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The Bamboo Factory Marie Nihonyanagi University of Greenwich UNIT 7


Contents 1.0 Introduction 1.01 Unit brief 1.02 Project Response to Brief 2.0 Site analysis and Context 2.01 Site Location 2.02 Site Mapping 2.03 Infrastructure and Transportation likks 2.04 Site views & Photos 2.05 Weather condition 2.06 Geological structure 2.07 Site heritage 2.08 Flooding Risk 2.09 Topography & Bathymetry and Sea Tide 2.10 Sunpath 2.11 Wind direction & speed 2.12 Vegetation Map 2.13 Bamboo 3.0 Conceptual Strategy and Responses 3.01 Project Concept 3.02 Conceptual program of the project 3.03 Design Concept diagram of the Bamboo Factory building 3.04 Design Concept diagram of thr Bamboo Factory building 3.05 Bamboo Floor production diagram 3.06 Design Strategy 3.06.01Material – 3.06.02 Movement – 3.06.03 Typologies 4.0 Design Proposal and G.A. Drawings 4.01 Site Plan (1:1000) 4.02 Site Section (1:1000) 4.03.01 Plans (1:250) 4.03.02 Plans (1:250) 4.03.03 Plans (1:250) 4.04 Section (1:250) 4.05.01 Regulation and Legislative constraints: Flow plan and Access 4.05.02 Regulation and Legislative constraints: Fire Safety

5.0 Building Details 5.01 Building Details 5.01.01 Detail-01 Foundation to Retaining wall (Excavation) 5.01.02 Detail -02 Retaining wall to bamboo Columns 5.01.03 Detail -03 Foundation to Glass wall with Bamboo columns 5.01.04 Detail -04 Bamboo wall to Glass Roof 5.01.05 Detail -06 Staircase 5.02 Detail -08 Bamboo connection Strategies 5.02.01 Bamboo connection of Bamboo Column Tank 5.02.02 Bamboo connection of External Bamboo Veil

6.0 Building Environment 6.01 Daylight and Shadow 6.02 Rainwater harvesting and irrigation - strategy 6.03 Rainwater harvesting and irrigation - calculations 6.04 Energy and Heating strategy 6.05 Ventilation 7.0 Professional Practice 7.01 Contract 7.02 Contractual Relationships 7.03 Procurement The role of the architect


1.0 Introduction


1.01 Unit brief Just outside London we journey into the edgelands where reclaimed islands seethes with a network of creeks, whilst the fastest growing seaside resort was devastated by a North Sea Flood of 1951. This is a pioneering site for the petrochemical industry, which has an influential assessment of risk to a population living within the vicinity. We want you to design a new pioneering village, not unlike the gold rush villages in the second creation of America. But it is not a frontier village for the earth but for technology. You will design an archive of the earth, on the earth. It will become a second creation village for frontiers of technology through the speculative fall of man. We aim to exhume a village and use it as a space for simulation and as a testing ground for new technologies with the understanding that the human program is interfaced with the ground program. The students will design complex architectural environments with the poetic simulation of new technologies that are yet to find form. This year our site will be in Essex. We will focus along Southend-on-Sea’s seaside amusement park, Leigh-on-Sea’s everglade, the oil city, Two-Tree-Island, suburbia of Canvey Island.


1.02 Project Brief The aim of the project “Bamboo Factory” Bamboo factory is a sustainable and experimental project which consists of a factory to supply bamboo material, and a Kiln to smoke bamboo and make charcoal, an Exhibition space and a research centre with a Bamboo Garden. The aim of the project is to introduce and spread the use of bamboo as a sustainable material in the U.K. In order to achieve this, some of the bamboo materials will be grown in the Garden to prove that bamboo can grow in the UK climate, and also to find suitable types of bamboo. The Research Centre will control the garden and test bamboo’s potential as building material. Moreover, experimenting with how improving the site conditions such as water and soil by using bamboo products; especially Bamboo charcoal, is also an important purpose of the Research Centre. The factory and Kiln will provide bamboo material, products and workshops for bamboo. The Factory is for introducing and proving Bamboo as a multi-functional environmental infrastructure for an ecological future.

Why the project “Bamboo Factory” is on Two-Tree-Island? Two-Tree-Island is currently a covered up grass field whose habitat includes various wild animals and migration birds. However, The island was used as a landfill site for around 40 years. During that time, the island was filled of waste which wasn’t a sustainable material. From the site history, there is concern that the site soil and water is contaminated by reeking old rubbish. The previous wastes included construction material which were not sustainable and has led to a serious issue for landfill sites. We have to address the existing problem and it will probably take a long time. It suggests that we ought to choose sustainable materials in order to not damage our planet for our future. Most parts of the project buildings are made of bamboo which is a sustainable material. The project has a potential to approach the environmental issue; especially water conditions, by using bamboo charcoal. There has been some research about the positive environmental effects of bamboo. However, there are still a lack of projects to test the potential of bamboo as a building material I suppose that Landfill sites, where people are concerned about the site contamination, is adequate for the purpose of experimenting with the environmental effectiveness of bamboo. For this reason, The Bamboo Factory Project is located on Two-Tree-Island.


2.0 Site Analysis


2.01 Site Location Two-Tree-Island, which is 640 acres, lies north-east of Canvey Island, south-west of Leigh-on-Sea and south-east of Benfleet in Essex, England. Bamboo Factory Project is located on the West part of the Island. Two-Tree-Island was a landfill site until the 1970s, and it is now a national nature reserve. Internationally significant for birdlife, it’s important for reptiles too, including the adder.

Southend-on-sea

Benfleet Project site

Westcliff-on-sea

Two-Tree-Island

London Canvey Island

Hadleigh Ray

N

Two-Tree-Island Project site


2.02 Site Mapping Population in Essex: 1,393,600 (2012) h t t p : / / w w w. e ss ex . g o v. u k / N e w s / P a g e s / E ss ex - p o p u l a t i o n - r i s e s - b y over-82,000-in-ten-years.aspx Residential properties on Canvey Island: 15,490 (2001) (Office for National Statistics, 2002) According to the map, it is clear that there are many housing around the site. The local residents will be potential customers of the bamboo products that are provided from the Bamboo Factory. The products should be designed for local People. Most of the houses in the Canvey Island and southend are typical Brick houses with standard doors, windows and a garden. Bamboo building materials and products will be used in these houses.

Westcliff-on-sea

5 4 6

Project site London

-Residential site -Industrial Site -Activities/Amusement Site -Caravan site -Green Field/Grassland

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3 2

1

1.Hole Haven Caravan Park

2.Thorney Bay Park Ltd

3.Canvey Island Houses

4.Leigh-on-Sea Houses

5.Westcliff-on-Sea Houses

6.Beach Huts


2.03 Infrastructure & Transportation links The best way to visit Two-Tree-Island is by car because a road is connected to the island. There are also some public transports which can be accessed near the site. The nearest station is Leigh-on-sea station and it is expected that many visitors use the train to come to the site. However, the distance is too far for commuters who will work in the building. Furthermore, the project site is located at the West-end of the island, which means that the nearest car park on the island is quite far from the site. For this reason, re-designing the roads and car parking to access to the site will have to be considered in the Project design. From the reason, re-design a car road and car parking to access to the site have to be considered in the Project design.

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6 5 2

Infrastructure & Transportation links

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Parkway A130 Urban Green Roadways A13 B1014

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Railway C2C Riverways (Thamens Catchment) Benfleet Creek

Project site

Greenways 1. Fobbing Marshes 2.South Benfleet 3. Canvey Loop 4. Hadligh 5. Leigh/Rayleigh 6. City to Sea/Shoreline

Access to the site

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3

The nearest car road to the site The walkway to access to the site

1. Leigh-on-sea Station

2. Benfleet Station

3. Bridge

4. Car park


2.04.01 Site view and photos Two-Tree-Island

Two-Tree-Island 640 acre itself consists of grassland, scrubs, reedbed and lagoons, and supports a wide variety of birds, particularly migrants. Avocets breed on the island each year. The eastern half is now a nature reserve, run by Essex Wildlife Trust, and the western half is a country park popular with birdwatchers. The eastern part, with the adjoining saltmarsh (170 acres) and a large area of inter-tidal mudflats (464 acres) is a nature reserve managed by Essex Wildlife Trust. It is part of Leigh National Nature Reserve. Two-Tree-Island was a landfill site until the 1970s but it is now a national nature reserve. Internationally significant for birdlife, it’s important for reptiles too, including the adder.

1. Bird Hides 2. Lagoon 3. Low Water Crossing 4. Model Flying Club 5. Tree Stump Graveyard 6. Car Parks 7. Boat Storage 8. Jetty 9. Scouts’s Hut 10. Main Entrance (BAFFLE-GATE) 11. Stile 12. Warden’s Hut 13. Information Board 14. Observation Hide 15. Sewage Works on public access at present 16. Concreate W.W.2 Pill-box 17. Old Fish Pond 18. Old Oyster Bed 19. Bridge 20. Golf Driving Range 21. Skate Park 22. Boat Yard

19 Project site

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2.04.02 Site view and photos Lagoon The project location is next to the lagoon. The western half of Two-Tree-Island including the project site is a country park popular with birdwatchers. At the western end is a bird hide overlooking the lagoon. Bamboo factory will use the water leading from the lagoon and research how much the water condition can be improved with using bamboo charcoal. The Lagoon is the important aspect of my project.

Canvey Island

Lagoon

Project site Lagoon

Benfleet


2.05.01 Weather condition: Climate Temperatures: Averages and Extremes

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30

Temperatures (째C )

20

Absolute Max Average Max

10

Average Mini 0 Absolute Mini

Dec

Nov

Oct

Sep

Aug

Jul

Jun

May

Apr

Mar

Feb

Jan

-10

Number of Rain/Drizzle days in Month 30

25

20

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16

Nov

Dec

14

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12

Aug

13

Jul

13

Jun

14

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May

16 15

Oct

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5

Sep

Apr

Mar

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0

Jan

Days

The information gives detailed historical monthly average weather conditions. To maintain relevance to current weather trends, the displayed information has been calculated using data collected over the past two decades. The climate profile is taken from the closest available data source to Two-Tree-Island. The site climate is significant for bamboo growing. The project includes a bamboo garden, and according to the data, it could be said that some of the bamboo can grow in the climate. The water is also an important aspect because Bamboo requires a huge amount of water to grow. I suppose that the amount of rain in the site is acceptable to grow bamboo.


2.05.02 Weather condition: Climate Climate change Due to the effects of climate change, it is predicted that there will be longer, drier, hotter summers and shorter, warmer, and wetter winters. It is connected with sea level rise, increased flooding risk, and water resources issues. Fluvial and tidal flood risk management, water supply, water use, sewage treatment and water quality have to be considered in the design of the project. Moreover, climate change will result in higher temperatures leading to lower air quality and the resultant detrimental affects on respiratory conditions. Increasing temperatures can be ameliorated through extensive and appropriate planting, which will also reduce carbon and other pollutant levels, and enhance air quality. In this situation, growing bamboo can be a solution to the leading issue of climate change.


2.06 Geological Information According to the map, Two-Tree-Island in Essex and Southend was a total landfill site which is protected by concrete sand bags. It is not known what went into the site and could be dangerous from leaching and breaches from contaminated land. One of the purposes of the project is experimenting and testing how effective the soil and water cleaning functions are of Bamboo charcoal. Two-Tree-Island as a landfill site is suitable site for the project. The Project is expected to be able to improve the current condition in the site. In addition, the site is wet land, which will influence the foundation type for the building, and pile foundations will be used in the project building.

A’

Project site

EXPLANATION OF GEOLOGICAL SYMBOLS Aeromagnetic Anomalies Bouguer Gravity Anomalies Geological boundary Drift Borehole (E where more than 30m in depth) W

Water well or borehole

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Water well or borehole, exact site uncertain Landslip

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Worked out area of brickeath or sand and gravel Made ground Landfill site

A

Geological Plan (1:25000)


INDEX AND EXPLANATION OF FORMATIONAL SYMBOLS AND COLOURS DRIFT 1. Alluvium 2. Loam (River Brickeath)

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT

1st Terrace

3. Sand and Gravel 4. Loam (River Brickeath)

2nd Terrace River Deposits

5. Sand and Gravel 6. Loam (River Brickeath)

3rd Terrace

4th Terrace Marine and Estuarine Deposits

7. Sand and Gravel 8. Sand and Gravel 9.Marine Beach or Tidal Flat Deposits (Undifferentiated) 10. Marine or Estuarine Alluvium (Undifferentiated or Clay) 11. Head

Canvey Island (I.G.S.) Borehole

12. Brickearth, including Head Brickeath 13. Sande and Gravel of unknown age

GENERALIZED VERTICAL SECTION SOILD EOCENE

Bagshot Pebble Bed (up to 4m) Bagshot Beds (up to 23m)

London Clay (125 to 135m)

Strata proved in boreholes

CRETACEOUS

PLEISTOCENE

Claygate Beds (17 to 23m)

Lower London Tertiaries (26 to 55m)

Woolwich Beds including Oldhaven Beds Thanet Beds Upper Chalk (about 85m) Middle Chalk (about 70m) Lower Chalk (about 50m) Upper Greensand (4 to 9m) Gault (34 to 56m)

Geological Section (1:25000)

London-Southend Road (A13) Two-Tree-Island

Railway

A127 Arterial Road


2.07 The site heritage Map1805 to 1869 The island was reclaimed in the 18th century when a sea-wall was built around saltmarsh, and was used for rough grazing until 1910 when a sewage farm was built on its eastern part of the island. In 1936, Southend Borough Council acquired the entire island and was used as a landfill site; this was later reduced to a single small site on the island in 1974. During the Second World War a V-2 rocket landed just outside the sea wall of Two-Tree-Island. Recently a number of places have been put on the island, such as a jetty, boat storage area and car parks. A golfing range and skate park have been situated on the mainland, near to the bridge with the island.

Map1805 to 1869

2.08 Flooding Risk According to the Flooding Risk map, the project site is in the flooding risk area which is not benefiting from flood defenses. The project will grow bamboo, although bamboo cannot grow with salty water. The bamboo garden will have to be protected from flooding by building a barrier or planting above a sea table and flooding level.

Flooding Risk history On 1st February 1953, the North Sea Flood hit the Canvey Island during the night, which is next to the island of Two-Tree-Island, and caused the deaths of 58 people. The small village area of the island is approximately two feet above sea level and consequently escaped the effects of the flood. After the flood of 1953, a new seawall was built, which was then replaced with a significantly larger construction in the 1980s.

Project site

Flood Zone3 Flood Zone2 Areas benefiting from flood defences (Not all may be shown) Main rivers

Flooding Risk Map


2.09 Topography and Bathymetry plan and Sea Tide Tidal Patterns Average High Tide: 6.1m Average Low Tide: 0.3m ( Data from South-End Marina predicted tide table for 2013 less than a mile away from my site) According to the data, the water difference level of tide is 3 to 4 meters between low and high. At very low tide, people can walk through the western part of Two-TreeIsland and rejoin the sea wall by a ford but expect muddy boots. The project site level is above 4 meters from water level (5.2m). The level is not completely safe from flooding. Bamboo will be grown on the site as a solution to protect the site from flooding water, and filling the site will raise the level of the land.

+13m +12m +11m +10m

+9m

+8m +7m

+8m

ELEVATION CONTOURS

+7m +6m(High Tide +6.1)

+15m +14m +13m +12m +11m

+5m

+10m +9m

+4m

+8m +7m +6m +5m +4m +3m +2m +1m 0

+3m +2m +1m 0m (Low tide +0.3)


2.10 Sunpath The sunlight is the most considerable aspect to acknowledge in designing buildings of the project. Sunlight should be controlled in order to create a comfortable environment within the space. Depending on the season, the amount of light taken into the building will have to be carefully considered. The project aim is to have sustainable buildings. For this purpose, utilizing the sunlight for the building is an efficient way to use less energy for lighting. Furthermore for bamboo, the sunlight is important. Bamboo will grow well with enough sunlight, and bamboo materials change their condition such as colour depending on its exposure to sun light. Therefore, some parts of the building design, especially the roof, will be influenced by sunlight.

Angle of the Sunlight at 12:00pm 61.9°

Angle of the Sunlight at 12:00pm 15.2°

N Bevation 10° 20°

June 4

May 5

30°

June. 21

40°

July. 21

Dec. 21

50° 60°

Aug. 20

70° Apr. 5

80° Sep. 19 E

W

Mar. 5 Oct. 19

Feb. 4 Nov. 18

Dec. 21

Jan. 5

S

June. 21


2.11 Wind direction and speed According to the graph, the prevailing winds come from a south-west direction in the site. The graph data is taken from the research data gathered by Iowa State University of Science and Technology. The wind affects the water flow of the canal. Therefore, the canal direction is along the strongest wind direction(south-west). Moreover, wind direction is important for the building ventilation system, especially in the summer. Building openings such as doors and windows, and their location in the building should be considered with this aspect.

Average wind speed from 22 Aug 2011 to 28 OMar 2014 : 4.1 m s-1

Autumn Wind Frequency (m s-1)

Winter Wind Frequency (m s-1)

Spring Wind Frequency (m s-1)

Summer Wind Frequency (m s-1)


2.12 Vegetation Map The island itself consists of grassland, scrubs, reed bed and lagoons, supports a wide variety of birds, particularly migrants. Avocets breed on the island each year. The project will grow bamboo in the Garden. According to the map, it is true to say that the Island has a huge area to plant bamboo. Initially, the bamboo garden is planned to only occupy the land around the building. However, its size can be expanded depending on the requirement in the future.


2.13 Bamboo Possibility of growing Bamboo in the site According to the map, England is not in the area of Global natural habitat for bamboo. However, there are many bamboo gardens in European countries such as the bamboo garden in Barden-Barden in Germany. There are various types of bamboo on the earth, and some of them are resilient for cold climates. In the project, it should be considered which bamboo will be planted.

Map of Global natural habitat of bamboo

bamboo garden in Barden-Barden

Different types of Bamboos which is possible to grow in the EU.

Rhizome with air canal and fibrous ring


3.0 Conceptual Strategy and Responses


3.01 Project concept On just 500m2 of land you can harvest a house each year.’ Says Gunter Pauli. Bamboo grows more than 30 per cent faster than any other tree on earth. It has provided shelter in Tropical and subtropical counties for centuries. Bamboo could be seen as a great innovation if humans had invented it. As we did with so many artificial materials such as Plastic and Teflon. However, in contemporary design and architecture the unique qualities of this sustainable natural material are yet to be fully exploited or appreciated. The fact that bamboo is more than two and a half times more cost-efficient for building materials than wood and more than 50 times cheaper than steel suggests that it should be considered. Bamboo can be grown virtually on our own doorstep, which would cut transportation costs. It can be used as material for furniture, housing products and construct a building within five years of being planted, and will continue to grow after it is harvested. Moreover, Bamboo can be converted into food, medicine and fuel. I believe that the development of the potential of bamboo is beneficial for our future. Bamboo factory is a sustainable and experimental project which consists of a factory to supply bamboo material, and a Kiln to smoke bamboo and make charcoal, and a research centre with a Bamboo Garden, additionally an Exhibition space will be planned in the future. The aim of the project is to introduce and spread the use of bamboo as a sustainable material in Southend at first, and then finally the rest of the U.K. In order to achieve this, some of the bamboo materials will be grown in the Garden to prove that bamboo can grow in the UK climate, and also to find suitable types of bamboo. The Research Centre will control the garden and test bamboo’s potential as building material. Moreover, experimenting with how improving the site conditions such as water and soil by using bamboo products; especially Bamboo charcoal, is also an important purpose of the Research Centre. The factory and Kiln will provide bamboo material, products and workshops for bamboo. The Factory can be the prototype of a multi-functional environmental infrastructure for an ecological future.

Fuel Medicine

Wind

Environmental Heat

Soil Nutrients

Electricity

Food & Drink

Electronics

Bamboo Factory Housing Material

Social

Oefense

Sports Equipment

Automotive

Textiles

Baby Products Filtaration

Cosmetics

Economic


3.02 Conceptual program

Community

The project seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Bamboo is expected as one of the most sustainable materials. Bamboo has already been popular as a gardening plant in the U.K. However, bamboo also has a useful function which is rarely noticed as a building material, and bamboo is not commonly used because of cost, lack of quantity of the material, and construction technology. However, rising consideration of ecological life, developing and utilising bamboo as part of house building material is beneficial and positive in the future. The Factory is for introducing and proving that Bamboo can be utilized as part of a multi-functional environmental infrastructure for the ecological future. To achieve the aim, the project will create connections between the Bamboo factory, local community and the Client. Connection of Community and the Factory The Bamboo Factory will provide local communities not only with bamboo products, but also employment to make and sell the products. It is expected to have a strong connection and support between the Factory and the community. Furthermore, the local residents houses will be utilising bamboo material and products, and exemplify its qualities.

Bamboo Factory

Client

Bamboo products

Local Housing

Client: BRE

Relationship of Client and the Factory The research centre in the Factory will provide the experiment with the data of the sustainable efficiency of bamboo as a housing material and ecological product. Beach Huts

Caravan Park


3.03 Design Concept diagram of the Project Bamboo factory is a sustainable and experimental project which consists of a factory to supply bamboo material, and a Kiln to smoke bamboo, make charcoal and provide heat and electricity for buildings, an Exhibition space and a research centre with a Bamboo Garden. The aim of the project is to introduce and spread the use of bamboo as a sustainable material in the U.K. In order to achieve this, some of the bamboo materials will be grown in the Garden to prove that bamboo can grow in the UK climate, and also to find suitable types of bamboo. The Research Centre will control the garden and test bamboo’s potential as building material. Moreover, experimenting with how improving the site conditions such as water and soil by using bamboo products; especially Bamboo charcoal, is also an important purpose of the Research Centre. The factory and Kiln will provide bamboo material, products and workshops for bamboo. The Factory is for introducing and proving Bamboo as a multi-functional environmental infrastructure for an ecological future.

Research Centre

Bamboo Factory

Kiln

Bamboo Veil

Canal

Bamboo Garden


3.04 Design Concept diagram of the Bamboo Factory building The main building of the project is Bamboo factory which includes a research centre. The building is required to have facilities to produce bamboo materials, and studio space to create the bamboo products which are mainly furniture and household goods. Workshop space for visitors and shops to exhibit and sell the products and goods. The research centre is also important for collecting data about bamboo and testing the quality of bamboo for use as a building material. A rainwater collection system and filtering system will be integrated into the building, and the water will be used to supply the garden and toilets. In addition, the building energy required for heating and electricity will be provided from the kiln, and using the energy from the charcoal.

Bamboo sun shading

Rain water collection

Kiln

Supply Heat and Electricity

Bamboo products Shops

Reserach Centre

Bamboo Furniture Shops

Water ďŹ lter

Workship space

Studio space Storage for Products

Water tank

Storage for Bamboo material Factory space

Supply Water

Bamboo Garden

Supply Bamboo

Testing space


3.05 Bamboo floor production diagram As a bamboo building material, Bamboo flooring and timber will consume the most material. In the Factory space, similar production processes within the facility would be utilized. Bamboo can be utilized as a building material due to its strength, durability, and eco-friendly properties. Unlike most trees, bamboo matures and can be harvested within three years. The bamboos harvested within 3 to 6 years are mature enough to provide optimal bamboo flooring. 1. the bamboos around 3 to 5 years old. 2. The bamboo is put through a splitting and sizing machine to be crosscut to identical lengths. The internal knots are removed and the outer skin is peeled. 3. To remove insects, grime, and sugars, (and additionally, to prevent future decay), the bamboo is boiled in hot water to which preservatives have been added. One of the most crucial steps in the manufacturing of bamboo floors is allowing the bamboo to air dry and then kiln dry to an 8 to 14 percent moisture level after the anti-insect boiling water bath. The drying process usually takes about 5 days.

Cutting down

Sizing and Knot Removal

Slicing

Anti Insect Treatment

Drying

Lamination

4. Strips of bamboo are set perpendicular to face veneers and then laminated together using adhesive and a two-dimensional hot press machine. The source of heat is steam, or high-frequency heat. The direction in which the strip of bamboo and the face veneers are laminated in, determines whether the flooring is vertical or horizontal. The process combines bamboo strips into large boards of strengthened flooring material. 5. Carbonization of bamboo floors is performed by heating the bamboo using steam treatment in a closed container. The darker color is a result of the sugars in the bamboo caramelizing due to the high heat. The longer the bamboo is allowed to process, the darker the color will be. However, the carbonization process may weaken the strength of the bamboo flooring by 10 to 30 percent. Alternatives to carbonization are bleaching, a process in which the bamboo is brushed with bleaching agents, and painting or staining the bamboo to attain the desired color and luster. 6. The bamboo is cut to the desired length and width using a wood sawing machine. The large boards of bamboo are inserted into the machine, and from therein, they are mechanically cut into planks. Machines are also used to mold the bamboo into desired shapes and finishes. 7. The bamboo planks are sanded using a wide sanding belt to smoothen and level the surface boards. The sanding belt provides a smooth finish to the bamboo floors, which are thereafter, inspected, packaged, and exported.

Carbonization

Cutting and Molding

Sanding

Coating

Finished Floor


3.06.01 Design Strategy -Material The most significant aspect of this Project is Bamboo. Most of the components of the buildings will made from bamboo and some of them will utilize an experimental construction strategy such as the support of glass walls. The building will be an example of sustainable bamboo building in the U.K. Thus the buildings will show various bamboo construction and design bamboo material. The possibility to utilise bamboo material in building components. Construction Columns Floor Door Window Stair and handle Wall Wall fabrics Conservatory Deck Balcony

To build the Factory, the material will be exported from India. In the site, the bamboo will be grown and can be used for the building material, but the quantity would be not enough for initial building construction. However, the material for expanding the building parts can be provided from the bamboo garden.

Prototype for the ZERI pavirion in Manizales(Colombia) Simon Velez 1999


3.06.02 Design Strategy -MovementThe influence of the Movement of the Sun The sunlight is the most considerable aspect to acknowledge in designing buildings of the project. Sunlight should be controlled in order to create a comfortable environment within the space. Depending on the season, the amount of light taken into the building will have to be carefully considered. The project aim is to have sustainable buildings. For this purpose, utilizing the sunlight for the building is an efficient way to use less energy for lighting. The external bamboo Veil which will cover up the Bamboo Factory has a function of sun shading. The veil system will be influenced by the seasonal movement of the sun.

Prototype for the ZERI pavirion in Manizales(Colombia) Simon Velez 1999


3.06.03 Design Strategy -TypologiesThe design of the buildings will be inspired from the existing functions in the facility. The project building has water tank columns and water collection towers. Water Tanks and Winding towers typology are effected by the shapes of the components. The Factory will provide bamboo furniture including doors and windows. Bamboo is easy to bend as a flexible material and it’s possible to create unique furniture design. The Art deco doors’ hand craft design typology can be converted into bamboo furniture design.

Water Tanks

Artdeco style Doors

Winding towers


4.0 Design Proposal and G.A. Drawings


4.01 Site Plan (1:1000)

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1. Bamboo Factory 2. Kiln 3. Bamboo Charcoal Veil 4. Car parking 5. Bamboo Bods Bridge 6. Water collecting Towers 7. Bamboo Garden 8. Canal


4.02 Long site Section A-A’ (1:1000)

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1. Bamboo Factory 2. Kiln 3. Bamboo Charcoal Veil 4. Car parking 5. Bamboo Bods Bridge 6. Water collecting Towers 7. Bamboo Garden 8. Canal


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4.03.01 First Floor Plan of the Bamboo Factory (1:250)

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1. Entrance from Kiln and Car park

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2. Public open space 3. Furniture shop 4. Staff Room

a

5. Bamboo Products Shop 6. Reseach centre 7. Information countre

5

8. Entrance from Bamboo bridge 9. Bathroom 10. Disabled Bathroom 11. External Bamboo veil 12. Studio Space

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13. Workshop Space 14. Shelves 15. Water tank columns 16. Internal Bamboo Garden 17. Bamboo cutting space 18. Bamboo treating Space 19. Drying space 20. Storage 21. individual working space 22. Large Factory space 23. Testing Space 24. Water puring Bamboo charcoal 25. Canal

N


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4.03.02 Ground Floor Plan of the Bamboo Factory (1:250)

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11

9

1. Entrance from Kiln and Car park 2. Public open space 3. Furniture shop 4. Staff Room

a

10

5. Bamboo Products Shop 6. Reseach centre 7. Information countre

12 12

8. Entrance from Bamboo bridge 9. Bathroom 10. Disabled Bathroom 11. External Bamboo veil 12. Studio Space

15

13. Workshop Space 14. Shelves 15. Water tank columns 16. Internal Bamboo Garden

16

17. Bamboo cutting space 18. Bamboo treating Space 19. Drying space 20. Storage 21. individual working space 22. Large Factory space 23. Testing Space 24. Water puring Bamboo charcoal 25. Canal

N


9 10 11

4.03.03 Basement Plan of the Bamboo Factory (1:250)

12 13

20 21

19

10 22

18 15

20

a’

24 17

1. Entrance from Kiln and Car park 2. Public open space 3. Furniture shop 4. Staff Room

25 a

15

5. Bamboo Products Shop

23

6. Reseach centre 7. Information countre 8. Entrance from Bamboo bridge 9. Bathroom 10. Disabled Bathroom 11. External Bamboo veil

20 20 20

10

12. Studio Space 13. Workshop Space 14. Shelves 15. Water tank columns 16. Internal Bamboo Garden 17. Bamboo cutting space 18. Bamboo treating Space 19. Drying space 20. Storage 21. individual working space 22. Large Factory space 23. Testing Space 24. Water puring Bamboo charcoal 25. Canal

N


4.04 Section a-a’ (1:250)

11

7

2

3

2

13 1. Entrance from Kiln and Car park

12

9

2. Public open space

15

3. Furniture shop

15

15

16

15

4. Staff Room 5. Bamboo Products Shop

17

22

6. Reseach centre 7. Information countre 8. Entrance from Bamboo bridge 9. Bathroom 10. Disabled Bathroom 11. External Bamboo veil 12. Studio Space 13. Workshop Space 14. Shelves 15. Water tank columns 16. Internal Bamboo Garden 17. Bamboo cutting space 18. Bamboo treating Space 19. Drying space 20. Storage 21. Individual working space 22. Large Factory space 23. Testing Space 24. Water puring Bamboo charcoal 25. Canal

24


4.05.01 Regulation and Legislative constraints: Disabled Access and Flow plan In order to comply with the disability Discrimination Act and building regulations part M, circulation within the Bamboo factory leads into the public open space. The ramps providing access into the buildings from the car park are also compliant with part M regulations for wheelchair users, incorporating a 1:20 gradient with a maximum individual flight of 10m and landings at the top and bottom of 1.2m long, and clear of any door openings. Interstitial landings are taken at 1.5m long every 10 meters. The ramps will also be made from a non-slip surface finish and have adequate handrail provision of 900mm above ramp and 1100mm at landings. Corridors and door widths inside the building are also compliant ensuring sufficient space for wheelchair access along with relevant WC facilities on all floors. Main doors have a width of 1250mm while internal doorways have a clear opening width of 850mm.

First Floor

Ground Floor

Basement Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

Basement Floor

Access Ramp Lift Disabled Bathroom


4.05.02 Regulation and Legislative constraints: Fire Safety In order to comply with building regulations part B, the layout of the buildings and material selection are defined to meet standards outlined in the Approved documents. For this reason integration of specific fire requirements are provided in Bamboo Factory. The primary materiality of the structure is bamboo and concrete for the foundation. The bamboo columns will require an external coating such as an intumescent. The concrete may allow for a reduction in the external protection coating. In any case the British Standard Fire Rating will need to be identified and considered when applying fire-proof coatings. Moreover, In order to prevent the spread of fire in the building, all glazed walls are fitted with fire-protective glass. The building is fitted with an electrically operated fire alarm system including manual alarm points in the event that the automatic system fails. There is a sprinkler system throughout the internal spaces in addition to fire extinguishers as agreed with the fire officer. The emergency exits are clearly marked and all fire escape doors can be opened outwards. All building materials also have to meet the standards outlined in approved documents B regarding the spread of fire. All internal escape routes have a minimum width of 850mm and a clear headroom of 2000mm, all escape doors have a width of 1250mm. There is a maximum travel distance of 18m to the nearest fire exit where there is escape only in one direction, and a total escape distance of less than 45m to the outside. Vertical escape is via protected stairways that discharge directly to protected exit passageways. All stairs have a minimum width of 1200mm including landings with an accessible refuge for wheelchairs of 900mm x 1400mm.

First Floor

Ground Floor

Basement Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

Basement Floor Escape Routes


5.0 Building Details


5.01 Building Details


5.01.01 Detail-01 Foundation to Retaining wall Detail Section 1:20

Concrete retaining wall Waterproofing Rigid Insulation: 100mm

Bamboo flooring

Damp-proof membrane

Bamboo board

-

UFH Pipe Heat emission plate Screed: 75mm Rigid Insulation: 100mm Damp-proof membrane Concrete slab Sand blinding Hardcore (50mm)

Concrete footing Drainage, perforated/porous pipe


5.01.02 Detail -02 Retaining wall to bamboo Columns Detail Section 1:10

Bamboo flooring Bamboo board UFH Pipe Heat emission plate Insulation Bamboo column embedded in Concrete foundation

Bamboo board

Tying with rope Bolt

Creosote coating over bamboo inside foundation Cement mortar: 20mm Dowel

Bamboo ground floor joists (Secondary beam) Bamboo bearer (main beam)

Sill gasket

Concrete foundation wall


Silicone seal Double glazed unit Bolt fixing

5.01.03 Detail -03 Foundation to Glass wall with Bamboo columns Detail Section 1:10

Insulation concrete base

Screed: 75mm Rigid Insulation: 100mm Damp-proof membrane Concrete slab Sand blinding Hardcore (50mm)


5.01.04 Detail -04 Bamboo wall to Glass Roof Detail Section 1:10

Insulation concrete base

Silicone seal Double glazed unit

Secondary Bamboo beam

Main Bamboo beams

Bolt

Main Bamboo column


5.01.05 Detail -06 Staircase Detail Section 1:10, 1:5 The building regulations in relation to staircases are laid out within “section K� of the building regulations. The summary of some of the key points from the document Institutional and Assembly Stair - Serving a place where a substantial number of people will gather These must comply to the following: - A minimum going of 280mm - A maximum rise of 180mm - A minimum width of 1200mm - A handrail both sides Head room - must be at least two metres at all points from the pitch line (as shown on diagram), however can be reduced to 1.9m on loft conversions Landings - Must be at least equal to the width of the narrowest flight at top and bottom of stair. Width - Their is nothing in the building regulations to determine the minimum width of a private stair, however we wouldn't recommend anything less than 600mm width overall strings on a straight flight(s), however on a winder stair the width is determined by a number of factors. A "normal" or "standard" width on a main staircase is 850mm overall strings.

BambooHand rail

Winder (Tapered) Treads - must all be equal around the centre going of each tread, this going must also be no greater or no less than the minimum or maximum for

Bamboo balster


5.02 Bamboo connection strategies There are various connection types of bamboo. Bamboo Factory will utilize some different type of Bamboo connection strategies.


5.02.01 Bamboo connection strategies Bamboo clumns Tank

Recycled plastic sheeting


5.02.02 Bamboo connection strategies External Bamboo Veil

Bamboo columns


6.0 Building Environment


6.01 Daylight and Shadow Bamboo Factory is covered by two layers which consists of a Bamboo glass dome and External bamboo veil. The dome’s function is to create the inside space by forming a fixed space enclosed by glazing. However, the dome also allows the spaces to be directly lit by the sun. In the first floor, which will be affected by sunlight, has a research centre. This kind of working space requires approximately 300lux of light. London daylight during winter has 5000 lux. It means that the space only needs less than 10% of this sunlight in order to create a comfortable working space. In addition, the direct sunlight is not just positive for the office space, but also the bamboo furniture. Therfore, the amount of sunlight will have to be controlled, depending on the function of the space. In order to control the sunlight into the building, the external bamboo veil is utilized. The bamboo stems which lie horizontally between the bamboo columns can change height and also functions as a sunshade. Depending on the weather or season, the height of the bamboo shading will change and provide a comfortable space in the building. In addition, in order to prevent the Factory space in the basement from being dark during the daytime, the shape of the foundation wall is a wavy curve, which creates a gap between the ground floor and foundation wall. The daylight will come into the basement from this gap, resulting in less energy consumption due to not having to artificially light the space.


6.02 Rainwater harvesting and irrigation - strategy 1. Collection - In the building, rainwater is collected by the water collecting dome. 2. Filtering and purifying - The collected rainwater is filtered and purified by the filtering system using bamboo charcoal. 3. Storage - The collected rainwater is filtered and stored into Bamboo columns tanks. 4. Irrigation - The rain water is collected in the columns and filtered to be used for supplying the bamboo garden and toilets. 5. The gray water will be used directly for the bamboo garden and Black water for the composting chamber.

1

1

4

2

4

2

2

Composting chamber 3 Water used for irrigation

Black water to composting chamber Grey water direct to Bamboo Garden

Irrigation water storage pond

Different types of Bamboo Garden

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3


6.03 Rainwater harvesting and irrigation - Calculations

Water requirements: 0.001m2 water/week From shoots to columns: 3-4 years

0.004m/month ×631m2 = 2.524m3/month Water collecting Roof : 1860m2

Average rainfall in Southend-on-Sea : 0.038m/month

Amount of Rainwater collected 1860m2 × 0.038 = 70.68m3/month

Total water requirement from shoots to columns 0.001m×4weeks =0.004m/month

Bamboo column tanks 50m2 50m2 × 0.038 = 1.9m3/month

Internal bamboo Garden area: 631m2 Water required for bamboo growing 0.004m/month ×631m2 = 2.524m3/month

Bamboo column tanks Capacity 2.1m3 × 57 columns = 119m3


6.04 Energy and Heat strategy Biofuel and CHP Biofuels are a renewable energy source gaining in popularity. Bamboo can be converted into biofuel. However, the process of converting a biomass to a liquid energy source can be fairly difficult in the case of the bamboo plant. The plant is hard and not easy to harvest, but produces a high level of biomass. Bamboo grows four times faster than most native plants. If bamboo could be efficiently converted into fuel, the rise of bamboo as a non-food crop could grow in the world. Deforested areas could be colonized by bamboo four times faster than most native plants. Energy crops are currently diversifying agriculture in the UK, providing fresh sources of energy and changing the ecology of the landscape. Although biofuels provide energy through anaerobic digestion (producing methane) or combustion (producing heat), they are not without environmental disadvantages. They tend to be produced locally from farming or waste collection, and biofuels are best used in community-based power stations or directly in buildings. At its simplest, biofuel technology consists of wood-burning stoves, but it is also commonly employed in district combined heat and power (CHP) plants, which exploit the waste heat in electricity generation for district heating, and, less commonly, in gasifier units, which exploit the high temperatures of gas combustion. The integration of locally grown biofuels such as Bamboo, CHP plants and buildings provides an ecologically benign system for the future. The mixture of biofuel and waste-powered CHP installations can provide energy needs. The Bamboo factory project has a kiln to make bamboo charcoal. The heat generated also can be used as an energy resource. Combining CHP plant system and the Kiln facility, in order to provide heat and electricity. (Rough Guide to Sustainability A Design Primer, 3rd edition. by Brian Edwards, 2010) An estimate of power produced with digester at half capacity: contents = 1.2 mega litres of organic waste 1 litre of organic waste = 40 litres of biogas over 40 day cycle 1.2 mega litres of organic waste = 1.2 mega litres of biogas per day 1000 litres of biogas = 2kWh of usable electricity 1.2 mega litres of biogas = 2400kWh

Cooling Heating

Steam or Hot Water

Water

Electricity Kiln/ Boiler

Bio Fuel

Steam Turbine

Generator

Building and Facility


6.05 Ventilation The Bamboo Factory complies with UK Building Regulations, Approved Document F: Ventilation In the summer, the factory will use a natural ventilation system. The prevailing wind from the South-east in this site. The building air flow will be along the wind direction which would cool the building. In addition, the canal also flows along the wind direction. The canal crosses the Factory and provides natural ventilation for the building during the summer. In the winter, the factory floor adopts two types of heating systems. One provides warmer floors by using UFH pipes. The other is cold Trench Heating, which is an infloor heating system providing primary or secondary heating solutions, and units can be either installed in the floor or floor mounted.

Summer

Winter


6.0 Proffesional Practice


7.01 Client Brief and Ambitions Client : Building Research Establishment (BRE) The BRE Trust is the largest UK charity dedicated specifically to research and education in the built environment. Set up in 2002 to advance knowledge, innovation and communication for public benefit, the Trust uses all profits made by the BRE Group to fund new research and education programmes that will help to meet its goal of ‘building a better world together’. BRE’s main purpose of organization is built environment research and innovation. Their capacity to generate new knowledge and to support and test new ideas underpins cutting-edge research and innovation services in all areas of the built environment.

Client Ambitions BRE suporse to use the Bamboo factory as a facility for research and innovation bamboo material.Main purpose of organization is built environment research and innovation. Their capacity to generate new knowledge and to support and test new ideas underpins cutting-edge research and innovation services in all areas of the built environment. BRE require to Bamboo factory to has a space to grow bamboo and research and test of quality and ptential of bamboo as building material. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal has fanction to clean water and air. The products would address environment of the contaminated site such as landfill site. BRE will research the effect of bamboo to the site environement. In addition, the factory is used for bmboo product investment and development to introduce and provide bamboo to people not only as construction material. It is also important that BRE ishighly requiring the bullding to be high level sustable building because it sould is example of a sustainable bamboo building. Most of the building will be built from bamboo. The Client’s requirement if functions of building are: -Garden to grow bamboo -Reserach bulding and Factory building (using bamboo sconstraction) -Water cleaning, irrigation and supply system with bamboo -Being a sample of sustainable bamboo building The Client’s purpose of building are: -Research of Bamboo potential -Proving the sustinability of bamboo -Introducing bambooo as a sustainable material in England -Being a sample of sustainable bamboo building


7.02 Contract Procurement Options “Traditional Contract” and “Design & Build Contract” are general contracts nowadays. Selecting the correct procurement route for a project is important. It is fundamental to its success, and will affect its cost, programme, quality and team relationships for the lifespan of the project. Procurement Strategy should be considered fully at the earliest opportunity, consideration should be given to the hierarchy of client and project requirements. We should select an appropriate route to best meet these requirements.

Crient’s requiremnt Cost : ☆☆ Lowest spend ☆☆☆☆☆ Certainty of price ☆☆ Value for money Time : ☆☆ ☆☆☆☆ ☆☆

Earlest start on site Certainty over contract duration Shortest contract

Quality : ☆☆☆☆☆ Highest Quality ☆☆☆☆☆ Control over design ☆☆☆☆☆ Detail design impotant According to the analysis of the requirements above, it is clear that quality in build is the most important factors for the client. In addition, the client understands that this project utirises experimental new bamboo structure and also it could be long term project because of research purpose. Therefore, architect should have more control over the quality and detail. accordingly, our contract is a traditional contract, which gives us more control and responsibility throughout the whole project, due to the complexity of this project.

Traditional Contract Advantages -Competitive fairness – all tenders like for like. -Cost Certainty at outset of contract. -Established / tried and tested. -Minor changes can be implemented. -Established method of valuation. -Capable of conversion to a guaranteed maximum price (GMP). -Contractor designed elements can be accommodated. Concerns / Considerations -Time required to complete full design prior to tender. -Full design not always achievable - e.g. specialist areas subject to contractor design. -Client takes time and cost risk for changes in design -Client takes design risk. -Contractual / adversarial approach.

Design & Build Contract Advantages -Single point responsibility. -Transfer of speculative risks to the Contractor. -Earlier start on site - design can run in parallel. -Cost certainty at outset. -Program responsibility with D&B Constrictor (subject to post contract Client driven change). -Possible to achieve a guaranteed maximum price (GMP). -Tried and tested. -Original design team can be novated for continuity/security of design. Concerns / Considerations -Longer procurement and overall development process. -Higher tendering costs for contractors - can influence and limit the extent of ‘competitiveness’ od bids. -D&B Contractor prices design risk. -Client loses influence over design control-employers Requirements need to be precise, clear and detailed. -Quality of design and end product needs to be closely monitored. -Novation arrangements can create a conflict on interest. -Post contract changes can be more expensive than traditional contracts with bills of quantities. -More inflexible route to accommodate change.


7.03 Contractual Relationships An architect is not only involved in the planning and drawing of building design but also overseeing its construction. The architect have to respond to the requirement of the client, and also should considerate environmental and economic needs.Moreover, the architect has a responsibility to understand and coordinate all other consultants in the project.

DESIGN TEAM Standard consultants Architecture

Client

Contractor (Traditional contractor)

Specialised sub-contractors

Specialised supplier

-Escavation -Concrete -Glazing -Waterproofing -Services -Irrigation + Drainage -Energy -Landscape

-Insulation -Generator -Glazing -Waterproofing -Bamboo supplier -General building material supplier

-Structural engineer - Service engineer Heating Electrical + Lighting Mechanical - Acoustics Engineer - Civil engineer - Fire Consultant - Planning Consultant - Access Consultant - Quantity suvreyor

Specialist consultant -Bamboo Specialist


7.04 Procuriment : The role of the architect Plan of Work Stages RIBA Work stages are the stages into which the process of designing building projects and administering building contracts are usually divided. The RIBA Outline Plan of Work summarises the deliverables required under each RIBA work stage, setting out a logical structure for building projects starting with the brief and ending with post occupancy evaluation. The Procedures identify the responsibilities of the design team at each stage of design and contract administration.

Core Objects

Procurement

0. Strategic Definition (4 weeks)

Identify client’s Business Case and Strategic Brief and other core project requirement.

Initial considerations for assembling the project team.

1. Preparation and Brief (6 weeks)

Develop Project Objectives, including Quality Objectives and Project Outcomes, Sustainability Aspirations, Project Budget, other parameters or constrains and develop initial Project Brief. Undertake Feasibly Studies and review of Site Information.

Prepare Project Roles Table and Contractual Tree and continue assembling the project team.

2. Concept Design (6 weeks)

Prepare Concept Design, including outline proposals for structural design, building services systems, outline specifications and preliminary Cost Information and Project Strategies in accordance with Design Programme.

3. Developed Design (10 weeks)

Prepare Developed Design, including coordinated and updated proposals for structural design, building service systems, outline specifications, Cost Information and Project Strategies in accordance with design Programme.

4. Technical Design (10 weeks)

Prepare Technical Design in accordance with Design Responsibility Matrix and Project Strategies to include all architectural, structural and building services information, specialist subcontractor design and specifications, in accordance with Design Programme.

5. Construction (62 weeks)

Offsite manufacturing and onsite Construction Programme and resolution of Design Queries from site as they arise.

Administration of Building Contract, including regular site inspections and review of progress.

6. Handover and Close Out (4 weeks)

Handover of building and conclusion of building Contract.

Conclude administration of Building Contract.

7. In Use

Undertake In Use services in accordance with Schedule of Services.

The procurement strategy dese not fundamentally alter the progression of the design or the level of detail prepared at a given stage. However, Information Exchanges will vary depending on the selected procurement route and Building Contract. A bespoke RIBA Plan of Work 2013 will set out the specific tendering and procurement activities that will occur at each stage in relation to the chosen procurement route.

Construction process: Site clearance and excavation (6 weeks) Groundwork and drainage services (6 weeks) Erection of scaffolding (2 weeks) Water collecting veil bamboo structure built (10 weeks) Factory’s primary bamboo structure built (10 weeks) Secondly bamboo structure built (10 weeks) Glazing (3 weeks) Interior, Stairs, floors and doors (4 weeks) Electrics (3 weeks) Interior finishes (4 weeks) Finish site landscape (4 weeks)

Architecture Technical Report  

3rd year Architecture Technical Report University of Greenwich

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