CSQ CBS Sustainability Quarterly Volume 5, November 2013
CBS RESEARCH IN FASHION CONSUMPTION Towards more sustainable choices and behavior
Is the “blue” revolution sustainable? Professor Stefano Ponte published in Science
Interview with research duo: Harvard University Professor & former special advisor to President Obama
CASS SUNSTEIN and CBS Professor & special advisor to Chancellor Merkel
FROM RIO TO ROSKILDE - AND BACK Partnership between CBS and Roskilde Festival
In this issue CSQ updates Editorial
Recent Publications on Sustainability by CBS
Public Seminar: Sustainability Turned Inside Out
From Rio to Roskilde - and Back
Tim Jackson: Prosperity without growth
Sustainable Fashion Consumption
Past Platform Events
Is the “blue” revolution sustainable?
CSQ Interviews Green by default - or, Green by choice? Interview with research duo Professor Cass Sunstein and Professor Lucia Reisch
Sustainable Innovation and Public mobility. Interview with Adjunct Professor Martin Ertl
PHD Focus Argentenian Fairtrade Wine
Updates from partner organizations
“Made in Denmark” enhances sustainability brand
180 Degrees Consulting
PRME & Sustainability Office
Welcome to the Sustainability Platform’s quarterly newsletter – this time as an online version only, so that we ‘walk the talk’ on sustainability. During the past months we have spent a lot of efforts on improving visibility on sustainability activities at CBS to make sure that news on research, education, and other activities reach our colleagues, as well as our external partners. In particular, we have developed a new website and more recently started a Facebook group, which already has over 260 members. We look forward to connecting with you through these platforms. We are also proud to have received strong support and encouragement from the CBS Board by whom we were invited on September 11 to present the collective efforts, achievements and visions across CBS on sustainability within the platform’s sphere. Sustainability in a business university context serves as an umbrella for many aspects such as CSR, ethical consumption, energy-saving strategies, green growth and debates on de-growth – just to mention a few. The articles included in this issue focus on new approaches to economic activity, such as stimulating sustainability through choice architecture, the possibilities and limitations of prosperity without growth, and smart use of resources and waste recycling. Research and reports from international organizations, such as UNEP, the World Bank and international NGOs, point to the fact that, if we continue business as usual, we will need several more planets to sustain our continuous growth. This is of course neither possible nor sustainable. To date, the Sustainability Platform has funded more than 50 projects involving 15 departments at CBS. Tying research to practice is of utmost importance to bridge academic activity to real life experience. In this issue you can, for example, read about the Rio to Roskilde project, which was supported to start this summer as a research lab during the Roskilde Festival to observe festival guests’ behavior towards waste in general and food waste more specifically. External partners, such as Rockwoll, tested alternative housing and a delegation from the Danish Confederation of Industries (DI) visited the Festival to explore future collaboration with the team of researchers. Findings from the project will be presented at an international conference hosted by DI in January 2014. As always, in this issue you can find updates from our CBS partner organizations, PRME & Sustainability Office, cbsCSR, oikos Copenhagen, and 180 Degrees Consulting. As a new feature, we have listed some of the most recent publications by CBS staff related to sustainability. We would like to thank our colleagues who contributed to this issue of CSQ and welcome your input, ideas, publications and news for our next issue. Mette, Stefano & Barbara
Contact us: email@example.com Find out more about we do and how you can engage with us: www.cbs.dk/sustainability Stay updated on events, internships, and knowledge sharing: www.facebook.com/CBSSustainability
OMSTILLINGS-SEMINAR November 28, 2013
CASS SUNSTEIN public lecture at CBS and Key Note Speaker at DI conference January 20, 2014 Harvard University Professor, Cass Sunstein, visits Denmark next year at an international conference hosted by the Confederation of Danish Industry (DI) January 20, 2014 as key note speaker together with Dr. Markus Kerber, Director General and member of the Presidential Board, BDI (Federation of German Industries). The conference is a result of the close collaboration between the Sustainability Platform funded research project From Rio to Roskilde â€“ and back and DI. Findings from the project will be presented at the conference. Read more about the research on pages 10-11. After the conference Professor Sunstein will give a public lecture at CBS entitled Nudging for Sustainability. Stay tuned for more information on our website and Facebook page.
From Rio to Roskilde - and back
By Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Professor (MSO), Director of Copenhagen Business School Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility The Rio+20 Summit did perhaps not achieve all its goals, but it certainly set sustainability on top of the global agenda. Inspired by all the possibilities the Summit offered and all the objectives yet to be achieved, a group of researchers at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) established a partnership with Roskilde Festival in 2013 to analyze the sustainability barriers and opportunities during the festival.
he objective of the project is to create awareness of how the global sustainability challenges from the Rio+20 Summit are manifested in a local setting, in this case the Roskilde Festival. The partnership between CBS and Roskilde Festival also involves of a number of other research institutions, private companies, and industry organizations, including the University of Copenhagen, Aalborg University, Confederation of Danish Industry, Rockwool, and Implement Consulting Group. In close dialogue, the partners identified three sustainability areas relevant to the festival and Danish society: waste in general, food waste in particular, and alternative housing.
Results from the Partnerships It is estimated that globally, around one third of all food produced never reaches the stomach of the end consumer1. To make things worse, the food wasted has taken up other resources (water, land, energy) and is often produced using pesticides and the like. Therefore, food waste represents a major sustainability challenge across the world. At Roskilde Festival, guests can eat at approximately 150 food stalls run primarily by civil society organizations (charity, schools, sports clubs). The objective of this project is to identify challenges and solutions for reducing food waste at the
Results from the Partnerships Roskilde Festival, which would reduce the environmental footprint and increase the income generated to the festival and the civil society organizations. The findings from the study indicate an extreme variation in practices, which call for much more knowledge sharing and coordinated efforts. Moreover, the project is documenting the potentials for making unused food from one location available for people at another. Last, the project highlights some of the systemic barriers for reducing food waste within and outside the Roskilde Festival setting. Millions of people around the world are living without proper housing in refugee camps, slum cities and rural areas. To address this problem, the Danish company Rockwool made a real-life experiment at Roskilde Festival where they tested a new type of temporary housing that is water proof, cannot burn, keeps temperature constant, and is flexible in use. The Rockwool experiment was part of Roskilde Festival’s Orange Innovation initiative called Dream City, which is an area of the festival dedicated to cultural and social events and experiments. During the festival, Rockwool got inspiration for how to improve the design of their ‘base of the pyramid’ product and adapt it to new markets. Actually, the company ended up transforming one of the prototypes to a cooling system that was used by one of the food stalls at the festival. Last, the project looked at how waste from the festival can be transformed into resources. In particular, focus was on the festival guests’ perception of when something valuable becomes waste (and vice versa), e.g. tents, beer cans, and sleeping bags. The analysis seems to indicate that guests have a ‘festival identity’ and an ‘everyday identity’ which influence their perception and handling of waste. The results from the analysis may serve as input to future experiments that will decrease the amount of waste generated and disposed at the festival.
Next steps The long-term objective of the project is to test a number of new sustainability solutions at Roskilde Festival 2014, which hold potential for alleviating some of the social and environmental challenges experienced by the festival and society more generally. During the one-week event, the Roskilde Festival becomes one of the biggest cities in Denmark and thus an ideal research lab for running such sustainability experiments. In the future, researchers hope that the festival will serve as an extreme case for action based research that can advance our knowledge on various sustainability challenges and the underlying literature of nudging, collaborative consumption, and lean management. Research results from Roskilde Festival 2013 will be presented at an international conference hosted by the Confederation of Danish Industry on January 20, 2014 where key note speakers include Harvard Law Professor Cass Sunstein and Dr. Markus Kerber, Director General and member of the Presidential Board, BDI (Federation of German Industries).
Roskilde Festival is an annual, week-long Danish music and culture event with approximately 130,000 guests. 200 bands play at 8 different stages during the festival, which also serves as a playground for a number of other events regarding sports, arts, food, architecture etc. The permanent organization behind the Roskilde Festival event is made up by 50 staff members, 200 volunteers during the year and around 32,000 volunteers directly involved in the festival planning and implementation (food, security, etc.). Roskilde Festival is organized by an NGO, Roskilde Festival Charity Society, and the profit from the festival is donated to charitable projects in a variety of fields (culture, sustainability, education).
riotilroskilde.dk During the one-week festival, the involved researchers observed behavior, conducted interviews, wrote blogs, participated in the festival work, and made photo/video documentation for research and dissemination purposes. Some of the work can be found on the project website, www.riotilroskilde.dk (in Danish only). The Rio to Roskilde project is partly funded by the Sustainability Platform.
The research team (the author of this article is first on the left middle row). Photo: Barbara Louise Bech
Sustainable fashion consumption Changing consumers’ lifestyles towards more sustainable choices and behavior – Swedish trends By Sarah Netter, Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, cbsCSR
n 2013, the fashion industry witnessed
These increasing consumption and disposal
two major events: The introduction of
levels are not only related to intensifying the
in-store clothing recycling systems by
waste management problems, but also con-
leading fast fashion retailers and the signing
tinuing to put further strain on environmen-
of the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in
tal, social and economic hot spots along the
the aftermath of the collapse and burning of
textile life cycle.
Bangladeshi garment factories. While these events most certainly have shocked and
Policy makers, fashion retailers and re-
spurred the interest of the media and pub-
searchers alike have joined forces to alter
lic, the question remains what impact such
this course, and make the Scandinavian case
events will have on consumers’ long-term
a leading example of transforming the indu-
memory and the decisions they make in the
stry and consumption patterns towards more
face of “sales” signs.
sustainable approaches of doing business and consuming fashion.
To date, consumers in the Nordic countries
H&M recycle bin. Costumers are now able to hand in their used clothes in recycle bins and receive a voucher or a discount when buying something new.
are purchasing fashion well beyond the
The MISTRA Future Fashion project, fund-
world average, a growing trend. Clothing
ed by MISTRA (the Swedish Foundation
consumption in the Nordic countries has
for Strategic Environmental Research), is
increased significantly over the past decade
one example of a joined initiative aimed at
- estimated at a nearly 40 percent increase
promoting sustainable fashion. The project
since 2000 in Sweden alone. In line with
generates knowledge and insights accessible
the increase in consumption, disposal num-
to the Swedish fashion industry and to other
bers have risen alike. Yearly, an estimate of
actors such as policy makers, governmental
145,000 tons of textiles is finding its way to
agencies and NGOs. The overarching goal is
incineration facilities or landfills in Sweden,
to explore and evaluate paths on how to im-
Denmark and Finland, which is equivalent to
prove both environmental and social perfor-
half the amount of textiles that are placed on
mance (e.g. in terms of labor rights), as well as
the market annually.
industry’s long term global competitiveness.
We, the MISTRA Future Fashion Consumer
The aforementioned 2013 events stimulated
In terms of usage of the in-store recycling
Behavior team based at CBS, investigate how
the idea of following up our target group’s
system, 5.7% out of the 1,011 young Swedes
to promote sustainable fashion consump-
behaviour in a before-and-after-trial design.
claim to have used the recycling service;
tion. During the first year of this four-year
With the financial support from the CBS
a number, which at first glance might ap-
project, we had the opportunity to carry
Sustainability Platform and the ICM Head of
pear insignificant. Considering, however,
out a larger representative survey on young
Department Fund, we were able to carry out
how much these 5.7% may contribute to
Swedish fashion consumers, aged 16 to 30, in
a replication of the Swedish 2012 survey in
the amounts of textile waste and the pace at
the spring of 2012. The purpose of this study
which innovations tend to diffuse from first
was to find the key drivers and barriers to
This created the unique opportunity to com-
introduction to widespread use, these find-
sustainable fashion consumption. One of the major findings is that while young Swedes on average display high levels of environmental and social concern, this awareness does not automatically translate into more sustainable behavior. This attitude - behavior gap becomes even more apparent in the case of discarding unwanted clothes. Reasons for that are manifold. The limited availability, accessibility, and affordability of more sustainable options are frequently mentioned challenges by the average young Swede. Since the data collection in 2012, two major events occurred, which may affect the fashion industry: Firstly, on a tragic note, the collapse and burning down of clothing manufacturing facilities in Bangladesh in
Dhaka, Bangladesh April 24, 2013 (Photo: AP)
April 2013, resulted in major fashion play-
pare consumers’ attitudes and behavior be-
ings can be considered rather promising.
fore and after the above mentioned events,
To put things into perspective: Within the
allowing us to study whether and how con-
first six month after implementation, H&M
sumer behavior has changed.
has collected 44 tons of used clothes in
ers signing the Fire and Building Safety Accord. Secondly, on a more positive note, fashion retailers started to take charge of disposal and recycling activities related to fashion consumption, with H&M, Bestseller and Weekday introducing their in-store clothing recycling scheme globally in 2013. Although short-term actions, such as boycotts are frequently witnessed, consumers frequently forget about their shock and disapproval of the system in the light of the
Danish shops, which is equal to 10% of the anWhat we can say from the analysis of the
nual amount of clothes discarded in Denmark.
2013 survey data so far is that 58% of the
The data from this 2013 survey is currently
young Swedes are aware of the Bangla-
being analyzed and first results are expect-
desh incidents. This relatively high level of
ed to be published at the beginning of 2014.
awareness seems to be a promising basis for investigating the impact on consumer
MISTRA Future Fashion: http://www.mistrafuturefashion.com
Project leader Senior Researcher, ICM firstname.lastname@example.org
Senior Researcher, ICM email@example.com
PHD Fellow, ICM firstname.lastname@example.org
Research Asistant, ICM email@example.com
Background Bangladesh: http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Informationresources/Publicinformation/Pressreleases/ WCMS_220950/lang--en/index.htm http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/14/world/ asia/another-garment-factory-scare-in-bangladesh.html?_r=0 http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-09/ fire-at-bangladesh-garment-factory-kills-atleast-7-people.html http://fashionforum.dk/2013/06/25/bangladesh-aftale-kan-fa-betydning-for-andre-produktionslande/
GREEN by default, or GREEN by choice? CSQ Interview with Professor Cass Sunstein, Harvard Law School and Professor Lucia Reisch (ICM), Copenhagen Business School While we are all talking about sustainability and how to minimize the environmental costs caused by consumption, professors Cass Sunstein (Harvard University) and Lucia Reisch (CBS) have researched what effects green defaults may have on protecting the environment. Barbara Louise Bech and Line Pedini Rasmussen from the Sustainability Platform interviewed professors Sunstein and Reisch, to discuss how nudges affect individual behavior and what it takes to construct a good nudge.
“Suppose that in a relevant community, there are two sources of energy, denominated “green” and “gray.” Suppose that consistent with its name, green is better than gray on environmental grounds. Those who use green energy emit lower levels of greenhouse gases and also of conventional pollutants. Suppose that those who use gray energy save money. Which will consumers choose?”
t is with this question in mind that Sunstein and Reisch introduce their recently published article ‘Automatically Green: Behavioral Economics and Environmental Protection’ (2013) in the Harvard Environmental Law Review. While a traditional economist would state that this depends on the relationship between the economic incentives involved and the individuals’ underlying preferences, a behavioral economist would, however, have a more nuanced view. Social norms and perceptions, for example, play a significant role in affecting people’s behavior. Consequently, 10
individuals tend to either “follow the crowd” or make decisions that “make a statement” about how they want to be seen by others, rather than strictly following their own economic incentives. In addition, individuals seldom actively initiate a change, preferring instead to stick to the already established “default” option. It is with this “sticky” default option in mind that Sunstein and Reisch’s article seeks to explore how and when green defaults may be the best way to move forward.
Sustainability Platform: Can you give an example of a green default relating to energy? Reisch: Daily life is increasingly accompanied by the equivalent of green defaults, replacing grayer ones. Consider motion detectors that turn out the lights when people do not appear to be in the relevant room. In this way, motion detectors create the equivalent of an “off ” default. Or, consider appliance and computer settings that turn the relevant equipment off when it is not in use. Moreover, we could think of double sided printing or renewable energy provision as default
supply in cities. If the default setting on office thermometers is turned down in winter, and up in summer, we should expect significant economic and environmental savings, at least if the default setting is not so uncomfortable that people will take steps to change it. Sustainability Platform: Given the green default examples just mentioned, would you say that opting out of a green default is less likely to happen because consumers in general prefer to stay green? Or, is it because they are simply too lazy to change to, for instance, another energy tariff or provider even though it would be slightly cheaper for them? What is the power of defaults? Reisch: Several biases and heuristics are, in combination, responsible for the empirically robust power of defaults: First, people tend to follow behaviors and decisions others take and tend to believe in the (real or assumed) advice of experts. Defaults can be interpreted as expert advice based on superior knowledge. Second, people are pretty rigid in their choices and are much less likely to opt-out a default setting than just to stay with it; they are much less likely to actively opt-in an alternative since this calls for investing time and effort to find and weigh options (status quo bias). In general, people tend to highly value what they have (endowment effect) and what they believe in, and it is hence hard to motivate reflection and change. In other words: “Decisions are sticky”.
we should ask what they themselves think, at least for starters. Of course it is a good, too, if we have data suggesting that they are healthier and more prosperous. Sustainability Platform: We know that consumers follow the herd and that social influence is a very powerful nudge. How do you use this knowledge when building a nudge and can you give an example? For example, in your book ‘Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness’ (2008) you mention letting people know that their neighbors consume less energy, thereby nudging them to consume less. Sunstein: The energy example is a good one, involving the force of social norms in encouraging people to save energy (and thus save money). Another example is tax compliance: When those who do not comply learn that most people do comply, they become more likely to comply themselves. There’s also evidence that if people learn about the level of drug or alcohol abuse, and if the level is lower than they think, they become less likely to abuse drugs or alcohol. Something similar has been found to be true for voting. It is interesting to think about other potential applications, including corporate responsibility.
would you manage a situation where an individual or business is aware of this tool and do not use them in the spirit it of nudging? For example, using choice architecture out of pure self-interest to increase profits for his or her business? Sunstein: Well, any tool can be abused, and nudges have certainly been misused by some institutions in the past including, in some cases, those who provide financial products, and who confuse and exploit consumers. The best safeguards are 1) economic competition and 2) democracy, including transparency and accountability. If private institutions nudge people, and hurt them in the process, we can hope that economic competition will be a safeguard, because consumers are not likely to appreciate bad nudges, at least not in the long-run. Public officials should be transparent. A great American judge, Louis Brandeis, described sunlight as “the best of disinfectants,” and sunlight can help to prevent and correct bad nudges. Keep in mind that choice architecture and nudging are inevitable; no society lacks them. The question is how to nudge for good! For that, we need a choice architecture for choice architects. Free competition and democratic self-government are pretty good places to start.
Sustainability Platform: It seems that choice architecture is a very powerful tool. How
Sustainability Platform: When you argue that people live longer and happier because of nudges, how is this measured and who determines it is a better life? Sunstein: I would begin by measuring everything from the standpoint of the people who have themselves been nudged. If people are automatically enrolled in a savings plan, do they consider themselves better off as a result? If people learn about the caloric content of food, do they think that they are better off, because they have that information? If people are reminded (say, by text message) that it is time to pay a bill or to go to the doctor or the dentist, are they glad to have the reminder? If people are informed that they can save some money with a more energy efficient product, do they believe that their decisions have been improved? Especially if we are focused on the well-being of consumers, and how their choices affect their well-being,
Closed seminar from Professor Cass Sunstein’s visit to CBS in June
Useful links and further reading: C.R. Sunstein, Simpler: The Future of Government. New York: Simon & Schuster (2013). C.R. Sunstein and L.A. Reisch, Automatically Green: Behavioral Economics and Environmental Protection, Harvard Environmental Law Review (2013). Available for free download: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2245657 R.H. Thaler and C.R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness, Penguin Books (2008) CSQ
Is the “blue” revolution sustainable? Professor Stefano Ponte publishes article in Science
Certification of aquaculture: one of the strategies to sustainable seafood production Certification of products from aquatic farming - aquaculture – is contributing to sustainable production, but it also has serious limits. Therefore it should be seen as one approach among many for steering aquaculture toward sustainability. This is argued by an international team of researchers in a paper published in Science on September 6th. Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing global food production systems, and now contributes around 13% of world animal-protein supply. It provides almost half of the world’s supply of seafood. The rapid expansion of the sector has come with a wide range of concerns about the environmental and social impact of aquaculture. In response, NGO-led certification schemes, such as the Dutch based Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), have developed 12
standards against which the environmental and social performance of aquaculture can be measured. The paper argues that aquaculture certification has limits as a means of governing sustainable production. Aquaculture certification is limited in the volume of global production it can certify, given market demand for certified seafood is currently limited to the US and EU while the majority of seafood consumption occurs in other markets. The impact of certification is also limited in reaching wider sustainability goals, it is focused on the farm-level instead of the cumulative impacts of multiple farms in one location on the surrounding environment or farming communities. Furthermore, it is limited in its ability to include stakeholders, particularly smallholder producers, in the Global South where the vast majority of global production comes from.
array of strategies for regulating sustainable production. Assumptions that countries in the Global South are unwilling or incapable to regulate aquaculture no longer holds true everywhere. Many of these countries have experience with international food safety regulation and represent some of the most important domestic markets for aquaculture products globally. Certification should therefore be seen as part of a broader array of governance approaches for promoting sustainable aquaculture production. Global certification also needs to better complement national level of the sustainability programmes. Further research is needed to determine what kind of hybrid forms of environmental governance can be developed that move beyond an overemphasis on certification, and instead draw on the strength of states, the private sector and institutions such as the ASC.
The implication of these limits is that certification needs to be seen as but one of a wider
Read full article at www.cbs.dk/sustainability under news items
“Made in Denmark” enhances sustainability brand By Michael Etter, Assistant Professor Department of Intercultural Communication & Management, CBS,
How can consumers know if the products they buy are as environmentally friendly or “green” as they claim to be? Branding them “made in Denmark” might help. A master’s thesis by CBS Student Mads Krogh shows that German consumers perceive Danish products as more sustainable than others
n western countries the demand for sustainable products with less environmental impact during production, use and disposal has constantly been growing over the last few years. Not surprisingly many businesses have discovered this market of ethical consumption and launched products from baby clothing to beer, and promoted them as “environmentally friendly”, “sustainable”, “green” and the like. However, the flood of products and labels promising sustainability on the one hand, and media reports about false marketing on the other, have often led to confusion and skepticism among consumers. Is the sustainability claim to be trusted? What does “sustainable” really mean? Am I paying too much for a product that causes harm in the end? These are issues with which businesses are confronted these days - distrust has become a major barrier to purchasing sustainable products. From this challenge a relevant question arises: How can the doubts about sustainability claims be addressed? Mads Krogh, former student at CBS, has answered this question in his master thesis project. Particularly, Mads investigated if the credibility of sustainability claims could be
strengthened by adding Denmark as the country of origin to the sustainability claim. The idea behind it was that a positive green image of Denmark may make the sustainability claim more credible, hence international consumers more likely to trust the claim and enhance sustainable product evaluation. For his study, Mads ran an online experiment with a sample of 100 German consumers. The choice for Germany was based on the fact, that Germany is one of the biggest export markets for Danish products. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that a very high percentage of the sample views Denmark as a sustainable country. In comparison with China or the US, Denmark doubled in the score of being perceived as “green”. The positive green image of Denmark can be explained with how the country´s policy making, manufacturing, and consumer behavior is covered in the German media. The link between country image and credibility claim is best explained with “halo” effect. When a person has no or limited prior knowledge of a product, the person will use the perceived image of the organiza-
tion, or in this case the country, to create a general image of the product from that country. Consequently, when Danish products claim to be sustainable, the perceived green image of Denmark makes this claim more credible. The results are valuable for sustainable brand marketing practitioners interested in penetrating foreign markets. Utilizing Denmark´s image when promoting or branding products can prove to be an asset. However, the effect is limited to countries where consumers actually care about the environment and where Denmark has a positive sustainable image among consumers.
Mads Krogh, former student at International Marketing and Management, CBS, works today as a research executive at TNS Gallup Denmark. Michael Etter has supervised the master thesis of Mads Krogh. He is an assistant professor at Copenhagen Business School with an interest in CSR communication and new media. CSQ
Sustainable Innovation and Public Mobility
The Sustainability Platform met with newly appointed Adjunct Professor at CBS Martin Ertl, Chief Innovation Officer at Bombardier Transportation, to talk about sustainable transport systems
In view of his engagement in CBS teaching and bringing ‘live’ cases to the class room Martin Ertl was appointed Adjunct Professor in June affiliated with the Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy. As Chief Innovation Officer in Bombardier Transportation - a global leader in the rail industry - Martin Ertl is responsible for developing and implementing the company’s innovation strategy. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world’s largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry, headquartered in Berlin, Germany. Considering the global need for efficient, eco-friendly and well-integrated public transportation systems, Jonas Sødergran from the Sustainability Platform met Martin Ertl to find out how sustainability is part of Bombardier’s strategy and what perspective Ertl has on the challenges facing public transportation. And finally, how students will benefit from his new position here at CBS. ABOUT MARTIN
Martin Ertl joined Bombardier Transportation in 2008 and was in charge of re-designing R&D processes as well as leading the way into web 2.0 innovation potentials for Bombardier. In-between 2005 and 2008 Ertl was Innovation Manager at BMW responsible for designing and setting up the Future Management initiative. At AUDI AG, in-between 2001 and end of 2004, Ertl was head of Design Management. Martin Ertl holds an MBA from Katz Graduate School of Business, USA, and a Master in Industrial Engineering from Rosenheim University, Germany.
Sustainability Platform: In what sense are sustainability and innovation integrated into Bombardier Transportation’s business strategy? Ertl: I think the question is two-folded. First, the core of the innovation we are mainly driving towards is a sustainable environment. We truly believe that public transportation is the future backbone of public mobility. Looking at the restricting factor, which is infrastructure, at some point we just have to see that more individual mobility as long as it is car-based will lead to more congestion. The development of the products that we have can be seen as one contribution to a sustainable mobility concept. Second, by definition innovation has to be sustainable. True innovation for us is only innovation if it grants a certain competitive advantage over a certain time, provided that it cannot be easily copied. We constantly force our people to think of the sustainable advantage – what other elements do we have to consider to increase the sustainable element in the innovation?
By definition innovation has to be sustainable
It takes a long legal and planning process to finally agree on a solution and the financial basis of public sector is not getting stronger - especially when I look into the recent financial crisis and the crisis some countries are in. All of them still have to keep up their mobility and public transportation systems. Most likely what they will try to save is any spending on infrastructure or at least maintaining the current infrastructure – but not extending the infrastructure, which means that we have to come up with any kind of solution that, on the one hand, extends the lifespan of the infrastructure, and, on the other, allows a more cost efficient use of the infrastructure. When it comes to sustainable and environmental aspects, what we clearly see is that individual mobility, especially in the BRIC countries, is on the rise and we do not see
Sustainability Platform: Do you promote certain processes and standards into the company’s innovation strategy? Ertl: We do have a common strategy in Bombardier Transportation and we do have a certain process. However, that process is flexible enough to leave choices open. It is not like one size fits all. It’s more like a corridor we open up and it offers a variety of possibilities because of the divisions we have at Bombardier Transportation that are significantly different from each other. We have business divisions that do metal treatment, such as producing bogies1, and then there are divisions that are focused on software, such as signalling (for railways, ed.) for example. You cannot put these in one hat and expect it to work just like that. You have to open up corridors, provide clear directions, give clear boundaries, but within these boundaries and corridors, divisions are free to find their own way. Process wise, when it comes to governance, milestones, and committees, there are differences. We allow different intervals, but at the end of the year we want to have comparable results.
Sustainability Platform: How will you be passing on the practical knowledge from your work to CBS students as Adjunct Professor? Ertl: The idea is that I bring the industrial challenges into the classroom and just like in the past, form groups and have them run in a competition against each other. We will bring the background material, real life case studies to the table that students can work and elaborate on, and come up with their own and very specific, very personal solution. Wild and crazy ideas – that is something that I will be expecting.
Sustainability Platform: From your perspective, what is the next big challenge when it comes to sustainability?
Sustainability Platform: How can students contribute to create innovative solutions at Bombardier Transportation?
Ertl: Infrastructure! Infrastructure is very expensive to build.
Ertl: To me there is a nice balance between two different worlds (practice and theory, ed.) and I think both sides can really nurture from each other’s characteristics. From academia, we can learn a lot about a structured approach, a fact based approach, and also an understanding of combining several disciplines, understanding how to combine different areas rather than being extremely result and solution oriented. So, better that we keep this open mind. Academia can also use our (practical, ed.) cases to test theories and approaches and analyze what has exactly been elaborated and does it work in real life? With all the theoretical models, what are the shortcomings?
Bombardier Transportation is part of the Canadian company Bombardier – a manufacturer of both trains and airplanes. Bombardier Aerospace provides the aerial solutions whereas Bombardier Transportation covers the part of the business “on land”, and is global leader in the rail industry. Bombardier Transportation consists of 36.000 employees and has 64 production and engineering sites in 26 countries. The company provides transportation solutions, including rail vehicles and rail solutions, propulsions and controls, transportation system solutions etc. Find out more www.bombardier.com
any sign of this demand declining. So, we have to think of other forms of mobility that meet people’s demands.
A railroad car or locomotive undercarriage having pairs of wheels that swivel so that curves can be negotiated
ARGENTINEAN FAIRTRADE WINE Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime? By Juan Ignacio Staricco, PhD Fellow, Department of Business and Politics, firstname.lastname@example.org
he Fair Trade concept, though still small in proportion, is becoming each day a bigger phenomenon. Its importance has not stopped increasing since the 1990s and only a decade later the total amount of fair trade goods sales was estimated to be at US$500 million, growing at 30 % each year. It is not, however, only a matter of growing volume which should turn our attention to this phenomenon, there is also the matter of novelty involved: we are invited to join a global moral economy where market rules do not have the last word, but are put under discussion by conceptions of justice and emancipation. But how different from the mainstream economy is fair trade really? Is it possible to alleviate market inequalities by relying on market relations? The aim of my research is to produce a critical analysis of fair trade and offer an assessment of its potential and limitations.
With this in mind, I expect to conceptualize and analyze fair trade at three different empirical levels: the global fair trade regime, the fair trade wine sector, and last, my case study: fair trade wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom. This commodity, though still minor within the whole constellation of products, was only standardized and certified for the first time in 2003 showing a strong tendency to growth since then. With the only three producer countries up to now (Argentina, Chile and South Africa) being representatives of the trendy â€œNew World Winesâ€? group, it is expected that the volumes sold and the revenues produced will continue climbing in the following years. This makes wine an important fair trade product to be studied. And, it is also an important product for Argentina, since it is one of the main images associated with the country
internationally and by far, the most important commodity being produced under this standard in its territory. As the UK is the world’s biggest consumer of fair trade wine with more than 6.2 million liters in 2010, out of which 25% came from Argentina, special attention will be given to the value chain of wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom.
Furthermore, a second issue that my current fieldwork has raised is the question about how transformative fair trade really is. Fair Trade certified organizations are entitled to an extra amount of money for each kilogram of certified grapes sold, which is to be administered by the workers or members of a cooperative and used in projects that contribute to the well-being of their community (the Fair Trade prime). While this possibility is unanimously well received and appears as a critical factor in the promotion of empowerment, it is also true that most of the requisites in the fair trade standards have not evidenced major challenges to the organizations adopting them. Most regulations and conditions are defined according to the local legislation, making them mandatory to grapes and wine producers and, consequently, their fulfillment already precedes the Fair Trade certification in most cases. Therefore, it should be asked whether fair trade really makes a difference for the conditions of workers and small producers in the Argentinean wine industry.
Oscar, a “contratista” at Viña de la Solidaridad.
The Fieldwork I began with my fieldwork in Argentina in August and will continue till end of this year. At a first glance, the fair trade wine sector in Argentina seems to be very heterogeneous bringing together very small grape producers and gigantic wineries owned by European firns. On the one hand, it is possible to find cases that perfectly match the most widespread image of Fair Trade: That is the case of Viñasol, an association of grape producers that seeks to preserve small vineyards threatened by the expansion of housing developments and the disappearing figure of the contratista ; or La Riojana winery, a cooperative with about 500 members, most of which are small producers. But, on the other hand, there are very big players in the wine industry that are also working within the fair trade framework in the cases of the Austrian-owned Bodega Norton or the French-Argentinean Alta Vista winery. This means that a fair trade certified wine can be obtained either from grapes that come from a 1 hectare vineyard and harvested by a single person; or from high-tech vineyards of a multinational corporation. The majority of this latter group, when it comes to production and commercialization, casts doubt over the original goal of the Fair Trade concept, namely to contribute to the sustainable development of marginalized producers. It questions the fairness in the competition among more and less powerful fair trade producers.
High School built in the village of Tilimuqui with the fair trade prime earnt by workers at La Riojana Cooperative.
Potentials and shortcomings My critical analysis of Argentinean fair trade certified wine will deal with these issues in order to assess the potential and shortcomings that this mode of regulation evidences in the pursuit of achieving sustainable development in the global south. To do so, I will concentrate on the specific institutions that characterize current capitalism in the Argentinean wine industry (e.g. wage relation, money form, forms of competition, the state, insertion into the international regime), and compare them to the way in which fair trade seeks to structure them.
Juan’s fieldwork in Argentina is funded by the Sustainability Platform
Juan Ignacio Staricco PHD Fellow, DBP
SUSTAINABILITY TURNED INSIDE OUT What is sustainability and why do we keep talking about it? CBS Sustainability Platform invited students to the seminar “Sustainability Turned Inside Out” on October 8 to discuss and learn more about the different aspects of how the public and private sectors as well as academia work with sustainability. Furthermore, the presenters were invited to offer advice on what students should focus on to achieve a career within sustainability.
By Line Pedini Rasmussen, Research Assistant, CBS Sustainability Platformjis.email@example.com The topics of inter-sector partnerships and the cross-disciplinary aspects of sustainability were highlighted by Niels Carsten Bluhme, Michael Johansen and Alan Irwin. Niels Carsten Bluhme, Area Director for City, Environment and Labor in Albertslund Municipality underscored the importance of partnerships for the success of green transition. In the upcoming years, the city of Albertslund needs to undertake a thorough renovation of buildings and infrastructure opening up for opportunities to use the city as a living lab to move towards a more sustainable city.
More people are moving into the cities – a tendency that demands responsible growth. In Albertslund alone, the population has increased from 3,000 inhabitants to 30,000 in just 8 years. There is an “enormous responsibility by the public sector to participate in growth in Denmark because of the high taxation level. Without growth we will not have a sustainable future,” argued Bluhme. The municipality has engaged in partnership with several institutions of higher education and platforms specialized in sustainability such as Gate21, Green Cities and Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster.
Michael Johansen, Head of Development in Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster, touched upon Denmark’ s leading position in sustainable growth and how Denmark has succeed in decoupling energy consumption with economic growth. He also called for better collaboration between SMEs and larger corporations to enable SMEs to upscale their operations. Michael Johansen encouraged students to collaborate with colleagues from other academic institutions to add leverage to each other’s competencies. Especially the business mindset of CBS students go well with the invention approach of DTU students. Niels Carsten Bluhme also stated that the municipality of Albertslund is heavily focused on stakeholder management, the value chain and communication.
Panel Debate. (left) Michael Johansen, Head of Development in Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) and (right) Niels Carsten Bluhme, Director for City, Environment and Labour, Albertslund Municipality
Associate Professor Wencke Gwozdz approached the topic of sustainability from the discipline of consumer behavior. She focused on fashion pioneers, those 5,5% percent of 13-30 year-old Scandinavians who consume differently than other consumers. Fashion Pioneers use 80% of their wardrobe, they buy new garments at flea markets or in vintage shops, they mend their clothes when it is broken, and resell or ‘upcycle’ it when they do not have an interest in it any more. Moreover, they perceive the term Fashion as unsustainable because of the constant production and consumption of garments it entails, whereas the term style has a more positive connotation with which they identify themselves.
Every Dane consumes annually 16 kg of clothes Which is 35% above world average and the highest in the Nordic region - 16 kg is equivalent to 16 pairs of jeans or 64 t-shirts. Clothes are made to be worn more than 200 times but Danes only wear their clothes 10-20 times on average.
Assistant Professor Wencke Gwozdz, (ICM)
Dean of Research, Alan Irwin, acknowledges that CBS has come a long way in terms of sustainability, but that we still face a number challenges. He emphasized that CBS as an institution of higher learning is perfect for reflections on sustainability, because “it fits with business development. Sustainability is cross-disciplinary where different departments can work together. Cross thinking is the way forward.” Lastly, Alan invited all CBS students to come up with ideas to create a more sustainable CBS – so that CBS can indeed become a first mover. “Take leadership. This is what students can do,” Alan encouraged and also encouraged all students to build their own capacity to know more about sustainability for future opportunities. Alan Irwin, Dean of Research, CBS
PROSPERITY WITHOUT GROWTH
Where is the green economy, what does it look like, where does it come from, and where is it going? These are some of the questions that Professor Tim Jackson, famous for his controversial book â€˜Prosperity without growthâ€™ (2009), addressed during a recent visit to Denmark By Barbara Louise Bech, Project Manager, CBS Sustainability Platform
Since the financial crisis hit the global economy in 2008, politicians have instructed us to spend more money to kick start the economy. The dilemma of growth is, as Tim Jackson puts it, that it is unsustainable. We cannot keep consuming at current rates when there is only a limited amount of resources available and the carbon intensity risk changing the climate with unforeseen consequences. Tim Jackson argues that carbon intensity needs to decline dramatically in order to reverse climate change, which requires huge demands on technology development and innovation. But is it this even feasible to implement in the current economic system? The alternative, de-growth, is unstable as the economics of what would happen when we stop growth and consumption, which is what we are used to, is uncomfortable and often referred to as the cycle of collapse. It means fewer jobs available and thus less tax revenue for government and decrease in consumption. 20
Who are we in the green economy? Growth or de-growth begins with the consumer. As humans we love new gadgets, new technologies, new experiences, so we can obtain acceptance from our peers. This novelty seeking behavior is the very basis for consumption. During the past 20-30 years there has been a huge increase in both consumer and commercial credit. According to Tim Jackson, credit is not necessarily a bad thing, but the increase in credits has changed the fundamental idea of credit. Financiers will offer us credit to consume more against our own interest. The consequences are spe- culation in commodities and property, mortgages and unsecured lending, investment in the short term, rent seeking, and depleting resources and degrading environments. At the start of the crisis in 2008, UK household savings were below zero. However, after 2009 savings reached almost
Breathing is such a wonderful thing, but it contributes absolutely nothing to the GDP Tim Jackson (2013)
10%. This shows us that the human psyche does care about tomorrow when in crisis mode even though the politicians keep telling us to keep spending more and max out our credit cards to increase growth and get the economic wheels turning again.
Our enormously productive economy demands that we make consumption our way of life that we convert to buying and the use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfaction, our ego satidfations, in consumption… We need things consumed, burned up, replaced, and discarded at an ever increasing pace. Victor Lebow (1955)
Foundation for a green economy So where does this leave the foundation for a green economy? Our present notion of enterprise, employment, and investment based on a casino mentality where we bet on other’s failure for our own gain and success is no longer an option, argues Tim Jackson. We need a change in mindset where investment is no longer thought purely in terms of profits. It should also be thought in terms of protecting assets such as the environment, resources, welfare and health. The big challenge is that the rate of return is considerably slower for ecological and social value protection. How we are going to fund the protection of the assets, on which our future depends, is a question that Tim Jackson has often been asked. His suggestions include a shift in mainstream investment thinking where corporate social responsibility is integrated much more at the institutional level. At the small scale level peer-to-peer, community bonds, and community banks could be excellent solutions.
Further reading: Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet (2009), Tim Jackson, Routledge
Tim Jackson gave a public lecture entitled “Where is the green economy? Prosperity and sustainability after the crisis” at the University of Copenhagen, October 23, invited by the Sustainability Science Centre with which the Sustainability Platform cooperates.
Platform News New EU Marie Curie PHD Fellow at the Sustainability Platform As of this summer, Lara Hale is the Sustainability Platform’s Marie Curie PhD Fellow under the supervision of Andreas Rasche (CBS) Department if Intercultural Communication and Management, and Susse Georg (AAU). Through the Marie Curie project, entitled Innovation for Sustainability (I4S), eight PhD researchers from different business schools collaborate to improve each other’s knowledge, forge a lasting network, and advance the European Union’s efforts towards “smart, sustainable and inclusive growth”. Lara’s research in this context concerns the institutionalization of sustainability innovations in the building sector. She will be working closely with Velux in order
Steen Vallentin new co-leader at “Governing Sustainability Research Cluster” Steen Vallentin, Associate Professor in CSR at the Department of Management, Politics, and Philosophy will be co-leading the Governing Sustainability research cluster together with Andreas Rasche. Steen’s research is mainly focused on the political aspects of CSR, including the role of government, the emergence of new modes of governance and the impact of media and public opinion on corporate communication and action. His most recent publications include a critical book on CSR in Danish (Afkastet og anstændigheden – Social ansvarlighed i kritisk belysning) (2011) a paper for Organization on “Governmentality and the Politics of CSR” (2012) and a paper for Journal of Business Ethics entitled “Governmentalities of CSR: Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference” (2013).
to study how business alliances and standards affect the adoption and normalization of such innovations. Lara’s background is highly interdisciplinary, relating to environmental management and economics, green engineering, international policy, and biology. She has previously researched participation, environmental strategy, producer responsibility, and toxicology — all of which feed into the dynamics of the project and contribute to the knowledge base of the Platform. In June 2013, the participants of I4S met at CBS for the initial kick-off workshop; and they will continue to gather regularly throughout the project, rotating through the host institutions.
Georg Wernicke joins Bersant Hobdari as co-leader at “Corporate Governance and Leadership Research Cluster” Assistant Professor Georg Wernicke from the Department of International Economics and Management has taken on the responsibility as co-leader at the Corporate Governance and Leadership Research Cluster. Georg has been affiliated with the Center for Corporate Governance since October 2012 and has a background in Management from Humboldt University Berlin (Germany) and in Economics from the University College London (UK). He received his doctoral education at the University of Mannheim (Germany) and the Stern School of Business at New York University (US). Georg’s main research interests are the intersection of corporate governance and social responsibility.
EF Panel Discussion on Sustainability and CSR, Krynica Drojz City On September 5, Mette Morsing was invited by Economic Forum (EF) and VELUX Group to chair the panel session on Sustainability and CSR in Krynica Drojz City, Poland. The presentations were followed by questions and a comment from Mr Victor Liakh, President, East Europe Foundation, Ukraine, where issues of corporate engagement in sustainability and CSR are tied to a strong sense of public urgency and call for immediate action. Participants in the panel were (from left): Mr Jan-Eric Sundgren, Executive VP an Senior Adviser to CEO, Volvo ; Mrs Malgorzata Wadzinska, Director External Relations, Procter and Gamble; Mr Mikkel Skott Olsen, Director CSR, VELUX Group; Chair of the panel Professor Mette Mosing, Copenhagen Business School; Mr Hiroshi Onoda, Professor Waseda University; Mr Igor Fedorenko, President Int. Association of Business and Economy, and Mrs Marina Donati, Director CSR, Assicurazioni Generali S.p.A. 22
Updates from partner organizations at CBS
Updates from Oikos Copenhagen
Update from Oikos Copenhagen Nikolay Ivanov, President Oikos Copenhagen
Oikos during Fall 2013 The semester started really well for Oikos Copenhagen. We took part in the Responsibility Day where we had the chance to interact with more than 2500 new students. During the first two weeks of September we were happy to receive a lot of applications from students who want to become members of our organization. Therefore, by the end of week 38 we recruited 20 new active oikos members. At the CBS Student Society Day we had an overwhelming number of people interested in what we do in oikos Copenhagen. It was a great day for our organization as many students got to know more about our future events.
Our stand during Society Day
Oikos Academy Bringing students, academia and businesses together, this year’s oikos Academy is focused on the topic of Urban Sustainable Living. The format is simple – 4 lectures, 1 case competition. The oikos Academy runs throughout the Fall semester - we had the first two lectures already in September and two more in October, followed by a big case competition on November 5. There has been a strong interest in the topic by many students, which is evident from the great number of attendees. For the whole oikos Academy we have more than 200 people signed up on our webpage. Oikos Academy Lecture (September 10)
Trying to tackle the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic sustainability, our oikos Event Lab team has worked hard on planning a variety of events – from movie screenings and company visits to workshops and a Sustainable Christmas Fair.
Oikos Copenhagen (former 360 Students for Sustainability) is a non-profit student organization based at CBS and part of oikos International present, which is present in 40 countries. Oikos is working to enable and inspire students to make responsible and sustainable decisions in their future lives and professional careers.
All oikos Copenhagen teams are already in the planning process for next semester. We will be hosting a huge conference in April 2014 with more than 100 students coming to Copenhagen from all over the world.
Join Oikos Copenhagen on Facebook: We encourage you to follow us on Facebook/oikosCopenhagen or visit our webpage (oikos-copenhagen.org) for more details. Should you have any questions, we look forward to hearing from you. 24
Updates from 180 Degrees Consulting
Update from 180 Degrees Consulting Mei Lin Ly, Vice President & Finance Director 180 Degrees Consulting Copenhagen
Six new consultancy projects In week 39 we launched our kick-off event for the fall 2013 consulting round. Our Consulting Directors have worked hard over the summer to find six exciting projects which our 30 newly recruited students will be working on. Some of the projects include working with DAZIN, a company focusing on providing sustainable fuel pellets and biomass stoves to households in developing countries. Other projects include KĂ¸benhavns Projekthus, a community for innovative start-ups working with social, cultural and environmental initiatives, and DanChurchAid Humanitarian Mine Action. Final Event 2013 This semester we have had a large amount of applicants, and we are very grateful for the keen interest students have taken in the organization. We Welcome event week 39
strongly encourage anyone with a general interest in our work, or anyone who is considering applying for a student consultant position next semester to attend our FINAL EVENT on Tuesday the 3rd of December. During this event our six teams will present their findings and solutions to their projects. The winning team will also be announced at this event.
180 Degrees Consulting 180 Degrees Consulting is the largest student-run consultancy in the world. The organisation has grown tremendously over the last few years and is now present in more than 15 countries around the world. Each branch consists of students from various academic disciplines undertaking consulting projects for socially conscious organisations who are looking to make a difference in their communities. Dedicated students are recruited to spend 9-10 weeks working on various projects, where they combine theoretical knowledge with practical experience. The CBS branch of the organisation was founded only two years ago in 2011 but has this year won the award for â€œBest Overall Branchâ€? within 180 Degrees Consulting. 180DC is very conscious of creating highly diverse teams, this includes the current Executive Team which consists of bachelor students, master students and exchange students from various parts of Europe. Our collective goal is to increase the social impact of our organisation and to continuously enhance the quality of our work. CSQ
Updates from cbsCSR
Update from CBS Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility New cbsCSR manager – Janni Thusgaard Pedersen Since October 1, Janni has taken over the responsibilities as Center Manager at cbsCSR. Her main tasks will be outreach activities, fundraising, administration, and research coordination in close cooperation with cbsCSR Center Director Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, ICM Head of Department Dorte Salskov-Iversen, and ICM Head of Secretariat Annika Dilling. Janni comes from a position as PhD Fellow at cbsCSR and has been an affiliated Visiting Scholar at the Scandinavian Consortium for Organizational Research (SCANCOR), Stanford University. In her PhD research she explores the intra-organizational dynamics of partnerships between businesses and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from an institutional logics perspective. Empirically she investigates how project managers in two Danish companies through intra‐ and inter‐organizational project negotiations construct responses to the institutional complexity of cross-sector partnerships. Janni has also contributed to research projects on CSR reporting and partnerships and has consulted on related issues. Her results have been published in leading journals and Danish policy reports.
CBS Associate Professor Steen Vallentin appointed as member of The Danish Council of Ethics. Associate Professor Steen Vallentin from the Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy and the CBS Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility has, as of September 10, been appointed as a member of The Danish Council of Ethics (Det etiske råd). The council has 17 members in all. Members are designated by Danish parliament and relevant ministries and appointed by the Minister of Interior and Health for a period of three years. A member can be reappointed once. The primary purpose of The Danish Council of Ethics is to provide Danish parliament, public authorities and the public at large with ongoing advice and information about ethical problems raised by developments within the national health service and the field of biomedicine. However, the council’s mandate also include food and consumer issues and sustainable development in a broader sense (e.g. the council has debated the sustainability of biofuels). “I’m honored to join the council and look forward to many interesting and challenging discussions with a diverse and highly qualified group of people. On the one hand, I look forward to engaging in discussions of ethical issues, often pertaining to matters of life and death, that are outside the scope of what we normally grapple with at a business school. On the other hand, I also look forward to seeing how my expertise in corporate social responsibility and related matters can make a difference.” To learn more about the Danish Council of Ethics visit www.etiskraad.dk 26
Assistant Professor and Director of Center for Nordic Sustainability, Robert Strand, receives Nykredit Foundation’s Research Talent Award 2013 Robert Strand, Assistant Professor of Leadership & Sustainability at the Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, has been awarded the prestigious Research Talent Award by the Nykredit Foundation. The committee cited Strand’s two complementary research streams, sustainability in a Scandinavian context and sustainability & CSR engagement by top management teams, as reasons for granting him the award. Strand recently published the article “Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage” in the Journal of Business Ethics with world renowned stakeholder theorist R. Edward Freeman, University of Virginia Darden School of Business, in which they propose that the comparatively strong performances of Scandinavian firms in sustainability performance rankings can be traced to the general tendency of approaching business
Photo: www.henrikfrydkjaer.dk. From left: Professor Nina Smith (AU), Assistant Professor Robert Strand (CBS), Professor David Lando (CBS), Minister of Science Morten Østergaard, Associate ProfessorTanja Jørgensen (AU) and Chairman Steen E. Christensen (Nykredit)
in a Scandinavian context as a fundamentally cooperative endeavor. Speaking of his research, Strand offered “I am drawn to the notion of relevancy in research. I like to bring my research in progress into the classroom and present it with industry partners. If they do not understand it or it puts them to sleep, then I have a relevancy issue and they help me to fix it. I believe this helps to make research more relevant and hopefully of a higher quality.” The award was presented at a ceremony at Nykredit on November 7 by the Minister of Science, Morten Østergaard.
Inaugural Lecture: Esben Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen is the director of the CBS Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (cbsCSR). He holds a PhD from CBS and a MA in Social Science from Roskilde University. Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen has published a large number of articles and books and his work has been awarded with e.g. the Emerald Literati Network Social Impact Award and Outstanding Paper Award. Over the past 10 years, Esben has researched various phenomna within the field of CSR, including code of conduct, stakeholder engagement, cross-sector partnerships, corporate social reporting, environmental labeling, and environmental management. Stakeholder management and institutional theory have served as the theoretical backbone for analyzing what CSR “is” and “is not” in theory and practice. Moreover, his research has focused on new, sustainable business models that benefit both business and society. Mainstream CSR has sometimes been accused of being insufficient and like re-arranging the deckchairs of Titanic, which in turn has led to calls for more radical, systemic, game-changing CSR approaches.
Updates from PRME & Sustainability Office
Update from PRME & SUSTAINABILITY OFFICE The new PRME & Sustainability Office Developing current and future leaders of businesses and society calls not only for active commitment to the UN Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME), but furthermore requires CBS to develop and meet organisational standards of environmental performance. In order to enhance and align CBS’ work towards these agendas, CBS Goes Green and Office of Responsible Management Education merged in spring 2013. “With a unified effort we can easier reach and engage students, faculty and campus activities across CBS in the agenda on responsibility and sustainability” – says Director of PRME & Sustainability Office Lene Mette Sørensen. The two strategic initiatives are now to be found in PRME & Sustainability Office located at Porcelænshaven 18B.
CBS Report on Progress 2012 In March 2013 CBS launched its second report on the implementation of UN PRME, which summarises CBS’ achievements in 20112012 and our future objectives for remaining a leading business school in responsible management education. The context is important for our achievements. As a Scandinavian business school with a long tradition of responsible management activities CBS’ enjoys essential support from faculty and students and is able to create the necessary conditions for achieving our ambitious objectives. All 15 departments along with Campus Service and various student organisations have been consulted, which means that the report covers all relevant activities ranging from research projects to the great work of our student organisations on the field. A clearer direction of our activities Generating the report has enabled valuable critical discussions on the topic of responsible management and its role at CBS. In relation, the process of being forced to explicitly formulate clear and measurable objectives has sharpened our focus. Furthermore, collecting data, on for instance the number of research projects related to responsible management or the number of electives with content on responsible management, has proven to be very useful in monitoring CBS activities. Since CBS became a PRME signatory in 2008 the project has grown rapidly, and in many directions. Now our effort has a clearer direction. In addition, the report is a valuable tool to thank all persons and organisations that have actively contributed to responsible management education at CBS. Download the report here. “...With the ambitious objectives, and even more important, the transparent and thorough reporting, CBS’s 2012 Sharing Information on Progress report is a pioneering example and can serve as inspiration for other academic institutions” Jonas Haertle, Head of PRME Secretariat UN Global Compact Office. 28
Once again CBS has set a high standard in PRME reporting; an achievement which rests firmly on innovative and purposeful responsible management education practices” Professor Jeremy Moon, Director, International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR), Nottingham University Business School.
CBS Environmental Report 2013 As a part of the CBS strategy and an obligation derived from our commitment to PRME, CBS has ambitious goals in relation to sustainability. In order to reduce our carbon footprints, it is requisite to know the volume of greenhouse gases generated directly or indirectly as a result of CBS’ activities. For that purpose, and with a grant from CBS Sustainability platform, two CBS Goes Green student assistants; Peter N. B. Christensen and Mads Misiak Friis under the supervision of Gert Bechlund, have developed the Environmental Report 2013 that conveys an outline of CBS’ CO2 equivalent (CO2e) situation today. Among other things, the report concludes that despite a 30.8% decrease in CO2e from electricity and a 22.8% decrease in CO2e from heating, overall CO2e emissions have still gone up by 2.6% since 2008. This is explained by the large increase in CO2e from business travels, which have grown by 62.8% since 2008. If it was not because of a cleaner energy mix supplied by DONG Energy, the overall CO2 emissions would have been much higher. Hence, if CBS wants to reach the ambitious 2020 goal of a 40% reduction in overall CO2e emissions, focused and effective efforts are needed. Director of Library and Campus Services René Steffensen sees CBS’ efforts towards reducing CO2, as challenging, exciting and absolutely necessary. ”It is a long haul and it is not enough just to be ambitious on paper. Reducing CBS’ C02-emissions requires active involvement of both students and employees, and there likewise need to be room for rather important investments in the existing buildings”. René Steffensen elaborates, ”We incorporates sustainability in our long term planning in regards to new buildings and campus development. As an example we highly emphasise good public infrastructure, in order to ensure that all campus areas and satellites are connected via close distance to the metro”. When it comes to water consumption CBS has nonetheless, despite a 22% increase in students, reduced the water consumption by 15.6% from 2008 to 2012 due to extraordinary focus on monitoring of leaking toilets and sinks, along with improved behavior of students and staff. Loaded with data the report has the potential to feature as a case study for education and research. It furthermore delivers the facts that enable students and staff to understand where their activities impact CBS’ CO2e emissions.
Responsibility Day – how to measure success in eaten sandwiches
It is always bad to make a promise you cannot keep but taking the last four years into consideration 1500 free sandwiches were expected to be more than enough to feed every participant and staff for this year Responsibility Day. It wasn’t, but we could not ask for more.
Responsibility Day is highlighted in UN PRME’s second inspirational guide which was launched at the 2013 PRME Summit in Bled, Slovenia in September 2013. The book presents best practices of 25 business schools implementing UN Principles of Responsible Management Education, placing CBS next to Babson College and
Too few sandwiches were the first of many signs to prove that the new bachelor students’s first day at CBS were more successful than ever in terms of participants. Although the overall enrolment has increased by 5 percent this year, Responsibility Day managed to increase the number of participants by 30 percent in comparison to the year before. This indicates that CBS’ attention towards responsible management has been communicated to the leaders of tomorrow. Facilitated by CBS Students the senior management team enthusiastically answered questions from the new students before an inspiring presentation from the Danish company, hummel, and their take on how to incorporate responsibility into a business context.
Bentley University. Download the Inspirational guide.
The event was designed to encourage the new students to submit an answer to the case competition. At the finals the three best groups were to pitch their idea in front of a jury consisting of CBS Case Competition Coach, Stephanie Hadler, Research Assistant, Christian Bendsen, and Karma Developer at hummel, Dan Bjerg. This year a group of International Business students were announced as winners of the Responsible Management Case Competition, due to their very professional presentation of feasible and value-driven suggestions. Despite the lack of sandwiches, small talk during the day revealed great satisfaction among the participants, the organisers and the speakers. “Responsibility Day has really proved its raison d’être this year but we are continuously looking for improvements, which we hope the upcoming evaluation processes can help us achieve”, states Professor Kai Hockerts, Academic director of Responsible Management Education at the end of a successfully Responsibility Day.
GREEN WEEK 2013
Organized by PRME & Sustainability Office
IMPRESSIVE LINEUP AT GREEN WEEK 2013 With focus on “Sustainability in Business and Society” recognised companies as Novo Nordisk, IBM and Rambøll shared their experiences on practising sustainable business. Beside company presentations, CBS invited to a lively panel debate on sustainable fashion and supply chains moderated by Development Director at Danish Fashion Institute, Jonas Eder-Hansen. Driven by great questions from a full lecture room Brian Mikkelsen, Clean Cloth Campaign Denmark and IC Companys discussed responsibility and relevant actions in order to secure responsible supply chains in the future.
Academic speed dating It was not only company leaders who got to speak. At the match-making event 28 master thesis students got the opportunity to present their ideas to eight diverse, though all highly engaged, companies all wanting to establish thesis partnerships with CBS students. Both students and companies left the event inspired and open for future collaborations.
Past Platform Events Prominent Harvard visit – Professor Cass Sunstein, June 6 CBS Sustainability Platform, in collaboration with the Public-Private Platform, had the pleasure of inviting Harvard University Professor, Cass Sunstein, for a two-day visit to CBS on June 5-6. Sunstein is working closely with CBS Professor Lucia Reisch, ICM, who was instrumental in organizing this event. During his visit, Professor Sunstein met with high-level civil servants from Danish government, private sector representatives, CBS faculty, and CBS students to talk about nudging and empirically informed regulation.
Professor Rolf Wüstenhagen on: “The Price of Renewable Energy Policy Risk”, April 24
Sustainability in a Scandinavian Context Conference, June 10-11
Professor Rolf Wüstenhagen from University of St. Gallen, was invited by the CBS Sustainability Platform in April to talk about the transition into a renewable energy future.
Workshop on Managing Political CSR held at CBS, May 23-24
The Governing Sustainability research cluster, under the CBS Sustainability Platform, organized a paper development workshop on May 23-24. The workshop was held at CBS and focused on issues related to “Managing Political CSR”. 20 scholars from Europe, the US and Canada attended the two-day event and discussed papers related to issues such as: governance through multi-stakeholder initiatives, forms of global business regulation in different sectors and regions, and the role of democratic legitimacy and corporate involvement in the public sphere. 32
The Sustainability in a Scandinavian Context Conference took place at CBS on 10-11 June 2013. Assistant Professor at cbsCSR Robert Strand and student assistant Ellen Eide organized the international event in which 125 participants took part from across academia, industry, government, and NGOs and coming from across Europe and North America and beyond. Among the invited keynote speakers were Professor R. Edward Freeman from University of Virginia Darden School of Business, Claus Meyer of Noma and New Nordic Cuisine fame, IKEA Senior Sustainability Advisor Marianne Barner, Novo Nordisk Vice President of Corporate Sustainability Susanne Stormer, Professor Jeremy Moon from Nottingham University Business School, and Professor Atle Midttun from BI Norwegian Business School. Website: http://www.conferencemanager.dk/ssc2013/conference.html
Bert Scholtens on: “Social and financial performance”, April 30 This seminar took place on April 30, 2013, where Professor Scholtens presented his research entitled: “Social and financial performance: Towards a theory of responsible investing”. The event was arranged by the Corporate Governance and Leadership research cluster, under the CBS Sustainability Platform.
Head of Group Sustainability at A.P. Moller - Maersk, Annette Stube’s Inaugural Lecture, April 2 Annette Stube, Head of Group Sustainability, A.P. Moller – Maersk, held her inaugural lecture as Adjunct Professor April 2, where she shared the story of the Maersk sustainability journey: Beginning from a sense of responsibility to becoming recognized as a catalyst for strategic growth. She is one of the most experienced sustainability professional in Denmark and has worked on strategy, leadership, procurement, supply chain management and reporting as well as impact assessment. Ms. Stube serves on the Danish Government’s Council for CASR and is a frequent speaker at international conferences. She will be affiliated as Adjunct Professor with the sustainability Platform. Missed the lecture? See the video interview on our Facebook page.
Seminar: Promoting Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Value Chains, June 18 In collaboration with the Danish Ethical Trading Initiative (DIEH), the Sustainability Platform hosted a seminar with Dr. Stephanie Barrientos, University of Manchester, who presented findings from the international research network Capturing the Gains – a program seeking to investigate linkages between the commercial dynamics and outcomes for workers within global value chains. Find out more about “Capturing the Gains” at their website: www.capturingthegains.org
Inaugural Lecture by Prof. Stefano Ponte, May 30 On May 30, Professor Stefano Ponte, Department of Business and Politics and Academic Co-Director of the Sustainability Platform, gave his inaugural lecture at CBS. Stefano’s speach was a personal account of a research journey from Italy back in the 1980s to his employment at CBS in September 2012. He has spend more than 20 years of work with a variety of agrofood sectors trying to explore trajectories and limitations of public, private and hybrid forms of governance, such as regulation, buyer power, sustainability certification and celebrity activism. At the end of the lecture, Stefano introduced a future agenda for research in the field of the cross-section of International Political Economy, Economic Geography and Economic Sociology. The inaugural was well attended with around 60 guests including colleagues, friends and members of his family.
Seminar with Professor CB Bhattacharya, September 27 In September, Professor CB Bhattacharya held the seminar: “Awakening the Green Self: Corporate Responsibility and the Role of the Stakeholder” At the seminar, Professor Bhattacharya introduced his working paper: “Corporate social responsibility, customer orientation, and the job performance of frontline employees”. CB Bhattacharya is Dean of International Relations and E.ON Chair Professor in Corporate Responsibility at European School of Management and Technology (ESMT) in Berlin, Germany. He is an international expert in business strategy innovation aimed at increasing both business and social value.
Seminar: “Sustainability & Multi-dimensional Value Creation”, June 27 This seminar was held by Dr. May Seitanidi, Kent Business School, in which she introduced her ongoing research on collaborations between business and nonprofit organisations looking at sustainability and value creation. In this sense on how the main objective of sustainability, i.e. to over-turn the dominant ‘business’ logic that prioritises financial value creation over multiple-value creation, can be achieved through cross sector collaboration. Dr. Seitanidi suggests that collaboration between business and nonprofit is a way to dramatically and effectively maximise multiple value sources on the ground.
Past Platform Events
Seminar with Professor Cynthia Stohl on Social Media Policies, October 9 This seminar focused on how organizations interact with and regulate employees’ social media communications. Furthermore, how organizations construct and reflect upon their CSR culture, strategy, and underlying belief systems. The seminar was held on October 9, 2013.
Charles Eisenstein - Beyond Green Economy Conference, May 19
EU and Financial Capital, May 4
Experts and politicians were invited to discuss EU’s financial situation especially in regard to financial regulation, government relations, today’s production of money and its impact on the banking industry. The event was arranged by DEO, ATTAC and CBS Sustainability Platform, and included 90 engaged participants. Associate Professor Ole Bjerg, CBS, presented his thoughts on: “Where money comes from”.
Seminar on performativity, October 30
On May 19 the CBS Sustainability Platform and and the PostGrowth Sustainability Research Cluster, in collaboration with Occupy Copenhagen and Transition Denmark hosted a one day conference centered on the work by Charles Eisenstein. Theme of the event was Eisenstein’s ideas about the gift economy as presented in his major work on Sacred Economics. Other speakers at the event included: Ole Bjerg, CBS, Niels I. Meyer, DTU and author Dhanesvara Das. The diversity of the speakers attracted a very heterogeneous audience of more than 400 people ranging from CBS students, environmental activists, Hare Krishna munks and socialist revolutionaries.
The “Governing Sustainability” research cluster hosted a seminar on the relevance of the concept of performativity for sustainability-related research on 30 October. The seminar included a presentation by Professor Jean-Pascal Gond and Associate Professor Laure Cabantous (both Cass Business School, London). They discussed the genealogy of the concept of performativity, and identified a variety of social mechanisms relating to the use of the concept. The seminar offered a much-welcome opportunity to discuss in what ways emerging concepts in organisation theory (like performativity) relate to research on governance/governing in the context of sustainability.
Sustainable Fashion Workshop, May 30 This workshop was held on Thursday May 30, 2013. The aim of the workshop was to kick-start an international researcher network on sustainable fashion. The intention behind the international researcher network is to push systemic changes in the fashion industry by including researchers from around the globe. The workshop received a lot of attention from the international fashion forum and had Danish, German and American fashion and jewelry designers, several academic staff from KEA, and practitioners from H&M, ASOS and NIKE Inc.
Sustainability Research Cluster Event
WHO CARES ? MAKING SUSTAINABILITY AND CSR RESEARCH MATTER
Photo: Lise Søstrøm. From Left: Julie Uldam, Assistant Professor (ICM), Simon Boas, Senior CSR Manager at Carlsberg Group, Peter Fleming, Professor of Management, Cass Business School, Claes Amundsen, Head of Communications & Fundraising, Save the Children, Denmark, Bobby Banerjee, Professor of Organisational Behaviour, Cass Business School and Anne Vestergaard, Assistant Professor (ICM).
November 8, representatives from academia, civil society and the corporate world discussed how sustainability and CSR research can be made relevant to civil society as well as business. One of the key issues the speakers discussed was how CSR creates a defense for corporate practices that are detrimental to society in terms of social and environmental sustainability. CSR allows companies to create an image of their operations as socially and environmentally sustainable without dealing with their real consequences. The panel discussed how to change the conversation about CSR across academia, civil society and the business world so as to address this crucial issue. The speakers’ discussion generated a lively debate with the many academics and practitioners who had come to CBS to attend the seminar. The event was organised by Assistant Professor Anne Vestergaard and Assistant Professor Julie Uldam from the Sustainability Platform’s Cluster on Communicative Dimensions of Sustainability
Recent CBS publications on Sustainability Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter ; Ponte, Stefano /Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity : Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications. I: European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 25, Nr. 3, 07.2013, s. 408–427. Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek; Vandergeest, Peter; Murray, Francis J.; Ponte, Stefano; Oosterveer, Peter; Islam, Muhammad Saidul ; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Hatanaka, Maki; Kruijssen, Froukje; Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Little, David C.; Kusumawati, Rini / Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?.I: Science, Vol. 341, Nr. 6150, 06.09.2013, s. 1067-1068 . Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole / CSR as Aspirational Talk. I: Organization, Vol. 20, Nr. 3, 05.2013, s. 372-393 . de Marchi, Valentina; di Maria, Eleonora; Ponte, Stefano / The Greening of Global Value Chains : Insights from the Furniture Industry. I: Competition and Change, Vol. 17, Nr. 4, 2013, s. 299-318. Frandsen, Sanne; Morsing, Mette; Vallentin, Steen / Adopting Sustainability in the Organization : Managing Processes of Productive Loose Coupling Towards Internal Legitimacy . I: Journal of Management Development, Vol. 32, Nr. 3, 2013, s. 236-246. Haakonsson, Stine / Offshoring of Innovation : Global Innovation Networks in the Danish Biotech Industry . The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization. red. / Torben Pedersen; Lydia Bals; Peter D. Ørberg Jensen; Marcus Møller Larsen. London : Springer, 2013. s. 303-323 . Midttun, Atle; Gjølberg, Maria; Kourula, Arno; Sweet, Susanne; Vallentin, Steen / Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries : Harmony of Goals and Conflict of Means . I: Business & Society, 2013, s. 37. Ponte, Stefano; Cheyns, Emmanuelle / Voluntary Standards, Expert Knowledge and the Governance of Sustainability Networks. I: Global Networks (Oxford), Vol. 13, Nr. 4, 10.2013, s. 459-477. Ponte, Stefano / ‘Roundtabling’ Sustainability : Lessons from the Biofuel Industry. I: Geoforum, 12.08.2013. Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Gwozdz, Wencke / From Resistance to Opportunity-Seeking : Strategic Responses to Institutional Pressures for Corporate Social Responsibility in the Nordic Fashion Industry. I: Journal of Business Ethics, 01.02.2013. Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni; Gwozdz, Wencke / Conformance and Deviance : Company Responses to Institutional Pressures for Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting. I: Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 22, Nr. 6, 2013, s. 357-373. Rasche, Andreas; Bakker, Frank; Moon, Jeremy / Complete and Partial Organizing for Corporate Social Responsibility. I: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 115, Nr. 4, 2013, s. 651-663. Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert , Dirk Ulrich; Schedel , Ingo / Cross-Disciplinary Ethics Education in MBA Programs : Rhetoric or Reality? . I: Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 12, Nr. 1, 2013, s. 71-85. Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra ; McIntosh, Malcolm / The United Nations Global Compact : Retrospect and Prospect . I: Business & Society, Vol. 52, Nr. 1, 2013, s. 6-30. Schultz, Friederike; Castello, Itziar; Morsing, Mette / The Construction of Corporate Social Responsibility in Network Societies : A Communication View. I: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 115, Nr. 4, 2013, s. 681-692. Reisch, Lucia / Commentary XVIII : The Role of Sustainable Consumption in Fostering a Fundamental Transformation of Agriculture. Trade and Development Review 2013. Wake Up Before It Is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate. red. / Ulrich Hoffmann; Frank Grothaus; Praveen Bhalla. Geneva : United Nations University Press, 2013. s. 95-101 (Trade and Environment Review) Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano / Brand Aid : Values, Consumption, and Celebrity Mediation. I: International Political Sociology, Vol. 7, Nr. 1, 03.2013, s. 107-111. Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano / Brand Aid and the International Political Economy and Sociology of North–South Relations : Introduction. I: International Political Sociology, Vol. 7, Nr. 1, 03.2013, s. 92-93. Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward / Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage : The Theory and and Practice of Stakeholder Engagement in Scandinavia. I: Journal of Business Ethics, 07.08.2013. Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia / Green by Default. I: Kyklos, Vol. 66, Nr. 3, 08.2013, s. 398-402. Uldam, Julie / Activism and the Online Mediation Opportunity Structure : Attempts to Impact Global Climate Change Policies?. I: Policy and Internet, Vol. 5, Nr. 1, 03.2013, s. 56-75. Uldam, Julie; Askanius, Tina / Online Civic Cultures? : Debating Climate Change Activism on YouTube. I: International Journal of Communication, Vol. 7, 2013, s. 1185-1204. Vallentin, Steen / Èt skridt frem... og to tilbage? : CSR som filantropi. I: Social Kritik, Vol. 25, Nr. 133, 03.2013, s. 18-31. Vallentin, Steen / Governmentalities of CSR : Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference. I: Journal of Business Ethics, 11.04.2013 Vallentin, Steen; Schmiegelow, Andreas / Sector-specific Corporate Responsibility in Denmark. Corporate Responsibility in Europe: Government Involvement in Sector-specific Initiatives. red. / Thomas Beschorner; Thomas Hajduk; Samuil Simeonov . Gütersloh : Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2013. s. 91-112.
CBS Sustainability Platform Leadership and Staff Academic Director, Professor Mette Morsing Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: 3815 3205
Academic Director, Professor Stefano Ponte Mail: email@example.com Tel.: 3815 4265
Project Manager, Barbara Louise Bech Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: 3815 3286
Research Assistant, Jonas Elleboe SĂ¸dergran Mail: email@example.com Tel.: 3815 3231
Research Assistant, Line Pedini Rasmussen Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: 3815 3231
CSQ, CBS Sustainability Quarterly Vol. 5 Contact: PorcelĂŚnshaven 18A, Office 0.141 2000 Frederiksberg www.cbs.dk/sustainability www.facebook.com/CBSSustainability CSQ
This is the fifth issue CBS Sustainability Quarterly