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The Forgotten Empire By Marco Duthie Thesis Supervisor: Daniel.K.Brown

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The Forgotten Empire By Marco Mbekezeli Duthie

A 120-point thesis submitted to the Victoria University of Wellington in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture (Professional) Victoria University of Wellington, 2015 School of Architecture

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Preface

Fig. 01. Author between two of boulders on Sunset Hill, Hampi, India.

A month prior to starting this thesis I was fortunate enough to be selected for a trip to Hampi as part of a summer field research study of traditional architecture in India. It was the most amazing eye opening experience and touched me on a personal level. I was in awe of the unique beauty of this historic environment, but also saddened by the poorly constructed shops and guest houses immediately next to the most prominent historic temple. What touched me most of all, however, were the ruins of the devastated shops that until recently had lined the processional colonnade leading to the main temple site. This remaining debris indicated how devastating the forced evacuation of these local tenants had been. I wanted to help. I wanted to understand how architecture as a discipline might provide an answer.

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Acknowledgements

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First and foremost I would like to sincerely thank my friend, my mentor, Daniel Brown, whose continual excited passion, dedication and endless energy towards architecture and myself was greatly affirming and inspiring. His constant intent to challenge and assist me throughout my studies and the course of this thesis has made me immensely grateful to have had him as my supervisor. Thank you. To my ‘architecture’ friends, thank you all for being a part of this journey. Special mention to Danielle, George, Henry, who have been with me throughout, your support and friendship means everything to me, cheers. Can’t wait for that drink. To my ‘non-architecture’ friends and flatmates, you’ve made the past six years an unforgettable time in my life. Thank you. To Sue Wickison, your food packages and constant support over this time have been incredible, Thank you. My girlfriend Sonja Walsh, you have been invaluable to me during this journey, always there to help in whatever way, at whatever time. For that I can’t thank you enough. My brother Chris Duthie, you have been amazing; thanks for being there when I needed distracting and bankrolling me. Cheers. Most of all I dedicate this thesis to my parents, Sigi and Des Duthie, for their dedication, support and love over the last 6 years, I couldn’t have done this without you two. Thank you all for your belief and encouragement. This is for you.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface III

Acknowledgements

IV

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1

2.0 SITE ANALYSIS

25

3.0 PROGRAM ANALYSIS

59

4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT REVIEW

73

VI


5.0 PRELIMINARY DESIGN

101

6.0 DEVELOPED DESIGN

166

7.0 CONCLUSION

206

8.0 LIST OF REFERENCES

208

9.0 SOURCES OF FIGURES

210

VII


VIII


Fig. 02. Panoramic view over Sunset Hill, Hampi.

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X


1.0 INTRODUCTION “The city (Vijayanagara) is such that the pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it, and ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal it in the World� -Abdur Razaak (212).

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RESEARCH PROBLEMS Contemporary buildings within ‘living’ World Heritage sites can provide important economic viability to these sites by enhancing tourism. But these buildings can also damage world heritage sites visually, physically and environmentally by inappropriate building placement and by encouraging increased visitor contact with vulnerable areas. This in turn creates a disruption and disengagement between the dynamic interplay of the landscape and historic architecture. This problem is something that occurs in many ‘living’ UNESCO World Heritage sites and is a real problem in the chosen site for this thesis, Vijiyanagara (Hampi). Hampi is now serving as a: “Reception centre to foreign tourists and nearly 50% of the houses are running illegal guest houses. ...The Bazaar in front of the Virupaksha Temple is about 740m long and encroachments are a regular phenomenon” (Equation, “Inhuman and Illegal Eviction and Demolition at Hampi Bazaar”). Vijiyanagara is a World Heritage site, but is a ‘living heritage site’. This thesis investigates and explores Hampi’s needs to not only concern itself with heritage/monument preservation and tourism promotion, but also actively address issues of the homes and occupations of the local community.

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Fig. 03. Demolition aftermath on Hampi Bazaar.

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Hampi relies heavily on external funding from organisations such as UNESCO, which is the main source of income for the site protection and aid in its maintenance. In 1999 Hampi was red stickered and listed in the “sites in danger” with the risk of losing funding, unless Hampi was willing to “clean up” all the illegal and detrimental encroachments on the site. As a result of this the “government issued this unregulated development clean up of Hampi Bazzaar in 2012, demolishing many of the shops and more than 300 inhabitants were forcibly evicted” (Chamberlin). The government intends on demolishing more in the area such as the Janatha Plot (site of most of the illegal cafes and guest houses, located adjacent to the main temple) and the ashram (a pilgrim’s centre located atop a nearby hill and not visible from the heritage locations below). This means that guest houses, potential accommodation for tourism and restaurants, and viable income for many of the residents living within Hampi will be lost unless something is done to help. “More than 200 families living in Hampi for the past 40 –50 years are completely dependent on tourism and tourism related activities” (Equations). With the desperate need of tourism to help save this “living site” and the crucial need to house not only tourists but to also aid those locals who are contributing to the community through their stalls and craft shops, a plan needs to be made to accommodate these people and facilities but in a more sensitive and well placed location that does not create tension between the heritage site and the new architecture. Most of the historical statues and sculptures of archaeological significance have been removed from their original contexts to safeguard them, but in doing so they have been decontextualised. When the context is removed, much of the original meaning of the historic sculpture can be lost; this can be said for these sculptures and statues that once lived within Vijarangara walls and gave an insight into the stories and historical significance of the site. This thesis focuses on providing a new architectural location for the ashram and the local businesses about to be forcibly evicted, a location still within the living heritage site but sensitive to its needs. The thesis also provides places for the sculptures that are currently stacked on a lawn outside the abandoned archaeological centre.

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Fig. 04. Above: Existing shops and cafĂŠs in Janatha Plot. Below: demolished shops after forced evacuation along the processional colonnade leading to Vittala Temple.

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ABSTRACT

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Many UNESCO World Heritage Sites are still inhabited, which can lead to new architecture being constructed that damages the site both archaeologically and environmentally. Forcibly removing these buildings is hampered by debate over the right of the inhabitants to live there. These are considered to be ‘living heritage sites’, the inhabitants serving an important role in continuing the ‘intangible heritage’: social practices, music, rituals, language, etc. UNESCO’s mandate to protect, conserve and manage these sites can be at odds with the development and economic needs of the local populations. (S. Rao, Mohan, Mercierr) This thesis looks at one such site, Vijayanagara, City of Victory in Hampi, South India. The greater site is 236 sq kms and incorporates one small city, 28 villages and a total population of 59,941 inhabitants. The archaeologically significant central core of the site covers an area of about 40 sq kms and is inhabited by 24,000 people. It includes 10 guesthouses, 15 small hotels, more than 140 shops, 47 houses and an ashram. This core zone has had a major impact on enhancing the economy of the site through tourism. But unregulated development is also damaging the site, and in 2012 the government demolished many of the shops and more than 300 inhabitants were forcibly evicted. (Chamberlain) This thesis argues that contemporary buildings within World Heritage Sites can be designed to actively protect the ruins within which they are placed, rather than further damaging them. It also argues that they can be designed to integrate visually within the ruins without losing their own unique contemporary identity. The thesis proposes that this can be achieved by incorporating and reinforcing natural features of the site into the architectural design; actively protecting vulnerable areas of the site by ‘curating’ them as special protected features; enhancing the historic narrative of the site by strategically framing elements that may not have previously been noticed or understood; and by re-presenting the contemporary architecture as another important chapter in the on-going history of a ‘living heritage’ site.

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PROPOSED CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE FOR HAMPI Architecture BRIO + Rajeev Sethi Scenographers

Fig. 05. Hotel in the form of a temple proposed for Hampi’s future.

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The images in Fig. 05 illustrate the kind of architecture that has been proposed for Hampi. It is a 5-Star Resort Hotel with Banquet Hall, Restaurant and Bar, takes up 9500m² and it is literally a contemporary copy of a historic temple. Not only does this seem inappropriate in many ways but it dishonours the construction of the hand carved stone temples. At the same time, the government is forcibly evicting locals and demolishing shops and guest houses on the site that have been there for generations, planning to replace them with this new facility. The thesis investigates ways to place local shops and guest houses into architecture more suitable to this vulnerable location, and thus also provide a more viable alternative to the government plans for a large hotel/shop complex that is simply a replica of an existing temple.

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS +

Can contemporary buildings be designed to inhabit living World Heritage Sites without visually, physically and environmentally damaging these sites?

+

Can contemporary buildings in living World Heritage Sites be designed to actively protect the ruins where they are sited?

+

Can contemporary buildings in living World Heritage Sites still maintain their own unique identity even while blending into the historic landscape?

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RESEARCH AIMS + The principal aims of this design-led research investigation are to investigate ways in which contemporary buildings in living World Heritage Sites can:

+

Inhabit these vulnerable sites without visually, physically and environmentally damaging them;

+

Be designed to actively protect the ruins where they are sited;

+ Be designed to maintain their own unique contemporary identity even while blending into the historic landscape.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES +

The principal objectives of this design-led research investigation are to develop design ideas for contemporary architecture sited within living World Heritage Sites that:

RO1.

Mitigate visual and environmental damage to the site by strategically incorporating and reinforcing natural features of the site into the design;

RO2.

Actively protect vulnerable areas of the site by ‘curating’ them as special protected features;

+

Enhance the historic narrative of the site by strategically framing elements that may not have previously been noticed or understood;

Incorporate contemporary architecture into the heritage site by re-presenting it strategically as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site.

RO3.

RO4.

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Fig. 06. Ruins in front of Sri Krishna Temple.

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RESEARCH SITE

21.0000° N, 78.0000° E

South India

12.9702° N, 77.5603° E

State of Katranata

15.1500° N, 76.9167° E

District of Bellary

Hampi

15.3350° N, 76.4620° E

Fig. 07. Exploded site.

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Located in the State of Karnataka in South India about 350 kilometres north of Bangalore, Hampi is a living World Heritage Site resting on the banks of the Thungabadra River. The extraordinary environment of Hampi is a complex theatre featuring the seamless interplay between the natural, cultural and social components. “The larger landscape systems and their relation with the built fabric of Hampi are a revealing example of what was once a fully functioning Empire in perfect sync with its environment, and that has been meticulously modulated to cause the least amount of tension with the rhythms of the natural world” (Rao and Mohan, “Decoding Local Intelligence Systems”). “The sacred relation of the site presents itself as an interface between the natural environment (the river and the hills that bear symbolic relevance) and man-made vocabulary (both tangible and intangible) which are expressed in both religious structures and practices and historical settlement development” (Rao, Mohan, Mercier). Hampi is a village located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Vijayanagara ruled peninsular India during the 14th to 16th century AD. However the site has a history dating long before the Vijayanagara Empire, associated with the Hindu mythological landscapes (the Monkey Kingdom described in the epic poem Ramayana ), highly venerated and visited by Hindus from all over. The epic poem of Ramayana details the significance of the site and how it relates to the natural landscape while playing a major role in Rama’s journey. The total World Heritage Site is 236 km2 and covers ancient monuments, the ruins of the capital of Vijayanagara, hillocks and the river landscape of the Tungabadraas well as a number of living villages and a town. As a living world heritage site, while the preservation, heritage conservation and tourism requirements guide the management of the site, the development needs of the local population also assume equal importance. This is another reason Hampi is so unique and different to other world heritage sites that are not categorised as ‘living’.

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SACRED CENTRE OF HAMPI

Existing Guest House and Cafe Complex (below)

Tungabhadra River

Virupaksha Temple

Hemakuta Hill Ashram hill (Thesis site)

Tank Sri Krishna Temple 16

Matanga Hill

Achu Temp


Vittala Temple Tank

utaraya ple

Fig. 08. Sacred Centre of Hampi.

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Fig. 10. View looking down the historic colonnade of the Sri Krishna Temple.

Fig. 11. View from Sunset point, Matanga Hill looking over the Ashram, Hampi Bazaar & Achutaraya Temple.

Fig. 09. View from Sunset point, Matanga Hill looking over Achutaraya Temple and further out southeast.

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Fig. 12. Sacred stepped tank once used to collect runoff from the hills.

Fig. 13. Panarama view from within the Vitthala Temple.

Fig. 14. Vast Hampi Landscape just before sunset.

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Fig. 15. Sacred water tank sits next to the colonnade leading to the Vittala Temple.

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Fig. 16. Fly over image of Vittala Temple.

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Fig. 17. Temples amongst the boulders.

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2.0 SITE ANALYSIS

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HISTORY

Fig. 18. Historic time line

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Fig. 19. Historic time line.

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Fig. 20. Route of Rama according to the epic poem of Ramayana.

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THE EPIC POEM OF RAMAYANA The epic poem of Ramayana related mythological tales of India around 1000 BC. The god-hero, Rama, lived his whole life by the rules of dharma; in fact, that was why India consider him heroic. When Rama was a young boy, he was the perfect son. Later he was an ideal husband to his faithful wife, Sita, and a responsible ruler of Ayodhya. The epic tale demonstrates the importance of values, such as loving and respecting your family, keeping your promises, protecting the weak and loyalty. These lessons and values are repeated to young Indian children and through citations such as: “Be as Rama” or “Be as Sita”. (Gibbs)

CONNECTION BETWEEN THE LANDSCAPE AND POEM This Epic poem plays an important role in this thesis, as it mythologically links the natural landscape to not only the historical built architecture of the site. Many of the most significant buildings in Hampi use architecture to frame principal sites associated with the journey of Rama. John M. Fritz, an archaeologist in Hampi, is a key component to unravelling the links between the architecture and landscape as well as depicting stories and myths relating to the site. He is referenced throughout this thesis. The diagram on the left (Fig. 20) illustrates Rama’s route through Hampi, touching on Matanga Hill (on axis to the north), and Malyavanta Hill (northeast). “Both hills are associated with the mythical events of the Ramayana epic, especially those episodes in which Rama enlisted the aid of the local monkey tribes to regain his abducted wife”(Fritz, “Vijayanagara: Authority and Meaning of a South Indian Imperial Capital [1986]”). This was discovered due to the narrative reliefs depicting the events of the Ramayana which circulate clockwise around the walls of the Ramachandra Temple. Processions within the temple compound also move in this direction. “According to local legend, the god, coming from the north, arrived at a site north of Matanga Hill and then proceeded to Malyavanta Hill before travelling south to rescue his wife. ”(Fritz)

REFLECTION Views of these important hillside locations could become integrated into the architecture, either through a directed view shaft or an opening between two boulders. Allowing the inhabitant to become aware of and realize the significance of these points, would give a greater understanding of where they are and the landscape’s relationship with the poem to help achieve Research Objectives 03 and 04.

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Fig. 21. Bird’s eye view Hemakuta Hill.

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Fig. 22. Birds eye shot over Hemakuta Hill.

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HAMPI EXPLODED

Fig. 23. Site makeup. The image above is an abstracted exploded view of the site demonstrating the layers: + + + +

Historic architecture built over time The dynamic elevations of the site The Tungabhadra River The boulders and clay sediment of the landscape

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Fig. 24. Exploded illustration of site.

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SITE ELEVATION

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Fig. 25. Site elevation.

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DETAILED SITE MAP

Virupaksha Temple (Active)

Jantha Plot

Tungabhadra River

Matanga Hill Tourist Car Park

Hemakuta Hill

The Ashram (Thesis Site)

Krishna Temple (Inactive)

Achutaraya Temple

Location map Fig. 26. Proposed thesis design site, where an Ashram is currently situated.

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3D SECTION

Fig. 27. Site section.

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ACCESS TO THE SITE [THE ASHRAM]

The thesis proposes locating the new architectural intervention on an elevated site, where it will be out of view of any heritage locations below. A recently built ashram (pilgrimage retreat) on a hill next to Matangi Hill is scheduled to be demolished by the government. This would be an ideal site for the new architectural intervention as it has no heritage features, it has already been substantially damaged by the ashram, and it is out of view from below. The site has three access points A, B, and C:

A. A service road currently leads from the main rod to the ashram and hill above. B. A well marked walking path connects the ashram site to the Hampi Bazaar C. An informal walking track leads to the site from the southern base of Matanga Hill

PARKING

11,431m² Existing public parking and access point leading to the site.

a b

c

ASHRAM North

Fig. 28. Access to Ashram [The site].

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THE ASHRAM

Fig. 29. The Ashram aerial view.

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SITE AND CONTEXT SECTIONS

Hemakuta Hill

Krishna Temple

The Ashram

Krishna Temple

These Sections illustrate the elevation of the Ashram from surrounding contexts. Its altitude above the rest of the surrounding makes it a perfect site to use as the boulders around it provide the potential to hide any architecture out of sight from people below. This site is specifically chosen as it provides great opportunity to achieve Research Objective 01, as the height allows the architecture to be hidden, mitigating visual damage to the site.

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Matanga Hill

The Ashram

Fig. 31. Section AA.

A

A

Janatha Plot Tungabhadra River Virupaksha Temple

Fig. 30. Section BB.

B

41

B


IDENTIFYING THE BOULDERS AROUND THE SITE

East Elevation

West Elevation

South Elevation

North Elevation

Fig. 32. Elevations and 3D views illustrating the surrounding boulders on the site.

42


A

A

North

Fig. 33. Section cut looking at the rock formation on the edge of the site.

Fig. 34. Diagram illustrating how the boulders at that height hide anything built behind it.

The boulders will play a huge role in helping the architecture blend into the site. They will also provide openings and opportunities for framed views from the ashram site.

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THE ASHRAM

Fig. 35. Illustrating the Ashram within its context.

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SITE SIGNIFICANCE Located in the heart of Hampi an Ashram (consisting of about 26 separate small buildings) Matanga hill and Hemakuta Hill. It is situated in on a mound elevated 16 meters above major historical points surrounding it. It occupies roughly 38,000 m2. It has amazing view opportunities in all directions through view shafts and openings between the boulders. In the Hindu religion, practitioners are encouraged to seek out deeper spiritual instruction with a guru. This often involves spending time with other believers in an isolated communal centre called an ashram. This place also serves as a place where anyone can arrive and be provided food, shelter and tranquility.

45


46


Fig. 36. Panorama of the Ashram (left) elevated, looking over its natural surrounded context.

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48


Fig. 37. This image shows the elevation of the Ashram to its surrounded context.

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INSIDE THE ASHRAM

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Fig. 38. Ashram service road entrance approaching from the west.

Fig. 39. Jain worship temple on the right and eating hall on the left.

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Fig. 40. Inside the courtyard between the eating halls, sleeping accommodation and entrance to the cave temple (left side) under the boulder. Looking back on Matanga Hill in the distance.

Fig. 41. Looking at the Administration office. (Right) the drive is on-site housing.(Left) is entrance to Cave Temple under the boulders.

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THE CAVE TEMPLE

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LOCATION OF THE CAVE TEMPLE Cave Temple

North

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JOURNEY TO SACRED TEMPLE CAVE SITUATED UNDER THE BOULDERS 1.

2.

Fig. 42. Entrance to the cave temple.

Fig. 43. Walkway down to the temple.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CAVE TO THE SITE Such as everything else historical in Hampi the site of the Ashram was chosen for a reason. An urban myth tells that a Guru discovered this cave (Fig 42-45) on his journey to self-enlightenment. He was confronted by a leopard that had been driving people away from that site. Over time that guru became one with the leopard, which enabled him to convince the leopard to leave, bringing people back to this spot and hence the reason why the ashram was built around circulating out from the cave.

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4.

5.

Fig. 44. Walkway into the worship room.

Fig. 45. Worship area underneath boulders.

REFLECTION Due to the Cave having such a rich sense of place it will be kept in its original condition and will be integrated into the design with as much sensitivity and care as possible to ensure that the story passes on from generation to generation.

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Fig. 46. Historic water channel leading to a stepped tank.

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3.0 PROGRAM ANALYSIS The proposed program for the thesis design research experiment includes the existing programs for the ashram, as well as the guest houses and cafĂŠs at Janatha Plot (scheduled for demolition). This chapter analyses these combined program requirements as well as services needed.

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THE ASHRAM Current Program

The current Ashram is considered architectural and contextually detrimental to the wider Hampi surroundings according to the Bellary District 2021 Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area. It has been ‘red flagged’ for demolition in the near future.

HAMPI

This section of the program chapter documents the Ashram’s programs and area requirements to consider how to best reintegrate into the site in the preliminary design and developed design chapters. The Ashram is an educational facility teaching and allowing the occupants to engage in meditation and the ways of the Ashram, helping visitors in their own personal journey to become enlightened. It also provides pilgrims with basic dining, bathing and sleeping areas.

ASHRAM

ASHRAM, Hampi, India

7

4

2

5

3

1

1 Jain Ashram and Temples 2 On Site Housing

6

3 Office and Administration 4 Toilet Facilities on Site 5 Dining Hall 6 Un-Used Buildings 7 Untouched Area -The Cave Temple

North

Fig. 47. Program.

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FLOOR AREA REQUIRED ASHRAM, Hampi, India

7

4

5

3

2

1

6

North

Ashram Amenities and Floor Area 824

1 Jain Ashram and Temples 2 On Site Housing

Msq

1009.8

Msq

3 Office and Administration

360

Msq

4 Toilet Facilities on Site

30.1

Msq

5 Dining Hall 6 Un-Used Buildings 7 Untouched Area -The Cave Temple

216

Msq

410

Msq

296

Msq

Toilet Facilities on Site 30.1

Jain Ashram and Temples 824 On Site Housing 1009.8

Msq

Msq

Msq

Total Floor Area

Un-Used Buildings 410

3145.8

Msq

Msq

Dining Hall 216 Msq

Untouched Area-The Cave Temple 296 Msq

Fig. 48. Floor areas of programs.

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EXISTING ON-SITE AMENITIES WATER 1.Tungabhadra River is the main source of water for the Hampi community. This water is used for irrigation and in some places put through a minor filtration system to allow drinking. 2. Collection in tanks of run-off from the hills during the monsoon season is another source of water for the local community. Tungabhadra River

Fig. 49. Water source map.

WASTE MANAGEMENT Currently in Hampi there are no major waste management plans in action. Within the (District, 2012 Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area), they are seriously looking into upgrading the waste management infrastructure in order to deal with projected economic growth and increase of tourism. In the Ashram there are fully operational squat toilets that are able to dispose of waste though a special waste system integrated into the site. This thesis will look at utilising and expanding the already existing infrastructure in order to cater for the programmatic requirements.

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ELECTRICITY

In Hampi, electricity is generated through hydropower generated further up the Tungabhadra River.

Tungabhadra River The Ashram

2

1

3 16km

1.

Hampi Power House - Where the majority of Hampi’ s power is distributed

2.

Reservoir- Collects water from the Power Dam (3) and feeds it through to the plant

3.

The Hydro-Dam Power House - “The tailrace water of the dam power house is fed through the power canal to the reservoir located at Hampi” (WRIS)

Fig. 50. Power source map.

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JANATHA PLOT

Janatha Plot (Tourist enclave) The Site ( The Ashram)

North

Fig. 51. Location of the Janatha Plot in relation to the site.

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Currently in the Janatha Plot (tourist enclave) there are approximately 7 well-established operating guest houses, 4 major restaurants and roughly around 28 small individual shops, as well as housing for the families running these facilities. Within these guest houses and restaurants there are enough beds and service areas to meet the current tourist needs. Recent reports suggest that tourism in Hampi is going to increase dramatically in coming years. (District, Chapter 07) The Government has red flagged the Janatha Plot and is planning on removing it as part of the “clean up� scheme started in 2012 when all the encroachments along the Hampi Bazzar were removed. This area was targeted by the government because it is seen as visually detrimental to the archaeological ruins, since the plot is directly adjacent to one of the most significant temples in Hampi, Virupaksha Temple. This thesis aims to re-accommodate all of these guest houses and shops as well as related families. It aims to provide tourist accommodation of better overall quality with high sanitary levels, keeping rooms small and compact, even placing bunk beds in the rooms to maximise space as the ultimate goal is to reduce the overall environmental footprint. The design targets young, intrepid tourists similar to the current tourist population, ranging from 20-30 who prefer to be directly on site in basic and economic accommodations.

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LOCAL FACILITIES 1

3 2

Janatha Plot North

Housing Types 1 House type 1

5 2

Msq

KITCHEN

13

Msq

Msq

LIVING ROOM

20

Msq

4 16 1 8 4 4 8 3 Msq

2 House type 2

Msq

Msq

Msq

33

Msq

Msq

3 House type 3

1

House type 1

K

Msq

Msq

L.R

SHOP

Msq

15

TOTAL AREA NEEDED

Msq

2

House type 2

K

B.R

T T

TOILET

Shp

L.R

3

House type 3

T L.R K T L.R K T L.R K

Data source: (Srikar, “Hampi Bazaar Restoration and Housing”).

Fig. 52. Local shop/house floor area.

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GUEST HOUSES Janatha Plot, Hampi, India

2

1

3

7 4

6 5

North

Guest Houses 8 10

1 White Elephant 2 Archana guest house

6

3 Rocky guest house 4 Pandma guest house 5 Mayuram home stay 6 Gopi guest house 7 Mowgli guest house

60m² 75m²

NUMBER OF ROOMS

45m²

14 30m² 4 6 30m² 12

105m²

90m² Service Area

22.3

Msq

Total Floor Area

450

Msq

Fig. 53. Guest houses floor area.

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FLOOR AREA NEEDED FOR THE ROOMS


Janatha Plot, Hampi, India

RESTAURANTS FLOOR AREA

Janatha Plot, Hampi, India 3

2 1

4

3

2 1

4

North

Restaurants 1 Laughing Budda Restaurant

Restaurants 2 Mango Tree 1 Laughing Budda Resturant 3 Sagar ‘Hotel’ Restaurant 2 Mango Tree 4 Prince Restaurant 3 Sagar ‘Hotel’ Resturant

4 Prince Resturant

30 31m² 20m² 56 57m² 30 40m²31m² 20m²

51m²

PEOPLE SEATED

97m² 51m²

M² NEEDED FOR PEOPLE SEATED PEOPLE SEATED KITCHEN AREA

34 35m² 22m² 39.6m² 40 31m² 57.2m² 25 25m² 70.6m² 15 14.4m² 14.4m² 10.2m² 39.4m² 24.6m² 25 25m² 14.4m² 39.4m²

M² NEEDED FOR PEOPLE SEATED TOTAL FLOOR AREA NEEDED KITCHEN AREA TOTAL FLOOR AREA NEEDED

Total Kitchen Area

126.4m²

Total Kitchen Area

75.6

Total Floor Area

Msq

244m²

Total Floor Area

185.6

Msq

Fig. 54. Restaurants floor area.

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RESTAURANTS

RESTAURANTS RESTAURANTS

Fig. 55. Total calculated floor area.

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IDENTIFYING AND INTEGRATING Artefacts from the ruins

While visiting it was evident that throughout Hampi sculptures and carved relief panels have been removed from their original context, isolating them and removing their contextual significance and meaning. Removing the sculptures and carved panels from the temples was done to preserve them, but it is also another example of Hampi’s history slowly reducing in visibility. This thesis aims to integrate these isolated sculptures and carved panels back into architectural and environmental contexts more in keeping with how they were meant to be viewed, allowing them to once again help tell the story of Hampi like they once did. While they cannot be returned to outdoor temple sites for reasons of safety and preservation, they can still be placed in contexts where their story remains meaningful.

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1

1.

Fig. 56. Decontextualised Artefacts.

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Fig. 57. Sacred water tank adjacent to Vittala Temple, Hampi.

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4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT REVIEW

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES + The principal objectives of this design-led research investigation are to develop design ideas for contemporary architecture sited within World Heritage Sites that:

Mitigate visual and environmental damage to the site by strategically incorporating and RO1. reinforcing natural features of the site into the design; Actively protect vulnerable areas of the site by ‘curating’ them as special protected features; RO2. +

Enhance the historic narrative of the site by strategically framing elements that may not have previously been noticed or understood;

Incorporate contemporary architecture into the heritage site by re-presenting it strategically as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site.

RO3.

RO4.

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The literature review interprets and tests theories of Keno Kuma, Susan Macdonald and Jennifer Hill to encourage integration between the landscape and contemporary architecture. Conceptual art, drawings, art installations and case studies are also investigated to discover new approaches to advance the research objectives.

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HISTORIC LANDSCAPE COEXISTING WITH CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE Jennifer Hill and Susan Macdonald

Successful designers recognize that working within the historic context is not a constraint but an opportunity — where the whole can be greater than the sum of the parts, and where a contemporary building can add a rich new layer and play a role in creating the heritage of the future.- Susan Macdonald

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Increasing development pressure and the large influx of future tourism expected for Hampi is driving the government to wantonly demolish the homes and businesses of local inhabitants of Hampi. It is inevitable that needs of the inhabitants of a living world heritage site will need new architecture within which to live and earn a living. How can contemporary architecture be designed to suitably coexist within a world heritage site? Jennifer Hill and Susan Macdonald present theoretical approaches to enabling the coexistence of historic heritage architecture/landscape and contemporary architectural design intervention. Hill concentrates on heritage architecture itself while Macdonald discusses contemporary architecture within historic contexts. Hill and MacDonald’s ideas are integrated as a means of seeking new ways to approach the Research Objectives of this thesis. Susan Macdonald is an assistant director of the New South Wales Heritage Office. Macdonald has a passionate interest in the conservation of twentieth century buildings. She believes contemporary architecture has a justifiable place within a heritage environment: It is Inevitable that buildings, streetscapes, and urban areas evolve and change according to the needs of their inhabitants. Therefore it is important to determine the role of contemporary architecture in contributing to this change in ways that conserve and celebrate the special character and quality of the historic environment. - Susan Macdonald

Jennifer Hill, Australian architect, heritage consultant and member of the RAIA, offers a new position on the relationship of contemporary interventions to heritage architecture in her essay “Six Degrees of Intervention.” She argues that historical buildings evolve progressively over time and that contemporary interventions can coexist within the old as new chapters in the building’s ongoing history: The coexistence of historical layers or the contrast of new and old can enrich many contemporary interventions. … Sometimes it is necessary to demolish and remove layers to recover the powerful identity that existed at a particular time or present the layers in a cohesive way (67).

Macdonald proposes a similar view relating to the surrounding historic context that provides the stage for the architecture. Historic areas typically exhibit a range of heritage values, such as social, historical, and architectural. Frequently, they also have aesthetic significance; therefore, the design quality of new insertions in a historic area is important. - Susan Macdonald

She goes on to argue: Each generation should represent its own time. New layers should represent the ideas, technology, materials and architectural language of each generation.- Susan Macdonald

The ‘new layers’ discussed by Macdonald relate to the introduction of certain elements into a historical site, such as contemporary interventions. According to both Hill and Macdonald, these can advance the historical narrative of the site by framing moments that play an important role in the retelling of the site’s history. This chapter reflects on Hill’s and Macdonald’s assertions that the introduction of contemporary interventions can positively revitalise historic sites in acknowledgment of their special identity with place - a well-designed and responsive contemporary place. A well-designed architectural intervention can not only respect and enhance the existing significance of Hampi but it can also contribute to the continuation of the site’s on-going history. According to Hill: History of most buildings is a process of metamorphosis in which every transformation alters our historical interpretation and those transformations of their period also become parts of the history of the building (68).

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A FUSION BETWEEN ARCHITECTURE & LANDSCAPE Architect: Kengo Kuma My ultimate aim is to “erase” architecture, because I believe that a building should become one with its surroundings. - Bognar and Kuma, 14

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Architect Kengo Kuma of Kengo Kuma & Associates, describes his architecture as: I think my architecture is some kind of frame of nature. With it, we can experience nature more deeply and more intimately. -Kengo Kuma (11).

He prefers to work informally with raw materials and their properties; Kuma strives to create architecture that co-exists with the natural environment and works in harmony with the human body. Kengo Kuma believes that a link between the surrounding environment and the architecture is extremely important in order for the architecture to be successful as a whole. Kuma explores the idea of using architecture to create a relationship so seamless that it “erases the architecture” and all that is left is the experience. If the form taken by conventional architecture is an “object,” then this is a “void,” or the exact reverse of an object. An architectural form has been erased. This void however, embraces a sequence of human experiences. I thus discovered the potential of architecture to act as an experience or phenomenon rather than as an object.(14)

The thesis preliminary design experiments will test the idea of enhancing spacial experience by creating voids in the architecture to frame the landscape. Kuma writes about using architectural elements to connect the landscape with architecture. He elaborates on this practice and how he achieves it: I believe in bringing nature back into architecture by breaking down natural materials into smaller particles- a method that I call “particlizing,” By particlizing material, we can allow light, wind, and sound to penetrate freely. (16) The most important aspects of architecture are not its plan, shape or elevation, but the particles of which it is made up. If we succeed in designing an appropriate particle, the architecture and environment blends together…and the other elements fall into place (15).

The assertion of the ‘particlized’ architectural elements will be incorporated into the thesis design research experiments as a way to integrate the new architectural intervention with the landscape of Hampi as well as using placement, scale and material to develop stronger relationships with the historic heritage of the site. The following chapter looks at design case study to further investigate the theoretical approaches discussed in this chapter.

79


PROJECT REVIEW The section will outline robust set of design tools that will be extrapolated methods and approaches to achieve the set out Research Objectives of this thesis.

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PROJECT REVIEW In the table below, Research Objectives 01 - 04 are shown in association with selected case studies.

RO1.

Mitigate visual and environmental damage to the site by strategically incorporating and reinforcing natural features of the site into the design;

Casa Malaparte Adalberto Libera

Tudela Restoration EMF Landscape Architecture

RO2.

Actively protect vulnerable areas of the site by ‘curating’ them as special protected features;

The Last Abodes of Mankind

Tree Works

Raimund Abraham

Ilkka Halso

Temple of Diana Restoration Project Architecture Studio + Jose Maria Sanchez Garcia

the historic narrative of the site by strategically framing elements that may RO3. Enhance not have previously been noticed or understood;

Passages Dani Karavan

Double Negative Michael Heizer

The Pierre Onlson Kungi Architects : Tom Kungi

contemporary architecture into the heritage site by re-presenting it RO4. Incorporate strategically as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site.

Kiro - San Observatory Kengo Kuma

House of Two Horizons

The Bomb

Raimund Abraham

Raimund Abraham

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RO1. Horizontal lines in Architecture

Casa Malaparte Adalberto Libera

Fig. 58. Casa Malaparte demonstrates designed views and the use of the horizon line and elevation of the landscape to make the architecture blend with into the environment.

CASE 01 82


The Casa Malaparte by Adalberto Libera (1937) is sited at the base of a cliff on the island of Capri, Italy. “It is in perfect harmony with its landscape [with] precise geometric measurements that strategically open each facade to ideal views of the surrounding topography”(Brown Hejazi 15). “[W]e see the Palladian ideology of inverting architecture to face its environment, with the enveloping horizon as the object of the eye’s desire ” (A. Libera as quoted by Brown Hejazi 12).

Depending on how one approaches the Casa Malaparte, one gets a different view. From the ocean side it dissolves into the cliff face becoming invisible, but if approaching from the back the building opens as one embarks up the staircase, seeing glimpses of what is to come. Upon arriving at the top where the horizon gets lost into the sea,a journey has been created from contemplation to realisation again addressing the idea of the sacred, moving forward. This case study provides design responses enabling architecture to create the scene for understanding a particular point in time and place an idea that will be explored in the design experiments to mitigate visual damage to the site by blending into the landscape, while also providing a view that will enhance the historic narrative of Hampi by strategically framing elements that may not have previously been noticed or understood.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 59. Illustrating a designed one-way view using datum lines

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RO1. Sculptural Landscape

Tudela Restoration EMF Landscape Architecture Cap de Creus, Spain 2008-2010

Fig. 60. Cap de Creus demonstrates the fusion of the landscape in to the path, while rustic panels hide and reveal different elements.

CASE 02 84


EMF Landscape Architecture’s Tudela Restoration project (2008-2010) in Cap de Creus cape, Cadaqués, Catalunya, Spain de-constructs the Club Med. Its ecological dynamics are revived and a network of paths and viewpoints are ‘remade’ for its rediscovery. It was the Mediterranean coast’s biggest restoration project. The work distills and enhances the consubstantial values of the site, the diversity of geological formations, the harshness and nakedness of the rock outcrops. - Landezine

The integration of the rock formation bleeding into the orthogonal path creates a threshold between the landscape and architecture. With the strategic placement of the rusted panels, selected pieces of architecture could be highlighted or hidden mitigating the visual damage to the site; Too many panels could detract from the site rather then enhance.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 61. Elements hide and reveal architecture.

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RO2. Nature through curation

The Last Abodes of Mankind

Tree Works

Raimund Abraham

Ilkka Halso

Fig. 63. Abraham, Raimund . Loci Ultimi - The Last Abodes of Mankind.

Fig. 62. Halso, Ilkka. The Paradox of Nature Preservation.

CASE 04 86


In his illustration Loci Ultimi - The Last Abodes of Mankind , Raimund Abraham illustrates the Framing/ Curation of nature through a positive form. Using three sides of a box to house the tree trunk allows the branches to penetrate through. This permits the occupant to view the selected object (nature) from a selected point of view, controlling the seen and unseen. This idea can be applied in the thesis design research experiments by framing selected views, particularly historical mythological sites. In his installation Tree Works, Ilkka Halso illustrates light structures that are built around existing trees with the aim of protecting them and at the same time, turning them into a sort of “living museum” of nature to be explored by the public.

Horizontal datum lines are used within three different areas effectively sub-diving both the space and the object. The first level frames the trunk, while giving the visitor a sense of vulnerability through the enclosure of the centralised space. Each section of the tree portrays a new perspective, creating a unique experience to the viewer. To address the thesis Research Objectives, the preliminary design experiments will explore light and shadow and the above and below as those are issues fundamental to a UNESCO World Heritage site Tree Works provides a strong case study for testing architecture’s role in both curation and protection of the landscape.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 64. Framing Nature (the boulders).

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RO2. Historical through Contemporary

Temple of Diana Restoration Project Architecture Studio + Jose Maria Sanchez Garcia MĂŠrida, Spain. 2011

Fig. 65. Images above demonstrates the forms of the ruins being reflected in a contemporary to compliment and highlight the ruins.

CASE 05 88


Each element of Temple of Diana Project works to complement the original temple and respect the heritage of the site. An L-shaped perimeter platform was built to seal off the edge of the city and create a new perspective for visitors, while supporting the large area of the public square. The sacred space, which consists of two ponds, has been restored and incorporated within the plaza itself. The designers have mimicked the materials and techniques used to build the original site

The design ‘frames’ rather literally but the way it has been executed resonates with the historic architecture while acting as a contemporary protector of the ruin through form. The play of different scales is particularly effective and different viewing platforms add a new dimension to further engage the occupant. The contemporary design is minimal in form to avoid detracting from the ruin. Using simple forms and basic materials against such a rich and complex ruin accentuates and brings the ruin forward to be appreciated.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 66. Framing Heritage.

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RO3. Axes

Passages Dani Karavan Portbou,Spain 1994

Fig. 67. Passages Memorial illustrates strategic cuts in the landscape to frame particular views.

CASE 06 90


Dani Karavan’s Walter Benjamin Memorial in Portbou, Spain (1994) is a sculptural installation thoroughly integrated into the landscape. Karavan’s extraordinary sensitivity enables him to give the natural and urban spaces in which he works a life of their own. He knows how to capture their intrinsic historicity and set the elements in play so that historicity it can flourish. Rather than the work incorporating the landscape, the landscape becomes the catalyst that activates the work. - Cristina Masanés

The intent of the design was to create a memorial with maximum meaning but minimal impact on the landscape. A memorial that reflects Walter Benjamin, it traces the past pain, memory and exile with the possibility of a new future. It also incorporates the idea of experience, the idea of limit and the essence of the landscape. Elements such as corten steel panels to define meaningful ‘passages’, whether they are carefully and strategically cut into the land to reveal views or whether they are formed naturally are used here and can be tested in the design research experiments to create a spiritual atmosphere with the combination of light. Within the design this could be a linking element between particular ares of the design.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 68. Using axial elements to frame a view or ruin in the distance.

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RO3. Architecture through calculated land cuts

Double Negative Michael Heizer

Fig. 69. Double Negative demonstrates the use of land cuts to create lines of direction with out having physical lines.

There is nothing there, yet it is still a sculpture - Heizer

CASE 07 92


A Void however, embraces a sequence of human experiences. I thus discovered the potential of architecture to act as an experience or phenomenon rather than as an object. -Bonar & Kuma (14)

Double Negative consists of two trenches cut into the eastern edge of the Mormon Mesa, Nevada. Creating Double Negative was an act of construction only in as much as something was taken away, and that this removal constituted a creative act. The artwork itself is negative space (and when it crosses empty space, it is doubly negative space, as the title suggests), it begs meditation on the principle of art as creation, when Heizer has not in fact added but subtracted. (Heizer)

Double Negative questions the notion of whether one needs to add to something to make it beautiful or in his terms “sculptural�. Here he has used two perfectly straight cuts to shape a rectangular negative space. Even though the trenches do not connect, the eye naturally fills in the missing lines. This could be translated into the design research experiments and used to draw attention to certain elements/monuments to be framed and viewed in the distance, by surgically forming rectangular insertions into the land.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 70. The above and below.

93


RO3. Architecture through Landscape

The Pierre Onlson Kungi Architects : Tom Kungi

Fig. 71. The Pierre shows the integration of architecture and nature.

CASE 08 94


The Pierre, appears at first sight to burst from the rock outcrop into which it is wedged. Seen from above, with its roof sown in grass, the house all but dissolves into the rocks and landscape that surround it.

The entrance to the house contrasts the natural with the contemporary in a very minimal way making the building appear to have once lived within the rock and finally grown out of it, breaking out of rock but in a formal way. This creates a threshold between the exterior and interior but also between the natural and man-made. The plan and architecture respond to and respect the natural size of the boulder. This case study suggests the opportunity in Hampi to have the boulders frame the architecture rather than the architecture framing the boulders.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 72. The natural vs orthogonal.

95


RO4. Embedded

Kiro-San Observatory Kengo Kuma

Fig. 73. Kiro-San Observatory shows above and below as a technique to ‘erase’ architecture within a landscape.

CASE 09 96


This project focused on anti-disposition of objects in the nature. Kiro-san Observatory appears as a single narrow slit inside the hillside. This has reversed the concept that is imbedded to our daily life that any observation platforms typically expose their presence by simply standing amidst the natural environment. - Bognar and Kuma (16)

Kuma’s concept and approach will be explored in the preliminary design experiments of this thesis, incorporating the natural surroundings into the design form while being careful to avoid causing detrimental environmental impacts. The aim here is to transfer the fundamental concept of an extruded object into an intruded slit. What was previously seen is now reversed to become an act of seeing, while being very conservative within its own surrounding context. According to Kuma, to see is to be seen; to view is to be viewed. The preliminary design experiments will test how this ‘to see is to be seen’ and ‘to view is to be viewed’, reversing what an object does and has done to a space and the environment around it, can help contribute to achieving the Research Objective Four. Allowing the embedded piece of architecture to be interpreted as a contemporary ruin, another chapter in the on-going history of the site.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 74. Incorporating the surrounding form of the boulders.

97


RO4. Change in Horizons

Raimund Abraham

House of Two Horizons

[Bomb]

Fig. 75. Abraham, Raimund . House of Two Horizons.

CASE 10 98

Fig. 76. Abraham, Raimund. “BOMB” .


After his death Raimund Abraham“left behind an impressive, if not vast, body of work consisting of visionary urban projects, utopian houses, designs for projects never realized, as well as built projects of innovative design and uncompromising principles. - Lewis

The House of Two Horizons is a cube excavated into the earth with multiple layers such that new datum lines frame new views as one moves up or down within the design. The different horizons reflect how every time a new horizon appears in our lives we come to understand something different, something new. This idea can be integrated into the design research experiments through the use of multiple levels with wide exterior views. The Bomb creates intrigue by changing what the occupant can see from certain views highlighting the seen and unseen, provoking thought as to what the inhabitant can see from what areas. This could be applied to the design research experiments due to the elevation of the site and contribute to portraying the architecture as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site.

SKETCH EXPERIMENT

Fig. 77. Levels of the above and below through section

The Theory and Case Studies chapter has illustrated design and theoretical tools that extrapolate methods and approaches to achieve the set out Research Objectives of this thesis. They will be tested further in the preliminary design experiments.

99


Fig. 78. Inside the Vittala Temple Complex

100


5.0 PRELIMINARY DESIGN

101


RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Mitigate visual and environmental damage to the site by strategically incorporating and reinforcing RO1.

natural features of the site into the design;

RO2. Actively protect vulnerable areas of the site by ‘curating’ them as special protected features; Enhance the historic narrative of the site by strategically framing elements that may not have RO3. previously been noticed or understood; Incorporate contemporary architecture into the heritage site by re-presenting it strategically as RO4. another important chapter in the on-going history of the site.

102


PRELIMINARY DESIGN

The Preliminary Design chapter addresses each Research Objective individually. Design experiments have been developed in response to the site analysis, program, case studies and theory in order to achieve a solution that best addresses the objectives. Each series addresses more than one objective. All of these experiments build apon one another and contribute to the overall design.

6.1 GRID SYSTEMS 6.2 BETWEEN THE BOULDERS 6.3 FRAMING 6.4 LIGHT AND SHADOW 6.5 HOUSING FOOTPRINT 6.6 ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE

103


Fig. 79. Inside the Vittala Temple.

104


GRID SYSTEMS This set of experiments was derived from site analysis, helps enhance the historic narrative and incorporates contemporary architecture into the heritage site.

105


GRID SYSTEMS Virupaksha temple

Canted colonnade

The Ashram

Canted colonnade

Krishna temple

Fig. 80. The grids in relation to the site.

Fig. 81. Close up of the temples and canted colonnades.

106


IDENTIFYING TWO SYSTEMS Exploring the different grid systems working together in the Sacred Centre of Hampi

N.S.E.W. ORTHOGONAL GRID

CANTED/SACRED (LEARNING GRID)

Fig. 82. The N.S.E.W. Orthogonal and Canted Grids. “Within each Temple complex, sacred space is also defined by ritual movement: this is by no means confined to the rectangular enclosures. ... The long straight streets, clearly demarcated by colonnades, proceed eastwards into the landscape. Beyond the streets. Processional circuits defined more extensive scared zones in the broader landscape� (John M. Fritz and George Michell, 206). In this design analysis there are two main axes clearly illustrated: 1.The N.S.E.W grid of the temple 2. Canted grid framing mythological sites on the landscape

107


TEMPLE GRID ALIGNMENT Exploring the N.S.E.W axis along which all the temples in Hampi are designed.

North

North

Sacred Section

Entrance on Eastern Gate

Fig. 83. Identifying the orientation of the Temple.

108


CANTED COLONNADE GRID Existing in Hampi

Canted Colannades Vittala Temple

Virupaksha Temple Krishna Temple

Fig. 84. Identifying the canted parallel colonnades leading from Krishna, Virupaksha and Vittala Temple.

There are three historic canted colonnades within the Hampi area; they all extend outwards in a southeasterly direction from the temples on the N.S.E.W. orthogonal grid. All the Canted colonnades are designed in order to frame the location of a site that was significant to the mythological journey of Rama at Hampi. The canted colonnades act as framing elements (Fig. 87).

109


CANTED COLONNADE GRID Virupaksha Temple

Virupaksha Temple

The Site

Fig. 85. Identifying the canted parallel colonnades in more detail. Temple

Natural framing element Person

Columns create the view shaft. Only once you are at the end of the colonnade can your view open beyond the width of the columns. Canted column axes

Point where the two hills come together to frame the landscape in the distance

Fig. 86. Diagram simplifying the idea of the canted grid system framing the vast landscape of Hampi. Incorporating this idea of axial paths to direct the inhabitant to a point where they can then notice a historical piece of architecture marking a site significant to the Ramayana that otherwise would not have been noticed. Using contemporary architect would help in achieve Research Objective 03.

110


Fig. 87. Image illustrating the canted colonnade of the Vittala Temple leading outward between two hills that frame a sacred site in the distance.

111


HISTORIC COLUMN GRID The historical architecture has similar spans between columns due to the bearing load capacity of the stone.

2m

Fig. 88. Typical column spans of traditional temple.

112

2.5m


Over time the regular column grid of Hampi temples has eroded or portions have been lost, as seen in the photograph on the right.

The thesis design experiment will use similar spatial relationships between columns to echo the language of the existing ruins but in a contemporary way. The early experiments also tested the idea of decay and time by sometimes removing a column to enable the architecture to dissolve outwards into the landscape.

Fig. 89. Sketches of repetition of columns defining the architecture with in the site.

113


OVERLAPPING GRIDS TO ORDER ARCHITECTURE The preliminary design experiments tested using the two grids to reflect the traditional architecture, as well as to enable two different programs to co-exist in the same structure (the ashram/museum and the guest house/cafes).

The Cave Temple

AXIS

F.E

F.E

E E F.E CIRCULATION

Sacred

Secular PROGRAM

Fig. 90. Diagram to illustrate how the two axes can anchor the design while differentiating two integrated programs.

114


The canted grid echoes the same viewing angle into the landscape as the surrounding temples. Its perpendicular axis was positioned to incorporate the cave. There are two overlapping circulation systems. The circulation along the N.S.E.W. axes reflects the guest house/cafe program, and the circulation along the canted axes provides narrative views of the mythological landscape or sacred historic artefacts or the sacred space of the cave.

115


Fig. 91. Temple built between the boulders on sunset hill, Hampi.

116


BUILDING BETWEEN THE BOULDERS This set of preliminary design experiments addresses Research Objectives 01 and 02 by identifying buildable areas without any heritage features to help mitigate visual and environmental damage to the site.

117


DIFFERENT MASS DENSITIES Exploring the possibility of how form fits in amongst the boulders and adapts. Ranging from high density to low.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Fig. 92. Two ends of the massing spectrum between the boulders.

118


SKETCH IDEAS Sketch experiments using the boulders to frame the architecture.

Fig. 93. Early sketch experiments.

119


INHABITING THE BOULDERS WITH ARCHITECTURE Inviting the architecture to ‘inhabit’ the landscape, and the landscape to ‘frame’ the architecture.

Fig. 94. Early collages of architecture inhabiting and being framed.

120


EARLY SITE SCHEME

Fig. 95. Abstracted aerial view of architecture inhabiting the space between the boulders.

This early sketch inhabits the negative space between the boulders creating interesting opportunities to integrate the natural landscape and architecture together, using the form of the boulders to influence the form of architecture. Careful consideration must be taken when undergoing the surgical insertion. Overall if done properly the architecture can then be used to help creating framing devices for the landscape, while the landscape also helps frame the architecture.

121


FRAMING THE VIEWS These experiments address all four of the main Research Objectives, highlighting different view opportunities and different methods of achieving the views through integrating nature and architecture.

122


VIEW POINTS Important historical nodes of interest and views that could be integrated into the design

1

2

1

3 2

4

3

Fig. 96. Map demonstrating view points within Hampi. See pages 124-125 for location keys.

123


NARRATIVE VIEW Significant landscape sites that relate to the epic poem of Ramayana. See page 123 for location of sites below.

Hampi is most famous as the monkey kingdom in the Hindu epic poem The Ramayana - the epic tale of Lord Rama’s search for his kidnapped wife Sita. Hampi was ruled by the monkey kings, Vali and Sugriva. After a quarrel, Sugriva, was driven out along with his monkey general Hanuman. Sugriva and Hanuman took refuge on Matanga Hill.The nearby Anjanadiri Hill is said to be the place of Hanuman’s birth In the north, Lord Rama’s wife Sita was kidnapped by Ravana and taken to the kingdom of Lanka (current day Sri Lanka). Rama came in search of her and met Sugriva and Hanuman, when he passed through Hampi. Rama killed Vali and restored Sugriva’s kingdom to him. Rama stayed in Hampi on Malyavanta Hill until the monsoons were over when he could march to Lanka with the monkey army to rescue Sita. Each of the large temples’ processional colonnades on the canted grid aims directly at one of the sacred mountains of Rama’s journey. Each of those mountains has a shrine or temple built atop to commemorate the sacred mythological event

01. Anjanadiri Hill 15°21’17”N 76°28’11

The Achutaraya Temple aims directly at Anjanadiri Hill, where Hanuman was born. (That is why that white shrine with the long flights of steps we never went to was built on Anhanadiri Hill.)

03. Matanga Hill 15°19’53”N 76°28’6”E The Virupaksha Temple aims directly at the space between the twin crests of Matanga Hill, where Sugriva and Hanuman took refuge. (That is why the small temple was built on the top of Matanga Hill.)

04. Malyavanta Hill 15°19’28”N 76°29’16”E The Krishna Temple aims directly at Malyavanta Hill, where Rama stayed until the monsoons ended. That is why the Malyavanta Raghunatha Temple was built on Malyavanta Hill. (Krishna and Rama are the same god, just different incarnations.)

124


HISTORICAL VIEW POINTS Views that help understand the history of Hampi. See page 123 for location of sites below.

01. Virupaksha Temple 15°20’5”N 76°27’33”E

02. Krishna Temple 15°19’48”N 76°27’37”E

03. Vijayanagara Emperor’s Palace 15°19’48”N 76°27’37”E

125


ARCHITECTURE TO REVEAL VIEWS Architectural design experiments to expose and reveal particular views through the integration of the landscape

EXPERIMENT 01 The Staircase

Fig. 97. Carefully placed staircase inset between the boulders elevating the inhabitant in order to see a particular view.

All experiments do not actually touch the boulders in any way.

126


EXPERIMENT 02 Folded Panels

Fig. 98. Carefully placed concrete panelling in-between boulders to accentuate the view giving the inhabitant a glimpse through the strategically placed concrete partitions.

127


OPPORTUNITY FOR VIEWS Introducing circulation paths where important views happen naturally through boulders

EXPERIMENT 03 Framed Path

Fig. 99. Carefully placed stairs with a rest in the middle to create a moment for the inhabitant to see a particular view.

128


EXPERIMENT 04 Exposed Staircase

Fig. 100. Carefully placed tall stairs that open up to the vast surrounding context of Hampi, reminding the inhabitant how epic the landscape is.

FRAMING THE VIEW’S REFLECTION Making the most of the surrounding landscape is a critical point for this investigation and being able to frame the views naturally and through the integration of architecture is imperative to help understand the narrative of the site and achieve the objectives of the design. It is vital that no intervention is detrimental visually to the surrounding environment.

129


Fig. 101. Series of light and shadow design experiments.

130


LIGHT AND SHADOW Visual exploration into how contemporary insertions of architecture integrated with nature can affect a space through light and shadow, addressing Research Objective 04.

131


CONTROLLED LIGHT

Fig. 102. Sketch and model experiments of light seeping past the placed element to create an outline of the boulder’s edges, highlighting the natural form.

132


HIGHLIGHT

Fig. 103. Sketch and model experiments controlling lines and openings to highlight different stages of a passage while ultimately directing the inhabitant.

133


OPENINGS

Fig. 104. Sketch and model experiments to allow light at certain times of the day, touching on strategically placed objects to draw attention to them.

134


DARK TO LIGHT

Fig. 105. Using architecture to highlight the different qualities of light and shadow while being framed by nature.

LIGHT AND SHADOW All of the experiments examine light and shadow qualities that can be integrated into the final design. Realising the importance of architectural placement and how different qualities of light can help further explain form in more depth, it will also be important to maximise light through to the lower levels of the design through slots and uninterrupted openings.

135


ARTEFACTS This experiment is derived from the artefacts discovered during the field research, making sure they are placed and hung in ways that recontextualise them appropriately. This experiment addresses Research Objectives 02 and 03, protecting the artefacts while placing them to aid in telling the story of the Ramayana.

136


Fig. 106. These two diagrams examine means of placing the artefacts within architectural settings, either free-standing or hung as panels.

The exposed front lawn of the closed archaeological office is where all of the sculptures are currently situated, sitting on the ground or small stands. There are two main types of stone artefact: 01. Wall Panels that were once integrated into the walls on the temples 02. Free-standing sculptures that were once standing within temples and can be seen from all sides. The preliminary design experiments test how they can be incorporated appropriately into the design to give them a more meaningful sense of place within the historic context.

137


HOUSING This set of experiments derived from the program chapter and addresses Research Objective 02 by keeping the footprint to a minimum.

138


ACCOMMODATION Bunk Beds

900mm 1700mm 476mm 800mm 2133mm

1060mm

1700mm

2570mm

2000mm

Fig. 107. Standard bunk bed dimensions and minimum clearance required. The importance of keeping the footprint to a minimum is crucial in order for the project to minimise impact on the site. Finding the most feasible arrangement for the rooms is one way to ensure that the footprint is reduced. Therefore bunk beds are a much more efficient option for accommodation, particularly when the vast majority of visitors are intrepid backpackers.

139


Bathroom Facilities Maximising accommodation space

1000mm 1150mm 1100mm

750mm

400mm

350mm

1000mm 700mm 420mm-550mm

700mm 400mm

1800mm

Fig. 108. Minimum requirements for a shower and toilet.

Fig. 109. G1 NZ Building Code Personal Hygiene Tables

140

400mm


Shared Facilities 1100mm

1000mm

G1 NZ Building Code personal hygiene related sections are diagrammed. They illustrate the minimum standards for a acceptable numbers of toilets, showersand basins per person. This effectively saves space and ultimately keeps the footprint to an absolute minimum. Shared facilities have more benefits and are perfect for the targeted occupancy group. These shared facilities contribute to the reduction of the footprint.

Fig. 110. Shared bathroom shower arrangement.

141


Fig. 111. Raghunatha Temple on Malyavanta Hill demonstrating the integration of landscape and architecture.

142


ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE Linking architecture and landscape addresses Research Objective 04 by using the physical relationship between landscape and architecture as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site

143


TOUCHING Preliminary design model/collage exploring an intimate connection between the architecture and landscape.

Fig. 112. Intimate connection between landscape and architecture.

The experiment is inset into the landscape as if it has always existed there; however it does not allow for the architecture to breathe ultimately denying the exterior architectural faรงade.

144


SEPARATION Preliminary design model/collage exploring breathing space between the architecture and landscape.

Fig. 113. The separation between landscape and architecture.

The architecture separated from the landscape allows it to breathe. The architecture increases its sense of integration with of the landscape. Functionally it allows light into lower areas as well as representing a contemporary ruin in an archaeological site.

145


AXIS AND LANDSCAPE Iterative exploration into the fusion of axis and landscape addresses Research Objective 01 by inviting the axes derived from site analysis to dissolve into the landscape, erasing the architecture.

Fig. 114. Sketch experiments showing axes slowly dissolving into the landscape.

146


THRESHOLD BETWEEN LANDSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURE Iterative exploration into the fusion of the axis and the landscape

Fig. 115. Visual diagram of the axis ends slowly dissolving into the landscape.

How the axes end within the site needs to be seamless and not abrupt. Breaking axial wall panels into axial columns, allows the axes to disperse revealing more and more of the landscape.

147


ARCHITECTURE DERIVED FROM LANDSCAPE This sketch exploration addresses Research Objectives 03 and 04 by Integrating architecture into the surrounding historic context.

Fig. 116. Iterative growth process of the stepping water tank adjacent to the Krishna Temple, which was echoed as the formal grid ordering system for the thesis design intervention.

148


EXISTING FORM TO INFORM DESIGN Using historical surrounding architecture as a starting point for design

The Ashram

Fig. 118. Tank in relation to the surrounding context and site.

Fig. 117. Sri Krishna Temple stepped Kalyani Tank used for design inspiration and column bay proportions. The thesis research site is above and to the left.

149


INTEGRATED PRELIMINARY DESIGN Initiated by translating the structural proportions of the nearby Kalyani Tank into a contemporary interpretation.

3a.

01.

03.

02.

01. Original stepped Kalyani Tank translated into a contemporary interpretation. 02. Exploration of how a lower level would invite habitation in a contemporary translation. 03. Introduction of an additional lower level.

3a. Preliminary investigation of architectural form above grade, derived from the historic tank.

04. Exploration of a column grid structure throughout

the building, altering as needed for program requirements.

05. Exploration of applying the historic dual axes (N.S.E.W. grid and Canted grid) into the design to aid circulation and

break up the rectangle

5a. Early concept integrating the N.S.E.W. axis

06. Integration of the archaeological museum program into the canted grid as a 2 level intervention connected

6a. Separating the architecture from the land 6b. Early ideas for the museum 6c. Form became articulated and integrated 150

04


5a.

04.

05.

06.

6b.

6a.

151

6c.


MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE DESIGN

7.

8.

9.

07. The blue intervention represents a preliminary concept for locating the new archaeological museum located on the canted grid. 08. The blue intervention represents accommodation located on the N.S.E.W grid. 09. The two overlapping grid systems work together to resolve circulation and program.

152


5a.

3a.

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

6a.

06.

6b.

7.

6c.

Fig. 119. Overall design process mind map of preliminary design experiments leading to developed design concept.

153

8.

9.


EXTERNAL DESIGN REVIEWS These formal reviews occurred at three stages of the design. The Strengths and Weaknesses discussed in each review will be identified and ideas that stemmed from these discussions will be explored.

154


REVIEW ONE 28 May 2014

REVIEW TWO 22 August 2014

REVIEW THREE 3 October 2014

155


REVIEW ONE Collage concept image of preliminary site investigations presented in May 2014.

Fig. 120. May review presentation.

156


REVIEW ONE CRITIQUE Strength and Weaknesses

Key ideas at this point: +Embedding +Dystopian design +Gridded columns +Light and shadow +Artefacts

STRENGTHS: 01. The use of light through the boulders 02. Emphasis on integration of architecture and landscape 03. Emphasis on the experiential

WEAKNESSES: 01. Need to take on more pragmatic issues and address the Government Demolition site - Program - Housing - Challenge the footprint of the housing. 02. How to incorporate existing architecture of the Ashram 03. Need to identify the site boundaries 04. Explore and extrapolate ideas from surrounding architecture like Temples and Steped Tanks 06. Even more connection with the landscape 07. Let the view create the architecture. 08. Focus on the two shifting grids Ideas taken from the critique: The idea of increasing the program and extending it to house the majority of Janatha Plot (tourist enclave) will expand the design possibilities and give the design more justification rather than just designing an ashram. The major architectural construct could be defined by the N.S.E.W grid while the canted grid is always defined by views of the distant landscape and used to reflect the mythology. To move forward from this discussion the next step is to explore the use of the axial grids in ways that determine a framework for the design, such as framed views and archaeological museum on the canted axis and accommodation on the N.S.E.W axis. These ideas were explored further and integrated for the August review.

157


REVIEW TWO Preliminary site investigations presented in August 2014.

North

Fig. 121. August review presentation.

158


REVIEW TWO CRITIQUE The second review was held after the program had been enlarged to include the guest houses, cafĂŠs, museum and ashram. Strengths and Weaknesses

Key ideas at this point: -Overlapping grid systems -Fusion between landscape and architecture -Housing compartments -Footprint

STRENGTHS: 01. Design in plan works well with surrounding context 02. Overlapping grids are a good way to differentiate between the sacred and secular programs 03. Idea of shafts focusing on a view 04. The aesthetic appears to suit the site much more 05. The connection of the cave temple through the sacred grid

WEAKNESSES: 01. Explore the footprint for extra housing 02. Critically evaluate people in the village 03. How does the architecture meet the site 04. How does the inhabitant move around the building 05. Better understanding of how the visitor can be more educated through the architecture 06. Main walls need to be more ephemeral

Ideas taken from the critique: Exploration into how the ends of the axes meet or touch on the landscape in order to create a way for the architecture to dissolve. Investigate the program requirements and circulation of the design and allow it to change and alter the space of the design rather then purely for aesthetic reasons.

159


REVIEW THREE Preliminary site investigations presented in October 2014.

Fig. 122. October review presentation.

160


REVIEW THREE CRITIQUE Strengths and Weaknesses

Key ideas at this point: -Overlapping grid systems -Fusion between landscape and architecture -Housing compartments -Footprint

STRENGTHS: 01. Programmatically the spaces are working well. 02. Using the axes for circulation moving people between the different grids 03. The use of the large pillars to house toilets and service facilities 04. The use of light and materials to soften the threshold between the landscape and architecture 05. Ashram and Cave integrated but separated through circulation and the shifting grids

WEAKNESSES: 01. Service vehicle access 02. Technological issues such as: -Electricity -Water -Sewage 03. No need for partition walls to isolate the restaurants 04. Too many bathrooms for water supply 05. The ends of the axes need to be resolved Ideas taken from the critique: Explore disabled access to the design through lift systems and the integration of ramps into the plan. Find a way to reduce the number of toilets and bathroom facilities by half, starting to think about how the design can access electricity, water and sewage treatment. The need to refine the restaurants is critical as the need to accommodate more occupants is a higher priority. The ends of the axes still need more exploration as they are not convincing enough and do not appear to dissolve into the landscape. All of these ideas discussed were taken into account and integrated into the developed design experiment in the following chapter.

161


REVIEW THREE Reflecting pool in the Plaza Area

Back of house accommodation

Acces Cave T

Shops Restaurant

Fire Exit

Archaeological Museum on the canted axes

Restaurant 3

Shop

Fire Exit Archaeological Museum on the canted axes

North

162


ss to the Temple

ps

Plaza Area Ashram Accommadation

Ashram Dining Hall Fire Exit

Toilet

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Office and Admin

Fire Exit Access up to the Archaeological Museum

Restaurant 2

Fig. 123. Lower level experimental plan for October review.

163

Archaeological Museum on the canted axes


REVIEW THREE

Access down to the Plaza on the canted Axes

Hostel Accommadation

Back of house accommodation

Restaurant

Fire Exit

Toilets

Kitchen

Eating Area

Archaeological Museum

Entrance/Exit

Hostel Kitchen

Hostel Accom Fire Exit

North

164


mmation

Cave Temple

Archaeological Muesum on the canted axes Fire Exit

Ashram Accommodation

Toilet

Toilet

Ashram Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit

Fire Exit

Service Area Access down to the Plaza

Restaurant 4

Access down to the Plaza on the canted Axes Fig. 124. Upper level experimental plan for October review.

165


6.0 DEVELOPED DESIGN

166


This chapter consolidates successful preliminary studies into a holistic Developed Design, and then critically reflects on how well the developed design meets the Research Aims and Objectives.

167


WIDER PLAN

North

168


Fig. 125. Extended view of the site and its relationship with historical surrounding context.

169


CLOSE UP

Fig. 126. Relationship with surrounding site.

North

This site plan illustrates how the use of materials and form invites the architecture to fuse into the landscape. The canted axial grid of the design responds to the historic processional colonnades on the north and south of the design while the N.S.E.W grid of the overall footprint echoes the same grid alignment of the surrounding historic buildings. This contemporary design maintains its own unique identity while blending into the historic landscape without impacting visually on the site, successfully achieving Research Objectives 01 and 03. It is sited above ground level and surrounded by natural boulders, which conceal it from below..

170


RELATIONSHIP TO BOULDERS

Fig. 127. Relationship with site boulders.

North

The thesis design experiment avoids touching any boulder on the site, making sure not to change or move them. The design is sited explicitly in response to the existing boulders on the site using the location of them to create features or paths explored in the Preliminary Design chapter, that then frames a view or lead to a significant program element such as the cave temple underneath the boulders. This aids in achieving Research Objectives 02 and 04.

171


OVERALL SCHEME Fig. 128. Illustrating the formal features of the design and how they are integrated.

172


173


LOWER LEVEL PLAN

B

A

North

174


A

Toilet

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Dining Hall Dining Kitchen

OFFICE and ADMIN

B

Rock Formation

The lowest floor is two levels below grade (Figs. 133-134). This plan addresses the program requirements for the guest houses and shops, while integrating the restaurants and back-of-house facilities needed to operate these businesses. It is also the gateway to the plaza area, designed for relaxation and tranquillity with reflection pools and greenery, a place where the guests can also mix with the locals, understand their ways and learn about their beliefs. It also illustrates the gap between the design and landscape which allows light to enter the lower spaces.

175


UPPER LEVEL PLAN

Kitchen

Eating Area

Entrance/Exit

B

Entrance/Exit

North

176

A


A

Cave Temple

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Entrance/ Exit UP

The upper floor is one level below grade (Figs. 133-134). This level demonstrates the axial relationships between the overlapping grids and how they ultimately order and anchor the design, incorporating the Ashram into the northeast quadrant and connecting it to the historic cave temple. The overlapping grids establish the circulation. Visitors enter on the N.S.E.W grid and then shift onto the canted grid one level below. The N.S.E.W. grid aligns with the living and dining facilities, while the canted grid frames views of historic artefacts and significant external landscape features. The brown lines around the outer edge of the plan depict how the landscape slowly dissolves away at the ends of the axes, reinforcing the idea of the architecture blending into the environment while allowing light down into the lower spaces.

177

B


PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

178


645m² ASHRAM 3148m²

GUEST HOUSING 450m²

Total Floor Area

PROGRAM4418 ACHIEVED m²

SLEEPS 60 PEOPLE

RESTURANTS 274m²

TOTAL FLOOR AREAS ACHIEVED FOR THE DESIGN 2610m²

1 ASHRAM 2 GUEST HOUSES

490m²

3 RESTURANTS

290m² 610m²

4 HOUSING/SHOP COMBO

62m²

5 LIFTS AND SERVICE AREAS

HOUSING/SHOP COMBO 645m² ASHRAM 2610m²

GUEST HOUSING 490m²

Total Floor Area

4109m²

SLEEPS up to 104 PEOPLE

RESTURANTS 290m² LIFTS AND SERVICE AREAS 62m²

The program floor area and adjacency requirements are derived from the program analysis chapter. All of the programs and required spaces were achieved in the new design but with a more efficient arrangement and dimensions, which allowed the overall footprint of the design to be reduced, contributing to overall reduction of any detrimental effect on the environment. Except for some necessary reductions in the Ashram floor area requirements, all required program areas were achieved including extra floor space for disabled and service areas. The biggest improvement was the accommodation for the guest houses, from sleeping 60 people to sleeping 104 through use of bunk beds and reducing the size of the rooms. Another contributing factor that was discussed in the Preliminary Design was the shared facilities. The number of bathrooms was reduced significantly, saving water, space and resources and ultimately helping to mitigate environmental damage to the site.

179


PROGRAM 01 LOWER LEVEL

This series of program diagrams illustrates in detail the uses of every space within the building and how each contributes to the building as a whole. The plan is divided into 5 sections: Sections 1-3 plus the Ashram and the Archeological Museum.

Archaeological Museum

Archaeological Ashram Corridors Museum

Housing and Shop Ashram Corridors Units

Housing and Shop Units

Hostel Rooms

HostelAshram Rooms Accommodation

Ashram Public space Accommodation

Public space

Kitchen Areas

Kitchen Areas Admin and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Admin and Office Areas Service Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

180


UPPER LEVEL

hram Corridors

Housing and Shop Units

hram commodation

Public space

min and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

181


PROGRAM 02 LOWER LEVEL

Fig 129.

This plan shows the shop/house accommodation and one of the restaurants

Archaeological Museum

Archaeological Ashram Corridors Museum

Housing and Shop Ashram Corridors Units

Housing and Shop Units

Hostel Rooms

HostelAshram Rooms Accommodation

Ashram Public space Accommodation

Public space

Kitchen Areas

Kitchen Areas Admin and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Admin and Office Areas Service Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

182


UPPER LEVEL

Shared bathroom facilities

hram Corridors

Housing and Shop Units

hram commodation

Public space

min and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

183


PROGRAM 03 LOWER LEVEL

Archaeological Museum

Archaeological Ashram Corridors Museum

Housing and Shop Ashram Corridors Units

Housing and Shop Units

Hostel Rooms

HostelAshram Rooms Accommodation

Ashram Public space Accommodation

Public space

Kitchen Areas

Kitchen Areas Admin and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Admin and Office Areas Service Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

184


UPPER LEVEL

hram Corridors

Housing and Shop Units

hram commodation

Public space

min and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

185


PROGRAM PROGRAM - THE ASHRAM LOWER LEVEL

GROUND FLOOR SCALE 1:500

Archaeological Museum

Archaeological Ashram Corridors Museum

Housing and Shop Ashram Corridors Units

Housing and Shop Units

Hostel Rooms

HostelAshram Rooms Accommodation

Ashram Public space Accommodation

Public space

Kitchen Areas

Kitchen Areas Admin and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Admin and Office Areas Service Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

186


UPPER LEVEL

hram Corridors

Housing and Shop Units

hram commodation

Public space

min and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

187


PROGRAM - ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM LOWER LEVEL

Toilet

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

OFFI

North

Archaeological Museum

Archaeological Ashram Corridors Museum

Housing and Shop Ashram Corridors Units

Housing and Shop Units

Hostel Rooms

HostelAshram Rooms Accommodation

Ashram Public space Accommodation

Public space

Kitchen Areas

Kitchen Areas Admin and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Admin and Office Areas Service Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

188


UPPER LEVEL

hram Corridors

Housing and Shop Units

hram commodation

Public space

min and Office Areas

Stairways, Lifts and Service Areas

North

189


CIRCULATION Illustrating movement between the different users and programs of the design

Fig. 130. Ashram and archaeological museum circulation. These diagrams identify the circulation paths used by the different inhabitants. It also illustrates the dynamic overlapping grid system and how the shifting grids change the directions of the pathways.

190


Fig. 131. Shop/housing and hostel circulation. The museum on the canted grid incorporates framed views through the ends of the axes toward the historic site elements in the distance. This contributes to learning and understanding about the site, actively addressing Research Objectives 03 and 04.

191


ELEVATION Demonstrating the design’s ability to dissolve into the landscape and go almost unnoticed.

Existing historic architecture

Fig. 132. Elevation illustrating how discrete and visually sensitive the design is in relation to site lines. This elevation demonstrates how successfully the design achieves Research Objectives 01 and 04 by mitigating the visual and environmental damage to the site and strategically incorporating and reinforcing natural features, drawing a relationship with the existing historic architecture into the design. The contemporary architecture has been integrated into the heritage site by re-presenting it strategically as another important chapter in the ongoing history of the site, relating to the surrounding context but still maintaining a contemporary identity when experienced within.

192


Glimpes of the design through the boulders

193


SECTION AA

Fig. 133. Section looking west illustrating the relationship between the cave temple and design.

This section demonstrates the relationship between the design and the cave temple on the right. It illustrates how seamlessly it integrates into the landscape and reinforces Research Objectives 01 and 04. It also shows the connection from the landscape to the archeological museum and how the steps leading down act as a threshold between the architecture and landscape.

194


Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

B

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

A

Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

A

195

B


SECTION BB

Fig. 134. Section looking north illustrating the relationship between the boulders and how the architecture fits in terms of scale and materiality.

196


Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

B

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

A

197 Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen Storage

Kitchen

Kitchen

B


AXIAL VIEWS Illustrating view shafts down the different axes of the design

Fig. 135. Approaching the main entry.

Fig. 136. Looking to the Cave Temple from the opposite side.

These images illustrate the emotive feeling of approaching the design and the light qualities along the axes. These images address Research Objectives 01 and 04, as they integrate the landscape either through framing, incorporation, or engagement. The verticality of the columns act as framing elements and draw the eyes upward to the boulders and beyond into the landscape.

198


Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

Fig. 137. View to the cave temple.

Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Cuts in the concrete paneling allow light to enter down to create a spiritual atmosphere letting the visitor understand they are approaching a sacred place of the site. This collage drawing illustrates the separation between architecture and landscape, light and shadow and landscape separation.

199

Game Room

North


FRAMED VIEW

Fig. 138. View shaft at the end of the north axis.

This image depicts the end of one of the canted axes looking towards Virupaksha Temple in the distance. The use of framing devices echoes how the historic architecture uses similar devices to relate stories about the historical context and its significance.

Toilet

Ashram

Kitchen

200

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

These framed views incorporate the natural landscape of the boulders integrated with the orthogonal nature of the architecture to direct the view to a specific location in the distance.

Accomadation

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

North


HOSTEL ACCOMMODATION

Toilet

Ashram

Kitchen

Accomadation

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

Fig. 139. Typical bunk accommodation.

Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

This image demonstrates how light illuminates the individual rooms. It gives an impression of the minimum amount of space needed for living and how the space between the columns (right) has been activated for storage.

201

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North


ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

Fig. 140. Looking down at the Archeological Museum on the canted grid. This image demonstrates the careful placement of artefacts and sculptures on display and framed by the canted axis. This image addresses Research Objectives 02 and 03 by actively protecting them or ‘curating’ them as special protected features. By having them placed on the canted grid axis, it provides insights as to how they are directly related to the mythology of the site, contributing to the historic narrative of the site in a similar way as the historic buildings.

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

202

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen Storage

Kitchen


ABOVE AND BELOW

Fig. 141. Looking down into design from ground level. This image demonstrates how the design is inhabited on all levels with available seating on the upper levels derived through the column structure of the building. The top of the ashram has concrete grating to allow natural light into the spaces below. The design also allows the opportunity for plants to grow in the edges of the steps as shown. This aids in helping the design blend into the landscape while encouraging the ecology of the site.

Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

Game Room

North

Toilet

Accomadation

Ashram

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Kitchen

Eating Area

Jain Temple

Entrance/Exit UP

203 Game Room

North


THE PLAZA

Fig. 142. Looking into design from ground level. This image shows the plaza and illustrates the social diversity of cultures gathered in a tranquil setting. It also shows the integration of smaller boulders being introduced as features within the plaza, also giving it a connection with the exterior landscape from the inside out. It is an inviting space that encourages interaction.

204


Toilet

Toilet

Kitchen

Kitchen

Kitchen

Storage

Dining Hall Dining Kitchen

OFFICE and ADMIN

205


7.0 CONCLUSION With the issue of local people inhabiting a living World Heritage Site there is always going to be a compromise between the ‘protected areas’ and those living there. Such sites attract illegal encroachments that fail to complement the historic setting. This situation at Hampi has forced the Government to take over and forcibly clear what it sees as an encroachment. This becomes an important issue when the community of locals relies on the economic benefit of tourism to drive their businesses. They are left with nothing. The need for development in these types of places is critical when developing living World Heritage Sites design guidelines to successfully site a contemporary design on a living world heritage site. This thesis explored four main Research Objectives to integrate a contemporary piece of architecture within a living world heritage site. The proposition was to fuse the new architecture with the landscape while protecting and curating important features, mitigating visual and environmental damage to the site, enhancing the historic narrative of the site and re-presenting the contemporary architecture as another important chapter in the on-going history of the site. The conclusions drawn from this investigation suggest contemporary architecture can participate in landscapes without being overbearing, letting it become another important additional story to that landscape and another chapter to be discovered. When integrated with the landscape, architecture can create an enriched experience for the visitor rather than become something at odds with the context. Ideas and methods of how to fuse landscape and architecture together, how to treat light and shadow, and how to treat and understand contemporary architecture within a heritage site were derived through the research executed in the theory and case studies chapters, which provided a base foundation from which to apply a new design meaningfully to the site. Using local materials similar to the historic architecture, and burying the architecture on a raised site made it effectively disappear into the site while simultaneously providing sunlight and outdoor space to the inhabitants. The action of burying it allows the design to be read as a ‘contemporary’ ruin itself helping it further integrate into the site contextually. The footprint available accommodates all inhabitants with a business such as craft stalls, shops and guest houses. The decision to use smaller rooms and bunk beds provides less area per person than what they already have but it was a compromise in order to house as many people as possible while supporting their business at the same time and providing them with a higher level of sanitary. The program integration of the ashram into the design was a challenge but by efficiently condensing the volumes needed for it to function, a reasonable reduction of floor area was achieved contributing to one of the main aims of the thesis. Two predominant constraints and limitations to the scope of the project were that it was not possible to undergo geographic or economic studies of the construction and economic feasibility. This kind of approach could extend to other living world heritage sites or an important landscape feature that is not a world heritage site but might benefit from having tourism as a major economic input. In such cases it would be advantageous for the architecture to be as discrete as possible. Contemporary architecture is exciting and important. It can make a contribution. And to have it as a participant in historic places, it may actually provide greater economic benefits to the site, greater protection of the site, and better businesses and accommodation for the local inhabitants.

206


Fig. 143. The design lookout: witnessing the City of Victory.

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8.0 LIST OF REFERENCES “Acceptable Solutions and Verification Methods.” Compliance Documents. New Zealand Building Code, 14 Aug. 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. <http://www.dbh.govt.nz/compliance-documents#handbooks>. Agnihotram, Srikar. “Hampi Bazaar Restoration and Housing.” Behance. 7 July 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. <https://www.behance.net/gallery/4455295/hampi-bazaar-restoration-and-housing>. Archibald. “Moñtana Tindaya.” Architectuul, 16 May 2014. Web. 20 Jun. 2014. <http://architectuul.com/architecture/montana-tindaya>. Biswass, Subhash. Wonders of Karnatanra - Hampi.” India the Land of Gods. India: Partridge Pub, 2014. 212. Print Bognar, Botond, and Kengo Kuma. Kengo Kuma Selected Works. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2005. Print. Bognar, Botond. Material Immaterial: The New Work of Kengo Kuma. Princeton Architectural Press, 2009. Print. BRIO, Architecture. “Hampi Spa Resort.” Architecture BRIO, Mumbai / India. 1 Jan. 2007. Web. 13 Apr. 2014. <http://architecturebrio.com/projects/hampi-spa-resort-18. Brown-Hejazi, Alexandria. “The Awful Beauty of Exile: A Renaissance Reading of Casa Malaparte.”Academia. Web. 20 Jun. 2014. <https://www.academia.edu/7015901/The_Awful_Beauty_of_Exile_A_Renaissance_Reading_of_Casa_ Malaparte>. Chamberlain, Gethin. “India’s Hampi Heritage Site Families Face Eviction from Historic Ruins.” The Guardian. 27 May 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/27/hampi-india-heritage-temples- eviction>. District, Bellary. “2021 Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area-Eco-tourism and management of heritage areas Chapter 7.” Web 16 May.2014 <http://www.bellary.nic.in/hmp/REPORT%20PDFs/CHAPTER-11.pdf>. District, Bellary. “2021 Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area-Problems and Proposals-Chapter 9.” Web 16 May.2014 < http://www.bellary.nic.in/hmp/REPORT%20PDFs/CHAPTER-9.pdf>. Equation, Tourism. “Inhuman and Illegal Eviction and Demolition at Hampi Bazaar.” Mar. 2012. Web.22 Apr. 2014. <http://www.equitabletourism.org/files/fileDocuments1235_uid18.pdf> Equation, Tourism. “Inhuman and Illegal Eviction and Demolition at Hampi Bazaar.” 17 Aug. 2012. Web.23 Apr. 2014. < http://www.equitabletourism.org/files/fileDocuments1075_uid18.pdf> Fabrizi, Mariabruna. “The Paradox of Nature Preservation: Works by Ilkka Halso.” SOCKS. 4 Mar. 2014.Web. 20 Jun. 2014. <http://socks-studio.com/2014/03/04/the-paradox-of-nature-preservation-works-by-ilkka-halso/>. “HAMPI.” India-WRIS. 1 Sept. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. <http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/index.php?title=HAMPI>. Hill, Jennifer. “Six Degrees of Intervention.” The Double Dimension: Heritage & Innovation. Canberra, ACT: Royal Australian Institute of Architects, 2004. 211. Print. Kengo, Kuma. “Kengo Kuma.” Kengo Kuma and Associates. Web. 15 Sept. 2014. <http://kkaa.co.jp/about/kengokuma/>. Kuma, Kengo, and Kenneth Frampton. Kengo Kuma: Complete Works. Thames & Hudson, 2013. Print. Lewis, Diane. “ABRAHAM’S [UN]BUILT (with a Text by Diane Lewis).” LEBBEUS WOODS. LEBBEUS WOODS, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 7 June 2014. <https://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2011/04/12/abrahams-unbuilt-with-a-text-by-diane-lewis/>.

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Macdonald, Susan. “Contemporary Architecture in Historic Urban Environs (Article).” Web. 20 June 2014. <http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/ newsletters/26_2/contemporary.html>. Masanés, Cristina. “The Work.” Walter Benjamin a Portbou. Ajuntament De Portbou. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. <http://walterbenjaminportbou.cat/en/content/lobra>. Fritz, John.M “Vijayanagara: Authority and Meaning of a South Indian Imperial Capital [1986].” Blackwell Publishing, 7 Sept. 2008. Web. 3 Apr. 2014. <https://www.academia.edu/4297168/Vijayanagara_Authority_and_Meaning_of_a_ South_Indian_Imperial_Capital_1986_>. Fritz, John.M, and George Michell. “Vijayanagara Research Project:Home Page.” Vijayanagara Research Project. 2 Sep. 2014. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. <http://www.vijayanagara.org/>. Rao, Mohan.S, and Anjali Karol Mohan. “Decoding Local Intelligence Systems.” Issuu. 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://issuu.com/inde/docs/presentation_hampi_isola?e=1720195/3062167>. Rao, Mohan.S, Anjali K. Mohan, and Berengere Mercier. “Hampi Living Heritage.” Wordpress, 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Apr. 2014. <http://hampiheritage.wordpress.com>. Sewell, Robert. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A Contribution to the History of India. London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1900. Print. Tarasen, Nick. “Double Negative.” Double Negative | a Website about Michael Heizer. Web. 16 Aug. 2014. <http://doublenegative.tarasen.net/>. “Tudela (Club Med) Restoration in Cap De Creus by EMF Landscape Architecture.” Landscape Architecture Works Landezine RSS. Landezine. Web. 4 Aug. 2014. <http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/03/tudela-club-med- restoration-in-cap-de-creus-by-emf-landscape-architecture/>.

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9.0 SOURCES OF FIGURES All Figures not listed or referenced are authors own Figure. 03. Demolition aftermath on Hampi Bazaar.Web. 12 May 2014. < https://hampiheritage.wordpress.com/>

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Figure. 04. Above: Existing shops and cafés in Janatha Plot. Below: demolished shops after forced evacuation along the processional colonnade leading to VittalaTemple.Web. 28 April 2014 < https://hampiheritage.wordpress.com/>

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Figure. 05. Hotel in the form of a temple proposed for Hampi’s future. Web. 13 March 2014. <http://architecturebrio.com/projects/hampi-spa-resort-18>.

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Figure. 15. Sacred water tank sits next to the colonnade leading to the Vittala Temple. Web. 28 April 2014. <http://behance.net/gallery/3614609/hampi-Aerial-photography>

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Figure. 16. Fly over image of Vittala Temple. Web. 28 April 2014 <http://behance.net/gallery/3614609/hampi-Aerial-photography>

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Figure. 21. Bird’s eye view Hemakuta Hill. Web. 28 April 2014. <http://behance.net/gallery/3614609/hampi-Aerial-photography>

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Figure. 22. Bird’s eye view Hemakuta Hill. Web. 28 April 2014. <http://behance.net/gallery/3614609/hampi-Aerial-photography>

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Figure. 58. Libera, Adalberto. Casa Malaparte. Web. 12 April 2014. < https://www.tumblr.com/tagged/casa-malaparte>

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Figure. 60. EMF Landscape Architecture. Restoration in Cap de Creus. Web. 29 April 2014. 84 < http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2011/03/tudela-club-med-restoration-in-cap-de- creus-by-emf-landscape-architecture/ > Figure. 62. Abraham, Raimund . Loci Ultimi - The Last Abodes of Mankind. Web. 28 April 2014. < http://betonbabe.tumblr.com/image/5512939346 >

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Figure. 63. Halso, Ilkka. The Paradox of Nature Preservation. Web. 28 April 2014. 86 < http://socks-studio.com/2014/03/04/the-paradox-of-nature-preservation-works-by- ilkka-halso/ > Figure. 65. Halbe, Roland. Temple of Diana Restored . Photo. Web. 30 April 2014.< http://inhabitat. com/ancient-roman-temple-of-diana-restored-with-unique-raised-visitor-platform/ >

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Figure. 67. Karavan, Dani. Passages Memorial. Web. 29 April 2014. <http://www.danikaravan.com/main_new.htm>

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Figure. 69. Michael Heizer. Double Negative. Web. 28 April 2014. < http://doublenegative.tarasen.net/double_negative.html >

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Figure. 71. Kundig, Tom. The Pierre. Web. 28 April 2014. < http://www.ccaa.com.au/sub/cplusa/articles/issue/17/the-pierre/ >

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Figure. 73. Chillida, Eduardo. Moñtana Tindaya Project. Web. 28 April 2014. 96 < http://virtualsacredspace.blogspot.co.nz/2012/02/eduardo-chillida-montana-tindaya. html >

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Figure. 75. Abraham, Raimund . House of Two Horizons 1973. Web. 28 April 2014. 98 < http://betonbabe.tumblr.com/image/5512939346 > Figure. 76.

Abraham, Raimund. â&#x20AC;&#x153;BOMBâ&#x20AC;? 1973. Web. 28 April 2014.< http://bombsite.com >

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Figure. 85. Identifying the canted parallel colonnades leading from Krishna, Virupaksha and Vittala Temple. 110 (Scanned map, M. Fritz, John, and George Michell. City of Victory: Vijayanagara, the Medieval Hindu Capital of Southern India. Ed. John Gollings. New York, N.Y.: Aperture, 1991. 9. Print.

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The forgotten empire 2015 120 point Thesis by Marco Duthie  
The forgotten empire 2015 120 point Thesis by Marco Duthie  
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