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SCI

some kind of popular science

Scientist of the month: Edwin hubble about cats and toxoplasma

zihni sinir: an extraordinary inventor biodiesel production from microalgae


Author: Elif Koyuncuk Published by: Mladinski center Dravinjske doline Contact: elif.koyuncuk@hotmail.com Ĺ˝iÄ?ka Cesta 4a 3210 Slovenske Konjice Slovenija Edition: 1/ August 2013 Copies: 50

Photo: The Eskimo Nebula from Hubble and Chandra http://apod.nasa.gov


Index: Editor’s page

Scientist of the month: Edwin Hubble

Astronomy

2

3

5

Alternative energy: Biodiesel

Biosensors

Creative mind: Zihni Sinir

14

12

8

Did you know?

Health: Toxoplasma gondii

Science pages

18

19

23

How many?

Science for children

Learning Turkish

27

26

25


editor’s page

Hi! I am Elif Koyuncuk, from Turkey, writer and designer of this amateur popular science magazine. I am interested in every kind of science, specially biology, biotechnology and astronomy. I work as an EVS volunteer in Slovenia, Slovenske Konjice, in Mladinski Center Dravinske Doline and this magazine is my project. In my opinion, if you share your knowledge with people, it becomes significant and during process you learn more. That’s why I decided do create a magazine. If everyting will be allright, my magazine will be with you every month until end of this year. What kind of articles we have this month in SCI for your curious minds? You will meet very important astronomer, Edwin Hubble. You will be very surprised with crazy and creative projects of Zihni Sinir. There are two interesting articles for biotechnology lovers. With some basic questions and answers, you will refresh your astronomy knowledge. There is more inside, just start to turn pages and enjoy!

Contact information for your questions and suggestions: elif.koyuncuk@hotmail.com Mladinski Center Dravinjske Doline Žička cesta 4a 3210 Slovenske Konjice Slovenija

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SCIENTIST

Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) As you know, there is a big space telescope which turns around the world all the time, has speed 7,5 kilometers per hour and captures a lot of images of the universe every day: Hubble Space Telescope. Have you ever thought about where does its name come from? From Edwin Hubble; very important scientist who lived in the beginning of 20th century and had a lot of discoveries about universe. Edwin Hubble, astronomer Edwin Hubble was born in Marshfield, Missouri, USA, in 1889. In his childhood he started to be interested in science. He was reading some books about science fiction and about other worlds, such as Jules Verne and Henry Rider Haggard. In university he also got interested in sports such as basketball, boxing, athletics. He had an undergraduate degree in mathematics and astronomy. After, he studied law in Oxford University and he worked as a lawyer for a short time. But he understood that law didn’t satisfy him, that’s why, he decided to turn back to interest in astronomy and started to work in Yerkes Observatory and received a doctorate in astronomy from the University of Chicago. In the rest of his life he worked in Mount Wilson Observatory in California. Until Hubble discovered some stars in other galaxies, scientists were thinking that universe consists just of our galaxy, Milky Way. In 1923, he first time observed some stars which belong to Andromeda Galaxy. By this way, he proved that there are another galaxies in the universe beside ours. It was a really important discovery. Therefore other astronomes started to explore new galaxies.

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SCIENTIST Hubble also devised a classification system for the various galaxies which he observed, sorted them by content, distance, shape and brightness. When he was observing stars, he noticed red shifting of light, during their travel from source to our eyes and he understood why it happens: stars were moving away from each other. Then he formulated Hubble’s law in 1929. It was very helpful for astronomers to determine age of the universe. He also proved that universe was expanding. This diccovery helped him to estimate about beginning of the universe and he improved big bang theory by his way. Hubble space telescope started to work in 1990. It still works and takes pictures of our universe. Scientists gived it the name of Edwin Hubble as memorial honour. Hubble Space Telescope on orbit

Sources: http://www.edwinhubble.com http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble http://www.spacetelescope.org http://hubblesite.org http://www.windows2universe.org/people/modern_era/hubble.html http://hubblesite.org

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astronomy

In astronomy concept, we have some basic questions and answers for your curious minds. 1.How old is our universe? There are some methods to calculate age of the universe and with each method, you find quite different ages. Actually, age of universe means, age of the oldest particle of universe. If you calculate years as age of the oldest stars of universe, you find approximately 14.4 billion years. Calculating as age of elements in universe will give you the number 14.5 billion years. According to cosmic microwave background, which scientists observed, age of universe is more than 13.83 billion. It can also be estimated from cosmological model based on Hubble constant and the densities of matter and energy. This model based age is currently 13.75 billion years. Probably last one is most accurate one. As you see, there are some estimations, and there are also more. But in the end we can say that our universe is more or less 14 billion years old, it is quite old and it has a lot of experiences which it can teach us. Every moment fission reactions

2. How many degrees is the sun? occur in the sun. Every moment , nuclear fission reactions happen in the core of the sun, because hidrogen atoms compress and get t o g e t h e r. T h e s e r e a c t i o n s produce a big amount of energy. Therefore, sun has a huge pressure and temperature in it. In the core, temperature reaches o 15 million C. If you think it is too hot inside, you can stay on the o surface, which is cooler than core: 5500 C. But be careful, corona of the sun is much warmer then the surface. Temperature of o corona changes between 1 and 3 million C, but it can reach 10 o million C in some parts of it. 5


astronomy

3. What is an astronomical unit (AU)? Astronomical unit defines distance between center of the sun and center of the earth. It is 1 million of 149,597,871 kilometers. We can say, planet approxymately 150 million kilometers. As systems ARE you know, orbit of the Earth is not a perfect created in circle, it is elyptical. There are major axis our universe and minor axis. AU defines length of semiin every major axis. This unit is used to measure long hour ! distances in our solar system and universe. Actually, for longer distances, astronomers use light year. It is the length which light travels in one year. Light goes approximately 300,000 km per second, if we want 12 to calculate length, light year is 9.4608 x 10 kilometers! There is also one more unit which astronomers usually use, which is longer than lightyear: parsec. It is also for measuring distances between 16 stars and galaxies. It is 3.08567758 Ă— 10 meters . 4. Which is the closest star to earth , except sun? Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the earth,which is a red dwarf star. It is 39,900,000,000,000 kilometers away from earth. This distance refers to around 271,000 astronomical units. It is a member of Alpha Centauri star system. In this system there are also two bright stars, which names are Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B. Alpha Centauri A is just a little more massive and brighter than the Sun and Alpha Centauri B is slightly less massive than the sun.

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astronomy

5. Approximately how many galaxies exist in the universe? Actually, we don't know the exact number yet. Numbers you can find in science magazines and on internet are just approximate calculations. Anyway, astronomers made estimations to find how many they are, and at least they can say an average number, but with new discoveries it can change. Because we didn't discover whole universe yet. We can observe just a fraction of universe, other parts we can just predict. Hubble Space telescope sees further and further to discover new stars and galaxies. According to observations and calculations, we can say that there are more or less 170 billion galaxies in known universe. We are in one of these billions of galaxies, which we call Milky Way. There are also up to 400 billions of stars in Milky Way and our sun is one of them. I think you feel yourself too small and insignificant now! 6. How many stars are there in universe? Let's predict, how many it can be. We said that there are 170 billion of galaxies. Just our galaxy has up to 400 billion stars. Some of galaxies has almost trillions, some of them has 100 trillion stars. With this information astronomers calculated the number of stars in our universe, just 1024. It means 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000! Sources: http://www.universetoday.com http://www.astro.ucla.edu http://www.esa.int http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/cosmology/age.html http://www.space.com http://heasarc.nasa.gov http://www.solstation.com http://space.about.com http://gokbilim.com

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creative mind

Proffesor Zihni Sinir: Funny, smart, very creative. I want to introduce you very creative, smart and funny designer and caricaturist, also creater of Zihni Sinir character, from Turkey: Irfan Sayar. He was born in 1951, he Irfan Sayar, creator of Zihni Sinir character graduated from fine arts academy. In 1975, he started to draw in Gırgır magazine, which was very famous those days in Turkey. In 1977, he created the Zihni Sinir character. He published Mikrop Magazine with his friends. he was also one of directors of Hıbır Magazine. He and his friends established a company named ‘Hayal Mahsulleri Ofisi’ and they published RR Comic Book Magazine. He could not stop himself to make new magazines and again he and his friends published HBR Maymun Magazine, and he was director of this magazine. Of course, when a person create this much, he needs to exhibit his works. So, he made an exhibition which has 100 caricatures. He also worked on some sculptures, he made som e stag e decorations for theatre games and for a Project: Squeezing ni Sinir is as ih Z one whole lemon r o s movie. e e id Proff w e n t u thinking

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abo


creative mind

He created a lot of crazy and creative ideas and draw them during years in magazines which he was editor of. Name of the character which he created is, Proffessor Zihni Sinir (He prefers to use it in funny way: ‘Porof.’ Zihni Sinir). I can not translate it directly from Turkish but I can say that it means ‘Crazy mind’. In my opinion, he is an idea machine! His first book ‘Projects’which includes his creative inventions, was published in 2002. It Project: Railroad on the Road was published by Turkey Science and Technology Association (TUBITAK). It was really nice to see support of the most important science association to this enthusiastic designer/caricaturist. For sure this support gave him courage, he went on inventing and wrote and draw rubber electricity metal construction Project: books about them. He wrote Producing generator electricity not only books about his from cars inventions, but also produced going on road and sold them in his small studio, in Istanbul. People can see this crazy inventions on his web page and can order them online.

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P wit roje h z ct: fin ipp ge rtip er on t

he

creative mind

Glo

ve

Project: Toothpaste with toothbrush

Too much sweating due to study in warm weather

Student studies in warm weather

Project: Fan works by sweating

Sweat collecting cones

When sweat level reaches electrodes, system starst to work

Sweat discharge pipe. When sweating ends, system stops working.

Project: Funeral glasses

Project: Alarm clock which not only wakes you up, but also makes tea for you 1. At 6:50, match is burned by alarm clock, and it lights fire. 2. Vapor of boiling water turns turbine. 3.Mechanism turns tea spoon and it makes noise with glass. This noise wakes you up.

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creative mind

How did he decide to create his inventions? Project: Teabag & teacup holder

When he was a child, every summer he and his family were going from city to village. He could not bring all of his toys to the village. Therefore, he decided to produce his own toys. Then he noticed that he enjoys playing with toys, which are created by himself, more than playing with toys which his parents bought for him. He started to create and never stopped.

Project: Soup cooker with automatical mixing system

Source: http://www.zihnisinir.com

Project: Creative shoe. You can use it in case of any weather

Shoes

Boots

Sandals High boots

Slippers

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biotechnology Biosensors: Using measurement

biological

material

for

What is a biosensor? Definition of biosensor of IUPAC* is: ‘A self-contained, integrated device which is capable of providing spesific quantitive or semiquantitive analytical information using a biological recognition element which is in direct spatial contact with a transducer element.’ If we want to make it simpler with our own words, biosensors recognizes biological signals by biomolecules. It uses biomimetic** methods for working. Working principle is generally like this: Analite molecules interact with bioreceptor. During interaction, some reaction occurs and this reaction creates signals. This signal is recognized by transducer, and they become electronic signals. We can read results as electronic data. If we want to explain it more detailed: Reaction · reaction occurs by Processor Monitor Amplifier biocatalysis, Bio-receptor Transducer · a bioreceptor recognizes signal, · transducer turns it into electronic signal, · this signal amplified by amplifier, · data processed, and displayed in electronic media. Biosensors are used to determine bio-composition, structure and function. Some different biological recognition elements are used depending on type of biosensor. Some of them are: DNA, enzymes, proteins, antibodies, organels, cells, animal or plant tissues, microorganizms, sugar, vitamins... There are also some analytes which are used for biosensors: enzymes, antibodes, receptors, binding proteins, nucleic acids... * IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry **Biomimetic: Designing products by imitating nature.

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biotechnology We can classify biosensor types depending on working principle: affinity, catalytic, electrochemical, thermal, mechanical, optical, calorimetric, piezoelectric, amperometric... A good designed biosensor has to have four important properties such as: high sensitivity, specificity, linearity and simplicity. It must be sensitive, as it has detect molecules even if they have low concentration. It must be specific to molecule which we want to detect, otherwise we detect also other molecules and it is not a good result for our measurement. Results must change linear. It means, if analytes increases, result datas must increase proportionally. Biosensors are produced by public use, not only by making experiments in laboratories. That's why, they have to be simple, therefore even an ordinary person can use them. They also have to be cheap.

Glucose biosensor: As an example, we will discuss about glucose biosensors which are most common ones. For glucose biosensors mostly glucoseoxidase enzyme is used to catalyse reaction. It uses FAD (flavinadeninedinucleotide) as electron acceptor which is a cofactor and reduces itself to FADH2 after reaction. Then, FADH2 reacts with oxygen and turns again into FAD formation. During this reaction O2 turns into H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). When hydrogen peroxyde catalyzes metal anode, electrode recognizes the number of electron transfers. Main strategy is measuring consumption of oxygen due to Glucose biosensor response of electrode. Generally and simply you can see main reaction below: Glucose + O2 + H2O → Gluconic acid + H2O2 Sources: http://www.news-medical.net Urkmez, A., S., Biosensor Lectures, 2010 Yoo, E.,H., Lee, S., Y., Glucose Biosensors: An overview of Use in Clinical Practice, 2010. 13


Alternative energy

Biodiesel production prom microalgae : 1. Energy crisis on the World: Human population is getting bigger, it means we will need more energy in near future. As you know, for transport we use a lot of oil and we have limited sources. That’s why scientists try to find alternative energy sources. They tried to find alternative sources which they can use instead of petrol, because we know that petrol will be gone too soon. As an alternative source, they found biodiesel instead of diesel fuel. For years people produced biodiesel from oil plants. But there is also another choice: biodiesel production from microalgae. 2. Why microalgae? Common production of biodiesel is from oil seeds in the World, but oil content of microalgae is more than oil seeds and they grow much faster. In addition, for growing algae, there is no need to have a lot of fields and harvesting is easier. If you want to produce oil plants like palm, jatropha or rapeseed, you must have large fields and cosume a lot of water. Farming costs are huge, at the same time it takes a lot of time to grow plants and too many trees cutted for Chlorella vulgaris, microalgae, has oil content creating new fields. between 28-32%

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alternative energy 3. What is this microalgae ? Microalgae are photoauthotrophic single or multi-cell organisms which has diameter between 2-10 Îźm. They can be isolated from sea water or lakes in the nature. They use sunlight and CO2 to grow. According to environment, they use some minerals for growing. Their oil content can change between 1577% in dry weight, due to species. For producing microalgae, you have to choose algae which has high growth rate and high oil content. 4. Biodiesel production from microalgae: The main conditions which you need to grow microalgae are: CO2, light and culture media. Culture media includes minerals to provide optimal conditions. In addition, according to your system, you have to provide enough mixing. If you want to produce biodiesel in lab-scale, for trial or optimisation of some conditions, Process from nature to big scale production you can use bubble columns or small scale photobioreactors. If you want to produce biodiesel in large scale, you have some options such as open ponds, closed ponds or closed systems. For closed system, you can use panel or tubular photobioreactors. If you have less area, closed systems will be more approppriate for you.

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Alternative energy Although producing in open ponds is mostly cheaper than close systems, there is more contamination risk and it is harder to control process conditions. To produce biodiesel you have to follow some steps. Firstly culture media must be prepared and algae is inoculated to system. Culture media is prepared specially for each organism. For example if you isolated organism from salty water, you have to add salts which your algae needs. In addition, you have to arrange all of phisical conditions to grow your microalgae in best way, such as sunlight, pH, Tubular photobioreactor temperature. Actually there are special culture media recipies, which you can find and prepare for each microalgae. After they get enough concentration, it is time for harvesting. Harvesting can be done by centrifugation or flocculation. After harvesting, you need to extract oil from inside of algae. Mostly, hexane is Transesterification process used for extraction process, but there are another ways to obtain oil, such as using supercritical fluids, or applying ultrasound waves. Enzymatic extraction also can be used, but it is more expensive. After extraction, you need to make transesterification process to convert oil to biodiesel, because you have oil in trigliceride form.

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alternative energy

Transesterification process is mostly made by methanol and in the end of process, you have oil acid methile esters and glicerol. Glicerol can be sold to chemical companies, because it is a valuable chemical which is very useful in chemical industry. Methil esters are your biodiesel, congratulations! And you can also use rest of the cells from this process, as animal food, because they are full of protein and carbohydrate. Sources: http://www.pukkaherbs.com/pukkapedia/chlorella/ http://www.igv-biotech.com/photobioreactor-scale-up.html http://hrc.unlv.edu/renewable/biofuels/pics/image046.jpg http://www.oilgae.com

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Did you know?

Have you ever thought that which one is the most known song in the World? Actually you know it, you have sung it a lot; it is the 'Happy birthday song'. When this song was created, nobody has thought that it will sung by people at birthdays. Actually name of the song was 'Good Morning to All', and it was composed by two teacher sisters in 1893 in USA. They have composed it to teach children and let them sing every morning. One of sisters who has written lyrics of song, Mildred Hill, was playing organ in church and piano at concerts. She has written it for birthday of her sister Patty, who was nine years younger than her. But she hasn't known that people will sing it as a birthday song a after her death. Hill sisters had the copyright of song in 1893, but a composer, Robert Coleman, changed lyrics and made happy birthday song. People sung this song for a long time, therefore real composers of song have been forgotten. When this song has used for a musical in Broadway, the third sister sued them. She claimed that all copyrights of the song belongs to her family, and she won. After that day, if people have used this song somewhere, they had to pay. Some commercial companies gave up, musicals took out this song from their repertoire. They could just read lyrics as poem, without singing. Patty Hill recognized that her song was very popular birthday song around the world, before she died at her 78. At the present time, copyright of song belongs to Warner/Chappel music company. If you want to use it for commercials, you have to pay this company. Money they earn from this song is around 1 million dollars per year. If you will celebrate your birthday, think twice! Source: Korugan, T.,L端zumsuz Bilgiler Ansiklopedisi, 2007.

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health

Toxoplasma gondii: Are cats really so dangerous as you think? Maybe you heard before about this parasite and disease. People always say that cats carry this microorganism and it is very dangerous for pregnancy. They think if you have infected with this organism once, your baby will born with a disease or your precnancy will end. That's why people usually give their cats to somebody or leave them on streets when they plan to have a baby. But you should know that this parasite comes not only from cats, but also from other mammalian animals. It means you SEM image of have to be carefull about other things Toxoplasma gondii and you don't have to afraid of cats too much. In this assay I will give some information about it and I will try to clear some missunderstandings. Toxoplasma gondii was found first time in 1908 in Tunisia by researchers whose names are Nicolle and Manceaux. They isolated this organism in tissues and organs of Ctendactylus gondi which is a rodent. Researches showed that, this organism causes diseases for a lot of species, included human. They understood the interaction of this disease and cats 60 years after this discovery. According to their information, this micoorganisms can live in intestinal system cells of cats. It is impossible that they can live on other part of cats. This disease can infect people or cats by different ways: taking the excrement of cats by oral way, eating meat of infected animals without well cooking or drinking milk of infected animals, blood transfer from infected human, transferring parasite by cord from mother to baby.

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health

Cats can get infected by eating infected birds, rodents or not cooked meat which they find somewhere or you gave them. After 1-2 weeks cats have taken this parasite, they start to deliver the baby cells of this parasite by their Do I look excrements. This baby dangerous? cells become mature and they are able to infect in 2-4 days. If your cat is infected, but if you everyday change cat litter, you can avoid infections. This parasite baby cells can be observed until 14 days in cat excrements. Then cat evolves its immunity against this disesase ad it stops to produce new parasites. This immunity doesn't allow to proliferate this parasites any more and they have life long immunity. It means, one cat can carry this disease just for 2 weeks in its life. If your cat doesn't go out and doesn't make interactions with other cats, risk is really low. If a cat had this disease before, it can not infect other animals or you. Actually, just 3 of 1000 cats can carry infected baby cells. We can observe the same situation for people. Toxoplasma infects you once in human life and then people get immune shield to this disease and they don't become sick any more because of this infection. 90% of people who get sick because of this parasite, don't show any symptom. Other 10% can have a little bit fever and weakness, but mostly they can heal without treatment. Most of sick people get infected by eating or touching non cooked meat. Mostly sheep meat, sheep or goat milk can carry Toxoplasma which are in contact with animal excrement.

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health

At the same time some vegetables or fruits can cause disease also, which are in contact with animal excrement. Let’s talk about risks of Toxoplasma, in pregnancy. First of all you have to make test for you and for your cat. If toxoplasma test is positive, don't be afraid, there is no risk, because you and your cat are immuned for disease. If it is positive for you but negative for your cat, it is ok, you can not make your cat infected. If your Life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii cat is positive and you are negative, your cat doesn't infect you, because it already had disease and had immunity. But if it is negative both of you, be careful. Do something to avoid your cat get infected. Don't give it non cooked meat or milk, specially goat or sheep. Don't let it go out, because it can catch mouse which has disease or it c a n b e i n c o n t a c t w i t h d i s e a s e c a t s . B u t a n y w a y, if you can not be careful If your cat goes out to hunting, about all of this things, it is infection risk is possible better to change c a t l i t t e r e v e r y d a y. Despite all preventions, if you catch disease during pregnancy, your baby can born with disease. But according to informations above, it is really a small possibility.

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health

If you had infection before and you are immunated, probably you will have a boy! Scientists observed 1083 pregnant ladies between 1996 and 2004 and they have a result that some physical parameters influenced by immune system and increases surviving possibility of male embrions. According to statistics, ladies who are immuned to Toxoplasma gondii, will have boys with 72% of possibility. Sources: http://www.kedici.com.tr http://www.parasitesinhumans.org

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Probably they will be good friends


science pages

I want to share with you some web pages which can be very interesting and useful for you.

apod.nasa.gov If you are interested in astronomy, this page is exactly for you. As you can understand from title of web page, Astronomy Picture of the Day, they upload a new astronomy photo, or a short video every day. There is explanation of photo, image defined very well to give clear information. You can also find a lot of previous photos in archive. There are pictures of star clusters, nebulas, planets... There are also education links which consist of too many themes. Specially I suggest you to watch this video, to compare sizes in universe: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap130606.html

The Butterfly Nebula

http://cloudappreciationsociety.org/ This page is totally for cloud observers and cloud lovers. You will find a lot of beautiful cloud pictures, you will learn cloud types and can also be a member of this society. Four months ago I read a book titled The Cloudspotter's Guide. I learned interesting information about observing clouds, classifying clouds and how to enjoy their charms.

Walking man cloud

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science pages

The author of this book, Gavin Edmund Pretor-Pinney also established Cloud Appreciation Society and created this web page about it. When I first time checked this page, I understood that there is more pictures and informations besides his book. I was always a cloud lover, but now I don't only enjoy their beautiful shapes and colors, but also try to understand which type of clouds they are, and it makes my observations more fun.

http://education.denniskunkel.com It is time to turn our heads from the sky to the microworld. There are lot of images which are captured by scanning electron microscobe (SEM) in this web page. Normally by SEM, you have black and white images, but images in here are well colored after they photographed, therefore they look so beautiful. You can find bugs, human cells, some surfaces in micro scale. It's really excited to observe some details which you normally can not recognize.

SEM image of red blood cells

http://www.instructables.com In this link, you can find some crazy and creative objects that you can try at home. On Homepage you can find creative designs about different concepts but I suggest you technology link because I think they are really cool.

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learning turkish If you want to know some simple Turkish words and templates, this page is exactly for you.

Turkish Alphabet: abcçdefgğhıijklmnoöprsştuüvyz Some different letters: · ç=ch Example: çalı= bush · ı = more rough then i Example: ıslak = wet · ş=sh Example: Şemsiye= umbrella · ğ= We call it ‘soft g’. Sounds between h and ı. Example: dağ = mountain · ö= oe Example: özel= special · ü=ue Example: üzgün= sad

Numbers: 1 = bir 4 = dört 7 = yedi 10 = on

2 = iki 5 = beş 8 = sekiz 11 = onbir

3 = üç 6 = altı 9 = dokuz 12 = oniki

Some Turkish templates: Merhaba = hello Günaydın =good morning İyi akşamlar = good afternoon İyi geceler = good night Teşekkür ederim = thank you Özür dilerim= I am sorry

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SCIENCE FOR CHILDREN

Baking powder fills baloons! This experiment will teach you how chemical reactions occur. Different materials has different characteristics. If we put them together, they will interact with eachother and a new substance will be created. In this experiment we mix lemon juice, water and baking soda and we observe what is happening. Materials: ·

Balloon

·

About 40 ml of water

·

Plastic botttle

·

Drinking straw

·

Juice from a lemon

·

1 teaspoon of baking soda

What will we do ? 1. Pour water into the bottle 2. Add baking soda on it and stir it with drinking straw until it has dissolved. 3. Pour the lemon juice in and quickly put the stretched balloon over the top of the bottle. What's happening? Lemon juice and baking soda are getting together and they create a chemical reaction. Baking soda is alkaline, lemon juice is acid, when they combine, they create CO2. This gas escapes through bottle and it inflates your baloon. If it produces a lot of gas, your baloon may explode, be prepared for this! CO2 is a colorless, scentless gas, which exist in the air.

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how many? How many calories do you take when you... eat a delicious cheeseburger? You were so hungry and you didn’t want to cook. You went to a fast food restaurant. By having this charming cheeseburger, you took 359 calories into your body. Without drink, it wasn’t so easy to eat whole burger. That’s why you also ordered a cup of orange juice. Totally you took 456.6 calories. ...

... go to a pub with your friends and drink a bottle of beer? You take 204.9 calories and 18 grams of alcohol with a bottle of regular beer. If night is long, music is good in the pub, you can multiply this numbers with 4 or 5! When you drink beer, you also take some vitamins and minerals such as niacin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, selenium and magnesium. ... enjoy a cup of chocolate ice cream on a sunny day? You can not find anything better than a tasty chocolate ice cream in summer time. This sweet gives you 272.7 calories. At the same time, it has 15% of fat and 7% of protein. You take 52% of energy from carbohydrate and 41% of energy from fat after you finish your ice cream.

* 35 years old normal weight woman needs around 1400 calories per day to maintain basic body function. * 35 years old normal weight man needs around 1800 calories per day to maintain basic body function.

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how many? How many calories do you burn when you... ... cycle 1 hour? On a beautiful spring day, you decided to go to cycling with your friends and enjoy nature. When you cycle around 13 miles per hour, you burn 450 calories.

... spend time in swimming pool 1 hour? If you prefer to swim for training rather than lie down by the pool, you can burn 480 calories in one hour. Swimming is so healthy for people of all ages and it helps you to increase your lung capacity.

... dance all night? You went to a dance night with your partner and songs are exactly your style. In this case, nobody can stop you! If you dance 4 times, for 30 minutes during night, you spend 552 calories.

Sources: http://www.caloriecare.com http://www.fitday.com

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Photo: The Ring Nebula http://apod.nasa.gov


SCI Popular Science Magazine  

SCI is an amateur popular science magazine which is written and designed by Elif Koyuncuk.

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