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ON DIRECTING


ON DIRECTING _ P o r t f o l i o o f   MONICA GALVAN


_Concept “On Directing” evolved from my design process: design is about being selective, choosing what elements to use and also what not to use; it’s about control, over the idea or product and its transformation; it’s about adjusting to meet the client’s goal and making choices that benefit its targeted audience. Design is about directing.


SELECTED WORKS _01 SAINTHOOD TOUR P a g e _ 11

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_02 MINDWASH Page _ 27

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_03 LITERACY CRISIS P a g e _ 55

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GLOBAL STRATEGY

THE ENCHANTED FOREST

A STORY IN EVERY SURFACE

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A DECADE OF INNOCENCE

JCPENNEY REBRAND

THE CODE OF DREAMS

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_10 GIRL, INTERRUPTED P a g e _ 19 3

_00 IDENTITY P a g e _ 2 01


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_ Project S A I N T H O O D T O U R  _Category P R I N T_W E B _Course P R I N T & D I G I TA L M E D I A 1  _ In s t r u c t o r TROY ALDERS _ Semester FA LL 2010

MARK MY WORDS, I MIGHT BE SOMETHING SOMEDAY


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_ P r o j e c t 0 1  _ S A I N T H O O D T O U R

_Ty p o g r a p h y TUNGSTEN DIN _Client TEG AN & SAR A _ Deliverables 16 PAGE TOUR BOOK WEBSITE _ Dimensions B O O K 1 1 X 14 I N

SAINTHOOD TOUR _ Project To design a 16 page performance tour book or souvenir program for the band of your choice and also to design a website that promotes the tour. I chose the indie-Pop band Tegan and Sara to promote their upcoming sixth album, Sainthood. _Concept Tegan and Sara’s sixth studio album–Sainthood–addresses secular themes of devotion, delusion, and exemplary behavior in the pursuit of love and relationships. Inspired by emotional longing and the quiet actions we hope may be noticed by the objects of our affection, Sainthood is about obsession with romantic ideals. In the service of relationships we practice being perfect. We practice our sainthood in the hope that we will be rewarded with adoration. As we are driven to become anything for someone else, we sometimes become martyrs for our cause. Love, like faith, can never be held in an individual’s hands. But the story of a great love affair­­—especially one that is unrequited or has ended too soon—can be woven like scripture or a bedtime story. And so the themes of Sainthood are tied together by this simple title, borrowed, with great respect, from the lyrics of one of Leonard Cohen’s song “Came So Far For Beauty:” I practiced all my sainthood, I gave to one and all. But the rumours of my virtue, they moved her not at all.

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I feel the breeze, feel feathers of an arrow, out in my yard, feathers of an arrow. I take my aim, do you feel me coming close?


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I feel the breeze, feel feathers of an arrow, out in my yard, feathers of an arrow. I take my aim, do you feel me coming close?


PTOINYUTTIR NO UP TP ROP REHR GE IH HGI S SDRS ADR NAD TN SA YYENO YM ENROUMOY RU SIW T HTEIFWAS EFSAIS SU


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_ P r o j e c t 0 2  _ M I N D W A S H

_ Project MINDWASH _Category P R I N T_W E B _Course T Y P O G R A P H Y 4  _ In s t r u c t o r ARIEL GREY _ Semester FA LL 2011

THESE MESSAGES WERE PRESENTED SO QUICKLY THAT NO ONE WAS AWARE OF THEM

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_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_Ty p o g r a p h y C O P Y_ C O P Y C U T COPY SEMI GROTESK ITC NEW BASKERVILLE _Client T 2 6 D I G I TA L T Y P E F O U N D R Y _ Deliverables 4 4 PAGE PROMOT ION BOOK POSTER 24 P A G E T Y P E S P E C I M E N B O O K WEBSITE _ Dimensions PROMO BOOK 7X10 IN SPECIMEN BOOK 7X10 IN P O S T E R 24 X 3 6 I N

MINDWASH _ Project To design a promotional gift package that one would receive from a type foundry upon purchase of the typeface. Choose one typeface and its family to develop a concept from as well as complimentary typefaces to support it. _Concept Copy Semi Grotesk, the typeface designed by Thomas Mettendorf, is a mix between a slab serif, serif, and monotype typeface categories. Copy Semi Grotesk is a typeface that stands on its own, in a unique category, and therefore represents a sense of duality which is how I relate it to the subject of subliminal perception. Subliminal perception occurs when you are not consciously aware of receiving information, or learning, yet the information is still stored in your mind; it reaches the individual on a subconscious level but affects one on a conscious level, thereby adding to that layer of duality. Since Copy Cut, with its angular cuts, is about breaking away from the ordinary shapes and basic design, so too is the concept of this book: to break through the meaning of these subliminal messages and realizing the underlying true content. The message of this narrative is to educate the reader about subliminal messaging, how it evolved and became a subject of fear and confusion, and to distinguish between fact and fiction. It is an exaggerated approach with intriguing and dizzying effects to give the illusion of subliminal messages throughout the book, allowing the reader to interpret the information for his/herself.

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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

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MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASH

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Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M M M the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific. V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V A (to A (to A (to

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FOR THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE, THE TERM

SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION INVOKES REACTIONS THAT ARE NEGATIVE & PERHAPS EVEN A LITTLE BIT FRIGHTENING: THINGS LIKE BRAINWASHING, MIND-CONTROL OR MAYBE ESP. BUT HOW DID WE DERIVE THESE REACTIONS, & WHY DO WE TALK ABOUT SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION THE WAY WE DO?

REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING REVOLUTIONIZE ADVERTISING

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of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N S S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames H P T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S S T H P T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST H P T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific: V A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks). and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and had allegedly tested this technique had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly >> messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. 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However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, H R H R F H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> Nevertheless, other researchers claim N Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E M P I R I C A L E V I D E N C E of visual E E of visual E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal process representation process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process of activating a mental representation and its connections to process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process representation memory to to to a perceived stimulus. Through this acmemory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory in relation tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the S these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S T I M U L U S . Keeping these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious that in the visual modality, the existence of subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the claims of Vicary’s findings who had argued that he could raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn in a cinema through subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific.V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific.


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 2  _ M I N D W A S H

_CONCEPT

MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASH MINDWASHMINDWASH MINDWASH UNDER

THE

THRESHOLD

OF

development

Copy Semi Grotesk, the typeface designed by T H O M A S M E T T E N D O R F , is a mix between a slab serif, serif, and monotype typeface categories. Copy Semi Grotesk is a typeface that stands on its own, in a unique category between the slab serif, serif, and monotype; in short, Copy Semi Grotesk represents A S E N S E O F D U A L I T Y which is how it relates to the subject of subliminal perception. S U B L I M I N A L P E R C E P T I O N occurs when you are not consciously aware of receiving information, or learning, yet the information is still stored in your mind; it reaches the individual on a S U B C O N S C I O U S L E V E L but affects one on a conscious level, thereby adding to that layer of duality. Since Copy Cut, with its angular cuts, is about breaking away from the ordinary shapes and basic design, so too is the concept of this book: to break through the meaning of these subliminal messages and realizing the underlying true content. The message of this narrative is to educate the reader about subliminal messaging, how it evolved and became a subject of F E A R A N D C O N F U S I O N , and to distinguish between fact and fiction. It is an exaggerated approach with I N T R I G U I N G A N D D I Z Z Y I N G E F F E C T S to give the illusion of subliminal messages throughout the book, allowing the reader to interpret the information for his/herself. The target audience is anyone, of all ages, concerned with the N E G A T I V E E F F E C T S O F T H E M E D I A and/or believes it to be a dishonest use toward the general public.

C O N S C I O U S N E S S

THE COPY FAMILY >> COPY / COPY CUT / COPY SEMI GROTESK T YPEFACE DESIGNER: THOMAS ME T TENDORF >> T26 DIGI TAL T YPE FOUNDRY

DESIGNED BY >> MONICA GALVAN

_SUB·LIM·I·NAL

per·cep·tion

Subliminal Perception is characterized by perception without awareness. This characteristic is also emphasized in the definition of S U B L I M I N A L M E S S A G E by Merikle who defined it as: “any situation in which unnoticed stimuli are perceived.“ For example, such stimuli might be inaudible to the C O N S C I O U S M I N D but audible to the subconscious or deeper mind, or they may be images transmitted so briefly that they are perceived only subconsciously. Subliminal messaging is the act of using S U B L I M I N A L messages to influence the subconscious mind, subliminal perception is the measure of how much you can perceive. Subliminal perception occurs when you are not consciously aware of receiving information, or learning, yet the information is still stored I N Y O U R M I N D The only way this information reaches your mind is because although you are not consciously aware of it, your subconscious mind is; it is aware of, and can process information on the edge of your C O N S C I O U S N E S S . >> Subliminal stimuli (literally meaning "below threshold"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's absolute threshold for conscious perception. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual may process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes, similarly masked by other stimuli, or recorded backwards in a process called backmasking. Introduced in 1895, the concept became controversial as "subliminal messages" in 1957 when marketing practitioners claimed its potential use in persuasion. The near-consensus among research psychologists is that subliminal messages do not produce a powerful, enduring effect on behavior;and that laboratory research reveals little effect beyond a subtle, fleeting effect on thinking. Apart from their controversial use in marketing and media psychology, subliminal stimuli are employed in scientific research on perception without awareness, or unconscious perception. >> The effectiveness of subliminal messaging has been demonstrated to prime individual responses and stimulate mild emotional activity. Applications, however, often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. The near-consensus among research psychologists is that subliminal messages do not produce a powerful, enduring effect on behavior; and that laboratory research reveals little effect beyond a subtle, fleeting effect on thinking. Research upon those claims of lasting effects—such as weight loss, smoking cessation, how music in popular culture may corrupt their listeners, how it may facilitate unconscious wishes in psychotherapy, and how market practitioners may exploit their customers—conclude that there is no effect beyond a placebo or making the person conscious of their current condition. The following subsequent sections have more information on specific studies in which the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli.

_ P a g e  _ 3 5

THE THE THETHE THE THE POWER POWEROF POWER OF POWEROF OF POWER POWER OF OF THE THE YOUR YOURDREAMS DREAMS YOUR DREAMS YOUR YOUR YOUR DREAMS DREAMS DREAMS POWER POWEROF OF BUY BUYME MEYOUR BUY BUYME ME BUYBUY ME ME YOUR DREAMS DREAMS BUY BUYME ME

_VISUAL SUBLIMINAL

stimulation

One of the most prominent studies related to visual S U B L I M I N A L S T I M U L A T I O N might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book T H E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R S by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N in the advertising industry. This information supported the claims of Vicary’s findings who had argued that he could raise sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn in a cinema through subliminal V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific: the sales of popcorn by 58% and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six weeks). Vicary had allegedly tested this technique by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” were displayed at regular intervals. >> These messages were presented so quickly (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) that no one was aware of them. Vicary became very popular of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual with his study, and many people believe still today that his technique of One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N S S advertising works. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsucS U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher cessful. Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had faked his results; for might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book him it was only a marketing trick. James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames H P T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S S T H P >> He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. NevertheT H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST H P T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of less, other researchers claim to have observed similar effects. Current by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M research in the field of subliminal visual perception has provided empiriM O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported cal evidence of visual subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the as the process of activating a mental representation and its connections the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales to memory in relation to a perceived stimulus. Through this activation, sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific: V A (to the connections will be more quickly accessible than they would be if they V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% were not primed by the stimulus. Keeping these results in mind, it is obvithe sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks). and ous that in the visual modality, the existence of subliminal perception is and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique very likely. However, no studies have concluded that a subliminal message Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to could lead to a manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” >> In 1998, Bar and Biederman questioned whether an image flashed “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” briefly would prime an individual's response. An image was flashed for 47 milliseconds and then a mask would interrupt the processing. Following the first presentation only one in seven individuals could identify the image, while after the second presentation, 15 to 20 minutes later, one in three could identify the image. >> In 2004, in two studies 13 white individuals were exposed to either white or black faces, flashed either subliminally for 30 milliseconds or supraliminally for over half a second. Individuals showed greater fusiform gyrus and amygdala response to black faces than white, suggesting that the great amount of facial processing may be associated with a greater emotional response. >> In a 2005 study, individuals were exposed to a subliminal image flashed for 16.7 milliseconds that could signal a potential threat and again with a supraliminal image flashed for half a second. Individuals showed greater amygdala activity, although the right amygdala showed greater response to subliminal fear and the left amygdala showed greater response to supraliminal fear. Furthermore supraliminal fear showed more sustained cortical activity, suggesting that subliminal fear may not entail conscious surveillance.

displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly >> messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> messages were presented so quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that his study, and many people believe still today his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works.that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works.that attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal process representation process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process representation representation memory to memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acacmemory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory to to tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the they would be if they were not primed by the S these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded is very likely. However, no studies have concluded that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a a subliminal message could lead to a manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O NM O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O NM O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N N in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific. V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V A (to A (to


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P r o j e c t 0 2 _  M I N D W A S H _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

_BACK-

One of the most prominent studies related to visual O One of the most prominent studies related to visual O S S S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher m might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher m James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book J James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJ T T H E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R S Backmasking is a recording technique in which a sound or TmesH E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R ST by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of sage is recorded backward on to a track that is meant to be played by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M forward. Backmasking is a deliberate process, whereas a message M M in of the the advertising industry. This information supported ii found through phonetic reversal may be unintentional. The use in advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise tt backmasking was popularized by The Beatles, who used backward the sales instrumentation on their 1966 album Revolver. Artists have since sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal ss II S A (to used backmasking for artistic, comedic and satiric effect, on V V Vboth S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V sales of popcorn by 58% analog and digital recordings. The technique has also been the used the sales of popcorn by 58% tt and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six weeks). to censor words or phrases for "clean" releases of rap songs. Backa and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six weeks).a Vicary had allegedly tested this technique masking has been a controversial topic in the United States since V Vicary had allegedly tested this technique V by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to the 1980s, when allegations from Christian groups of its use byfor altering movies so that messages urging viewers to “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” ““ Satanic purposes were made against prominent rock musicians, “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!”

masking

were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. leading to record-burning protests and proposed anti-backmaskwere displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.w w >> messages were presented so quickly ing legislation by state and federal governments. >> These These messages were presented so quickly > > (between 1/2000 and ( 1/3000 of a second) >> Though the backmasking controversy peaked in the 1980s, (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) ( that the general belief in subliminal manipulation became more that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular tt with his study, and many people believe still today widespread in the United States during the following decade, with his study, and many people believe still today his technique of advertising works. with belief in Satanic backmasking on records persisting that into that his technique of advertising works.tt However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. the 1990s. At the same time, the development of sound editing H However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.H Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had with audio reversal features simplified the process of reversF Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had F F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F ing audio,which previously could only be done with full fidelity F H R using a professional tape recorder. The Sound Recorder utility, for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.ff included with Microsoft Windows from Windows 95 to Windows XP, >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.> > allows one-click audio reversal, as does popular open source sound Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers N claim N editing software Audacity. Following the growth of the Internet, to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in tt backmasked message searchers used such software to create the web- field of subliminal visual perception has provided tt the field of subliminal visual perception has provided sites featuring backward music samples, which became a widely E E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E E of visual used method of exploring backmasking in popular music. subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the ss subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the p process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to p process representation memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-m m memory to tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tt than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the tt S these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S obvious o obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal o perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded p perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded p that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a tt manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. m manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.m by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M M in the advertising industry. This information supported ii in the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise tt the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal ss sales V A (to V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V

BACKMASKING IN USE SATANIC BACKMASKING AESTHETIC USE

HUMOROUS AND PARODY MESSAGES CRITICAL OR EXPLICIT MESSAGES CENSORSHIP


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 2  _ M I N D W A S H

_HISTORY AND

of the most prominent studies related to of the most prominent studies related to visual One visual One of the most prominent studies related to of the most prominent studies related to visual One One visual S S S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book T H P E S E H D P E U invented a device T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A InD D1877 E R RThomas ST T H HEdison E H IItheD D phonograph, D E E N N P allowing E R R S S sound U A A D D E E R R S S by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by andPackard Packard uncovered the cylinder highly with specialized techniques of to be recorded reproduced on a rotating a stylus (or by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A"needle") T II O O attached NM M O O to T aII diaphragm V A A T T II mounted O N N A A atLL the narrow M A A N NendII of P aU Uhorn. A T T II O O N N M M T N T V O M P LL A in the advertising industry. This information Emile supported in invented the advertising industry. discThis This information supported Berliner the familiar lateral-cut phonograph record in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he incould could raise the claims of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings who had had argued thatsince he could could raise raise 1888.raise Histhe design overtook the Edison phonograph in the 1920s, the claims of findings who argued that he sales subliminal sales of popcorn in a cinema through subliminal Berliner's patent in 1918, and and others to use his sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal sales expired of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and popcornwere in then a free cinema through subliminal V A (to be II S LL A D R II placing S G (to invention. InV recreating V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be specific: specific: Vaddition S U Uto A A A recorded D V V E E sounds R T T by S II N Nthe G stylus (to be be specific: specific: the sales of popcorn by 58% sales by 58% rotating it of in the samepopcorn direction as during the sales of popcorn by on the cylinder 58% the the or disc and sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six weeks). ..and and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six could hearofdifferent by rotating cylinder and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of the sixrecording, weeks).andonethe sales Coca-Colasounds by 18% over atheperiod of six weeks). weeks). Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique or disc backwards. that, when played backwards, Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary In 1878 hadEdison noted allegedly tested this technique by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to altering movies so that messages urging to "the song is still melodious in many cases, and some of the strains by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by by altering movies so that messages urging are viewers viewers to ” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” novel, different from in the ” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink sweet and Coke!” “Eat but altogether popcorn!” and the songtoreproduced“Drink Coke!”

development

..were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular movie. right The backwards playing advised as throughout training for the were displayed at regular intervals throughout the way". movie. were displayed at of records regular wasintervals intervals throughout the movie. >> messages were presented so quickly These messages were so quickly by>> Crowley, who suggestedpresented in his 1913 book >> These These messages were presented so magicians quickly >>occultist These Aleister messages were presented so quickly (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) Magick (Book 4) that an adept "train himself to think backwards by exter(between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) that popular that one aware of nal means", which to "listen records, became reversed.very that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popularone that of no no onewaswas was awareto phonograph of them. them. Vicary Vicary became very popular popular with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today >> The 1950s saw two new developments in audio technology: the developwith his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today his technique of advertising works. ..that that his technique of advertising works. ment of musique concrète, an avant-garde form of electronic music which that his technique of advertising works.that his technique of advertising works. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. ..However, However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. involves editing together fragments of natural and industrial sounds; and However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in the use 1962, Vicary conceded that he had the spread ofin of tape recorders in recording studios. Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he concurrent had Finally, 1962, Vicary conceded that he had F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U UThese TtwoS S trends F A A led K to E tape D music compositions, H II S S composed on tape R E Eusing S U U LL T T S S ;; F H R LL T ;; F K E D H R S techniques including him reverse tape effects. ..for him it was only a marketing trick. it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for for him it was only a marketing trick. >> advertising. The Beatles,He who incorporated thefound techniques of concrète into their advertising. ..>> never really found an effect of subliminal never really an effect of subliminal >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> >> He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. recordings, were responsible for popularizing the concept of backmaskNevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim ing. SingerinJohn Lennon and producer George Martin both claimed they to have observed similar effects. Current research have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to to have observed similar effects. Current research in discovered the backward recording technique during the recording of the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided 1966's Revolver; specifically the album tracks "Tomorrow Never Knows" E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E of visual E of visual Sleeping," and the single "Rain". Lennon while subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined andas as"I'm Only the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming stated is that, defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined the priming effects. Priming is defined as the under the influence of marijuana, he accidentally played the tapes for process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process representation representation "Rain" in reverse, and enjoyed the sound. The following day he shared the memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this ac ac --memory to to results with the other Beatles, and the effect was used first in the guitar tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible solo by for "Tomorrow Never Knows", and later in they the coda of "Rain". Accordthan they would be if they were not primed the they would be if were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than than they would be if they were not primed by the ing to Martin, the band had been experimenting with changing the speeds S T I M U L U S . Keeping these results in mind, it is S T I M U L U S . Keeping these results in mind, it is S T I M U L U S . Keeping these results in mind, it is S T I M U L U S . Keeping these results in mind, it is of and reversing the "Tomorrow Nevervisual Knows"modality, tapes, and Martin got theof subliminal obvious that in the visual modality, the existence of subliminal obvious that in the the existence obvious that in the visual modality, the existence of subliminal obvious that in the visual modality, the existence of subliminal ideaconcluded of reversing Lennon's vocals and guitar, which he didstudies with a clip perception is very likely. However, no studies have perception is very likely. However, no have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded fromto"Rain".a that Lennon then liked the effect and kept it. Regardless, "Rain" that a subliminal message could lead a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a was theVicary. firstmanipulation song to featureof a backmasked message: "Sunshine… Rain… by ..manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by choice behavior as claimed Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. When the rain comes, they run and hide their heads"; the specialized last line is the by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A Areversed T II O Ofirst NM M verse O T TofIIthe V song). A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M T N O V A M in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V A (to A (to ..V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.

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P r o j e c t 0 2 _  M I N D W A S H _

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OPPORTUNITY OPPORTUNITY OPPORTUNITY OPPORTUNITY HIGHER HIGHER HIGHER HIGHER STANDARDS STANDARDS STANDARDS STANDARDS YOUR YOUR MONEY MONEYYOUR YOUR MONEY MONEY IS SAFE WITH IS SAFE IS SAFE WITH WITH IS SAFE WITH US US US US

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

_AUDITORY SUBLIMINAL

stimulation

>> One method for creating subliminal auditory stimuli is called masking. This method involves H I D I N G T H E T A R G E T A U D I T O R Y There are five ways to embed worded messages in music: First, the target words or messages are placed S T I M U L U S in some way. Auditory subliminal in the music below the auditory threshold and are, thus, maskedby the music; second, it is possible to stimuli are shown to have some effect on the participant, use words with an inverted time structure ( B A C K W A R D M A S K E D but not a large one. For example, one study used other speechM E S S A G E S ) and mix them above the perceptual threshold; third, backward like sounds to cover up the target words. masked messages can also be used subliminally; fourth, highpass filtered worded messages The study found evidence of priming in the (containing frequencies above 15 kHz) can be used (silent-subliminals); finally, time-shrunk. A B S E N C E O F A W A R E N E S S >> Although there is no profound research with experimental evidence >> Another interesting phenomenon of subliminal auditory messages in the field of backward masking, the topic has often been of isstudies the use of subliminal Svisual E One L F -of H E A P E S studies of the most prominent related to the L Pmost most T prominent prominent related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual great public interest. For example, in 1990 the heavy metal One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One that claim, for example, S S U U B Bto LL II strengthen M II N N A A LLself-esteem,S S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N S S band Judas Priest had to face trial for mixing backward-masked S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS M S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS memory orconsumer motivation. Rogersmight & Smith have one amassed a marketby might be the one undertaken by the researcher be the undertaken the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher S U B L I M I N A L C O M M A N D S to commit be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might volume of time, about the $50 book million for audio Attapes Vicary in 1957. At the same James Vicaryself-help in 1957. the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book suicide into their music. The families of two fans who shot themselves James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames in P the United States. In a E telephone survey, 45% of P E R S U A D E R S T H E H I D D E N E R S U A D E R S T H H I D D E N T H E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R S accused the band of being responsible for those horrendous incidents. H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R ST H E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R S T H E H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R ST H E thosespecialized who participated believedofthat advertising Packard uncovered the highly techniques by subliminal Packard uncovered would the affect highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Although the court found the band not guilty, the topic of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by whether or not they would buy the product being advertised. M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N subliminal manipulation by backward messages has M A N I P U L A T I O NM O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O O N N M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O NM O T I V A T I O N A L There are only a fewin studies that have industry. claimed This the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported remained an issue nevertheless, despite Vokey & Read’s in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in positive effects of subliminal messages: Chakalis & the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the convincing empirical evidence against any effects of stimulation the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the Lowe cinema found an improvement the experimental sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and popcorn popcorngroup in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales by retrograde messages. Their results showed that subjects sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of and in sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales in a I face name(to occupation A V memory S U U test; A LL Merikle A D D &V V Daneman E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific: V A (to were unable to understand the S E M A N T I C V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S I N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V II S A A E (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V reviewed 44 bystudies on memory for during anpopcorn sales of popcorn 58% the sales events of by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% C O N T E N T of the message in either a the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the esthesiaa and found six evidence and for the U Nsales C Oof NCoca-Cola S C I by O 18% U S over a period of six weeks). and conscious or subconscious way after listening to worded and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a period period of of six weeks). weeks).and the sales of Coca-Cola by 18% over a period of six weeks). and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and C O G N this I T I O technique N in Vicary their meta-analysis.tested had allegedly tested had allegedly this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique messages presented retrograde. In trying to affect Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary >> However,urging the viewers majority toof the evaluation of altering movies so that messages by studies altering onmovies movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to subjects‘ spelling of homophones, the authors by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by self-help subliminal tapes as used, for example, for “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and weight to to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” could find no effects of subliminal stimulation on behavior. “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” reduction, increase of were academic achievement, or The authors further noted that "the apparent presence displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were increase of so self esteem, found messages only non-specific of backward messages in popular music is a function >> These messages were presented quickly >> These were presented so quickly >> These messages were presented so quickly messages were quickly messages were presented so quickly >> These messages were presented so quickly>> These P presented L A Cof E B so O Esecond) F F>> EThese C T S 1/2000 of subliminal more of active construction on the part of the perceiver 1/2000 and 1/3000 a (between and messages. 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a Ott reviewed second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between In Vicary a more recent study, numerous dealing with subliminal than of the existence of the messages themselves." became popular that that no studies one was was aware of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. auditory Vicary messages became very very no one aware of that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that and popular concluded that the control people >> Another interesting phenomenon of subliminal auditory messages his study, and many people believe still today with his study,ability and to many many believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today with behavior through subconscious manipulation is very questionable. is the use of subliminal S E L F - H E L P T A P E S his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of>> Finally, advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works.that the question remains to how words in music that claim, for example, to strengthen self-esteem, attempts to replicate his were unsuccessful. However,as attempts attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate hiscan results results were people unsuccessful. to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, influence ifhad However, they cannot actually hear memory or motivation. Rogers & Smith have amassed a market in 1962, Vicary conceded that he Finally, in 1962, Vicary them.conceded conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, Two answers can be F this HVicary question: volume of about $50 million for self-help audio tapes H R U S A given K E E D D to S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E Ea S S U LL T T S ;; F A K H IIevidence S R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F First, from modern psychological perspective there is in the United States. In a telephone survey, 45% of him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only that the a marketing trick.for it was a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for mere belief in the existencehimof subliminal messagesonly is those who participated believed that subliminal advertising would affect never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He Frequently, never really an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> sufficient to induce effects. we found can observe whether or not they would buy the product being advertised. other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, other other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, thatresearchers subjects’ behavior is claim influenced by their presumptions about There are only a few studies that have claimed have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to subliminal messages and not by the information masked by the music. positive effects of subliminal messages: Chakalis & field of subliminal visual perception has provided the the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual Second, perception field of subliminal perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the stimuli has below provided the listening threshold can resultvisual in Lowe found an improvement of the experimental group E D of visual E M M P P II R R I C A L E V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II physiological D E E N N C C E E of visual E of visual E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E reactions (e.g., change I Cof A L heartE V rate, in a face name occupation memory test; Merikle & Daneman priming effects. Priming is as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is skindefined defined the subliminal effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal galvanic response, as etc.). Even in the casepriming of unconscious perception, reviewed 44 studies on memory for events during an esthesia process representation process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating a a mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process representation information processing on a P H Y S activating I O L O mental G I C representation A L and found some evidence for U N C O N S C I O U S memory to memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through this this ac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acacmemory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory to to L E V E L Through cannot be acexcluded. Experimental support can be C O G N I T I O N in their meta-analysis. Specific tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be quickly connections will be more quickly accessible foundmore in the studiesaccessible by Borgeat andthe co-workers. Physiological information was remembered following surgery, as long as than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the they would be if they were not primed by the reactions also depend on the content of messages: Compared testing was not delayed more than 36 hours. S these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T I M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is to neutral target words, in the I case of target words with obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence of of subliminal obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious sexual existence connotations, subliminal physiological reactions failed to appear. perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded is very likely. studies have concluded Even messages perceived during anesthesia can have anHowever, effect no that a subliminal message could lead to a a subliminal message lead to a a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that that a subliminal message on could could lead to a that that a messagefor could lead to a postoperative smoking behavior orsubliminal on memory manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed of choice behavior claimed by Vicary. messages used inby a Vicary. postoperative sentence completion task. as by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M M M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V A (to V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific. V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V A (to A (to

One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S S S might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S S T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST H P T H P Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales One of the most prominent studies related to visual V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific: V II S S U A LL A D D V E R T I S II N N G G (to be be specific:V A (to V A S U B UL A I M I N A LV E R T SI S T M U L (to A T Ispecific: O N the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% the of popcorn by 58% might be sales the one undertaken by the consumer researcher and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks). and the the sales sales of Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and James Vicary of in Coca-Cola 1957. At the same period time, the book Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had tested T H E H I D allegedly D E N P E R SthisU A D technique E R S by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to altering movies messages urging viewers to by Packard uncovered so thethat highly specialized techniques of “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” M O T I V A T I O N AandL M to A N I P “Drink U L A T I Coke!” O N“Eat displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were at regular throughout movie. in advertising industry. intervals This information the were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were thedisplayed displayed at regular intervals throughout the supported movie.were >> These These messages were presented so quickly >> These messages were presented so quickly the These claims of messages Vicary’s findingswere who hadpresented argued that so he could quickly raise>> messages were presented so quickly >> (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and and and 1/3000 of through a second) (between sales of Coca-Cola popcorn 1/3000 in a cinema subliminal 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 of a second) that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular thatI S no U one one was Aaware aware ofE Rthem. them. Vicary became very popular that V A Lwas D V of T I Vicary S I Nbecame G (to be specific: that no very popular with his study, and many people believe still today with his sales study, and of many many people believeby still still today the popcorn 58% with his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and people believe today that his technique of advertising works. that the sales his of Coca-Cola technique by 18%of of over a advertising advertising works.that and period of six weeks). his technique of advertising works. that his technique works. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to allegedly replicate histested results were unsuccessful. Vicary had this technique However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, so Vicary Vicary conceded that he had by alteringin movies that messages urging viewers to Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, 1962, conceded that he had F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F A A K K E E popcorn!” D Hand S R “Drink E S S U U LL T T Coke!” S ;; F “Eat to H R F D H II S R E S

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him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only marketing trick. were displayed regular intervals a the movie. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it at was only a throughout marketing trick.for >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> These He never really found were an effectpresented of subliminal advertising. >> so quickly>> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He never messages really found an effect of subliminal advertising. other researchers claim Nevertheless, other claim (between and 1/3000researchers of a second) Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, 1/2000 other researchers claim Nevertheless, to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have one observed observed similar effects. Current research in to that no was awaresimilar of them. Vicary Current became research very popular have observed similar effects. Current research in to have effects. in the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual people perception hasstill provided provided with his study, and many believe has today the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E M M P P II his R II C C A Atechnique E V V II ofD D E E N N advertising C E E of works. visual E that E of visual E R LL E C of visual subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal However, attempts to effects. replicate Priming his results were unsuccessful. priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming is defined as the process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process of inactivating activating a mental mental representation and t its its connections connections to to process Finally, of 1962, Vicary representation conceded and representation process a memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acacmemory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory to memory to tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious obvious is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P U L A T I O N N M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific. V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V A (to V A (to

THESE MESSAGES WERE PRESENTED SO QUICKLY (BETWEEN 1/2000 AND 1/3000 OF A SECOND) THAT NO ONE WAS AWARE OF THEM. Up until now, it has remained Q U E S T I O N A B L E as to whether there could be an influence of age on S E N S I T I V I T Y to subliminal stimulation. In 1963 Barber & Calverley found that children between the ages of 6 and 12 were much more susceptible to the hypnotic like suggestions than were adults. A review of studies on S U G G E S T I B I L I T Y O F C H I L D R E N reveals that children seem to be more susceptible to suggestive questions in an interview situation. The assumption of a greater suggestibility in children is also supported by consumer research: Oates, Blades & Gunter showed that an understanding of the P E R S U A S I V E C H A R A C T E R of television advertisements increased with age. They reported that even 10-yearolds do not fully understand the purpose of the presented advertisements. It therefore seems plausible to assume. >> The effectiveness of subliminal messaging has been demonstrated to prime individual responses and stimulate mild emotional activity. Applications, however, often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. The near-consensus among research psychologists is that subliminal messages do not produce a powerful, enduring effect on behavior; and that laboratory research reveals little effect beyond a subtle, fleeting effect on thinking. For example, priming thirsty people with a subliminal word may, for a brief period of time, make a thirst-quenching beverage advertisement more persuasive. Research upon those claims of lasting effects—such as weight loss, smoking cessation, how music in popular culture may corrupt their listeners, how it may facilitate unconscious wishes in psychotherapy, and how market practitioners may exploit their customers—conclude that there is no effect beyond a placebo. In a 1994 study comparing television commercials with the message either supraliminal or subliminal, individuals produced higher ratings with those that were supraliminal. Unexpectedly, individuals somehow were less likely to remember the commercial if there was a subliminal message than if there was no message.

One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One One of the most prominent studies related to visual One One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual of the most prominent studies related to visual of the most prominent studies related to visual S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S U U B S S S S might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S S T H P H P H P H P by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M M M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V (to be be specific: specific: V A A (to A (to A (to (to the sales of popcorn by 58% the the sales of popcorn by 58% the the sales of popcorn by 58% the the sales of popcorn by 58% sales of popcorn by 58% sales of popcorn by 58% the sales of popcorn by 58% sales of popcorn by 58% and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks). and Vicary had allegedly tested this techniqueVicary Vicary had allegedly tested this techniqueVicary Vicary had allegedly tested this techniqueVicary Vicary had allegedly tested this technique had allegedly tested this technique had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique had allegedly tested this technique by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to altering movies so that messages urging viewers to altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> >> These These messages were presented so quickly messages were presented so quickly messages were presented so quickly >> messages were presented so quickly messages were presented so quickly (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular with his study, and many people believe still today with with his study, and many people believe still today with with his study, and many people believe still today with with his study, and many people believe still today his study, and many people believe still today his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today his study, and many people believe still today that his technique of advertising works.that his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. his technique of advertising works. his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works.that that his technique of advertising works.that that his technique of advertising works. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; H R H R F H R H R for him it was only a marketing trick.for for him it was only a marketing trick.for for him it was only a marketing trick.for for him it was only a marketing trick. him it was only a marketing trick. him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. him it was only a marketing trick. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in have observed similar effects. Current research in have observed similar effects. Current research in to have observed similar effects. Current research in to to have observed similar effects. Current research in to to have observed similar effects. Current research in the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the the field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E M M P P II R R II C A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E of visual E of visual E of visual E C A E E of visual of visual subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined as the process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to representation representation process representation representation memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acacto to memory to to tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the than than they would be if they were not primed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is Keeping these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is S these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded is very likely. However, no studies have concluded is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded that a subliminal message could lead to a that that a subliminal message could lead to a that that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a a subliminal message could lead to a a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M M M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific. (to be specific. A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific.V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific.V I S U A L V I S U A L A D V E R T I S I N G A D V E R T I S I N G (to be specific.V I S U A L (to be specific.


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_BACK-

_HISTORY AND

One of the most prominent studies related to visual One One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual S S S S S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N N might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book T H H E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A InD D1877 E R RThomas ST TmesH E E H II D D D D E E N N P E E R R S S U U A A D D E E R R S ST T H HEdison E H IItheD D phonograph, D E E N N P allowing E R R S S sound U A A D D E E R R S S Backmasking is a recording technique in which a sound or T invented a device H P E S H H P E H D P E U by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by andPackard Packard uncovered the cylinder highly with specialized techniques of sage is recorded backward on to a track that is meant to be played to be recorded reproduced on a rotating a stylus (or Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of uncovered the highly specialized techniques of M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A"needle") T II O O attached NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O to T aII diaphragm V A A T T II mounted O N N A A atLL the narrow M A A N NendII of P aU Uhorn. A T T II O O N N forward. Backmasking is a deliberate process, whereas a message M T N M M T V O M P LL A in the advertising industry. This information Emile supported in of the advertising industry. This information supported in in invented the advertising industry. discThis This information supported found through phonetic reversal may be unintentional. The use Berliner the familiar lateral-cut phonograph record the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he incould could raise the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings who had had argued thatsince he could could raise raise backmasking was popularized by The Beatles, who used backward 1888.raise Histhe design overtook the Edison phonograph in the 1920s, the claims of findings who argued that he sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales expired of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and popcornwere in then a free cinema through subliminal instrumentation on their 1966 album Revolver. Artists have since Berliner's patent in 1918, and and others to use his subliminal sales sales of popcorn in a cinema through subliminal V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be specific: specific: Vboth S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific: specific:V Vaddition S U Uto A A A recorded D V V E E sounds R T T by S II N Nthe G stylus (to be be specific: specific: used backmasking for artistic, comedic and satiric effect, on V invention. InV recreating A (to be II S A (to II S LL A D R II placing S G (to the sales of popcorn by on the cylinder 58% the the sales of popcorn by 58% the the or disc and sales of popcorn by 58% analog and digital recordings. The technique has also been the used rotating it of in the samepopcorn direction as during sales of popcorn by 58% sales of popcorn by 58% sales by 58% and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of the sixrecording, weeks).and and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a period period of of six six weeks). weeks).and andonethe the sales ofdifferent Coca-Colasounds by 18% 18% over a atheperiod period of six six weeks). weeks). to censor words or phrases for "clean" releases of rap songs. Backcould hearof by rotating cylinder six weeks). and sales Coca-Cola by over of Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary Vicary In 1878 hadEdison noted allegedly tested this technique masking has been a controversial topic in the United States since or disc backwards. that, when played backwards, had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique Vicary had allegedly tested this technique altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by movies so that messages urging viewers to altering movies so that messages urging to the 1980s, when allegations from Christian groups of its use "the song is still melodious in many cases, and some of the strains by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by byfor altering altering movies so that messages urging viewers to by by altering movies so that messages urging are viewers viewers to “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink sweet and Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat but altogether popcorn!” and the songto toreproduced“Drink “Drink Coke!” Satanic purposes were made against prominent rock musicians, novel, different from in the “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and to “Drink Coke!” “Eat popcorn!” and Coke!”

masking

development

_ P r o j e c t 0 2  _ M I N D W A S H

PLACEBO EFFECT

were displayed at regular intervals throughout the way". movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie.were were displayed at of records regular wasintervals intervals throughout the movie. leading to record-burning protests and proposed anti-backmaskright The backwards playing advised as throughout training for the displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular intervals throughout the movie. were displayed at regular movie. >> These These messages were presented so magicians quickly >> These These messages were presented so quickly>> >>occultist These Aleister messages were presented so quickly ing legislation by state and federal governments. by>> Crowley, who suggestedpresented in his 1913 book messages were presented so quickly >> messages were presented so quickly These messages were so quickly (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a Magick second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between (between 1/2000 and to think 1/3000 ofby extera second) >> Though the backmasking controversy peaked in the 1980s, (Book(between 4) that an adept "train himself backwardsof 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of a second) 1/2000 and 1/3000 a second) that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popularone that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary became became very very popular popular that that of no no onewaswas was awareto phonograph of them. them. Vicary Vicary became very popular popular the general belief in subliminal manipulation became more nal means", which to "listen records, became reversed.very popular that that one aware of with his study, and many people believe stillThe 1950s today with with his study, and many people believe still today with with hisnew developments study, and in audio many technology: people the believe still today widespread in the United States during the following decade, >> saw two develop- still his study, and many people believe still today with his study, and many people believe still today his study, and many people believe today that his technique of advertising ment ofworks. works. that his technique of advertising works.that that concrète, hisan avant-garde technique of advertising works. with belief in Satanic backmasking on records persisting that into musique form of electronic music which his technique of advertising his technique of advertising works. that his technique of advertising works. However, attempts to replicate his results were involves unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful.However, However, attempts toof natural replicateand industrial his results were unsuccessful. the 1990s. At the same time, the development of sound editing editing togetherattempts fragmentsto sounds; and unsuccessful. attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, attempts to replicate his results were unsuccessful. However, replicate his results were Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that heconcurrent had Finally, Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, Finally, in the use 1962, Vicary conceded that he had with audio reversal features simplified the process of reversthe spread ofin of tape recorders in recording studios. in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded that he had 1962, Vicary conceded that he had F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U UThese TtwoS S trends F A A K K E E D D H II S S R E E S S U U LL T T S S ;; F F A A led K to E tape D music compositions, H II S S composed on tape R E Eusing S U U LL T T S S ;; ing audio,which previously could only be done with full fidelity H R LL T ;; F F H R K E D H R S using a professional tape recorder. The Sound Recorder utility, techniques including reverse tape for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick.for for him it effects. was only a marketing trick. him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. for him it was only a marketing trick. included with Microsoft Windows from Windows 95 to Windows The Beatles, who incorporated techniques of concrète their advertising. >> He He never really found an effect of subliminal >> advertising. advertising. >>XP, He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising.>> >> He He never really thefound found an effect of into subliminal never really found an effect of subliminal >> He never really found an effect of subliminal advertising. >> never really an effect of subliminal advertising. allows one-click audio reversal, as does popular open source sound recordings, were responsible for popularizing the concept of backmaskNevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim Nevertheless, Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim Nevertheless, other researchers claim other researchers claim editing software Audacity. Following the growth of the Internet, ing. SingerinJohn Lennon and producer George both claimed to have observed similar effects. Current research to have observed similar effects. Current research in to to have observed similar Martin effects. Current they research in have observed similar effects. Current research in to to have observed similar effects. Current research in have observed similar effects. Current research in backmasked message searchers used such software to create the web- field technique visual during the recording has of the field of subliminal visual perception hasdiscovered providedthe of subliminal visual perception has provided the the backward field recording of subliminal perception provided field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided the field of subliminal visual perception has provided sites featuring backward music samples, which became a widely 1966's Never Knows" of E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of Revolver; visual E E M M P P II R R II C C A A LL E V V II D D E E N N C C E E of visual E E M Mspecifically P II R R II the C album A LL tracks E V V"Tomorrow D E E N N C E E visual E of visual E E of visual P C A E II D C of visual used method of exploring backmasking in popular music. "I'm Only Sleeping," and the single "Rain". Lennon while subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined andas as the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the subliminal subliminal priming effects. Priming stated is that, defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined the subliminal priming effects. Priming is defined as the priming effects. Priming is defined as the under the influence accidentally played theand tapes process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to to process process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and its its connections connections to process process of of marijuana, activating a ahe mental mental representation its for connections to to process representation representation to of activating representation and its connections "Rain" and in enjoyed the sound. he shared the memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through this this acac-memory memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. Through Through thisin reverse, ac-memory memory relation to The a following perceived day stimulus. Through this acacmemory to to this acin relation to a perceived stimulus. Through this with tivation, the other Beatles, and the effectwill was used in the quickly guitar tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, tivation, the connections will be more quickly results accessible the connections be first more accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible the connections will be more quickly accessible tivation, the connections will be more quickly accessible for "Tomorrow Never the coda of "Rain". than they would be if they were not primed by the than than they would be if they were not primedsolo by by the than than they Knows", would and be later if in they they were not Accordprimed by the than they would be if they were not primed by the they would be if they were not primed the they would be if were not primed by the ing to Martin, the band had been experimenting with changing the speeds S these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is these results in mind, it is S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is S S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results in mind, it is of and reversing the "Tomorrow Nevervisual Knows"modality, tapes, and got theof subliminal obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal subliminal obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the existence existence of of subliminal obvious that in in the the theMartin existence obvious subliminal obvious that visual modality, the existence of subliminal ideaconcluded of reversing Lennon's vocals and guitar, which he didstudies with a clip perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded is very likely. However, no studies have is very likely. However, no have concluded perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded perception perception is very likely. However, no studies have concluded Lennon then liked the effect and kept it. Regardless, "Rain" that a subliminal message could lead to a that that a subliminal message could lead fromto to"Rain".a a that that a subliminal message could lead to a that a subliminal message could lead to a a subliminal message could lead a subliminal message could lead to a was firstmanipulation song to featureof a backmasked message: "Sunshine… Rain… by manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary.manipulation manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by theVicary. Vicary. choice behavior as claimed Vicary. manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. of choice behavior as claimed by manipulation of choice behavior as claimed by Vicary. When the rain they run and hide their last line is the by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by by comes, Packard uncovered the heads"; highly the specialized specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly techniques of reversed first verse of the song). M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M M M M in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the advertising industry. This information supported the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued that that he he could could raise raise the sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema through through subliminal subliminal sales V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific.V V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G (to be be specific. specific. V A (to A (to A (to

BACKMASKING IN USE SATANIC BACKMASKING AESTHETIC USE

HUMOROUS AND PARODY MESSAGES CRITICAL OR EXPLICIT MESSAGES CENSORSHIP

EAT EATEAT EAT EAT EAT EAT EATEAT EAT FRESH FRESH FRESH FRESH FRESHFRESH FRESH FRESH FRESH FRESH LOSE LOSE LOSELOSE LOSE LOSE LOSELOSE LOSE LOSE WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT

_CONSUMPTION AND

television

Some studies have looked at the E F F I C A C Y O F S U B L I M I N A L M E S S A G I N G I N T E L E V I S I O N . Subliminal messages produce only one-tenth of the effects of D E T E C T E D M E S S A G E S and the findings related the effects of subliminal messaging were R E L A T I V E L Y A M B I G U O U S . Also, participants’ ratings of P O S I T I V E R E S P O N S E to commercials are not affected by subliminal messages in the commercials. Many authors have continued to argue for the E F F E C T I V E N E S S of subliminal cues in changing C O N S U M P T I O N B E H A V I O R , citing environmental cues as a main culprit of behavior change. Authors who support this line of reasoning cite findings such as the research that showed slow-paced music in a supermarket was associated with more sales and customers moving at a slower pace. Findings such as these support the notion that E X T E R N A L C U E S C A N A F F E C T B E H A V I O R , although the stimulus may not fit into a strict definition of subliminal stimuli because although the music may not be attended to or consciously affecting the customers, they are certainly able to perceive it. >> In another study, the tapes also contained subliminal audio that could not be heard consciously. Some of the subliminal audio was meant to enhance the listeners self-esteem, while others were meant to improve memory. After initially testing the subjects in areas of memory and self-esteem, they were assigned randomly to listen to the tapes every day for five weeks. There were four experimental groups, two of which had their tapes labeled truthfully: their memory/self-esteem would improve over time. For the other two groups, their tape description was untruthful about which aspect would be improved. The results of the study concluded that there was no evidence to suggest the tapes improved memory or self-esteem. Second, there was a placebo effect with volunteers who listened to the tapes that suggested their memory/selfesteem would improve. The subjects were simply demonstrating a perceived effect rather than an actual change in their memory/self-esteem. The effect the tapes had were deceptive, because in fact actual levels of memory and self-esteem were unaffected when post evaluations concluded. >> Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant. Subliminally priming a brand name of a drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. However, those who were not thirsty, were not influenced by the subliminal messages. Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person's choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual's feelings of being thirsty. In another study, participant's ratings of thirst were higher after viewing an episode of "The Simpsons" that contained single frames of the word "thirsty" or of a picture of a Coca-Cola can. Some studies have shown greater effects of subliminal messaging with as high as 80% of participants showing a preference for a particular rum when subliminally primed by the name placed in an ad backward.

_ P a g e  _ 3 9

_THE PLACEBO

effect

A placebo is a sham or simulated medical intervention. Sometimes patients given a placebo treatment will have a perceived or actual improvement in a medical condition, a phenomenon commonly called the placebo effect. In medical research, placebos are given as control treatments and depend on the use of measured deception. Common placebos are inert tablets, sham surgery, and other procedures based on false information. However, placebos can also have a surprisingly positive effect on a patient who knows that the given treatment is without any active drug, as compared with a control group who knowingly did not get a placebo. >> A placebo has been defined as "a substance or procedure… that is objectively without specific activity for the condition being treated". Under this definition, a wide variety of things can be placebos and exhibit a placebo effect. Pharmacological substances administered through any means can act as placebos, including pills, creams, inhalants, and injections. Medical devices such as ultrasound can act as placebos. Sham surgery, sham electrodes implanted in the brain, and sham acupuncture, either with sham needles or on fake acupuncture points, have all exhibited placebo effects. Bedding not treated to reduce allergies has been used as a placebo to control for treated bedding. The physician has even been called a placebo; a study found that patient recovery can be increased by words that suggest the patient “would be better in a few days”, and if the patient is given treatment, that “the treatment would certainly make him better” rather than negative words such as “I am not sure that the treatment I am going to give you will have an effect”. The placebo effect may be a component of pharmacological therapies: Pain killing and anxiety reducing drugs that are infused secretly without an individual’s knowledge are less effective than when a patient knows they are receiving them. Likewise, the effects of stimulation from implanted electrodes in the brains of those with advanced Parkinson's disease are greater when they are aware they are receiving this stimulation. Sometimes administering or prescribing a placebo merges into fake medicine. >> The placebo effect has sometimes been defined as a physiological effect caused by the placebo, but Moerman and Jonas have pointed out that this seems illogical, as a placebo is an inert substance that does not directly cause anything. Instead they introduced the word "meaning response" for the meaning that the brain associates with the placebo, which causes a physiological placebo effect. They propose that the placebo, which may be unethical, could be avoided entirely if doctors comfort and encourage their patients' health. Ernst and Resch also attempted to distinguish between the "true" and "perceived" placebo effect, as they argued that some of the effects attributed to the placebo effect could be due to other factors.


4 0_ 

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P r o j e c t 0 2 _  M I N D W A S H _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

_AUDITORY SUBLIMINAL

stimulation

There are five ways to embed worded messages in music: First, the target words or messages are placed in the music below the auditory threshold and are, thus, maskedby the music; second, it is possible to use words with an inverted time structure ( B A C K W A R D M A S K E D M E S S A G E S ) and mix them above the perceptual threshold; third, backward masked messages can also be used subliminally; fourth, highpass filtered worded messages (containing frequencies above 15 kHz) can be used (silent-subliminals); finally, time-shrunk. >> Although there is no profound research with experimental evidence in the field of backward masking, the topic has often been of One of the most prominent studies re great public interest. For example, in 1990 the heavy metal One of the most prominent studies re S S band Judas Priest had to face trial for mixing backward-masked S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M might be the one undertaken by the co S U B L I M I N A L C O M M A N D S to commit might be the one undertaken by the co James Vicary in 1957. At the same suicide into their music. The families of two fans who shot themselves James Vicary in 1957. At the same T H E H I D D E N P E R accused the band of being responsible for those horrendous incidents. T H E H I D D E N P E R S S by Packard uncovered the highly specialize Although the court found the band not guilty, the topic of by Packard uncovered the highly specialize M M subliminal manipulation by backward messages has M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P in the advertising industry. This infor remained an issue nevertheless, despite Vokey & Read’s in the advertising industry. This infor the convincing empirical evidence against any effects of stimulation the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued tt sales by retrograde messages. Their results showed that subjects sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema V A were unable to understand the S E M A N T I C V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G the sales of popcorn C O N T E N T of the message in either a the sales of popcorn and conscious or subconscious way after listening to worded and the the sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola by by 18% 18% over over a a per per Vicary had allegedly tested messages presented retrograde. In trying to affect Vicary had allegedly tested by altering movies so that messages ur subjects‘ spelling of homophones, the authors by altering movies so that messages ur “Eat popcorn!” and to could find no effects of subliminal stimulation on behavior. “Eat popcorn!” and to The authors further noted that "the apparent presence of backward messages in popular music is a function more of active construction on the part of the perceiver than of the existence of the messages themselves." >> Another interesting phenomenon of subliminal auditory messages is the use of subliminal S E L F - H E L P T A P E S that claim, for example, to strengthen self-esteem, memory or motivation. Rogers & Smith have amassed a market volume of about $50 million for self-help audio tapes in the United States. In a telephone survey, 45% of those who participated believed that subliminal advertising would affect whether or not they would buy the product being advertised. There are only a few studies that have claimed positive effects of subliminal messages: Chakalis & Lowe found an improvement of the experimental group in a face name occupation memory test; Merikle & Daneman reviewed 44 studies on memory for events during an esthesia and found some evidence for U N C O N S C I O U S C O G N I T I O N in their meta-analysis. Specific information was remembered following surgery, as long as testing was not delayed more than 36 hours.

were displayed at regular intervals throug were displayed at regular intervals throug >> messages were presented >> These These messages were presented (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of (between 1/2000 and 1/3000 of that that no no one one was was aware aware of of them. them. Vicary Vicary bec bec with his study, and many people bel with his study, and many people bel that his technique of adve that his technique of adve However, attempts to replicate his results However, attempts to replicate his results Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded Finally, in 1962, Vicary conceded F H R F A A K K E E D D H II S S R

for him it was only a for him it was only a >> never really found an effect of su >> He He never really found an effect of su Nevertheless, other researcher Nevertheless, other researcher to have observed similar effects. Curre to have observed similar effects. Curre the field of subliminal visual perception the field of subliminal visual perception E M P I R I C A L E V I D E N E M P I R I C A L E V I D E N C C subliminal priming effects. Priming is d subliminal priming effects. Priming is d process representation process of of activating activating a a mental mental representation and and memory to memory in in relation relation to a a perceived perceived stimulus. stimulus. tivation, the connections will be more tivation, the connections will be more than they would be if they were not than they would be if they were not S these results S T T II M M U U LL U U S S .. Keeping Keeping these results obvious obvious that that in in the the visual visual modality, modality, the the exist exist perception is very likely. However, no studie perception is very likely. However, no studie that a subliminal message could that a subliminal message could manipulation of choice behavior as claim manipulation of choice behavior as claim by Packard uncovered the highly specialize by Packard uncovered the highly specialize M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I M O T I V A T I O N A L M A N I P P in the advertising industry. This infor in the advertising industry. This infor the the claims claims of of Vicary’s Vicary’s findings findings who who had had argued argued tt sales sales of of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola and and popcorn popcorn in in a a cinema cinema V A V II S S U U A A LL A D D V V E E R R T T II S S II N N G G


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 2  _ M I N D W A S H

>> One method for creating subliminal auditory stimuli is called masking. This method involves H I D I N G T H E T A R G E T A U D I T O R Y S T I M U L U S in some way. Auditory subliminal stimuli are shown to have some effect on the participant, but not a large one. For example, one study used other speechlike sounds to cover up the target words. The study found evidence of priming in the A B S E N C E O F A W A R E N E S S >> Another interesting phenomenon of subliminal auditory messages isstudies the use of subliminal Svisual E L F -of H E L Pmost T prominent A P E S studies the related to visual of the most prominent related to elated to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One of the most prominent studies related to visual One elated to visual One that claim, for example, to strengthen self-esteem,S T I M U L A T I O N S U S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T I M U L A T I O N S U U B B LL II M M II N N A A LL S T T II M M U U LL A A T T II O O N NS U LL A A T T II O O N NS memory orconsumer motivation. Rogersmight & Smith have one amassed a marketby be the undertaken the consumer researcher might be the one undertaken by the researcher onsumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher be the one undertaken by the consumer researcher might onsumer researcher might volume of time, about the $50 book million for self-help audio Attapes Vicary in 1957. the same time, the book Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the book James Vicary in 1957. At the same time, the bookJames time, the bookJames in P the United States. In a E telephone survey, 45% of P E R S U A D E R S T H H I D D E N T H E H I D D E N E R S U A D E R S S U A D E R S H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R S H I D D E N P E R S U A D E R ST H E S U A D E R ST H E thosespecialized who participated believedofthat subliminal advertising would affect by Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by Packard uncovered the highly techniques ed techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of Packard uncovered the highly specialized techniques of by ed techniques of by whether or UnotL A they Iwould buy TtheI Vproduct being advertised. M M U LL A A T T II O O N NM M O O T I V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U U LL A A T T II O O N N M O O T T II V V A A T T II O O N N A A LL M A A N N II P P U L A T T I O O N NM U There are only a few studies that have claimed in the advertising industry. This information supported in the advertising industry. 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TYPE FOUNDRY

T26 Digital Type Foundry was established by Carlos and Sun Segura in 1994 to promote the development, promotion, and distribution of independent type design. Since then, T26 has become one of the largest independent source for new and innovative fonts offering a library of 3395 individual styles comprised of 978 families. With award winning promotional designs by its parent company Segura Inc., T26 has maintained its relevance with a dedication to the broader integration of typography with graphic design, fine art, and popular visual culture. Carlos and Sun Segura had already been running the Segura Design firm in Chicago since early 1991, and Carlos had come from an 11 year career as Art Director, Creative Director and Designer at many of the top advertising agencies in the country including Fortis-Fortis, BBDO, Marsteller, Foote Cone & Belding, Young & Rubicam, Ketchum, and DDB Needham. By 1992, Carlos saw that there was an opportunity arising and started the planning stages for the development of a new venture to enhance the new typography portals that were to come. It was with this basic platform that furthered features, procedures, policies, methods and concepts that lead to the initial creation of the T26 Digital Type Foundry. >> Volcano Type is a independent font foundry based in Karlsruhe, Germany. The first course: a fast food youthfulness that was served for the first time in 1996. An earthy dish, created by chance, with thirteen organic fonts. Quickly whisked up and devoured. It rarely took more than a few days from sketch to use/digestion by the project. Uncouth forms, erupted from the bowels of the earth. Shattered letters, branded, stressed, humiliated. In order to produce arrogant fonts, far too expressive to last on a page of copy text. Quite indisputably from nature. Still roughly hewn. Raw. Imperfect. >> The second course formed a strong contrast: tight concept, linear work, disciplined preparation. In most cases the font was formed by a matrix. Digital cool, sober, reduced. Plenty of free scope, like chess: the board is always the same, the moves always different. Classic openings are followed by unfamiliar variants. Competitive games. Finely nuanced movements. Carefully thought out, one masterminded brainchild after another. Dessert: mathematical severity is rounded off and smoothed down. Fonts between digital and analogue. Straightened rivers–the surfaces of our times.

COPY COPY CUT CUT COPY COPY COPYSEMI SEMI SEMIGROTESK GROTESK GROTESK COPY // COPY CUT // COPY SEMI GROTESK T YPEFACE DESIGNER: THOMAS ME T TENDORF >> T26 DIGI TAL T YPE FOUNDRY

T26 DIGI TAL T YPE FOUNDRY >> 1110 NORTH MILWAUKEE AVENUECHICAGO, IL 60642 USA >> 1.773.862.1201

COPY REGULAR COPY ITALIC COPY BOLD

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COPY CUT REGULAR

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COPY CUT ITALIC

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COPY CUT BOLD

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THE HISTORY OF THE SLAB

CROSSBAR

Like the industrial revolution, the Slab Serif was born in Britain, and was no doubt inspired by a new wave of advertising, and those beefy letter forms that could be found on just about every billboard, pamphlet, and poster of the day. Until this time, type was designed to serve one purpose—it was designed for long stretches of texts, for books. But with mechanisation, and major innovations in printing technology (e.g. the Steam Press, 1814), advertisers in particular were looking for a type that stood out from crowd; a type that shouted, look at me! Thus was born the the display face—type for use at large sizes, for short bursts of copy. >> Those posters were a riot of big type, often a half-dozen different styles on a single page. If the Didones are a lissom Audrey Hepburn, then the Slab Serifs are those guys one sees all too often on construction sites around the globe—trousers half-way down their posteriors. What I’m getting at is that the early Slab Serifs weren’t discreet. They were designed to be noticed. >> The Slab Serif or Egyptian is also home to further subsets of typeface styles, like the  Fat Faces which are fundamentally Didones (or Moderns) on steroids. Take a Modern style typeface, give its thicker strokes even more weight, triangulate some of those serifs, and you have a Fat Face. You might be familiar with types like Poster Bodoni. Bodoni is of course a Modern style type but, carrying all that extra weight, it’s a Fat Face. The Fat Face, then, is basically an Obese Didone. If, as some commentators remarked, the Didones were parodies of Baskerville’s types, then the Fat Face types are parodies of parodies. The first Fat Face was designed by Robert Thorne (c. 1800), who was also responsible for coining the term Egyptian to describe what is generally known today as the Slab Serif. >> By the mid-1800s, another sub-set of the Slab Serif class of types began to emerge—the Clarendons. They were an attempt to reign in some of the extravagences of the Fat Face display types, making them fit for use as text faces. Contrast was reduced, the serifs thinned somewhat and up with the x-height for legibility at those smaller sizes. Strictly speaking an ‘authentic’ slab serif has unbracketed serifs (an abrupt serif that meets the stem at a 90° angle), though there are numerous examples that come with bracketed serifs. Then, of course, come the Geometric Slab Serifs that look like the early Sans Serif types with the serifs broken off.

SLAB SERIFS IN USE

At their best, Slab Serifs are robust and colorful, with the serifs providing a strong continuity of line. The historic Slab Serifs are generally most effective in the heavier weights. Clarendons, in particular, are useful in text setting, particularly in cases where a greater weight is required than might be provided by more traditional text faces. The substantial serifs and consistent stroke widths retain their form when printed upon roug or absorbent papers or at low digital resolutions. They also survive reversal better than any other serif form, and are excellent for display and semi-display contexts. The were widely used in publishing, packaging, and art/editorial design in the late 1950s and early 1960s. >> During the early 19th century, especially in Britain, letter drawers began creating thicker versions of letterforms common in European printing during the 18th century, e.g., the types of the Fourniers, Giambattista Bodoni, or the Didots. These new letter styles began to appear throughout British society. Artists, artisans, printers, and typefounders; they all would come to embrace these new ideas. In the realm of typefounding, these faces came to represent the age of industrialization, and also the beginnings of advertising. This also marked the birth hour for typefaces that would be marketed by their makers for “display” use. Quite common today! >> As far as the typefaces go, the first examples seem to have been all-caps alphabets; faces with lowercase letters would come a bit later. In the UK, many of these early slab serifs were called “Egyptians,” even though they had very little to do with Egypt. Enthusiasm in Western Europe was quite high during this time period; Napoleon and his army had faced off against the British there, and hieroglyphics were in the process of decipherment. Perhaps the naming of typefaces as “Egyptian” had something to do with this popularity.

BRACKET

COUNTER

BOWL


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TYPEFACE BACKGROUND

Copy is a contemporary grotesque in its basic design. Its shapes are the result of a connection between formal and typographic features. The alternate styles Copy Cut and Copy Semi Grotesk use the basic design as a starting point for experimentation. With angular cuts, Copy Cut is breaking the plain shapes of the basic design and adds some significance to the alphabet. Much more complex is Copy Semi Grotesk. Versions with added serifs, as well as single types with monotype characteristics have been mixed and fused with the plain groteque shapes of Copy. For marking text, all three styles have been designed in the additional weights bold and italic. The Copy font family–especially in editorial design—is also very functional in combination of its grotesque and semi grotesque members.

COPY SEMI GROTESK REGULAR

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COPY SEMI GROTESK ITALIC

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COPY SEMI GROTESK BOLD

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9/10pt Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. 10/12pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. 12/14pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. 14/16pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps over.

THOMAS METTENDORF

The German designer Thomas Mettendorf (born 25. 9. 1966 in Karlsruhe) created the fonts Linotype Inky Script™ and Linotype Method™ in 1997. Linotype Inky Script and Linotype Method are included in the Take Type Library, chosen from the contestants of Linotype’s International Digital Type Design Contests of 1994 and 1997. >> Also known as Thomas Schnäbele (b. Karlsruhe, Germany, 1966). Designer of the GF Toaster family and the GF Cafe Retro family at Garagefonts in 1998. Also designed Dualis, Mobilette (1999), Five Link Chain (1999), Fonicons (dingbats, 2000), Fono (2000, techno family, which includes unicase weights), Modus (2001), Metroflex (2003-2004, Garagefonts: based on geometric principles and conceived as an “experimental vision!” for Fritz Lang’s classic film, Metropolis). At Linotype, he designed Linotype Method (1997) and Linotype InkyScript (1997). In 2006, at Volcano Type, he designed Copy, a sans family consisting of Copy Regular, Copy Bold, Copy Italic, Copy Cut Regular, Copy Cut Bold, Copy Cut Italic, Copy Semi Grotesk Regular, Copy Semi Grotesk Bold, Copy Semi Grotesk Italic. This family has the look and feel of typewriter types. In 2007, he decided to quit type and graphic design and to music.

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AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž AaBcCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtTUuVvWwXxYyZz 1234567890‰¼½¾ {[(/«!?¿¡#&$¢¥£¤€ßƒ∞µ∂∑π∫Ω√∆◊¶¬†‡@©®∏™»]} ÆæÄäÅåÃãÀàÂâÁáÇçÐðËëÈèÊêÉéfiflÏïÌìÎîÍíŁłÑñ ŒœÖöÕõÒòÔôÓóØøÞþŠšÜüÚúÙùÛûŸÿÝýŽž

9/10pt Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. 10/12pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. 12/14pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. 14/16pt

Howrazorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts! Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz. Jaded zombies acted quantly but kept driving their oxen forward. The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog. The public was amazed to view the quickness and dexterity of the juggler. A mad boxer shot a quick, gloved jab to the jaw of his dizzy opponent. The quick brown fox jumps.


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_Project L I T E R A C Y C R I S I S  _Category W E B _ P R I N T_ I N T E R A C T I V E _Course GR APHIC DESIGN 3 _ Instructor JENNY JI _Semester SPRING 2010

FOR EVERY BLIND CHILD THAT READS, THERE ARE NINE WHO CAN’T

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_Ty p o g r a p h y V I T E S S E _V I T E S S E S A N S _Client N AT I O N A L F E D E R AT I O N O F T H E B L I N D ( N F B) _ Deliverables WEBSITE CAMPAIGN POSTER AWARENESS VIDEO _ Dimensions P O S T E R 24 X 3 6 I N 15 SECOND MOTION T Y POGR APH Y V IDEO

LITERACY CRISIS _ Project To create an awareness campaign for the NFB (National Federation of the Blind) by redesigning a logo, creating a motion typography/animated video, poster, and website design. The purpose is to call attention to the alarming literacy rate among the blind and visually impaired. _Concept 10 dots are used in the logo, reminiscent of the braille system, with one darker than the rest, to represent this statistic for the blind: for every blind child that reads, there are 9 others who can’t. The other campaign pieces follow through with the use of the same aesthetics: clear, bold, and infographic to distribute knowledge across all audiences on the subject.

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NFB NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND WWW.BRAILLE.ORG/NFB

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_ M o t i o n Ty p o g r a p h y A w a r e n e s s V i d e o There are 15 million blind & visually impared people in America. Only 10% can read & write. Where would you be if you couldn’t read or wirte? NFB—National Federation of the Blind.

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_ Project A D E C A D E O F I N N O C E N C E  _Category PRINT _Course P R I N T & D I G I TA L M E D I A 2 _ In s t r u c t o r ROL AND YOUNG _ Semester SPRING 2011

OUR WHOLE CONCEPT WAS BASED ON SPEED, LOWER PRICES, AND VOLUME


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_Ty p o g r a p h y TUNGSTEN AKZIDENZ GROTESK WALBAUM _ Deliverables POSTER SERIES of 4 _ Dimensions P O S T E R S 1 8 X 24 I N

A DECADE OF INNOCENCE _ Project To design a poster series dedicated to the deterioration of a conformed society of the 1950s, events that would precede the turbulent 60s. _Concept THE QUIZ SHOW SCANDAL  Fixed and corrupt television quizshows became the norm with Herb Stempel vs. Charles Van Doren in “The $64,000 Question.” THE EVOLUTION OF A FAST PACED SOCIETY  Our whole concept was based on speed, lower prices, and volume. THE MONTGOMERY BUS DESEGREGATION  November 15, 1956, almost a year after the boycott had begun, the Supreme Court judged the Montgomery bus-segregation law to be unconstitutional. On December 21, the city prepared to desegregate all of its buses. SUBURBIA // LEVITTOWN  Owning a house represented contentment­­—These houses were social creations more than architectural ones–they turned the detached single-family house from a distant dream to a real possibility for thousands of middle-class American families.


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_ Project JCPENNEY REBR AND _Category I D E N T I T Y_ P A C K A G I N G _Course PACK AGE DESIGN 4 _ In s t r u c t o r MICHAEL OSBORNE _ Semester FA LL 2011

PRACTICAL LIFESTYLE PRODUCTS FOR THE MODERN CONSUMER

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_ Keywords TRUSTWORTHY, SAFE, MODERN, HEALTHY, AFFORDABLE

jcp

For parents ages 25-35, JCP Tots provides a value driven line of baby essentials that delivers well designed and durable products at affordable prices.

_ Keywords QUIRKY, ENERGETIC, FRIENDLY, MODERN, AFFORDABLE For dog or cat owners ages 25-50, JCP Pals provides high-end pet products and accessories for the modern pet and home, that delivers product quality and design at reasonable prices.

_ Keywords WITTY, UNIQUE, SENSIBLE, MODERN, AFFORDABLE For college students ages 18-28, Step One provides essential kitchenwares, home decor, bedding and bath, and electronic accessories that are practical and aesthetically pleasing; for dorm living through innovative design and reusable packaging at affordable prices.

_ Keywords ECCENTRIC, LIVELY, INFORMATIVE, MODERATELY AFFORDABLE For peoples ages 26-35, Guy Fieri is a celebrity endorsed line of products which offers chef-grade gourmet foods and kitchenwares that delivers quality ingredients and materials, and contain educational benefits in the packaging.

_ Keywords SOPHISTICATED, CONTEMPORARY, MATURE, MODERATELY AFFORDABLE

modern living

For consumers ages 25-40, Paxton provides modern, contemporary home decor that is of high-style through good craftsmanship and design but at moderately affordable prices.

_ Keywords FRESH, HEALTHY, SOPHISTICATED, HIGH-END For women ages 30-50, Surface offers high-end skincare and cosmetics that provide healthy anti-aging benefits that delivers quality ingredients with advanced technology.


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_Te a m M e m b e r s P AT C H I R A K I T I A LV I N D O M I N G O M O N I C A G A LVA N L I S C E LY N G R I F A L DEE SHIN SITI NUR AINI AZMI _ Deliverables IDENTIT Y PACK AGING

JCPENNEY REBRAND _ Project To rebrand the department store, JCPenney by creating a new branding strategy, attracting new audiences while still appealing to the current one, and to introduce new private labels with a niche market to cater to these new demographics. _Concept All JCPenney store brands and private labels are to be united under the strategy statement: Practical lifestyle products for the modern consumer.

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_ Keywords TRUSTWORTHY, SAFE, MODERN, HEALTHY, AFFORDABLE

jcp

For parents ages 25-35, JCP Tots provides a value driven line of baby essentials that delivers well designed and durable products at affordable prices.

_ Keywords QUIRKY, ENERGETIC, FRIENDLY, MODERN, AFFORDABLE For dog or cat owners ages 25-50, JCP Pals provides high-end pet products and accessories for the modern pet and home that delivers product quality and design at reasonable prices.

_ Keywords WITTY, UNIQUE, SENSIBLE, MODERN, AFFORDABLE For college students ages 18-28, Step One provides essential kitchenware, housewares, bedding and bath, and electronic accessories that are practical and aesthetically pleasing; innovative design for dorm living with reusable packaging, available at affordable prices.

_ Keywords ECCENTRIC, LIVELY, INFORMATIVE, MODERATELY AFFORDABLE For peoples ages 26-35, Guy Fieri is a celebrity endorsed line of products which offers chef-grade gourmet foods and kitchenwares that delivers quality ingredients and materials, and contain educational benefits in the packaging.

_ Keywords SOPHISTICATED, CONTEMPORARY, MATURE, MODERATELY AFFORDABLE

modern living

For consumers ages 25-40, Paxton provides modern, contemporary home decor that is of high-style through good craftsmanship and design but at moderately affordable prices.

_ Keywords FRESH, HEALTHY, SOPHISTICATED, HIGH-END For women ages 30-50, Surface offers high-end skincare and cosmetics that provide healthy anti-aging benefits and delivers quality ingredients with advanced technology.


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DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES _Bright _Durable _Safe _Trustworthy _Affordable _Friendly

AGES

25-35 LIFESTYLE AND DE MOGRAPHICS Young parents Ages 25–35 (parents) For toddlers ages (1–3) Middle to middle-upper class income First time parents

jcp PRODUCTS ($4–65) Bottles, pacifiers, bibs, clothing, wipes, chew toy, interactive hands-on toys, utensils (eg. bowls, plastic forks), baby food, bath products (lotion, baby powder, shampoo/ conditioner).

FOR PARENTS AGES 25 TO 35, JCP TOTS PROVIDES A VALUE DRIVEN LINE OF BABY ESSENTIALS THAT DELIVERS WELL DESIGNED AND DURABLE PRODUCTS, AT AFFORDABLE PRICES. TRUSTWORTHY SAFE MODERN HEALTHY AFFORDABLE

PURPOSE There has been a big trend in quality driven baby essentials. Quality driven, trustworthy, and health conscious products for their tots are key to modern consumers.


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jcp

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jcp

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jcp

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DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES _quirky/fun _friendly _trustworthy _modern _moderately, priced

AGES

26-50 LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHICS Couples who are newly married or living together, or do not have children ages 26– 50 middle to middleupper class income enjoy casual living live in urban settings have an active lifestyle

jcp PRODUCTS ($3–40) Clothing, grooming kit, toys, bowls, collars, chew toy, gourmet dog/cat food, shampoo/conditioner, treats, dog/cat bed (pillow), pet carry-on bag, dog poop bags, pet hair remover.

FOR DOG OR CAT OWNERS AGES 26 TO 50, JCP PALS PROVIDES HIGHEND PET PRODUCTS AND ACCESSORIES FOR THE MODERN PET AND HOME, THAT DELIVERS PRODUCT QUALITY AND DESIGN, AT REASONABLE PRICES. QUIRKY ENERGETIC FRIENDLY MODERN AFFORDABLE

PURPOSE Couples are deciding not to have children, or are waiting to have children at an older age. In the past decade there has been an increase in pet boutiques. However, due to recession, they will be less inclined to go to boutiques and would rather go to places that provide all-in-one shopping benefits.


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


WI TTY

DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES EASY TO USE AFFORDABLE MODERN PLAYFUL BUT MATURE STRAYS AWAY FROM TEENAGER STYLES REUSABLE PACKAGING

AGES

18-28 LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHICS _ College students _ Live in small/condensed living spaces _ Student income _ Need practical and easy to use products that are functional but aesthetically pleasing _ Still trying to find their very own unique style in the world

PRODUCTS Kitchenware: ($4–35) one of each cup set, utensils, utensil tray, pots/pans combo, appliances, kitchen mitts, cutlery, salt + pepper shaker Home decor: ($4–55) lamp, foldable chairs, small portable ottomanpicture frames, shelving unit, vacuum Bed + Bath: ($3–40) comforter/sheet set, air bed, soap dispenser, waste bucket, shower curtain, laundry bag Electronic: ($6–100) Computer covers (felt, wood, graphics), computer speakers, flash drives, accessories, phone covers, mouse, fashionable docking station, headphones, watch, stylus, ipad dock joystick, laptop stands, telephone, digital camera

FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS AGES TO TEP ONE PROVIDES ESSENTIAL KITCHENWARES, HOME DECOR, BED AND BATH, AND HEALTH PRODUCTS THAT ARE PRACTICAL AND AESTHETICALLY PLEASING; FOR DORM LIVING THROUGH INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND REUSABLE PACKAGING AT AFFORDABLE PRICES. WITTY UNIQUE SENSIBLE MODERN AFFORDABLE

PURPOSE

JC Penney targets mainly children, teens, tweens, soccer moms, mature adults and seniors but not enough college students. They will essentially be the next generation of loyal customers; without them, JC Penney may not be able to compete.


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_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 0 7


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

A bond between you and your music

1957761300498

_ P a g e  _ 1 0 9


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 1 1


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 1 3

DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES _ MODERATELY AFFORDABLE _ INFORMATIVE _ EDUCATIONAL _ FUN LIKE GUY’S PERSONALITY

AGES

26-35

LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHICS _ Young business professionals _ Sophisticated/mature _ Middle class _ Novice cooks _ Knowledgeable _ No kids _ Live in condos/ apartments/townhouses _ Their very own unique style in the world

PRODUCTS ($8–70) Kitchenware: pots, pans, utensils, measuring cups, plates, bbq mits, apron, salt + pepper shaker, strainer, recipe book Gourmet Food: Hot sauce, bbq rubs, pasta, energy drinks, soup, spices, nuts, salsa, tomato sauce, mesquite chips

FOR PEOPLE AGES TO UYS FIERI IS A CELEBRITY ENDORSED LINE OF PRODUCTS WHICH OFFERS CHE GRADE GOURMET FOODS AND KITCHENWARES THAT DELIVERS QUALITY INGREDIENTS AND MATERIALS, AND CONTAIN EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS IN THE PACKAGING. ECCENTRIC LIVELY INFORMATIVE MODERATELY AFFORDABLE

PURPOSE

With the popularity of cooking shows on tv, there has been an upward trend of people leaning toward a more rich and sophisticated taste palette; this has led to an increase in novice cooks


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 1 5


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P r o j e c t 0 5 _  J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 1 7


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 1 9


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 2 1

DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES _Moderately affordable _Contemporary Clean _lines/simple Form _meets function

AGES

25-40

LIFESTYLE AND DE MOGRAPHICS Single/newly married First home buyers Young professionals Ages 25–40 Middle class Career oriented Sophisticated

PRODUCTS ($15–250) Table tray, lamp/lighting, clock, decorative pillow, rug, decorative vase/bowl, picture frame, outdoor pillow, interlocking coasters, candlestands, candle holder, modular shelving unit, mirrors, sculptures, keyholder, mail holder, coasters

FOR CONSUMERS AGES 25 TO 40, PAXTON PROVIDES MODERN, CONTEMPORARY HOME DECOR THAT IS OF HIGH-STYLE THROUGH GOOD CRAFTSMANSHIP AND DESIGN BUT AT MODERATELY AFFORDABLE PRICES. SOPHISTICATED CONTEMPORARY MATURE MODERATELY AFFORDABLE

PURPOSE JC Penney was lacking in modern home decor, most of the furniture and lamps they had were more on the traditional side and designed for an older audience.


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D modern living

_ P a g e  _ 1 2 3


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D modern living

_ P a g e  _ 1 2 5


1 2 6 _ 

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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 2 7


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P r o j e c t 0 5 _  J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 2 9

DESIGN AND PRODUCT OBJECTIVES _FRESH _INVIGORATING _SOPHISTICATED _MODERN _CLEAN AGES

30-50

LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHICS _ Adults who care about their health and appearance _ Middle-upper class _ Middle to middle-upper class income

PRODUCTS ($3–18) Anti-aging products, masks, spf creams (face and body), cleansers, overnight moisturizers for eyes and face, pills for skin (eg. vitamin e), fish oil, aromatherapy for eyes, eye pack

FOR WOMEN AGES TO URFACE OFFERS HIG END SKINCARE AND COSMETICS THAT PROVIDE HEALTHY ANTI GING BENEFITS THAT DELIVERS QUALITY INGREDIENTS WITH ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY. FRESH HEALTHY SOPHISTICATED HIGH

PURPOSE

Anti-aging products are becoming more and more readily accepted; the modern women are selfconscious about aging., they are also health conscious about tremendous amounts of sun exposure.


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 3 1


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P r o j e c t 0 5 _  J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 3 3


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P r o j e c t 0 5 _  J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 3 5


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 5  _ J C P E N N E Y R E B R A N D

_ P a g e  _ 1 3 7


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ Project THE CODE OF DREAMS _Category P R I N T_W E B _Course T YPOGR APHY 3 _ In s t r u c t o r ARIEL GREY _ Semester SPRING 2010

DREAMS ARE A CONVERSATION WITH ONESELF THAT TAKES PLACE BETWEEN THE UNCONSCIOUS AND CONSCIOUS LEVELS OF THE MIND

_ P a g e  _ 1 3 9


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_Ty p o g r a p h y REQUIEM DIN V T100 _Client NE W L E A F PA PER _ Deliverables 4 8 PAGE PROMOT ION BOOK POSTER WEBSITE _ Dimensions BOOK 7X9 IN P O S T E R 24 X 3 6 I N

THE CODE OF DREAMS _ Project To design a paper promotion package for a line of paper by an existing paper company. The promotion includes a 48 page promotional book, poster, and website for the paper company to indroduce their new paper line. _Concept The subject of study for this paper line, Imagination by New Leaf, is the study of dreams, specifically “lucid dreams.” I chose lucid dreams because this is the form of dream that connects the conscious with the subconscious. In this type of dream, we reach some sudden realization that we are dreaming; the benefit of this epiphany is that we could possibly use it to our advantage by thinking positively and change our lives. A general study of sleep and dreams will be discussed, such as the stages of sleep, the brain waves that appear in each of these phases, and the importance of REM sleep which is when the body restores its vitality.

_ P a g e  _ 1 4 1


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 4 3


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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 4 5


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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 4 7


14 8_ 

P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

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P r o j e c t 0 6 _   THE CODE OF DREAMS_

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 4 9


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 5 1


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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 5 3


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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 5 5


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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 5 7


15 8_ 

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P r o j e c t 0 6 _  T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S _

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 6  _T H E C O D E O F D R E A M S

_ P a g e  _ 1 5 9


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_ P a g e  _ 1 6 1

_ Project G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y _Category PRINT _Course P R I N T & D I G I TA L M E D I A 1 _ In s t r u c t o r TROY ALDERS _ Semester FA LL 2010

TWO THIRDS OF AMERICANS BELIEVE GLOBAL WARNING WILL NOT AFFECT THEM IN THEIR LIFETIMES


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_Ty p o g r a p h y TR ADE GOTHIC GOTHAM _Client G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y _ Deliverables NEWSLET TER POSTER _ Dimensions F L AT 1 7 X 2 2 I N

GLOBAL STRATEGY _ Project To research, investigate, and learn specifics about global warming and its growing effects on our environment. Invent a name and design the monthly newsletter with a limited palette of two colors to emphasize sustainability. It must have a cover story on the front, facts, charts and infographics throughout. _Concept To inform the general public about the increasing concerns of global warming on our environment. The clean and minimal design hints to the reader that this is the goal and hope we wish for our environment for generations to come to live and breathe healthy lives. Pull quotes, charts, and simple infographics are used to further educate the reader on the subject.

_ P a g e  _ 1 6 3


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P r o j e c t 0 7_  G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y_

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_ P a g e  _ 1 6 5


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P r o j e c t 0 7_  G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y_

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_ P a g e  _ 1 6 7


16 8_ 

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P r o j e c t 0 7_  G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y_

O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_ P a g e  _ 1 6 9


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 7  _ G L O B A L S T R AT E G Y

_ P a g e  _ 1 7 1


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 8  _T H E E N C H A N T E D F O R E S T

_ Project THE ENCHANTED FOREST _Category I D E N T I T Y_ P R I N T _Course IDENTIT Y 1 _ In s t r u c t o r M I C H A E L S A I N AT O _ Semester FA LL 2009

WE STRIVE TO BE A HIDDEN GEM THAT PEOPLE DISCOVER AS THEIR OWN SPECIAL PLACE

_ P a g e  _ 1 7 3


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 8  _T H E E N C H A N T E D F O R E S T

_ P a g e  _ 1 7 5

_Ty p o g r a p h y ADOBE GAR AMOND CHALET _Client THE ENCHANTED FOREST _ Deliverables IDENTIT Y V I S U A L S TA N D A R D S G U I D E _ Dimensions BOOK 8X8

THE ENCHANTED FOREST _ Project The premise of this project is to focus on the identity of a place, The Enchanted Forest. From there the goal was to create a mythology of the brand, including the brand’s mission, history and rebranding objective; express the brand and its evolution; and define who the brand is for by developing the audience profile. The Enchanted Forest is a theme park located in Salem, Oregon founded by Roger Tofte in the 1960s. _Concept The concept behind the logo, a keyhole, is that no matter who you are, once you cross the threshold of “The Enchanted Forest” you unlock your mind and discover another world.


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 8  _T H E E N C H A N T E D F O R E S T

_ P a g e  _ 1 7 7


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

_ P r o j e c t 0 8  _T H E E N C H A N T E D F O R E S T

_ P a g e  _ 1 7 9


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O n D i r e c t i n g _   M O N I C A G A LVA N _

X

X

1.5 X

1.5 X

.75 X

.75 X

1.5 X

ADOBE GAR AMOND R EGULAR

E

A  B  C  D  E  F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R  S   T   U  V   W   X   Y   Z  a   b   c   d   e  f   g   h   i   j   k   l   m   n   o   p   q   r   s   t  u   v   w   x   y  z (   .   ,   :   ;   ?  !   $   &   @   *   )   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 A DOBE G A R A MOND ITA LIC

E

A   B   C  D  E  F   G  H  I   J  K   L   M  N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  a   b  c  d   e   f  g   h   i   j   k   l  m   n   o   p   q  r   s   t   u  v   w  x   y   z (   .   ,   :   ;   ?  !  $   &  @  *   )   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 ADOBE GAR AMOND SMALL CAPS

E

A  B  C  D  E  F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R  S   T   U  V   W   X   Y   Z  a  b  c  d  e   f   g  h   i   j   k   l   m   n   o  p   q  r   s  t  u   v   w   x   y  z (   .   ,   :   ;   ?  !   $   &   @   *   )   0  1  2   3  4   5   6   7   8   9 ADOBE GAR AMOND SEMI BOLD

E

A   B   C   D   E   F   G  H   I   J   K   L  M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T  U   V   W  X  Y  Z  a  b  c   d  e   f   g   h   i   j   k   l  m   n   o   p   q   r   s  t   u  v   w   x   y   z (   .   ,   :   ;   ?  !   $   &  @   *   )   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

M AJE S T IC PU R PL E P M S   519 5 U / 519 5 C    C M Y K  7 2   9 0   75   15    R G B  9 5   57   6 8    H E X  5 F 3 9 4 4

D I S C OV E R Y G O L D P M S   7407 U / 74 0 7 U    C M Y K  0   2 2   85   11    R G B  2 2 9   181   5 8    H E X E5 B53 A


_ O n D i r e c t i n g  _ M O N I C A G A LVA N

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I dentity As Roger says, “There is no shortage of ideas, just time and money. We believe in attention to artistic detail. We want to offer our visitors something unique, with a lot of variety. We strive to be a hidden gem that people discover as their own special place.” Roger’s fundamental idea for family fun deserves the chance to “enchant” those of all ages. The logo represents this underlying message of the Enchanted Forest. Upon entrance, the walls of the visitor’s mind are released and “unlocked” from the ordinary into the realm of a fantastical world where no matter who you are, you can experience discovery for the first time all over again.

S oaring F irefly

S ocial Bunny

E nlightened O wl

L ethargic Sloth

R espected L ion

C hirpy S quirrel

Dresses as different princess for Halloween holidays | Chews bubblegum | Plays dressup with Mom’s clothes | Colors inside the lines with crayola crayons | Wears ribbon in her, tied as a bow | Takes part in ballet recital | Watches Disney channel.

Takes care of neighbor’s kids for extra cash during the summer | Watches reality TV shows | Drives used Honda | Dies hair & paints nails out of boredom | Sips Pepsi from the can | Eats out at Applebee’s restaurant with friends | Above average student.

Watches comedy shows from the 1950’s | Enjoys cup of hot chocolate with the grandkids | Plays cards in the evenings with Grandpa | Quit smoking 10 years ago for health and to set a good example | Carries large purse | Wears prescription glasses around neck | Refuses to own or purchase a computer.

Exceeds texting limit monthly | Listens to alternative music | Often falls asleep in history class | Plays on school basketball team | Keen interest in building | Wears sports hat backwards | Impatient to graduate high school.

Drives motorcycle Sunday mornings | Kisses wife on the cheek every morning | Tries to stay in tune with today’s hit music | Drinks a bud-light on the weekend with the guys | Puts up Christmas lights every year the day after Thanksgiving holiday | Still phones Mom to check in | Plays sports with sun.

Still believes in Santa Claus | Builds cityscapes with Legos | Teases little girls | Never wears a jacket | Collects hot wheels | Blows bubbles with straw in beverage at restaurants | Reads comic books with flashlight under the blankets after bedtime.

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Unacceptable Treatments

DON’T SW ITCH T HE COLOR S

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L ogo C olors

DON’T STR ETCH T HE LOGO

These are examples of what not to do with the Enchanted Forest logo. Following these graphic standards will ensure the Enchanted Forest has a consistent, recognizable identity. Some of these unacceptable treatments are: don’t switch the colors; don’t stretch the logo; don’t use gradient effects; don’t use drop shadows; don’t outline the brandmark; don’t change the orientation.

The main colors for the Enchanted Forest printed logo are Pantone 5195 U and Pantone 7407 U . Use these exact colors when printing with spot colors on uncoated paper stock. Use Pantone 5195 U and Pantone 7407 U when printing on coated stock. CMYK, RGB, and Hexadecimal colors are provided for four-color process printing and onscreen use.

DON’T USE GR A DIEN T EFFEC TS

D O N ’ T U S E D RO P S H A D OW S

DON’T OU T L I NE T H E BR A NDM A R K

D O N ’ T C H A N G E T H E O R I E N TAT I O N

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Br and E xpression

Br and E xtensions

E N T R A NC E / S IG N AG E This is one of our entrances to the Enchanted Forest. Each one has the Enchanted Forest emlem on the sign above the ornate wooden doors. Similarly designed signs will be posted in the surrounding areas of Salem, Oregon to promote our brand’s place and encourage families to join us, unlock their minds, and discover the Enchanted Forest for the first time all over again.

A RC H I T E C T UA L E L E M E N T S Since our main mansion building here at the Enchanted Forest possesses exquisitely ornate elements and both classic and traditional architechtural qualities, we have now decided to branch out into exterior gates, door knob plates with specially designed keys adorned with similarly designed aspects of our mansion. Your last name initials, when pre-ordered ahead of time, may also be included in the design, extending that personal touch. Now anyone can live in and embrace the Enchanted Forest atmosphere they experience here with us.


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O ur H istory From humble beginnings through present day, this is where we have been.

The E nchanted Forest S tory In the 1960’s Roger Tofte (the creator of Enchanted Forest) realized there was very little for a family to see and do together in Salem, Oregon. He developed an idea for a theme park where he could use his creative talents to build a magical kingdom for children of all ages and even their parents to experience. The result was a world enfolding discovery and wonder around every corner: a world where a child’s curiosity is encouraged; a world where an adult could rise above their years and relive those childhood memories of wonder. Together, the possibilities are endless and the memories unforgettable.

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THE ENCHANTED FOREST STORY

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OUR HISTORY

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AUDIENCE PROFILES

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IDENTITY

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ALTERNATE LOGO VERSIONS

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ANATOMY OF LOGO

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LOGO DON’TS

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LOGO COLORS

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1930 Roger Tofte is born in Chipawa Falls, WI

1954 Roger marries Mavis Bjorke

1964 Roger purchases original 20 acres of land off Interstate 5 for $4,000

1973 Roger quits job with the State Highway Depart. after Enchanted Forest’s second season. Tofteville western town is built

1971 After seven years of construction, an OPEN sign is posted and the Enchanted Forest open meets its first visitors

1974 Haunted House opens

1983 Ice Mountain Bobsled roller coaster is built

1996 Log Ride opens to public and several kiddy riders were added: the Kiddy Bumper Boats, the Kiddy Ferris Wheel and the Frog Hopper

2006 The Challenge of Mondor, a beautiful, slow moving adventure ride opens

1988 Construction of the Old Europe Village with the Jolly Roger Water-Light show begins and opens in 1993

2002 The Crazy Bumper Cars are added using big inner tube bumpers, later replaced with traditional indoor bumper cars

2007 Kiddy train and new indoor bumper cars are added to the park

TYPOGR APHIC STANDARDS

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IMAGE/GR APHIC STYLE

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BR AND EXPRESSION

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BR AND EXTENSIONS

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A lternate L ogo Variations

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A natomy of logo

ENCH A N T ED FOR E S T PR I M A RY LOGO

These are examples of the proper usage of the Enchanted Forest logo. These are acceptable usages of our new identity. First, the primary two pantone colored primary logo version, a simple black and white version, and also a reversed black & white version as well. Any one of these may be used, alternate versions are discouraged.

X represents the minimum clear, breathing space around the brandmark. It should be kept free of graphics, text and other marks. It also defines the minimum distance from the brandmark to the edge of a printed piece.

X

X

ENCH A N T ED FOR E S T PR I M A RY LOGO

1.5 X

.75 X

1.5 X

.75 X

1.5 X

S I N G L E C O L O R (S H OW N I N B L AC K )

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A D OBE G A R A MON D R E GU L A R

Typogr aphic S tandards

M AJE S T IC PU R PL E

A D OBE G A R A MON D Adobe Garamond is our primary typeface. It was specifically chosen to lend a classical touch to the existing majestical quality that lives in the Enchanted Forest brand. Garamond may be used in all print and web applications for titles, subtitles, body copy, and callouts. The small caps version of the typeface is reserved for the logo type and other like titles, to be treated in a similar manner. Do not use the bold version of the font to highlight important text. Instead, use the italics or all caps loosely tracked out.

D I S C OV E R Y G O L D

P M S 519 5 U / 519 5 C

P M S 7407 U / 74 0 7 U

C M Y K 7 2 9 0 75 15

C M Y K 0 2 2 85 11

R G B 9 5 57 6 8

R G B 2 2 9 181 5 8

H E X 5F394 4

H E X E5 B53 A

C H A L E T Paris Nineteen Sixty Our secondary typeface is Chalet, Paris Nineteen Sixty and Oblique Paris. It was selected to emphasize the ethereal aspect of the brand. This typeface is used sparingly in comparison to Adobe Garamond. It’s designated more for web applications in treating titles, subtitles, body copy, and callouts however, it is used sporadically for advertisements.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz (.,:;?!$&@*)0123456789

P hotogr aphic S tyle

A D OBE G A R A MON D I TA L IC

Our brand image is also represented through our specific photographic style standards. These standards begin with detailed, close-up architectural shots in black & white grainy film/digital photography. Soft focus shots of nature and atmospheric related images are also apart of the Enchanted Forest brand image in mute, monochromatic color palette schemes with subtle hints of magical colors; always avoid bright colors. Also avoid the typical photography associated with the cliqué fantasy theme park atmosphere (such as families expressing overwhelming emotion and action) in full sharp color. We strive to appear unique and authentic, not ordinary or fake.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz (.,:;?!$&@*)0123456789 A D OBE G A R A MON D S M A L L C A P S

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz (.,:;?!$&@*)0123456789

B L AC K & W H I T E G R A I N Y F I L M / D I G I TA L P H O T O G R A P H Y

B L AC K & W H I T E G R A I N Y F I L M / D I G I TA L P H O T O G R A P H Y

A RC H I T E C T U R A L C L O S E - U P S H O T S

N AT U R E / W I L D L I F E S H O T S

S O F T F O C U S AT M O S P H E R I C S H O T S

S O F T F O C U S AT M O S P H E R I C S H O T S

M U T E , M O N O C H RO M AT I C C O L O R PA L E T T E S

S U B T L E H I N T S O F M AG I C A L C O L O R S , AVO I D B R I G H T H U E S

C H A LE T PA R I S N I N E T EEN S IX T Y

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz (.,:;?!$&@*)0123456789 C H A LE T O B LI Q U E PA R I S

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ( . , : ; ? ! $ & @ * ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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E X T E R I O R O R N AT E G AT E S W I T H C U S T O M I N I T I A L L E T T E R I N G

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_ P r o j e c t 0 9  _ A S T O R Y I N E V E R Y S U R F A C E

_ Project A STORY IN E V ERY SURFACE _Category I D E N T I T Y_ P R I N T _Course GR APHIC DESIGN 2 _ In s t r u c t o r L A U R A M I LT O N _ Semester SPRING 2009

YOUR STORY MERGES WITH OURS AND A NEW STORY BEGINS. SIMULTANEOUSLY, YOU ARE ALSO SOLVING AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM

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_Ty p o g r a p h y N E U T R AT E X T _Client VETR AZZO _ Deliverables IDENTIT Y 16 PAGE BROCHURE POSTER _ Dimensions BROCHURE 7X9 IN P O S T E R 1 8 X 24 I N

A STORY IN EVERY SURFACE _ Project To redesign the identity for a nonprofit organization that emphasizes sustainable solutions. Create a complete and unified system for the redesigned identity; 16 page brochure with die-cut cover; and poster to educate potential customers of the sustainable solutions their product offers. _Concept Vetrazzo—the original stained glass surface. For over a decade now, Vetrazzo has created dazzling stained glass surfaces in places where people live, work, and play across country. With Vetrazzo Surfaces you can express both your styles and respect for the earth without compromise. Vetrazzo is 85% glass and all the glass used is recycled. Vetrazzo’s artful surfaces are strong, durable, and a joy to live with now, and for a long, long time. Because of the unique nature of the glass used in the production process, every Vetrazzo surfaces has its own history. We track that history, and when you purchasev Vetrazzo, we provide a Certificate of Transformation that tells you exactly where the glass in your Vetrazzo comes from. At that point, your story merges with ours, and a new story begins. You’re solving an environmental problem and we think that says a lot about you. Vetrazzo—a story in every surface.

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_ Project GIRL, INTERRUPTED _Category PRINT _Course P R I N T & D I G I TA L M E D I A 2 _ In s t r u c t o r ROL AND YOUNG _ Semester SPRING 2011

DIAGNOSIS AT DISCHARGE: BORDERLINE PERSONALITY

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_Ty p o g r a p h y UNIVERS LET TER GOTHIC _ Deliverables MOVIE POSTER _ Dimensions P O S T E R 24 X 3 6 I N

GIRL, INTERRUPTED _ Project To design a movie poster for the film “Girl, Interrupted”. _Concept “Girl, Interrupted” is a 1999 drama film about a teenager’s 18 month stay at a mental institution, starring Winona Ryder, Angelina Jolie, Brittany Murphy, Whoopi Goldberg and Vanessa Redgrave, with Jolie winning an Academy Award for her performance. The film is an adaptation of author Susanna Kaysen’s memoir. James Mangold directed, and he, Anna Hamilton Phelan, and Lisa Loomer wrote the screenplay. Throughout the film, there is the reoccurring theme of self-control; the constant loss and return of it. The protagonist, Susanna Kaysen, voluntarily checks herself into a psychiatric ward after an overdose of aspirin yet she denies the accusation that she was committing suicide. Expressed through the unnerving motions of a hand, dramatic photography forces the audience to feel uneasy and evolve along with the main character.

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_Category IDENTIT Y

IDENTITY

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NFB

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE B LIND


NFB

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE B LIND


© 2 0 1 0 M O N I C A G A LVA N . A L L R I G H T S R E S E R V E D .


© 2 0 1 2 M O N I C A G A LVA N . A L L R I G H T S R E S E R V E D .


© 2 0 1 1 M O N I C A G A LVA N . A L L R I G H T S R E S E R V E D .


© 2 0 1 1 M O N I C A G A LVA N . A L L R I G H T S R E S E R V E D .


SPECIAL THANKS _ In s t r u c t o r s Mary Scott, Roland Young, Darrell Hayden, Ariel Grey, Thomas McNulty, Michael Osborne, Michael Sainato, Troy Alders, Laura Milton, Jenny Ji, Scott Rankin, Nita Ybarra, Amy Broadbent, Lindsey Brammel, Rose Hodges, and Renee D’arcy. _ Acknowledgements Mom and Dad, without you none of this would be possible. My sister and brother. Venise, for encouraging my artistic endeavors in youth. Claude, for the continuing support in photography. Marcela, for embracing my random quirks and being a part of my life. Eve, for all those late night creative brainstormings and the friend you are. Elyse, Jorge, and Ian, for pushing me along the way. Thank you to all my family and friends, you mean the world to me. Also to the city of San Francisco for inspiring me in every way possible.


COPY RIGHT © 2012. ALL RIGHTS RESERV ED. NO PART OF THIS BOOK M AY BE REPRODUCED—MECH ANIC ALLY, ELECTRONIC ALLY, OR BY ANY OTHER ME ANS, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY ING—WITHOUT WRIT TEN PERMISSION OF THE DESIGNER MONIC A G ALVAN.

_ Portfolio ON DIRECTING _ Designer MONICA GALVAN _We b s i t e MONIC A-G ALVAN.COM _ Email MLY NN7@M AC.COM _ Phone 707_410_6429 _ Instructor M ARY SCOT T _ School AC ADEM Y OF ART UNIV ERSIT Y _Ty p e f a c e s ADOBE G AR AM AND BLENDER PRO _ Photography MONICA GALVAN _Camera CANON REBEL XSI _ Printer ESSENCE PRINTING _ Paper FINCH 100LB TEXT _ Binding THE KE Y _ Sof tware INDESIGN PHOTOSHOP ILLUSTR ATOR



On Directing