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STUDIO AIR 2015//SEMESTER 1//STUDIO 8//BRADLEY ELIAS PART A//Metaniawati Limanto//618475


Table of Contents 5 Introduction 6

PART A _CONSEPTUALTISATION

9 15 21 26 26 27

A. 1. A. 2. A. 3. A. 4. A. 5. A. 6.

Design Futuring Design Computation Composition/Generation Conclusion Learning Outcomes Appendix - Algorihtmic Skecthes


INTRODUCTION Metaniawati Limanto University Of Melbourne Third Year Student Bachelor of Environments Architecture Major Building things and crafting have become my hobbies since I was a little girl. I played lego a lot during my childhood days. I love the idea of putting and stacking the blocks together to get different possible outcomes. Similar to crafting, I really enjoyed crafting as I can experiment with different materials. It also gives more freedom compared to lego. During my first year in the University of Melbourne, I took Virtual Environmets. This subject is the first architectural design subject in my life. It was frustrating yet it was the most interesting subject I have ever done in my bachelor’s degree. This subject taught me how to see and approach things differently. It also introduced me to CAD to assist me in designing, modificating and creating a design. Moreover, model making was the best thing ever happened in this subject. Even though it was time consuming and exhausting, having a lantern out of paper made by my own hand was so exciting and worth the stress. In this subject, I am looking forward to explore the idea of computation and parametric design using Rhino and Grasshopper. This will bring me further in my understanding of past, current and possible future architectural design

INTRODUCTION 5


PART A

CONCEPTUALISATION


A. 1. DESIGN FUTURING A. 2. DESIGN COMPUTATION A. 3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION A. 4. CONCLUSION A. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES


A. 1.

DESIGN FUTURING

“Problems cannot be solved unless they are confronted and if they are to be solved it will not be by chance but, as said, by design,� - Fry[1] Technology develops as does design. In this era of technology, Fry suggests that the use of renewable resources increased about 25% faster than they can be renewed and the ecological human footprint has tripled since 1961. Design Futuring plays a role to make significant changes to maintain our world and safe the future. The way we think about design should be redirected to achieve the sustain-able future[1].

DESIGN FUTURING

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A. 1.

DESIGN FUTURING//PRECEDENT 01

10

DESIGN FUTURING


URBAN FOREST, 2009 MAD Ltd Proposal for Chongqing, China

“At a time when sustainable ecology and energy savings are driven by the demand of comfort, we are afraid that the yearning of a return to nature is ignored.� - MAD[4] Urban forest represents the most challenging aspirations of contemporary Chinese architecture that also proposes a shift in understanding of sustainability. It is an urban landmark that reveals a devotion to nature, a living organ that breathes new life into the steel and concrete city[2]. The shape of the overall building mimics mountain range, shifting dynamic and yet holistic rhythm, and becomes a continuation of nature. Instead of concentrating on vertical force, it focuses more on the multidimensional relationship within complex anthropomorphic spaces. Those include multilayer sky gardens, floating patios and minimal and yet well lit nesting places. Those things allow the architecture to adapt to the nature movements between air, wind and light. MAD looks out for the flexibility contained in simple and traditional processes and try to transport them into the future. The form was achieved by using computational approach. A cylinder was the genesis form of its conventional structure, and then it was developed through computation to get the fluidity form. It also utilised some tools to calculate the maximum cantilevered areas allowed and some holes to allow some plants growing in the upper floor balconies. Moreover, the software also detected the additional structure needed to allow the building to stand[3]. To conclude, this design is no longer a static icon but an organic form that blend in with everyday life and the urban environments[4].

FIG.1.1 URBAN FOREST DESIGN APPROACH

DESIGN FUTURING

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A. 1.

DESIGN FUTURING//PRECEDENT 02

FIG.1.2A FLOOR PLANS

12

DESIGN FUTURING


FOYN-JOHANSON HOUSE, 2009 Harrison and White Northcote, Melbourne, Australia

This innovative house design use computation to achieve the most effective scheme in preserving light into a garden space. The architect are challenged to maintain and integrate the relationship between the living space and natural amenities. As the population growth, houses become bigger and blocks become smaller which result in having smaller garden[5]. This house make use the advantages of parametric modelling to resolve some complex design issues. The client intents to have large living space with the desire to maintain good solar access to the garden[6]. Thus the constraints and parameters were defined. As the parameters has been established, the design process involved the application of a parametric subtractive solar technique called Subtracto-Sun. It generates a form defined by the sunpath analysis to provide maximum light penetration. This addresses and synthesises a number of site specific and performance based on the issues that will not be achieved in conventional design approach[7]. FIG.1.2B AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAM

DESIGN FUTURING

13


A. 2.

DESIGN COMPUTATION

“This new continuity transcends the merely intrumental contributions of the man-machine relationship to praxis and has begun to evolve as a medium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and making.� - Oxman[8]

Today, the new capabilities of digital technology brings design to a new level of computational design. Computational design allows the designer to realise the concept of a fluid/complex form that is translated through various tools and algorithms. Even though computer has the capabilities to analyse and create things based on the analytical system without error, the existance of human in the process is still very important as they are the source of innovation and creativirty.

DESIGN COMPUTATION

15


A. 2.

DESIGN COMPUTATION//PRECEDENT 01

MUSEO SOUMAYA, 2011 FR-EE / Fernando Romero Enterprise Federal District, Mexico

The Museo Soumaya was designed for a sculptural building that is unique and contemporary, also a house of international paintings, sculptures and decorative objects collections from the 14th century. The application of the use of computation in this building can be seen clearly from the form and skin. The amorphous shape perceived differently from every angle, reflecting the diversity of the collection inside[9]. The application of computational approach is mainly used during the pattering of the skin. The initial design intended to have a seamless pattern, however it cannot be achieved as the pattern distorted due to the double curvature of the shape. The software allows the designer to develop the parameters further in order to achieve the ideal skin. It allows the designer to stretch each of the hexagonal pattern in certain factor[10]. Thus, it resulted in a skin of 16,000 hexagonal tiles. The system also calculates the number of curved steel columns of varying size and shape needed for the shell of the building. This illustrates that the skin of the building will never be achieved without the use of computational design[11]. FIG.2.1 HEXAGONAL TILE FAMILIES (TOP) AND FLOOR PLANS (BOTTOM)

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DESIGN COMPUTATION


DESIGN COMPUTATION

17


A. 2.

DESIGN COMPUTATION//PRECEDENT 02

SIGNAL BOX, 1995 Herzog & de Meuron Basel, Switzerland

The implementation of computational design in this project is clearly presented through the geometry of the building where it contains electronic equipment and apparatus to regulate signals for trains arriving and departing the station[12]. The ground floor plan of the building is a trapezoidal form defined by the railroad tracks. Using computational approach, the trapezoid form evolves into rectangular shape as it goes up to the roof [7]. This is when the rules of algorithm works in the process. It also comes up with a design solution for the constraints and parameters set by the architect in achieving the most effective form and sun shade system. It is resulted in the twisted and distorted strips of copper cladding in certain areas to admit daylight as well as giving aesthetic proportion to the building. It is suggested that the Digital Technology Group at Herzog de Meuron use computational design to produce their design proposal instead of using it as a tool to inform their design[7]. They addresses architecture written in computational design by using various algorithm, script and parametric model. One example is this building that they use a specific script to form the louvres on the faรงade that responded to a set of performances.

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DESIGN COMPUTATION


DESIGN COMPUTATION

19


A. 3.

COMPOSITION/GENERATION

“Algorithmic thinking means taking on interpretive role to understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code to explore new options, and speculating on further design potentials.� - Peters[13] Digital design becomes widely used in architectural practice. Composition design relates to the idea of balance by changing dan developing the algorithm/parametrics until meets the criteria of the form. On the other hand, generation requires further understanding of generative computational methods. It is more complex but yet it generates astonishing outcomes. The principles behind the generative methods can be articulated as the concept of evolution that is coded digitally or based on biological form and growth.

COMPOSITION/GENERATION 21


A. 3.

COMPOSITION/GENERATION//PRECEDENT 01

FIG.2

dhdfh

22 COMPOSITION/GENERATION


FEDERATION SQUARE LAB Architecture Studio Melbourne, Australia

FIG.3.1A CONCEPTUAL PENCIL SKETCH BY DONALD BATES: ‘A NOTATION FOR A NEW TYPE OF SPATIAL ORDERING.’

Federation square is comprised of a series of interlocking and cascading spaces that is highly influenced by the idea of ‘federation”; bringing various parts together to form a coherent whole. This was one of the most complex and ambitious construction projects in Australia[14]. The investigation of the research for the design resulted into geometrical patterns that allowed for repetition in terms of constructional elements), as well as differentiation in the composed surfaces of the building[14]. They are genetically alike and based on concepts of field and focus[14]. The Fractal Façade use the idea of computation to reiterate and accumulate actions in the system to achieve its form. The fractal is not a simple homology of shape, it has selfsimilarity of the panels become a vital quality in achieving coherence and difference to the façades[15]. The iconic geometric representation is based on a modular system of using five single triangles (all of the same size and proportion) to make up a larger triangular ’panel’. Then five panels are combined into the next scale of the same proportion to create ‘mega panel’. The combination can only be achieved by CAD to generate persistent difference and absence of difference across the whole, otherwise it will be impossible.

FIG.3.1B DETAIL OF THE FRONT ELEVATION, TILING PANELS AND STRUCTURAL FRAME

COMPOSITION/GENERATION 23


A. 3.

COMPOSITION/GENERATION//PRECEDENT 02

FIG.3.2 GENERATIVE METHOD STUDIES

SEROUSSI PAVILLION, 2007 biothing (Alisa Andrasek) Concours Meudon, France Competition

This was a competition proposal for a showroom Pavilion in the former property of the french artist Andre Bloc. Biothing based its proposal on the behaviours of electro magnetic fields through the behaviours of electro-magnetic fields through the logics of attraction/repulsion, then lifted via series of structural microarching sections through different frequencies of sine function. Another feature was added to the script for a local adaptation to the quite steep hill. In regards to the flower-shaped design of the roof, the waves trajectories were computed in order to define orientation and size of the apertures as well as the relationship of metal and glass components within each cell[17]. Six different geometrical systems were used for design and are all steaming out of primary trajectories[18]. Interior fabric is organized through the infrastructural “cocoons”. The dynamic system of veils,

24

COMPOSITION /GENERATION

of (+/-) constellation of chargers, unfurls through the space in various ways: smaller or larger pockets and fins can have different programmatic affinities. Floor’s micro-dunning, evolved through a complex attractor script, is imagined as a low furnishing system that also articulates three wet zones in the house. The whole pavilion is predominantly organized on one level in which way one navigates through the continuous interlaced fields. Wrapped in and in-between cocoon’s swirling fibres would be the moments of inhabitation/cohabitation/ display. Simultaneously to interfacing thick fabric’s inhabitants (art pieces) one experiences creeping perception of variations within the fabric itself. In it’s “genetic” memory it is carrying a potency for mesonic events. They reverberate through space as intricate and interlaced imprints[17].


COMPOSITION/GENERATION 25


A. 4.

A. 5.

CONCLUSION

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Technologies brings both new challanges and opportunities in architecture and also other aspects. This minimises our limitation in design, creativity and innovation. Computation design allows us to have a whole new range of form which we can develop further using complex parametrics. Computation opens and widens our perspective in seeing and understanding architecture. Architectural forms becomes infinite by using varieties of algorithms and parametrics. However, it also gives restriction in terms of the workability, durability and buildability of the product of computation design. As I go along in this subject, computational design will allow me to have unlimited creativity and innovation to design a building. It is important to have deep understanding in parametric design and modelling approach as the computer will generates array of possible outcomes in a few seconds. The more understanding we have in the use of the parameters and algorithms, the easier and the more possible outcomes we will have. It become an advantage for us as human as the we can use the help of computer to do the hard work in getting the outcomes when we have the understanding of parametric modelling.

This architecture studio brings a lot of new knowledge in design. The thing that makes this studio really different from other studios is the way we utilise tools in design. Even though it takes time and drains a lot of energy, it is interesting to acknowledge that the man-machine relationship allows us to have unlimited possiblities. The use of Grasshopper broaden our way of thinking and designing as we can achieve almost any possible form. There is no more restriction in creativity and innovation. Furthermore, the readings and precedents show me that every one in this world are unique that they have their own way to see and approach things. It is interesting to know that every architect generates design differently one to another. They have their own signature in their design, such as biothing that they have organic forms and most of them were inspired by the scientific processes.


A. 5.

APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

OCTREE EXPERIMENTATION

Using curves which are lofted on Rhino

Using curves which are lofted on Grasshopper This method allows more flexibility in changing the overall form. APPENDIX - ALOGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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REFERENCES 1: Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 pdf 2: MAD. (2015). Urban Forest. Viewed 18 March 2015. <http://www.i-mad.com/work/urban-forest/?cid=4>. 3: Etherington, Rose. (2009). Urban Forest by MAD. Viewed 18 March 2015. <http:// www.dezeen.com/2009/12/10/urban-forest-by-mad/> 4: Klein, C, & Lieb, S. (2011). Futuristic : Visions Of Future Living, n.p.: Cologne : Daab Media, c2011., UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE’s Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2015. 5: ArchDaily. (2010). Foyn-Johanson House/Harringson and White. Viewed 19 March 2015. < http://www.archdaily.com/77852/foyn-johanson-house-harrison-and-white/>. 6: Australian Design Review. (2010). Architecture: Foyn-Johanson House. Viewed 19 March 2015. < http:// www.australiandesignreview.com/designwall/1212-architecture-foyn-johanson-house>. 7: Designito. (2013). Architectural Discourse, Digital Computation and Parametricism. Viewed 18 March 2015. < https:// designito.wordpress.com/2013/04/04/architectural-discourse-digital-computation-and-parametricism/>. 8: Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 pdf. 9: FR-EE. (2015). Soumaya Museum, Mexico City, Mexico. Viewed 18 March 2015. < http:// fr-ee.org/projects/soumaya-museum-mexico-city-mexico/#project-text>. 10: Gehry Technologies. (2013). Museo Soumaya: Facade Design to Fabrication. Viewed 18 March 2015. < http://issuu.com/gehrytech/docs/sou_06_issuu_version/99?e=8514892/4082015> 11: ArchDaily. (2013). Museo Soumaya / FR-EE / Fernando Romero Enterprise. Viewed 19 Mar 2015. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=452226> 12: Furuto, Alison. (2012). Flashback: Signal Box / Herzog & de Meuron. ArchDaily. Viewed 19 Mar 2015. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=256766> 13: Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 pdf 14: Fed Square Pty Ltd. (2015). History + Design. Viewed 17 March 2015. <http://www.fedsquare.com/about/history-design>. 15: ArcSpace. (2013). Federation Square. Viewed 17 March 2015. < http://www. arcspace.com/features/lab-architecture-studio/federation-square/>. 16: Brayer, M. (2009). Biothing, Alisa Andrasek, Orléans : HYX, [2009]. 17: Biothing. (2007). Seroussi Pavillion Paris. Viewed 17 March 2015. < http://www.biothing.org/?p=24>.



Limanto_Metaniawati_618475_PartA