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Heritage Conservation + Development > Tourism

DESIGNING otherwise


study 01 Mixed-use development KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE study 02 Istana Kampong Community centre KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE

study 03 Golf course set among tea plantations SRI LANKA

study 04 Regional Landuse Study for expanding tourism PETRA, JORDAN

study 07

DESIGNING otherwise

Regional Landuse/ Master Plan/Site Plan (based on Client’s Brief) PETRA, JORDAN

study 06

Heritage Conservation + Development > Tourism

Sequencing events for community and tourism PETRA, JORDAN

study 05

Regional Landuse Study for managing natural resources PETRA, JORDAN

Appropriate Durable Record for Masters of Landscape Architecture RMIT University by Agnes Soh s3268259 DRAFT

study 08

Regional Landuse/ Master Plan/Site Plan balancing community’s needs with tourism PETRA, JORDAN


CONTENTS

RESEARCH SUMMARY

01

INTRODUCTION Why design otherwise? \\ Follie 01\ Contestation \\ Follie 02\ Processes

05 06 08

DESIGNING OTHERWISE Heritage Conservation + Development > Tourism

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THEMES DEVELOPMENT We want Progress! > Study 01| New development at Kampong Bugis, Singapore HERITAGE Redefined CONSERVATION Conservation versus preservation > Study 02| Golf course among heritage tea plantations COMMUNITY Reducing poverty through design > Study 03| Kampong Istana Community Centre, Singapore TOURISM What is sustainable? > Study 04| Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan, China SETTING THE CONTEXT RECORDING PETRA, JORDAN

19 20 25 33 34 39 40 45 46 51

JUGGLING THE THEMES TOURISM FIRST > Study 05| Initial landuse study for visualising local authority’s vision for Petra > Study 06| Preliminary design proposal for Client’s Brief REVIVING THE PARKLAND >> Precedent| > Study 07| Initial landuse study for establishing a productive landscape > Study 08| Preliminary proposal prioritising needs of local communities JUGGLING TIME \\ Follie 03\ Re-jigging \\ Follie 04\ Gestures > Study 09| Initial study for establishing a user time-table for different activities/ communities > Study 10| Refining the time-table

61 62 64 69 70 72 77 78 79 80 84

MEASURING DESIGN What works?

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BEYOND What is a way forward?

00

REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY

87 88

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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THE RESEARCH IN BRIEF

> TITLE DESIGNING otherwise > SUB-TITLE Heritage Conservation + Development > Tourism

> RESEARCH QUESTION How can designing for tourism planning drive heritage conservation and socio-economic improvements in the developing regions?

> ABSTRACT: Rapid urban expansion in the developing regions is creating new homogenous cities lacking in character, while driving the destruction of unique environments and cultural heritage. The economic benefits of tourism makes an attractive incentive for conservation, but often at the expense of local communities living on or close to these sites. Designing Otherwise is about investigating the potential for landscape architecture practice to negotiate multifaceted and conflicting concerns in these fragile environments for the benefit of local communities. Heritage conservation, community development and sustainable tourism are not new concepts, but current design methods tend to favour one or the other. Using Petra, Jordan, as main study site, the research aims to redefine current approaches to heritage conservation and suggest a framework for designing with complex issues in landscape architecture practice. The framework distills problems into key themes, and their spatial operations are developed using strategies adapted from Corner’s landscape urbanism practice framework – community participation, processes over time, the staging of surfaces and the imaginary. The designs from each study is then evaluated against an assessment tool to measure its qualitative benefits on site. There is no single solution for dealing with complexities associated with urbanisation, but existing methods of compartmentalising multi-faceted problems have proved inadequate. This research demonstrates the need for inter-disciplinary collaborations and an on-going process of production and evaluation, to benefit local communities and processes most vulnerable in these contested spaces.

> KEYWORDS: Heritage conservation, community development, sustainable tourism

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2


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION Why design otherwise?

In urban environments of increasing homogenity, heritage, both physical and intangible, play a crucial role in defining the character of a place and the cultural identity of a community. While North America and Europe are struggling against extreme sentimentality and preservation of their existing built environment, the opposite is true of developing regions. Urban and economic growth continues to drive the transformation of farmlands and wildlife habitats into new urban centres, large-scale industries or mining towns. Traditional ways of life – from housing types, livelihoods, activities to languages – are viewed as obstructions to progress, while paved highways, modern skyscrapers and new lives in factories and cities are readily embraced. To local authorities and communities, heritage conservation is at odds with progress and development and remain “a concern of elites who are insensitive to rural people and their livelihood needs” (Berkes, 2004) .

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) actively encourages conservation efforts, and the World Heritage Convention was adopted in 1972 to protect cultural and scenic sites of “outstanding universal value” under threat from development (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2011) . A study of existing policies and programmes by UNESCO and its partner organisations, however, reveals gaps in current approaches to heritage conservation. The listing of heritage sites is currently split among four inscription types – “cultural”, “natural”, “mixed” and “cultural landscapes” – and site management and preservation is centred largely on its inscription type and the time period preserved. This has resulted in distinct site management differences within the different inscription types. “Cultural” sites tend to rely heavily on tourism for site development and management, while “natural” sites limit tourism and human intervention. The overt focus on a site’s inscription criteria divorces the preservation of physical monuments and environments

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\\FOLLIE\

\\FOLLIE 01\ Contestation

6

The site of this follie - the dune - is a site of contestation. Dunes serve a larger ecological purpose and should not be breached, but its proximity to the beach means it is a highly soughtafter site for residential development. Economics and development often win in the contest for land, but not without deliberating effects.


from any considerations of local processes, such as intangible heritage and socio-economic conditions of local communities. The growth of tourism witnessed at World Heritage Sites and its potential to propel local economies and urbanisation make attractive incentives for authorities in developing regions to encourage heritage conservation, as observed in the case of Petra, Jordan. According to information published on the United Nations World Travel Organisation’s (UNWTO) website, tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors worldwide and a “key driver for socio-economic progress�. Through careful planning and consideration of community requirements, the development process of tourism destinations can be used to provide basic infrastructure, utilities, services and employment opportunities for local communities.

7


\\FOLLIE\

Object 1

Object 2

\\Follie 02\ Processes When two physical objects are put together to achieve new spatial forms, the shadows cast enriches the overall experience of physical forms. 8


Heritage conservation, community development and sustainable tourism are not new concepts, and there is no lack of research and documentation, of individual concepts as well as the symbiotic relationship between all three. However, the complexities of individual concepts become amplified when considered in tandem, thus current planning and development proposals for heritage sites tend to favour one or the other than the sum of all parts. This is especially apparent in the developing regions where the lack of clear development guidelines and authority regulations mean design outcomes tend to privilege the few elites who can afford the services of design professionals and memberships at private clubs. Because landscapes are products of interactions between culture and its host environment, there is potential for landscape architecture practice to “serve as means to critically intervene in cultural habit and convention” (Corner, 1999) .

Using Petra, Jordan, as the key study site, Designing otherwise is about investigating the potential for landscape architecture practice to negotiate complex and sometimes conflicting concerns of development on fragile environments such as heritage sites, while allowing local communities to benefit from the process and outcomes. The research also aims at providing a framework for transforming landscapes into “agent of producing and enriching culture.” (Corner, 1999) . Through various design studies, the paper attempts to redefine heritage conservation and to suggest ways of including local communities in the overall design and development process. The design outcomes from each study is evaluated using a qualitative assessment tool, adapted from existing evaluation tools used in the tourism sectors. The on-going process of evaluation and production becomes a way of informing and refining the practice of design and refining the design methods for investigating and negotiating through complexities in design.

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DESIGNING OTHERWISE


DESIGNING OTHERWISE

Heritage Conservation + Development > Tourism

How can designing for tourism development drive heritage conservation and socioeconomic improvements in the developing regions?

Design, as defined by the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design (ISCID), is “a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life-cycles” (Manzini, 2005) . It is this flexbility and openess in the design activities of landscape architecture practice that offers possibilities of juggling multiple complexities within the themes of heritage conservation, community development and sustainable tourism. In his seminal essay “Terra Fluxus”, James Corner presented four provisional themes in his “schematic outline for landscape urbanism practice: processes over time, the staging of surfaces, the operational or working method, and the imaginary” . Through a continual and reflective process of applying Corner’s original themes through various design studies, this research begins to suggest a schematic operational method or design methodology in designing for the

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MEANS what?

considerations for what? to happen

The community

Residents

Demographics Livelihoods Culture and traditions Activities

Community types, settlement, origins

Tourists/ Visitors

From where? Purpose of visit Activities

Local, regional, international Leisure, business, education Sightseeing Picnics or grill picnics Fieldtrips Hiking

Industry

Tourism Construction Education Archaeology

Workforce

Who? Organisations

Authorities Developers Preservation groups Tourism operators

study 01

Processes over time

Climate

Seasons Rainfall, sunlight, wind Hazards

Spring, summer, autumn, winter

seasonal? broad-scale phasing? environmental? annual? people?

Population

Settlement patterns

Semi-nomadic Nomadic Permanent Range

Growth Migration patterns Environmental process

Time-scale

Water systems Air Plants Wildlife Temporal “Permanent” Tourism

The staging of surfaces

Infrastructure

singular? multiple? landuse? activities? scale?

Transport Water Drainage Sewage

Tourist infrastructure

Heritage site

Residential/ Community

Housing typology Facilities

Agriculture

Production Processing

Ecology/ Reforestation

Plants Animals/ Wildlife

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Local usage Water systems

Catchment

“Modern” Vernacular Schools Health centre Recreational spaces Crops eg. cereals, fruit trees, vegetables Meat eg. fishing, dairy, herding, farming On-site Off-site

Hazards Geology

Soil cover Hazards

Suitable uses Landslides, erosion, earthquakes, etc

Heritage

Physical structures “Tangible”

"Natural" "Cultural" "Mixed" "Cultural Landscapes" Urban fabric, grain, texture Scale of built environment Culture eg. Language, lifestyles, livelihoods Traditions eg. Cuisine, crafts, stories Symbolism Museum/ exhbition space Adaptive re-use

Usage

recontextualisation innovation scale

Intangible

Function Aesthetics

Scenic value

Figure 1. Diagram of the design methodology

Form Materials Spatial experience Local knowledge Landscape features

Golf course set among tea plantations SRI LANKA

study 04 Regional Landuse Study for expanding tourism PETRA, JORDAN

study 07 Regional Landuse/ Master Plan/Site Plan (based on Client’s Brief) PETRA, JORDAN

study 06 Sequencing events for community and tourism PETRA, JORDAN

Native/exotic Water consumption levels Habitat Range Natural: Rivers, wadis, seas, lakes Artificial: Reservoirs Size Freshwater Saltwater Recycled water Potable water Industries Irrigation Flooding, drought, pollution, etc.

Type

The imaginary

Local, regional, national Roads, train stations, bus stations, airports Pedestrian/bike networks Other local modes of transport eg. Rickshaws Catchment type: built/natural Other facilities Drains, channels, surfaces Collection and processing

Pedestrians, bike paths, carriageways Other local modes unique to site Visitors' Centre/ exhibition space Signage, bins, toilets, lighting Pathways/routes Food and beverage outlets Souvenir shops Protection Excavation Reuse Site limitations

Special events Management/ Maintenance

study 03

Seasonal, short-term Annual Long-term/ broad-scale phasing Peak, off-peak Growth

Circulation

Archaeology

study 02 Istana Kampong Community centre KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE

Sowing, harvest, blooming seasons Life cycles, growth, range

Accommodation/Hotels Retail/Dining Commercial services

Visitor facilities

Mixed-use development KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE

Flooding, drought, typhoon, etc.

Facilities

Retail/Dining Commercial services

OUTCOMES

Construction methods Crafts and craftmanship Water systems Ecological system

study 05 Regional Landuse Study for managing natural resources PETRA, JORDAN

study 08 Regional Landuse/ Master Plan/Site Plan balancing community’s needs with tourism PETRA, JORDAN

Evaluation

live work play

OPERATIONS

The Operational Method

STRATEGY


complexities of heritage sites and towards redefining heritage conservation (Fig. 1). The operational method includes application of four key strategies: the community, processes over time, the staging of surfaces and the imaginary across four themes: HERITAGE, CONSERVATION, COMMUNITY and TOURISM to develop design outcomes that are then put through a critical process of EVALUATION of against a set of fixed criteria. The qualitative assessment tool, adapted from current ones used in the tourism sector, measures the impacts of each design outcome against the following factors: Ecology/Environment Heritage Cultural Intergrity Socio-Economic Tourism Aesthetics Current design practices, fuelled by global capitalism, are based not on intrinsic physical, cultural and social values of the land, but on greed and economic benefits of the client or developer. The above framework outlines a method of critical investigation and negotiation of the complex processes through a constant design and evaluation process, with the aims of balancing all other requirements with economic gains.

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THEME: DEVELOPMENT


DEVELOPMENT We want progress!

Development is the process of growth and improvement – something that both authorities and common people aspire, albeit taking different forms and for different motivations. Decision-makers in developing regions see industrialisation and urbanisation as the key to economic development leading to consolidation of power; while people living in these regions, especially those in the rural areas, perceive gleaming cities as their key out of farming and poverty. Because of this demand, developing regions all over the world are racing to turn precious rural land into new urban centres, large-scale industries or mining towns.

Perception of development (or progress) in developing regions

Development (or lifestyle progression) as perceived in the developing regions

From farming...

farming...

working in regional factories... to industrial towns...

moving to the cities... to megapolis...

Perception of development (or progress) in developing regions

Lifestyle progression (or development) as perceived in the developed cities

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From cities...

living in the cities or urban centres...

Figure 2. Diagram comparing differing perceptions of development in the developed and developing regions

farming (and green spaces) in the areas)... to farming (in urban urban areas...

moving into regional areas...

moving out of urban centres...


> STUDY 01

New development at Kampong Bugis, Singapore

study 01

Figure 3. Sketch plan.

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Using the empty plot sited between the newer Bugis development and Kampong Glam Conservation District, this collage was done as an attempt at fusing the finer textural qualities of the conservation areas with the larger development plot sizes of current mixed-used development in Singapore. Using the site’s former coastal history as inspiration, modern port imagery was worked into the design to evoke the site’s history as key port of pre-modern Singapore.


Figure 4. Container city: Live, work & play!

ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE - Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

CULTURAL INTEGRITY - “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

SOCIO-ECONOMICS - Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

TOURISM - Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

AESTHETICS

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable

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SITE: KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE

Ÿ

Plot 01 Initial sketch study for new single-plot development located among conservation areas

Not applicable

Figure 5. Evaluation table.

+ Scale of ground structures to mirror building scale at conservation area

+ Translating modern imagery to evoke site's port history

+ Variety of floor areas in development to allow flexibility in change of use

+ Development acts as link from transport hub to conservation area

+ Fusing finer texture of conservation area with large development plot sizes

Scale, form and imagery can be-contextualised to evoke site's history and heritage


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THEME: HERITAGE


HERITAGE Redefined

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATION NATURAL SCIENCES SOCIAL & HUMAN SCIENCES CULTURAL CULTURE

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

NATURAL MIXED

COMMUNICATIONS & INFORMATION

WORLD HERITAGE

CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

INTANGIBLE HERITAGE

>200 practices + expressions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE MOVEABLE HERITAGE & MUSEUMS CREATIVITY DIALOGUE

Physical Environment

Forest Mountains Waterways Deserts Monuments Buildings Complexes Whole Cities

NOMATIVE ACTION EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

Mauris lacinia tincidunt enim, at tempor nisi sagittis eu. Maecenas in orci quis ipsum pharetra dictum. Etiam non enim ut lorem hendrerit fringilla a sit amet tellus. Duis ante nisl, porttitor at egestas nec, bibendum ac felis. Fusce id lectus urna. Morbi nisl sapien, ornare a mattis in, laoreet ut massa. Integer ac molestie lacus. Nulla tellus nulla, consequat quis luctus in, lacinia eu leo. Sed a eros sed nisi hendrerit eleifend ut non augue. Aliquam sapien tortor, ornare a aliquam vel, sollicitudin sed dui. Fusce nec felis nibh, sed imperdiet velit. Aenean risus nibh, molestie nec lobortis a, volutpat non purus. Sed posuere rhoncus eleifend. Fusce laoreet risus eget eros iaculis pharetra. Vivamus rhoncus, ligula nec iaculis adipiscing, purus elit vulputate augue, eu viverra arcu sapien ultrices nisl. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices.

Figure 6. Heritage and Culture themes in relation to overall United Nations structure.

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LEGEND developed regions developing regions types of heritage inscription: cultural natural mixed in danger Figure 7. Map showing current sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List

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Mauris lacinia tincidunt enim, at tempor nisi sagittis eu. Maecenas in orci quis ipsum pharetra dictum. Etiam non enim ut lorem hendrerit fringilla a sit amet tellus. Duis ante nisl, porttitor at egestas nec, bibendum ac felis. Fusce id lectus urna. Morbi nisl sapien, ornare a mattis in, laoreet ut massa. Integer ac molestie lacus. Nulla tellus nulla, consequat quis luctus in, lacinia eu leo. Sed a eros sed nisi hendrerit eleifend ut non augue. Aliquam sapien tortor, ornare a aliquam vel, sollicitudin sed dui. Fusce nec felis nibh, sed imperdiet velit. Aenean risus nibh, molestie nec lobortis a, volutpat non purus. Sed posuere rhoncus eleifend. Fusce laoreet risus eget eros iaculis pharetra. Vivamus rhoncus, ligula nec iaculis adipiscing, purus elit vulputate augue, eu viverra arcu sapien ultrices nisl. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices.


Mixed-uses (Commercial/ Residential) Civic and Administrative Residential

Figure 9. Sketch plan of Rotterdam showing old parts of city still much loved by residents. Old urban patterns are important part of our intangible heritage, and can be conserved while allowing for changes in the built environment

Figure 8. Urban textures, patterns and scale as part of Intangible built heritage.

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Integrated conservation and development strategy for developing regions

Preserving heritage globally. Changing lives locally.

PLANNING & INCREASED SITE PROTECTION

Regional and national governments

Sustainability of local development

Site sustainability

Change in livelihoods

Loss of intangible cultural heritage

Healthcare

Local authorities

Local communities

PARTNERSHIPS Partnering local, regional and international organisations to ensure long-term sustainability of sites and commitment towards projects.

Tourism Conservation

Funds community development

Funds conservation

Tourism as key economy Cultural tourism Mass tourism

Infrastructure Planning

Water Food Shelter Sanitation Education

Provision of jobs

Community engagement

Skills training for locals

High-priority monument preservation Sustainable preservation Preventing looting and neglect

Preservation of intangible cultural heritage?

Sustainable Tourism Planning

Master Conservation Planning Significance & universal values Economic opportunities Threats/ Conditions Assessment Long-range vision and Conservation Goals

Site and Regional Master Plan Site analysis Scientific/ Historic/ Architectural Survey

Provision of basic needs

Engaging and empowering local community to be responsible for conservation and protection to ensure sustainable preservation.

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Drawing on the latest technology, methodology and data in conservation of sites, which will form the local capacity for community development.

CONSERVATION SCIENCE

A master plan or road-map to outline all priorities, key objectives and outcomes outlined for the project.

Figure 10. Analysis of The Nature Conservancy’s “Conservation by Design” methodology

proposed programmes

existing programmes

PRESERVATION BY DESIGN

GLOBAL HERITAGE FUND

The reliance on tourism economy also results in development that is solely focused on tourism infrastructure, which may not always bring lasting rewards to local communities.

communities in the process of preservation, but over-reliance on tourism as the main economy means altering traditional livelihoods and lifestyles among local communities permanently. While physical evidences of cultural heritage are conserved (ie. architecture), the monumentalising of entire towns like in the case of Lijiang results in the loss of its original character and the site becomes no more than a refurbished museum.

Cultural Heritage Sites The mission of the Global Heritage Fund is to “protect, preserve, and sustain the most significant and endangered cultural heritage sites in the developing world”14. The agency actively engages local

28 Local agriculture? Education? Traditional livelihoods?

Other economy types?

Loss of land

Landuse Planning Roads and transportation Sanitation Tourism infrastructure Environmental Planning Policies


Integrated conservation and development strategy for developing regions

CONSERVATION BY DESIGN

Increasing costeffectiveness of mitigation

Evaluation and adaptation

Application of the science-based approach in multiple scales.

KEY ANALYTICAL METHODS

A systematic approach to conservation that determines where to work, what to conserve, what strategies to use, and the effectiveness of the schemes.

SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH

Offsets: directing funding to conservation

Figure 11. Analysis of Global Heritage Fund’s “Preservation by Design” methodology

proposed programmes

existing programmes

Protecting nature. Preserving lives.

THE NATURE CONSERVANCY

Integrated mitigation planning to balance the needs of planned development and nature conservation

DEVELOPMENT BY DESIGN

Multiple Scales

MEASURING RESULTS “How is the biodiversity doing?” “Are our actions having the intended impact?”

Taking Action Place-based actions locally, regionally and globally

Developing Strategies Working with partners to develop suitable strategies to combat conservation, taking into account socio-political and economical factors

Setting Goals and Priorities Long-term survival of all biodiversity on Earth

Global Habitat Assessments

Although I have not done an in-depth analysis of TNC’s methodology, one of the main issues of this method is over-reliance on external funding for conservation initiatives. By focusing on the preservation of “nature” and natural processes, the initiatives may not always integrate community involvement in the larger strategy.

Ecoregional Assessments

Natural Heritage Sites The mission of The Nature Conservancy is to “preserve the plants, animals and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive”15.

CONSERVATION ACTION PLANNING

Reducing conflicts and steering development away from conservation

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Key initiatives

Urgent Issues

Regions Worldwide

Natural Habitats

People and Conservation Are we using sound science to protect ecologically important lands and waters? And are we improving the lives of people?

Preservation of cultural heritage and livelihoods?

Provision of basic needs?

Empowering indigenous communities

Investing in nature

Responsible development

Loss of land?

For initiatives to also fund conservation?

Conservation Lands Balancing growing development needs with those of conservation

Migratory Birds

Coral Reefs

Rainforests

Climate Change

Conservation Action

Deserts and Aridlands

Grasslands and Prairies

Forests

Oceans and Coasts

Rivers and lakes

Healthcare

Water Food Shelter Sanitation Education


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THEME: CONSERVATION


CONSERVATION

Conservation versus Preservation

Ian McHarg preached the ecological method for planning urban regions, arguing that cities need to work with nature’s intrinsic cycles to achieve maximum benefits in land development . While there is a need for ecological considerations in planning and development, its overt focus on ecological process over cities’ needs make it an unpopular approach, especially in the developing regions. Again, this consideration for the social and cultural processes brings me back to the question of preservation versus conservation. “Preservation” suggests an insistence at maintaining status quo, focusing largely on the subject to be preserved and protected. This tendency to apply exclusionary definitions onto complex realities reflects a general failure at integrating the different processes which “conservation” seeks to acknowledge.

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> STUDY 02

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existing agricultural land

existing village and expanded town

golf holes

clubhouse and associated functions

driving range

revegetation

Golf among heritage tea plantations

Figures 12 and 13. Golf courses on tea plantations or farmlands?

ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE

CULTURAL INTEGRITY

SOCIO-ECONOMICS

- Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

- “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

- Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

+ Maintenance of tea plantations as working plantations

+ Plantations both for production and tourism

+ Multiple-programming to meet the demands of urban development, and retain local employment

TOURISM

AESTHETICS

- Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

+ Supports variety of tourism options

+ Multiple-programming to meet the demands of urban development and desires

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: TEA PLANTATIONS, SRI LANKA

Ÿ

Study for proposed conservation site Collage study for possible conservation/ development of tea plantations

Not applicable

Figures 14. Evaluation table.

Ÿ Multiple-programming a useful tool towards meeting the demands of different stakeholders.


existing agricultural land

existing village and expanded town

existing agricultural land

golf holes

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Golf is big business in Asia, and “few other western exports carry the symbolic power of golf� (Gould 2010)16. Golf courses are sprouting up in the most obscure regions of China and even arid Middle East. The suggested proposal is a way of testing the feasibility of urban development such as golf courses with cultural landscapes such as tea plantations that serve both production and scenic values. By retaining the productive landscapes within new development, problems such as displacement to existing villages, loss of valuable agricultural land, disruption to local livelihoods, loss of precious ecological land might be addressed.


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THEME: COMMUNITY


COMMUNITY

Reducing poverty through design

39 waterways

water treatment facilities

water infrastructure

universities

theatres

sports + fitness facilities

shopping malls

sewage treatment facilities

schools

roads

recreational parks

railway stations

ports

nature reserves

museums

libraries

irrigation

housing

hotels + other accomodation

hospitals

health centres

government + administration

golf courses

farms

factories + industries

exhibition + convention centres

cultural centres

community centres

car parks

bus stations

bus shelters

banks + financial instituitions

airports

built + planned programmes

Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear of the future living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illnesses brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom. -The World Bank Poverty Net

markets

As economic concerns outweigh everything else, “urban transformation and expansion are more often immediate response to the urgent demands of functional necessity, globality and profit maximisation� (Lim 2005). This attitude has prompted the commodification of many good initiatives such as heritage conservation and sustainability practices, short-circuiting the detailed and considered approaches required to reap long-term rewards. Landscape architects, however, are trained to have an understanding of the wider environment at large, and cannot claim responsibilty only towards those who pay their fees. There has been much on-going research by designers and geographers on the negative effects of urbanisation, but their approaches and solutions have been largely separate, with few attempting to address the social and livelihood issues of marginalised communities through interdisciplinary development and design.

SOCIAL GOALS ACHEIVED THROUGH DESIGN CLIMATE CHANGE PREPAREDNESS EDUCATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION FLORA + FAUNA CONSERVATION FOOD HEALTHCARE HERITAGE CONSERVATION JOBS LAND RIGHTS SANITATION PERSONAL SECURITY SHELTER CLEAN WATER

Figure 16. Matrix showing how land development can be used to achieve social goals


> STUDY 03

Kampong Istana Community Centre, Singapore

Figure 17. Former Istana Kampong Glam or the Malay Heritage Museum

The site of the current Malay Heritage Museum is the former Istana Kampong, home to the former Sultan’s descendents. It was converted into a museum as part of conservation efforts, and the family moved out of the compound. The museum was subsequently re-furbished with some of the original furniture used by the Sultan’s family. Rather than conserving only the physical evidence of heritage and turning it into a museum for exhibiting “culture”, this series of collages was a test at re-injecting functions to re-create the Istana’s function as social and cultural centre of the local community. 40 ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE

CULTURAL INTEGRITY

SOCIO-ECONOMICS

TOURISM

AESTHETICS

- Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

- “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

- Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

- Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

+ Architectural integrity of the building is restored and preserved

- Intangible cultural items presented as exhibits in place of original inhabitants and activities

Not applicable

+ Museum also serves as visitors' centre for conservation area

Not applicable

+ New uses can attract more users into facility

+ Recontextualisation of site's original meaning

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: KAMPONG BUGIS, SINGAPORE Plot 02 Conversion of former Istana Kampong into Malay Heritage Museum

Not applicable

- Old furniture from Istana reorganised as exhibits for the museum

Ÿ Collages for Malay Heritage Museum (former Istana Kampong)

Not applicable

Figure 20. Evaluation table.

Not applicable

+ Rekindling site's original meaning to the community through recontextualisation

Ÿ + Expanding site's usage beyond a little-visited musuem

Heritage building was preserved typical of current conservation practices, resulting in the creation of a museum rather than maintaining the original spirit of the site.

Ÿ Conservation beyond preservation of monuments.


Figure 19. Museum + community centre

41

Figure 20. Museum + community centre


42


THEME: TOURISM


TOURISM

What is sustainable tourism?

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide, a result of growing affluence. Developing regions often see tourism as a quick way of developing local economies, capitalising on local features that will attract foreign tourist dollars. It is the quickest way of attracting “foreign income� without the hassle of time and bureaucracy changes. The development of tourism infrastructure is also a way (by authorities) of sharing the costs of bringing basic infrastructure, utilities, services and job opportunities to local communities.

45


> STUDY 04

Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan, China Mauris lacinia tincidunt enim, at tempor nisi sagittis eu. Maecenas in orci quis ipsum pharetra dictum. Etiam non enim ut lorem hendrerit fringilla a sit amet tellus. Duis ante nisl, porttitor at egestas nec, bibendum ac felis. Fusce id lectus urna. Morbi nisl sapien, ornare a mattis in, laoreet ut massa. Integer ac molestie lacus. Nulla tellus nulla, consequat quis luctus in, lacinia eu leo. Sed a eros sed nisi hendrerit eleifend ut non augue. Aliquam sapien tortor, ornare a aliquam vel, sollicitudin sed dui. Fusce nec felis nibh, sed imperdiet velit. Aenean risus nibh, molestie nec lobortis a, volutpat non purus. Sed posuere rhoncus eleifend. Fusce laoreet risus eget eros iaculis pharetra. Vivamus rhoncus, ligula nec iaculis adipiscing, purus elit vulputate augue, eu viverra arcu sapien ultrices nisl. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices.

46

Figure 21-22. Proposed tourism actvities on a “natural� heritage site


Figure 23. Reforestation to restore vegetal and soil cover along the riverbanks. When is reforestation too much?

ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE - Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

CULTURAL INTEGRITY - “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

SOCIO-ECONOMICS

TOURISM

- Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

- Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

+ Reforestation and managed logging can provide local firewood supply and employment + Local employment in tourism, apart from agriculture, for young people

+ Limited tourism development can fund conservation activities

AESTHETICS

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: THREE PARALLEL RIVERS OF YUNNAN, CHINA Study for tourism development on natural heritage site Collage series for possible tourism activities on a heritage forest without damaging integrity

+ Reforestation of native plant species; and zoning to manage logging

Figure 24. Evaluation table.

+ Limited tourism development can increase awareness both locally and internationally

- No considerations yet

- No considerations yet

Initial studies indicate the advantages of tourism on local communities in and around natural heritage areas. Cultural heritage is often rich in these areas and should be considered.

47


48


SETTING THE CONTEXT

Figure 25. Partial site model of Petra Archaelogical Park.


RECORDING PETRA, JORDAN Sub-heading

Petra, the famed rose-red city carved out of sandstone cliffs, is located in the mountainous basin which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba in Jordan. It has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985, filed under the cultural inscription. The city was founded by the Nabataens in the 6th century, and is known for its stonecut architecture as well as water management strategies. The site of Petra Archeological Park spreads across approximately 264 square kilometres, and includes the main Petra Museum, Little Petra and Sidd Al-Ahmar region, where Wadi Musa Waste Water Treatment Works and a new Ecological Demonstration Area is located, as well as two Bedouin settlements Um Sayhoun and Al Beidha. The nearest town to Petra is Wadi Musa, which has seen rapid growth resulting from the rise of tourism.

51

Prior to its listing as a cultural heritage site, Petra was home to as many as five different Bedouin tribes -

Figures 26-28. Existing site contour model of main tourist node. Figure 29. Sketch.


52

Figures 30-31. View of Wadi Musa. Figure 32. Sketch analysis of current visitors facilities in Petra.

Figures 33. Analysis diagrams of current visitor circulation in Petra.


from the nomadic who spend summers here because of cooler mountainous climate to the semi-nomadic who live in tents during summers and put up in the warmer caves during winters the land. Grazing and herding of sheep, goats and camels are the main source of agricultural livelihood among these tribes, and determines the type of nomadism practiced by communities. Since settling in the region more than 150 years ago, some communities started cultivation of cereals (namely barley and wheat) and fruit trees (olives and grapes), and used them to trade for other items with the settled communities at El-Gi. When Petra was made a UNESCO heritage site, the local communities living in the area were forcefully re-settled into the towns of Um Sayhoun and Al Beidha. The reason for their eviction was to reduce their grazing activities on the fragile sandstone site and to minimise local contact with the expected influx of tourists. Grazing has been banned, but as part of the conservation and

Figures 34-38. Site photos along the Siq to the Treasury.

53


Figures 39-42. Photos of local children and transport facilities in Petra.

54

development proposals, local communities were assured allocation of agricultural land to ensure continuation of their existing livelihood and traditions. More than twenty years since the re-settlement, most of the development proposals have yet been materialised, apart from the establishment of a small health centre and primary school. Instead, most local communities are solely dependent on tourist economy for their livelihoods - running drinks stalls in the museum, up selling souvenirs, running transport services for tourists, with most young children dropping out of school in favour of working in the tourism industry.

Figure 43. Sketch analysis of Bedouin range around Petra region.


As part of the Jordanian government’s greater economic development plans, Petra has been designated as the key tourist destination, and there are on-going plans to develop the tourism infrastructure required to attract and support the growing number of visitors and investment. At the same time, a fast-growing local population and growing discontent about the lack of facilities and development at the new settlements are pushing the tribes to return to living in Petra.

55

Figures 44-48. Site photos of Petra geological formations.


Figure 50. Brief analysis of Client’s design requirements.

Figure 51. Sketch of Petra soil cover.

Figure 52. Sketch of Petra water catchment area.

57


58


JUGGLING THE THEMES


TOURISM FIRST Sub-heading

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean cursus tempus euismod. Nunc in sem sapien, quis pretium orci. Nunc non massa felis, a sodales nunc. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Sed vel nisl pellentesque lorem lacinia lacinia sit amet vel nisl. Nullam tellus nulla, gravida quis pulvinar eu, fringilla at erat. Nam elementum, ligula quis iaculis molestie, orci erat semper justo, sollicitudin accumsan enim enim in justo. Aenean ac lacus id massa gravida fermentum. Nam ultrices, neque nec pretium feugiat, turpis urna elementum tortor, id tincidunt lorem neque a dolor. Suspendisse condimentum pulvinar ornare. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vivamus pellentesque nunc sed dolor eleifend nec porttitor odio pulvinar. Nam metus est, laoreet sit amet porta ac, venenatis et est. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aliquam ullamcorper, orci eget

61


STUDY 05 is an authority’s vision for Petra - maximising tourist numbers and investment by developing tourist infrastructure such as hotels, residential development, roads, etc. There is little to no consideration of local community benefits as tourism remains single economy.

ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE - Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

CULTURAL INTEGRITY - “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

SOCIO-ECONOMICS - Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

TOURISM - Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

AESTHETICS

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: PETRA, JORDAN Study 01 Initial landuse study for visualising local authority's vision for Petra

¢ - No considerations

¤ + Development of a clear boundary and buffer zones for the heritage site + Defining extents of urban development (in Wadi Musa) - Projected tourist numbers exceed carrying capacity of the site

¢ - No considerations

¤

Ÿ

¢

¢

+ Provision for growth of satellite settlement areas to Wadi Musa - Local economy still focused on tourism

+ Connections between all three key areas of Petra Archaeological Park + Increasing tourist routes in Petra, and defnition of routes in Little Petra + Introducing tourist facilities into key tourist areas - Over-commercialisation may result in negative attraction

- Typical approach towards maximising short-term tourism profits

Proposal benefits only economical considerations through development of infrastructure and facilities catering to mass tourism. Undesirable to both conservation efforts and community development

63


> STUDY 06

Preliminary proposal for a site master plan based on local authority’s brief (Ref.)

64

MASTER PLAN IN DETAIL

Figure 30. Master plan 01: Authority’s vision Maximising tourist routes, connection between all three key regions of Petra Archeological Park


Figure 30. Master plan 01: Authority’s vision Maximising tourist routes, connection between all three key regions of Petra Archeological Park

SITE PLAN IN DETAIL

65


66

STUDY 01 is an authority’s vision for Petra - maximising tourist numbers and investment by developing tourist infrastructure such as hotels, residential development, roads, etc. There is little to no consideration of local community benefits as tourism remains single economy.


67

ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE - Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

CULTURAL INTEGRITY - “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

SOCIO-ECONOMICS - Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

TOURISM - Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

AESTHETICS

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: PETRA, JORDAN Study 04 Preliminary proposal for a site master plan based on local authority's brief (Ref.)

¢

¤

+ Reforestation in the buffer zones

+ Creation of clear conservation and buffer zones

- Availability of irrigation to sustain reforestation

+ Defining extents of urban development (in Wadi Musa and satellite settlements) + Archaeological/ Conservation college

- Few to no considerations for site processes

- Tourist numbers exceed carrying capacity

¢ + Infrastructure to encourage cultural continuation (eg. storytelling, food) for tourism - Loss of traditional livelihoods, settlement patterns and culture as a result of tourism

Ÿ

Ÿ

+ Reorganisation of urban development and provision for growth

+ Increased routes to increase carrying capacity of heritage site

+ Plans reflect possible diversification of economy and social improvements + Increase in infrastructure and services

+ Increase in tourist facilities: visitors centre, signages, toilets, amphitheatre etc. + Increase in tourism infrastructure

+ Provision of recreational areas for local communities

+ Connections between three key tourist sites

¢ + Reorganisation of facilities within site to protect views and site aesthetics - Impact of tourist facilities on site's aesthetics?

¤ Proposal meets key demands on the Client's Brief (i.e. economic and tourism development) but falls behind on all other criteria. Proposal exceeds the carrying capacity of the site, which affects longterm sustainability and viability.


68


REVIVING THE PARKLAND Sub-heading

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean cursus tempus euismod. Nunc in sem sapien, quis pretium orci. Nunc non massa felis, a sodales nunc. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Sed vel nisl pellentesque lorem lacinia lacinia sit amet vel nisl. Nullam tellus nulla, gravida quis pulvinar eu, fringilla at erat. Nam elementum, ligula quis iaculis molestie, orci erat semper justo, sollicitudin accumsan enim enim in justo. Aenean ac lacus id massa gravida fermentum. Nam ultrices, neque nec pretium feugiat, turpis urna elementum tortor, id tincidunt lorem neque a dolor. Suspendisse condimentum pulvinar ornare. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vivamus pellentesque nunc sed dolor eleifend nec porttitor odio pulvinar. Nam metus est, laoreet sit amet porta ac, venenatis et est. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aliquam ullamcorper, orci eget

69


Figure 41. Re-vegetation with native species to allow controlled grazing and agriculture.

Figure 40. Section c-c

Figure 39. Section b-b

Figure 38. Section a-a

71

+1500m +1400m +1300m +1200m +1100m +1000m +900m +800m +700m

+1800m +1700m +1600m +1500m +1400m +1300m +1200m +1100m +1000m +900m +800m +700m +600m

+1800m +1700m +1600m +1500m +1400m +1300m +1200m +1100m +1000m +900m +800m +700m +600m +500m


> STUDY 08

Preliminary proposal prioritising needs of local communities

72


73


74


75 ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT LEGEND: Quality of outcomes: ¢

Undesirable

- Natural processes on site, such as climate, river systems, geology, etc. - Diversity of native flora and fauna

HERITAGE - Impacts and integrity of heritage sites - Conservation skills - Education/ awareness towards conservation

CULTURAL INTEGRITY - “Traditional” livelihoods of local communities - Intangible cultures - Local knowledge of the “land”

SOCIO-ECONOMICS - Access to basic needs - Economic growth (local, regional, national) - Diversity of local economy

TOURISM - Infrastructure - Tourist facilities - Other factors such as over-commercialisation

AESTHETICS

OVERALL ASSESSMENT

- Innovation in planning and management strategies - Landscape form

¤ Considered

Ÿ

Desirable SITE: PETRA, JORDAN Study 05 Preliminary proposal prioritising needs of local communities

¤ + Minimising flood risks through reforestation in upper catchment areas + Reuse of wastewater from urban areas for irrigation - Traditional activities may impact diversity of local flora

Ÿ

Ÿ

+ Development of site boundaries, including core conservation and buffer zones + Integration of neighbouring urban areas with conservation site + Spreading out tourist infrastructure and facilities to reduce strain on site + Development of viewing route outside core area to limit tourist numbers

+ Landuse provision for traditional activities (eg. agriculture, herding, picnics, etc.) + Reorganisation of settlement areas to meet community needs + Initial ideas for return to living in non-critical areas of heritage site

¤

Ÿ

+ Plans reflect possible diversification of economy and social improvements

+ Increase in tourism infrastructure and tourist facilities

- Limited provisions for growth of urban areas

+ Viewing route (both for pedestrians and vehicles) along heritage site

¤ + Reorganisation of facilities within site to protect views and site aesthetics + Consideration of details to deal with materials and maintenance

¤ Consideration for ecological and cultural processes (however preliminary) brings better outcomes across all criteria.


76


JUGGLING TIME Sub-heading

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean cursus tempus euismod. Nunc in sem sapien, quis pretium orci. Nunc non massa felis, a sodales nunc. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Sed vel nisl pellentesque lorem lacinia lacinia sit amet vel nisl. Nullam tellus nulla, gravida quis pulvinar eu, fringilla at erat. Nam elementum, ligula quis iaculis molestie, orci erat semper justo, sollicitudin accumsan enim enim in justo. Aenean ac lacus id massa gravida fermentum. Nam ultrices, neque nec pretium feugiat, turpis urna elementum tortor, id tincidunt lorem neque a dolor. Suspendisse condimentum pulvinar ornare. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vivamus pellentesque nunc sed dolor eleifend nec porttitor odio pulvinar. Nam metus est, laoreet sit amet porta ac, venenatis et est. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aliquam ullamcorper, orci eget sollicitudin dignissim, lacus massa pellentesque ipsum, ut pulvinar dui lorem hendrerit dolor.

77


\\FOLLIE\

78

\\Follie 03\Re-jigging By making small organisational moves with onsite materials (the rocks in this case), I attempted to draw attention to features that would otherwise go unnoticed.


\\FOLLIE\

79

\\Follie 04\ Gestures Expanding on the ideas in “Re-gigging”, this set of follies work with the idea of using an alien object to mark features in “natural” landscapes. While the original features are eventually hidden by successive waves, the alien markers on both ends continue to mark their existence.


82


Figure 37. Agri-tourism in action - tourists volunteering in local agricultural activities.

Figure 36. Timetable of activities in Petra.

Bedul tribes to resume winter residence in non-critical caves or tombs

J/F/M/A/M/J/J/A/S/O/N/D

83

Beduls tents to populate the park during peak summer months.

Peak tourist season. Reduced activity of Bedul tribes within the park to reduce excessive ecological and human impacts to the site. Rotation of grazing areas to allow regeneration of local vegetation.

J/F/M/A/M/J/J/A/S/O/N/D

J/F/M/A/M/J/J/A/S/O/N/D

J/F/M/A/M/J/J/A/S/O/N/D

Um Sayhoun village


> STUDY 10

Initial study for establishing a user time-table for different activities/ communities

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

seasons rainfall

tourists

off-peak

peak season

off-peak

agriculture sowing harvest barley wheat grapes olives

short planting season

threshing/ storage

range increases in summer

herding dairy farming

main planting season

reforestation

housing

84

lower peak

outdoor tents caves/ built settlements

caves/ built settlements


85


86


REFERENCES

1. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2011. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, [Online]. Available at http://whc. unesco.org/ [Accessed on 21 March 2011].

at http://globalheritagefund.org/images/uploads/docs/ GHFMasterConservationPlanningGuidelines2009.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2011].

2. Berkes, F. 2004. ‘Rethinking Community-Based Conservation’. Conservation Biology, [Online]. Vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 621-630. DOI: 10.1111/j.15231739.2004.00077.x [Accessed on 01 June 2011].

15. The Nature Conservancy. 2011. The Nature Conservancy. Available at http://nature.org/ [Accessed 21 May 2011]

3. Corner, J. 2006. ‘Terra Fluxus’. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Ed. Waldheim, C. Princeton Architectural Press, New Jersey. pp. 21-33.

16. Gould, D. 2010. ‘The Rise of Golf in China’. Executive Travel Magazine, [Online]. Available at http://www. executivetravelmagazine.com/ [Accessed 21 March 2011].

4. Lim, W.S.L. 2005. ‘Asian Ethical Urbanism: A Radical Postmodern Perspective’. Asian Ethical Urbanism: A Radical Postmodern Perspective. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore. pp. 3-42. 5. JWT Shanghai. 2011. Advertisement for China Environment Protection Foundation. Available at http:// www.littleredbook.cn/2009/04/13/construction-cranesin-the-bamboo-forest-balancing-nature-and-urbanizationin-china-psa-advertising/ [Accessed on 28 February 2011]. 6. Dictionary.com. 2011. Dictionary.com, [Online]. Available at http://dictionary.reference.com/ [Accessed on 28 February 2011]. 7. Ibid. 3. 8. Ibid. 1. 9. McHarg, I. 1969. ’The Metropolitan Region’. Design With Nature. Natural History Press, New York. 10. Ibid. 4. 11. Global Heritage Fund. 2011. Global Heritage Fund, [Online]. Available at http://globalheritagefund.org/ [Accessed 21 March 2011]. 12. Corbusier, L. 1987. The City of To-morrow and Its Planning. J. Rodker. 13. Ibid. 12. 14. Global Heritage Fund. 2009. ‘Guidelines for Master Conservation Planning of Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Sites and UNESCO World Heritage’. Available

87


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Euromed Heritage. 2010. ‘Suggestions to the Jordanian Authorities to Improve Heritage Management and Conservation of the Site of Petra’. Workshop on “Management of heritage sites and artefacts” (17-19 May 2010, Petra, Jordan). Available at http://www. euromedheritage.net/euroshared/doc/THE_02%20 Suggestions%20to%20Jordanian%20Authorities_EN.pdf [Accessed on 29 May 2011]. Cole, D.P. 2003. ‘Where Have the Bedouin Gone?’. Anthropological Quarterly, [Online]. Vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 235-267. Available at http://www.jstor.org/ stable/3318400 [Accessed on 20 May 2011]. Blondel, J. 2006. ‘The ‘Design’ of Mediterranean Landscapes: A Millennial Story of Humans and Ecological Systems during the Historic Period’. Human Ecology, [Online]. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 713-729. Available at http:// www.jstor.org/stable/27654149 [Accessed on 20 May 2011] Syouf, M.Q. and Duwayri, M.A. 1995. ‘Jordan: Country Report to the FAO International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources’. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/ documents/PGR/SoW1/east/JORDAN.pdf [Accessed on 21 May 2011]. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian Territories. 2008. ‘Drought: The Latest Blow to herding Livelihoods’. Available at http://www.ochaopt.org/ documents/Hebron%20Drought.pdf [Accessed on 21 May 2011].

88

Ullah, I.I.T. 2010. ‘A GIS method for assessing the zone of human-environmental impact around archaeological sites: a test case from the Late Neolithic of Wadi Ziqlâb, Jordan’. Journal of Archaeological Science, [Online]. Vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 623-632. DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2010.10.015 [Accessed on 21 May 2011]. Coughenour, M.B. 2008. ‘Causes and Consequences of Herbivore Movement in Landscape Ecosystems’. Fragmentation in Semi-Arid and Arid Landscapes: Consequences for Human and Natural Systems. Eds. Galvin, K.A., Reid, R.S., Behnke R.H and Hobbs, N.T. Springer Netherlands, pp. 45-91. DOI: 10.1007/978-14020-4906-4_3 [Accessed on 21 May 2011].

Cesaro, G., Santana Quintero, M., Paolini, A., De Vos, P.J., Glekas, E. and Visconti, L. 2010. ‘Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Petra Arcaheological Park: recording strategy’. International Conference on Science and Technology and The CIPA Workshop on Documentation and Conservation of Stone Deterioration in Heritage Places. ICOMOS/UNESCO, Jordan. Available at https:// lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/289502/1/ Paper_Petra2010_Cesaro.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2011]. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities and United States National Park Service. 2010. ‘The Petra Archaeological Park Operating Plan’. Available at http://www.petrapark.com/ files/documents/National_Parks_Service.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2011]. Alhasanat, S. 2008. ‘Sociocultural Impacts of Tourism on the Local Community at Petra, Jordan’. European Journal of Scientific Research, [Online]. Vol. 44, no. 3, pp.374-386. Available at http://www.eurojournals.com/ ejsr_44_3_01.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2011]. Fadiman, A. 1998. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. Rolston, H. 1998. ‘Technology Versus Nature: What is Natural?’. Ends and Means, [Online]. Vol. 2, no. 2. Available at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/philosophy/ endsandmeans/vol2no2/rolston.shtml [Accessed on 13 April 2011]. Global Heritage Fund. 2011. ‘Global Heritage Network (GHN) Enables Worldwide Expert and Stakeholder Collaboration Using Satellite Imaging Technologies to Save Earth’s Most Significant and Endangered Cultural Heritage Sites’. Available at http://globalheritagefund. org/in_the_news/press_releases/ghn_launch [Accessed on 21 March 2011]. International Council of Monuments and Sites. 2011. International Council of Monuments and Sites, [Online]. Available at http://www.international.icomos.org/home. htm [Accessed on 02 June 2011]. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2011. International Union for Conservation of Nature, [Online]. Available at http://www.iucn.org/ [Accessed on 02 June 2011].


Ed. Waldheim, C. 2006. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Princeton Architectural Press, New Jersey. Corner, J. 1999. ‘Recovering Landscape as a Critical Cultural Practice’. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Theory. Ed. Corner, J. Princeton Architectural Press, New Jersey. pp. 1-26.

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Agnes Soh Concise ADR  

Agnes Soh Concise ADR

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