through the detailing of the structural elements and energy harvesting components that is circumscribed within the loft surfaces. Further considerations of wind motions, views, access axes, and shadow casting [Fig1.0.a] have therefore created a by-product landscape and a refined field-form to increase the efficiency of AIRnergy to be a pedagogy of wind energy generation. Part C will include a series of unpacking and further deliberation on the details that define the generative design process and fabrication realisation techniques.

97


C1.1

concept: view

/a

wind sensitive-panels

piezoelectric system

energy conversion & transmission

STAGE 1: VIEW


Fig1.1.a Process of harvesting energy from the piezoelectric panels Fig1.1.b Mapping of joints at sequential distribution and Detail illustration of joint system integrating a DC converter at joint core and piezoelectric sensors within structural pipes

/b

The design is devised into three main spatial qualities: View, Play, Learn. [Energy Translation] Stage 1 of the journey through AIRnergy reveals a labyrinth of intricately populated wind-sensitive piezoelectric panels. The piezoelectric sheet benders are attached to the panel and are connected via a hinge that allows for rotation along the vertical axis. In wind conditions, the rotation of the flap about the bearing joint creates a modal flutter response and hence a vibration that is picked up by the piezoelectric benders connected to an energy converter (full rectifier bridge) concealed within the joints between each triangular panel. //Video link illustrating how panels move in accordance to wind motion: https://vimeo.com/97651585 //Still images of panels moving available in algorithmic sketchbook //Further description of energy generation and efficiency available in C4.0

99


C1.1

concept: view

STAGE 1: VIEW


Fig1.1.c Night view with the luminance of LED lights within the joint system signalling the functioning of panels as energy generators

[Visual Qualities] The energy collected from the panels throughout the day is stored in a generator and capacitor, during the night, the energy stored will be able to power the organic LED light panels attached to the joints between the triangle panels. The lights emitted from the panels sever a signpost even to distant urban dwellers of the real-time energy production on site.

101


C1.2

concept: play

/a

STAGE 2: PLAY


Fig1.2.a Functional program distribution within the site. Fig1.2.b Implementation of selection criteria on panels to be more sociably interactable and user friendly as well as having an efficient placement of panelled cells.

/b

In the second layer of AIRnergy, the landscape system invites visitors to have a first-hand experience with wind energy and its effects, channelled through the pathways of these wind vessels. [Functional Program] As described in Fig 1.2.a, the spatial program comprises of 4 main zones: outdoor experience, physical workshop, relaxation pavilion, the generator/ education centre. This stage fervently considers the human interface within the design, fostering the dialogue between wind energy generation and the community of Copenhagen.

CLOSED PANELS OPENED PANELS

Figure 1.2.b further underscores the effect of our proposed selection criteria of panels. Piezoelectric installed panels are positioned only at panels which are at the height of 2.5 metres and above. This is to ensure that the panels engages with sufficient wind energy and also does not flutter excessively beyond the safety of visitors. More details of the functional program is further elaborated in part C4.

103


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concept: play

STAGE 2: PLAY


Fig2.1.c Rendered image depicting the use of site as a social platform for community recreation and first hand experience of wind energy.

The form of AIRnergy exhibits a playful organisation of spaces. It provides a cheerful experience and juxtaposition between revealed and concealed spaces, creating a subtle interlocking relationship between rectilinear generating systems and the curvaceous landscape. With the dynamics of the piezoelectric flaps, a cheeky hide-and-seek playground setting is shaped, which hence structures a platform for creative interaction between fellow visitors and the landscape. The embellishment people interaction with wind, kite flying in particular further invites people to appreciate wind energy not only for its electrical harvesting potential but also for the long-standing experiential sensations it contributes to the society.

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concept: play

STAGE 2: PLAY


Fig2.1.d Winter illustration at AIRnergy as the land art generator is designed for all seasons and panels adapt through varying climate conditions

The design also considers the various seasons throughout the year that Refshaleøen experiences. During a snowy day, snow may coat the top side of the form. Panels can nonetheless still flutter inwardly and capture the wind motion that transits through the landscape. The wide open space also allows for children and families to not only interact with wind but also the existing climate and landscape conditions of the local setting.

107


C1.3

concept: learn

1. source out material

2. process materials

4. assemble individual panels on ground

5. assemble structure on site

STAGE 3: LEARN


Fig1.3.a Envisaged construction process

[Rethinking Materiality and Fabrication] Remaining true as a synergistic design, AIRnergy will be kept open-ended in the case of its construction, depending on the interest of local communities and industrial powerhouses. To preserve the industrial identity of the existing site, there will be a rebirth of function from dispatched disposed and forgotten materials.

3. fabricate

The melancholy and desolation of the abandoned open space reclaimed land will be romanticised by the honour of emerging from a united public initiative that the community desires to have this renewed landscape. Treatment and fabrication of the material components is therefore even more crucial to ensure that the structure and its subcomponents are inherent in supporting loads and can be feasible enough to mediate energy generation through flutters.

6. generate electricity

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concept: learn

STAGE 3: LEARN

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

COPENHAGEN


Fig1.3.b Interior illustration facilitating a place for community education and learning on the values of sustainable energy harvesting and goals for a Carbon Neutral city.

The educational structures comprise of a pavilion, workshop and exhibition centre. In the exhibition space, the main powergenerating machine of the system is integrated at the epicentre, a jewel, symbolising the appreciation of the beauty of renewable energy. This space can be used as an exhibition space for further revolutionary or conventional pieces of renewable energy systems and to host other renewable energy or community based programs.

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C2.1

tectonic elements

/a

JOINTS ASSEMBLY


Fig2.1.a 1:1 Fabricated joint system Fig2.1.b Exploded isometric of parametrically designed joint system Fig2.1.c Isometric diagram of parametric joint with flexible parameters as highlighted

/b

The tectonics of AIRnergy is a crucial factor that determines the constructibility of the system. AIRnergy integrates an interlocking pin joint system with a casement for DC converting transducers. The success of designing the joint parametrically, being easily customisable to a range of defined criteria aids the construction and fabrication process of the joint on various scales. However, the group have come to a realisation that this system proves to be somewhat redundant with the already available components in the market.

/c

A A Radius of joint B Radius of pin joints C Polygon & joint frequency D Material thickness

Therefore we opted for a less computational orientated system. The fabrication of this parametric joint was abandoned and detailed analysis of the micro-components that define a joint network is analysed at a 1:1 scale.

B

D

C

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tectonic elements

/a

JOINT ASSEMBLY


Fig2.2.a Make-shift joint inside casement view Fig2.2.b Pin-joint mobile features Fig2.2.c Piezoelectric sensory system Fig2.2.d Joint conection to structural members Fig2.2.e Fitting of panel between structral members

/b

/c

The construction of the joint system is motivated by the following intents: 1. To have a casement for the DC transducer system and LED light network. 2. To facilitate the extreme variations of joint to structure angle by allowing a pin joint system to be movable. 3. A network of wiring to be internally placed within the hollow structures.

/d

/e

The construction of this PVC pipe derived joint prototype reveals that the variations in angular connections, three way intersections and linear pipes can unite and form a framework for converging structural members. However, the weakness of this version highlights the rough estimation of lengths and angles, therefore requiring high level of tolerance for discrepancies, weighing down in practicality for its mass produced constructibility.

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tectonic elements

/a

PARAMETRIC JOINT


/c

/b

Fig2.3.a Isometric drawing of complete parametric joint system Fig2.3.b Exploded isometric drawing of tectonic element sub components Fig2.3.c Unrolled template of joints ready for fabrication on 3mm MDF board

Advancing from the final presentation, this is a revised joint component since our joint system is a weak-point in the design which infers a low construction credibility. With the evaluation of the first physical prototype of joint, a subsequent iteration of a fully parametric joint is scripted, accommodating for the same criteria of material thickness, diameter of axes and diameter of casement. The highlight of this version is the ability for the joints to facilitate horizontal and vertical flexibility whilst still firmly locked within the casement for LED and generator systems. Please refer sketchbook for algorithm and quick iterations demonstrating its ability to rotate and customised according to varying scales and material thickness.

117


C2.4

tectonic elements

/a

FABRICATED JOINT


Fig2.4.a Fabricated 2 way flexible joint system Fig2.4.b Glue-less assembly of joint Fig2.4.c Fitting of axes within the joint casement Fig2.4.d Allocation of volumetric space for DC converter and complex electrical components Fig2.4.e Joints acting mobile and free to move to accommodate different panel angle

/b

/c

/d

/e

The fabrication of this 1:2 joint demonstrates the success of the parametric scripting of this component. All the components fit perfectly together with the consideration of mobile hinges and material shifts as shown possible through dynamic rotational tests on grasshopper. The further interlocking finger joint network eliminates the need for glue during assembly. The finger joint system was derived from previous personal inventions of a fabrication process parametric algorithms. These algorithmic techniques prove to be adaptable in various designs, yet another benefit of computational designing process. The concept of this component is synthesised from the idea of pin joint system to allow for the extreme variations of panel edges. It has high tolerance levels to adapt a structurally augmented technological system onto the dynamic wind emulated form of the design.

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tectonic elements

/a

PIPE DETAIL


Fig2.5.a Parametrically modelled structural pipes to accommodate for the antiquity of tri-grid systems that incorporate piezoelectric sensors. Fig2.5.b Laser cut fabricated sections of pipe systems Fig2.5.c Assembled cross section profiles of structural members

/b

A further concern with fabrication of tectonics include the joining substructures. On a 1:1 scale, a commonly available 76CHS would be used. On a 1:20 or smaller scale, the complexity of an extruded pipe system would be difficult to measure and fabricate in precision with the laser cutter. CNC routing or 3D printing would offer the precision but it is definitely too elaborate in cost and fabrication time. It is therefore theorised that the pipe systems are simplified as a skeleton of X cross sections. The difference in aesthetics would also incorporate for the positioning of piezoelectric panels within the pipes. This system has also been produced parametrically through the references of panel edges.

/c

The interlocking edges is deduced from the personal invention of a subtraction surface algorithm available for further viewing and break down in algorithmic sketchbook.

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C2.6

structural wireframe

parametric tools

pipe

internal lining

create shell

casement for generator

referenced objects

node points

c


Fig 2.6 Grasshopper definition summary

improve connection rigidity

Figure 2.6 is a brief summary of the development on the parametric sub components as it progresses with the inclusion of more flexible parameters. The computational scripting of these two components highlight the benefits of designing micro-system components parametrically.

material thickness consideration

The ability for the details to flex accordingly harmonises the design with a variance in material thickness and thoroughly considers an integrated assembly technique. These scripts also caters for the multi-scale application, which deemed helpful especially during fabrication and prototyping stages. One joint can be made at various scales but still limited by the intricacy of printing tools.

fabrication template

axis 1, horizontal

pin frame

axis 2, vertical

123


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final model


Fig3.0.a 3D powder printed 1:500

125


C3.0

final model


Fig3.0.b Top view of the 3D printed model revealing the detailing of panels within the lofted surface geometry.

3D powder printing is preferentially selected for the fabrication of one of the final models. Learning from past experiences with ABS material 3D printing, the resolution and level of detail appears to be far better with powder printing. It is also easier at this stage to make the digital file 3d printable having had the experience fabricating a piece for the interim presentation. The print of the complete form convey a clear expression of the form and its placement within the site. It gives emphasis on the way wind would potentially traverse through the overall form on site. Limited by 2mm material thickness requirement and fragility of powder printed prototypes, the pieces have been shattered few times during the transport process. Also, unfortunately, the disproportionate pipe thickness reduces resolution of design especially on a smaller scale. the fabrication of 3d printed model encouraged the group to think further on the constructibility of each panel and how it would be structurally inherent and remain in position without collapsing due to the irregular geometry of these surfaces.

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final model

/c


Fig3.0.c CNC routed landscape at 1:500 Fig3.0.d Landscape in position within overall contextual model

landscape /d

Also part of the 1:500 site model, the group has collectively decided to extend the windflow design onto the landscape. Undulating channels and encourages wind to channel through in a streamlined motion through the site. It can also be believed that the morphing of this surface will slightly increase energy harnessing potentials. The land-form is a reflection of the fluid-like identity of wind and the energy generated from it. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Diedoffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; algorithmic iterations of the Japan Pavilion from part B were reexplored and incorporated to create the extended topography. The use of CNC routing and toolpathing to were used to fabricate this terrain. This process has also aided the group to identify the potentials and benefits of CNC milling on a micro scale. The technology can be further applied in the mass production of 1:1 scale structural components, given its ability to carve detail on three digital world axes.

129


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final model


Fig3.0.e Site Model

131


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final model


Fig3.0.f Model on site

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detail prototype

/a


Fig3.1.a-b 1:20 Scale model components ready for assembly

/b

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detail prototype


Fig3.1.c 1:20 Scale model interior Fig3.1.d 1:20 Scale model assembled

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detail prototype

/e


Fig3.1.e 1:20 in construction process top view Fig3.1.f Steel plate connection detailing Fig3.1.g Footing attachment detailing Fig3.1.h Joint representation Fig3.1.i Structural members in position

/f

/g

Feedback on this 1:20 model during the final presentation mentions that its constructibility is fundamentally flawed and assembled haphazardly. As a team, we collectively agreed that this prototype is merely a transition for the further refinement of the concepts and structural integrity of the design.

/h

/i

The fabrication process allowed us to further identify the urgency to refine the structural integrity of the structure. The panel edges are incapable of self supporting. Therefore we deduced the idea of having series of portal arches that frames the system complemented with cross bracing from the assemblies of individual panels onto the overall frame. This prototype nevertheless is a hallmark testimony of lightweight construction, using only 1mm box board fabricated with the Card cutter. Personally operating machine reveal the limitations of the material that may potentially tear when cut. Prompted a further consideration of real life material selection: Steel, alloy or composite metal remains appropriate with its stellar strengthweight ratio. The firmness and structural rigidity that is less prone to structure collapse. Availability on site and from shipyards and excess from Refshaleøen factories. Concepts will be further elaborated in part C4.

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further resolution

/a

HERZOG & DEMEURON BEIJING OLYMPIC STADIUM BEIJING, CHINA 2008


Fig3.2.a Beijing Olympic stadium structural facade Fig3.2.b Footing and structure support detail Fig3.2.c Primary structure and substructure with joint assembly Fig3.2.d Footing connection detail

/b

/c

/d

The tolerance for joints and primary structural members was excessive and did not consider a further connection in between. At this scale we assumed that joints would merely be representational [Fig3.1.h]. We were conflicted because of the detail that can be shown on a 1:50 or 1:20 scale. This has been further resolved through the parametric joint designing and theories of interlocking systems. As detailed in Fig3.1.g, it is evident that locking the structure onto a firm foundation will brace the structure in position. The inclusion of a strip footing system with indicated positions of structural members also gave the design a base frame to start the assembly with. With further developments, the group have theorised concepts of real life construction components. It would be better to construct the structure with board pier footing system as indicated in the sketch diagrams, these systems will give the base a better support against the point loads. The case of Beijing Olympic stadium demonstrates a deliberate collapse of structural frame, especially at the cantilevered regions. This should be implemented with the structural framing of AIRnergy as the welded and bolted joints between U-Beams will be firm in position as they are under compression with one another, diagonally braced with panel substructures.

141


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further resolution

/e

FURTHER RESOLVED DESIGN

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

REFSHALEØEN, COPENHAGEN


Fig3.2.e Partial model aspect ratio refinement Fig3.2.f Unrolled fabrication template with interlocking finger joint system Fig3.2.g Full 1:50 Partial model to be constructed.

/f

/g

Determined to progress further to redevelop the design of AIRnergy, the team progressed through the restrictions with time and complexity of the model to fabricate a smaller 1:50 section for an ‘exhibition quality’ physical model. The awareness of the difficulties of exhibiting a full level of detail on the scale of 1:50 is apparent to us having had the experience with the 1:20 model. Nonetheless, a simplified resolution of the joint system and weld connection between U-beams are represented through the incorporation of interlocking finger joints, an abandoned fabrication concept. Material thickness and positioning are pre-considered and integrated in these finger laces. Another option that was sought after to further refine the structure of the shells is a spring forced gridshell with Kangaroo. This would have been an ideal solution to resolve not only the structure but also the modularity during the fabrication process. The new definition however could not fit into the geometry of the surfaces. It would have been another launching point of the design at the form finding stage.

//Further detail and various iterations of different approaches are documented in the algorithmic sketchbook.

BMW Welt design was also further analysed and the aspect ratio was theorised and has influenced a redefinition of the ‘haphazardly’ resolved dimension of panels. This re-consideration now makes way for of a likely use of CNC routing machines, limited to a 2400x1200mm workspace, therefore having structural members and panels no larger than this threshold. 143


C3.2 /h

further resolution

/j

/i

/k

/l

/m


Fig3.2.h-i Finger joining structural members and panels Fig3.2.j Footing detail Fig3.2.k-m Primary structures Fig3.2.n-p Assembly of panels

/n

Mention earlier in part C1, Figure1. 3.a outlines the envisaged construction process. The remake of a 1:20 model aims to emulate this process from material sourcing, fabrication to the assembly on site. Having the opportunity to personally operate a laser cutter, it becomes apparent that the even the minimal laser cutter tolerance of 0.01mm seem to slightly alter the dimensions of the finger joints. Rather than having yet another model assembled without glue, it was necessary in this case to fill the 0.02mm spacings to ensure that the pieces actually interlocks and still have an allowance to bend accordingly.

/o

/p

The differences between a 2.7mm plywood and a 3.0mm MDF board also surprisingly revealed a large distinction. The compressed layers of plywood appears to have bent and causes further discrepancies in the dimension of the panels. The thin width of panels on a 1:50 scale also proved to be a weakness that tears and breaks some of the panels.

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further resolution

/t


Fig3.2.t Footing detail Fig3.2.u Finger joining between structure and panels Fig3.2.v Footing detail Fig3.2.w Arch detail

/u

The new result of the manufacturing of a section of the refined model clearly reflects more of the design intent and the form of the actual design. This refined 1:50 model reveals the constructibility aspect of this design. The structure is resolved through the concept of interlocking the whole structure with a series of joint detail.

/v

/w

Structural failure in the 1:20 was due to the absence of housing for joint placements which is now included within the whole system. In reality the finger joints will be welds and interlocking steel plates. Interlocking joints would need a three way finger intersection in order for it to be independently stable without reliance on adhesive fluids to hold them in place. It model in itself is a pedagogy from its structural assembly. The forgotten adherence to the construction process reveal that there have been obvious confusions to which panel goes in position. Some panels were incorrectly installed and created distorted gaps between panels. It must be emphasised to follow through the quintessential assembly process because of the uniqueness in dimension of all panels. In addition, the satisfactory resolution of panel aspect ratio relates suitable to the human scale. It is a size that can be constructed on site and extend through the idea that it is an education and opportunity for visitors to implement this technology into their own households. 147


C3.2

further resolution


Fig3.2.x Final 1:20 Model

149


C4.0

LAGI 2014

AIR’NERGY

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

REFSHALEØEN, COPENHAGEN


AIRnergy is a synergetic pedagogy that fosters a dialogue between wind energy generation and the community of Copenhagen and the greater world. DESIGN CONCEPT AIRnergy emulates the movement of wind through the meticulously structured form that not only captures wind but also generates new spectacles and vantage points along the infamous Københavns Havn and its neighbouring structures. Refshaleøen is a rich complex of creative entrepreneurships, warehouses, and cultural and recreational venues. The design site is grounded within a dilapidated reclaimed land. AIRnergy celebrates the weakness of the site with the potential of harvesting renewable energy through the flow of wind. Alongside the community people of Copenhagen, AIRnergy will propel towards a new era of Carbon Neutral social nomenclature. It is inherent that this Land Art Generator is a system that rises from the glory of Copenhagen. The form is an abstraction of the combined elements of wind, climate, views and the nature of its surroundings. The design captures these influencing factors by projecting tension points across the site and thus generating a network of structural energy lines which gave AIRnergy its form. The detail of the structure is reminiscent of the industrial identity of the landscape and its origins. AIRnergy is a micro-sensitive emergent system that transcends from the urgent need for a sustainable energy generation.

DESIGN EXPERIENCE A journey through AIRnergy will break the social stigma against the grim aesthetics and lack of efficiency of renewable energy generators. The division of spatial programs encompasses the intricacy of energy generation, the human context of joyous kinfolk, building activities, education and a display of technology. Through the articulation of different spatial qualities, three main functions will be executed; View, Play, Learn. VIEW The monstrous aesthetic provides a stark contrast to the fluid overall form. The structure creates a labyrinth of intricately populated wind-sensitive piezoelectric panels. This display is influenced by the motion of wind as it passes through the site. This intensifies the intricate details of energy generation and results in safe, carbon neutral and eco-friendly energy generation. Through the structure, technology and sub-components, the fluid display of motion and natural flow illustrates a tangible and logical harvesting of wind energy. PLAY The form of AIRnergy exhibits a playful organisation of spaces. It provides a cheerful experience and juxtaposition between revealed and concealed spaces, creating a subtle interlocking relationship between rectilinear generating systems and the curvaceous landscape. With the dynamics of the piezoelectric flaps, a cheeky hide-and-seek playground setting is shaped, which hence structures a platform for creative interaction between fellow visitors and the landscape. The embellishment people interaction with wind, kite flying in particular further invites people to appreciate wind energy not only for its electrical harvesting potential but also for the longstanding experiential sensations

it contributes to the society. The visual qualities are a reflection that AIRnergy is an extension of a landscape that captures wind energy and funnels it through the geometry of the design. It is not only an energy generator but also a public space, creating a future landmark and a romantic elope for the people of Copenhagen. LEARN The educational structures comprise of a pavilion, workshop and exhibition centre. In the exhibition space, the main power-generating machine of the system is integrated at the epicentre, a jewel, symbolising the appreciation of the beauty of renewable energy. This space can be used as an exhibition space for further revolutionary or conventional pieces of renewable energy systems and to host other renewable energy or community based programs. The workshop space is an opportunity to learn and a public workshop where visitors are able to fabricate their own piezoelectric panels. A CNC machine and other industry standard facilities will be retrofitted into the space to allow guests to gain first-hand experience on manufacturing their own panel design on-site. The panel size range is limited to a maximum dimension of 1200x2400mm, restricted by the capacity of the machinery. AIRnergy is a breakaway from the austere perception towards renewable energy systems that is a divine option which genuinely has a fresh breath away from the otherwise chaos, machine-like dystopia.

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AIR’NERGY

LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE 2014

REFSHALEØEN, COPENHAGEN


TECHNOLOGY A windy day causes leaves to flutter and road signs to shake. It is these vibrations that resulted in the proposal of a piezoelectric wind energy generating system (inspired by Vibro-Wind Systems). The four shells strategically positioned across the site comprise series of a triangulated panel, each of which houses a kinetic flap/membrane that bends and flutters in response to the prevailing wind. The network of vibrating plates are augmented to capture wind and generate energy but also to bring an aesthetic element to the site through the wave-like effects created by the moving flaps. These fluctuations not only reveal the shifts in wind movement but also provide a visual map of the panelsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; collection of wind energy. The elementary science behind each of these movable flaps involves wind-induced vibration due to the non-linear fluid flow and vortices around a flexible structure. The energy harvest device comprises, in one embodiment (each the triangular panel), an oscillating flap, a piezoelectric bender (transducer) and an energy convertor that converts the vibration of the oscillating element into direct current. The piezoelectric sheet benders are attached to the panel and are connected via a hinge that allows for rotation along the vertical axis. In wind conditions, the rotation of the flap about the bearing joint creates a modal flutter response and hence a vibration that is picked up by the piezoelectric benders connected to an energy convertor (full rectifier bridge) concealed within the joints between each triangular panel. The energy collected from the panels throughout the day is stored in a generator and capacitor, during the night, the energy stored will be able to power the organic LED

light panels attached to the joints between the triangle panels. The lights emitted from the panels sever a signpost even to distant urban dwellers of the real-time energy production on site. LIST OF MATERIALS The nature of the designed structure means that the materials will be designed and prefabricated off site and then delivered to the site for assembly. These are the list of materials required to build the structure of AIRnergy : 1. Single bored pile footing below structural steel support member 2. Structural steel support of galvanised hot-rolled steel I columns bolted and welted 3. Steel pipes, recycled and processed steel pipes from neighbouring warehouse and factories , ideally 76CHS. 4. PVDF sheets/membrane (Piezoelectric system) 1200x2400mm based on CNC router printer bed size dimensions, can be altered in accordance to machine capacities. 5. Flexible hexagonal joints of recycled steel that conceal the wires from the piezoelectric systems along with internal organic LED lights. 6. AIRnergy combined footprint measurement 120x100x8m ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT Unlike the commonly used rotary wind turbines which requires a start-up velocity of 9-10m/s, these piezoelectric panel systems can be effective in wind-velocity environments as low as 2-3m/s. This technology is virtually silent, significantly cheaper to build and has lower impact on the surrounding landscape. The relatively low lying composition of the structure, less than 15 metres, does not impose any danger for passing birds. The

maximum

energy

can

be

attained when the flap and piezoelectric bender are deflecting with 90 degrees phase difference. A 6X6 panel array is estimated to be able to produce an output of up to 50W/m2. If all the panels on each of the four structures are fully operational at a given time, an average of 300,000 kWh/yr will be produced. On a spring day, the energy collected would be enough to power up to a few hundred households. Organic LED lights are installed at the joints between each panel which causes the structure to glow at night. The energy consumption of these LED lights is minimal and the surplus of energy is directed to the electrical grid. Integrating the ideas of promoting green energy generation, the proposal incorporates existing technologies that maximizes the generation of energy and at the same time minimizes the structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental footprint. The triangular grid framework are made of recycled steel tubes that provide a lightweight structure that holds up the panels and allows for the wires from the piezoelectric system to run through the structure and then to the generator. The various parts of the system can be easily assembled offsite and then brought onto site. The flaps are made of flexible PVDF sheets which are recycled, lightweight, translucent and waterproof to allow for maximum capture of wind under all weather conditions. All the materials used for the installation are recyclable and offer great Energy Pay-Back Time (EPBT). The estimated embodied energy inclusive of the processing, manufacture, transport and assembly of AIRnergy is around 200,000 GJoules. The embodied energy will be covered in around 5 years depending on the wind conditions. 153


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DENG DENG DENG


[Feedback] The criticism our group received in the final presentation was predominantly addressing details within our design in which we can optimise to improve realistic feasibility of the Land Art Generator proposal. Criticisms include the following: Fabrication detail and resolution -Although the team has succinctly devised the programmatic and technological intricacies of the design, the production and level of detail on the prototypes fell slightly behind. Therefore, newer parametric joints and interlocking details in 1:50 model have been conceptualised and built to improve the credibility of our AIRnergy proposal. Joint detail Our practical and real life adaptations of the joint system was deemed simplified and did not reveal our intentions for it to house a generator and LED system. The new joint includes more profiling and eliminates the need for a liquid binding assembly. Aspect ratio The size and distribution of the panels seemed disproportionate and was suggested to refer to the BMW Welt tri-grid distribution system. Algorithmic sketches were made to better comprehend the design process and new proportions of different UV densities were made in accordance to machine thresholds. Footing and relation to ground Better footing systems are introduced with Olympic Birds Nest as a structural inspiration.

Design Futuring The final revised design proposal constitutes multi-faceted layers of information from the local context, natural tendencies of wind flow and human accessibility. The generative form as described in Part C1.0 reveals a thorough interrogation of the LAGI brief to create an exceptionally efficient energy generating sculpture that will serve as design pedagogy. This inherently also tackles Objective 1 to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;interrogate a briefâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Design Computation My initial foundational understanding have expanded through close learning from Ex Lab tutorials and grasshopper forum discussions. The collaborative production of the overall panelling definition has particularly refined the idea of piezoelectric panels incorporated into the wind swept geometry. Concepts are further articulated through production of renders and qualified analysis of wind effects on the panels through the rotate axis script documented in the algorithmic sketchbook and a video. Composition/ Generation The multitude of matrix outcomes archived in Part B is not simply about generating an arbitrary array of outcomes to have a glutton of design buffet. Every iteration have been a product of deforming provided algorithms and rapidly produce a progressive series of detailing which through the strict adherence to a selection criteria, produce draft proposals that may allude into the profiling of a final design. 155


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Parametrics With first hand dabbling with grasshopper, it becomes apparent that designing parametrically have enabled us as a group to adopt the “Yes is More” mindset. The ‘hedonistic sustainability challenges the protestant idea that it has to hurt in order to do good.’ Although our AIRnergy proposal is an amalgamation of all parameters, we learnt that it is also important to define restrictions in order to control the development of the design, especially on the aspects of constructibility and human scale sensitivity, two of which were apparent flaws in the design revealed by the 1:20 prototype in C3. Materiality/ Patterning The production of various detailed models of joint and larger scale sectional prototypes enabled us as a group to test a range of material properties in regards to their bending and load bearing capacities. These prototypes in B5, C2 and C3 demonstrate that regardless of the material selection, it is even more important to customise the components in a way that they will be able to connect with neighbouring components and considers material flexibilities. Fabrication The unrolling and setting up of a printing template in particular has motivated an independent scripting of a code that adds profiling on wireframe systems. The theorised finger joints especially have aided in the further resolution of the connectivity within joints and representation of joint details on the final 1:20 fabricated model.

and fabrication process. Outlined in page the refinement of part C2 and throughout C3, the comprehension of these machine systems have also motivated our conceptual proposal of how the real scale design would be fabricated. Analysis/Synthesis Analysis for the panel population has been outlined in the Play stage in C1. Parametric boundaries have been incorporated into the design to make automated decisions to have panels only above a specific level to have piezoelectric systems installed. Data Management The organisation and proper grouping of the large algorithmic network has enabled the stage of further development to be quick and direct. The discussed weak points of the design such as the aspect ratio system were quickly adjusted and customised to fit within the manufacturing dimension threshold. Data Visualisation Data Visualisation would be a weak point of the AIRnergy proposal. Kangaroo Spring force on gridshells have also been explored and documented in the algorithmic sketchbook, but were inapplicable as they will generate a new surface geometry. A further refinement would be to apply a Karamba plugin structural analysis on the trigrid network digitally rather than fabricating them to stretch the limits of constructibility of this design.

The complete application of card cutter, laser cutter, CNC router, powder 3D printing and ABS 3D printing has given us as a group a better understanding of materiality 157


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AIR’NERGY huili - mitran - juin - yan

LAGI . 2014

bibliography

“MANY PEOPLE WOULD SOONER DIE THAN THINK. IN FACT THEY DO.” BERTRAND RUSSELL


TEXT

IMAGES

El Croquis Editorial (2010), ‘Herzog & de Meuron: 2005/2010’ (Madrid, Spain), p3237, 154-181.

3.2.a <http://www.wildchina.com/blog/ wp-content/uploads/2012/08/lubetkin_hdm_ beijing_stadium_03x.jpeg>

Ingles, Bjarke (2009). ‘Yes is more : an archicomic on architectural evolution’, (Evergreen), pp4-25

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