Exploring the potential of Mixed use Urban Landscape Development in China.
Inspired from follie making -- Tangle 2011
Excusive Summary Research Question + Abstract
Design Theory Force
Site Introduction TianJin
Design Project version001
Conclusion Reference Bibliography
EXCUSIVE SUMMARY TITLE Tangled Development SUBTITLE Exploring the potential of Mixed use Urban Landscape Development in China. RESEARCH QUESTION An investigation of cross-programming as a strategy to address the issues arising from the current urban development practice in China.
ABSTRACT Urbanisation in China is occurring at an unprecedented rate and is expected to continue at this fast pace over the next few decades. China in the 1940s had 69 ‘cities’, in 2007 it had 670 ‘cities’, almost ten times as many. The increase in urbanisation is attributed to a number of factors including migration from villages to cities, natural growth, and economic stimulus, leading to the expansion of small towns to the point that they may be reclassified as cities. While China has coped more effectively than many countries with the demands of urbanisation, a number of issues need to be tackled urgently: employment, infrastructure, energy, agricultural production and water management.
The projection to 2025 suggests that, it is likely that another 200 to 250 million people will migrate to China’s cities. Providing jobs and infrastructure for this anticipated inflow of people poses major challenges. Including the fact that urban residents use 3.6 times as much energy as rural residents.
Urban sprawl is also an important issue as it is critical to maintain sufficient arable land for agricultural production. At the same time, China suffers from water scarcity, with just over 2,100 cubic meters of water available per person—one-third of the world average.
The intention of my research is enable agricultural production to be maintained in city by designing a new ‘tangled’ development in the north of ShuangGang Town, in Tianjin, China. The current development practice eradicates this possibility. ShuangGang Town is five kilometers from the city centre. The existing agricultural productive land is being displaced by current urbanization practice.
This has resulted in less of a social interaction for both the existing inhabitants, and those that come to live in the new developments. The farmers effectively lose their livelihoods, although the government pays a single lump-sum payment for property. The local food production is removed resulting in increased food costs. The ecological balance is also suffering. The vegetation condition of site is simple and bald.
The potentials of mixing programs may provide alternatives that address these issues. Philosopher Heraclitus, suggests that “The unlike is joined together, and from differences results the most beautiful harmony.” In this manner cross-programming, the tan gled development, intends to link different aspects of city fabric together, in order to provide harmonious living spaces for people in the city. What is the harmonious living space? “Harmony” as a word itself originated from the ancient Chinese concept “the harmony between the heaven and the human”, which emphasizes that human cannot soley ask from nature but should respect and compensate nature in return. At this point, I claim that tangled development respects and follows the nature. That is the aim of my research. People should live in line with the pace of natural development, so that life can be harmonious.
My design research explores the site through three scales: city scale, town scale and human scale. The city scale raises the value of the site within the whole city. The town scale distributes the land legitimately. The farmers could maintain the land ownership and provide the local fresh food for people. This maintains employment for the farmers, and at the local scale could provide the multiple function space for new residents. The people who come to live here will experience an environment that mixes agricultural production with open space, which is quite precious value for developers as well. For the water management, the water on the site is under the circle uses in both agriculture and urban life. Also, water as part of infrastructure on the site provides another entertainment function. The energy consumption is reduced by electronic controlling, vehicles controlling and self-sufficient life style. Because of the tangled development provide the opportunities for residential and commercial, people could save steps between work and home.
The ‘tangle’ represents a complicated status of the object, however, from my observation ‘tangle’ may provide opportunities for rethinking urban development. Urban development could be a natural process not to monopolize or manipulate, which is just like the ‘tangle’. I am not saying the natural process is disorder. The universe has already set up a perfect ‘system’ for the world. I would like to stop and see what happened if we just follow that ‘system’. The way I have employed ‘tangle’ is informed by the physics definition that describes it as: the mutual force action between objects enable structural integrity. When the city is expands, the force from urbanization is in conflict with the original forces from the agriculture, the local culture and so on. My theoretical solution is to create productive status of potential benefit to both forces through a ‘tangled’ development model.
In conclusion, my research is the focus on the tangle in conceptual terms. The way I am considering the tangle is both a way of designing, and a way of conceptualising urban growth. Perhaps, it is not only for the design but also for the life. It is a window which I could step into another world.
INTRODUCTION What is the meaning of ‘tangle’? In English, there have many definitions about it: to mix together or intertwine in a confused mass; force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action; twist together or entwine into a confusing mass. Also, as an international student, I am interested the meaning of it in mother language.
In Chinese, the word of ‘tangle’ actually has quite long history. It was started used from 2000 years ago in The Qin Dynasty. Obviously, it could be clearly seen from the picture, it represented the complicated status. What aspects are attractive me? I believe that is potential meaning of the tangle.
Tangled development is a new way to rethink about the city development. When we face the conflicts from the city development, as a designer, what kinds of attitude we should have? What kinds of way of thinking will good for people or the government? Tangled Development is a new opportunities for designer or developer making decisions.
Tangled development is different with contemporary development mode of China. Tangled development are changable because the needs from people or the government are changing all the time. The function of land use will be changable, which depends on the factors nearby.
Tangled development is trying create a harmony environment for people. The government and locals are all can get benefits from it. In my design process, I spend a lots of time to think about the theory of tangle development. I have three key words to explore: FORCE, CONFLICT AND HARMONY. It is the fact that urbanisation results a series of issues. In the design project, I am testing the theory of tangled development.
At the beginning of the projectA, I was made tangle unpurpose. But it is just coming natually. Tangle making gives me a sense of force. The force as a conceptual idea is not easy to represent. However, force sometimes could be seen in reality way. Because force result conflict. The conflicts are what we are seeing.
The contemporary development mode in China is monopoly and rigid. Urbanisation in China is taking place at an unprecedented pace. I choose a site in Tianjin, China. Exploring the tangle as a theory to design a new development mode called ‘tangled development’. The project is focus on response urbanisation through exploring the theory of ‘tangled development’.
What kinds of forces causing the urbanisation? The tangled development is not avoided those forces but making them mixing together. As a designer, I would like to see what happened when the different city fabrics mixing together. The expectation outcome of project is creating a harmony living space for people.
How forces changing over time? What are the results from it? Does ‘tangled development’ still can deal with it? What are the differences between contemporary development and tangled development?
The design project is demonstrate that the ‘tangle’ theory provide the opportunities for different city fabrics mixing together and different quality of living space. CONFLICT
Fig 1-2 : Understanding about conflic and harmony
Fig 1-1: Force from arm-wrestling
What forces are driving them? Are they Governance, Politics, Economics, or Science? This is a quite large topic. Let us just back to the tangle, I found it is the result after being forced. This result is simple and irregular. Simple result means different forces coming together in original direction. It is not necessary to change or add force on it. Therefore, the way of mixing forces is simple. Because of the way of mixing forces there is no rule to make them clearly. So the status of mix forces is irregular. At this point, the status of tangle is harmony within the different forces. The status is stable and changeable. Stable is because different forces are helped to hold together. Changeable is because the forces are changing all the time. The tangle has actually the quality of this theory.
In the project, I analysis what kinds of forces on the site. Those forces like land use, employment, infrastructure and economy are lead to the existing situation. I will design a new system based on effects of those forces. It aimed to provide the harmony status.
BACKGROUND Since China adopted its reform and open-door policy in the late 1970s, the pace of urbanisation has continued to accelerate. The number of cities soared from 223 in 1980 to the 1997 statistic of 668 cities and 17,000 towns. Three Chinese cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, are among the world’s megacities, those with more than 10 million residents. China’s urban population mounted from 191 million (9 per cent of the whole population) in 1980 to 380 million (30 per cent of the whole population) in 1997. Currently the pace of urbanisation is progressing at 0.5 per cent yearly, one of the highest rates in the world. Not surprisingly, this rapid urbanization process, along with on-going social and economic transitions, has presented great challenges for those leading urbanization in China. A number of issues need to be tackled urgently: employment, infrastructure, energy, agricultural production and water management.
The agricultural land is taking placing by contemporary development practice. Agricultural land is one of the serious issues and it is need to pay more attention by designers or developers. Otherwise, the problems will be getting worse. In 2003, the relative proportion of China’s production outputs from agriculture, industry and services was 14.7 to 53 to 32.3 precents respectively, which indicates that China has not completed the transformation from pre-industrialization to industrialization. Fig 1-3: Chinese career event
During this period, therefore, it is inappropriate to over-emphasize urbanization. In addition, in 2002, the number of employees working in state-owned enterprises fell from the previous record high of 75 million to 40 million, with nearly 20 million people laid-off. As of June 2004, 8.37 million people in China’s cities and towns were unemployed. That are what is happening on my test site in TianJin of China. Most farmers are unemployed and nobody care about them.
In my project, the infrastructure and agriculture are tangled together. It creates a different streetscape and land use is more effectively. With its rapidly increasing urbanisation China has experienced continuous reform of investment, construction and management systems of urban infrastructure. China’s urban infrastructure has also embarked on a fast growing track and the investment in urban infrastructure has witnessed a continuous expansion. Although the pace of urban infrastructure development continues accelerating, the gap between supply and demand remains substantial.
Fig 1-4: Traffic jam in TianJin
The agricultural land on the test site is almost loss ownership by farmers. In China, the village authorities have right to decide land use. But now the government invest more property on the agricultural land. Only after two or three years, there is no land for agriculture. The opportunity of agriculture is completely lost. There is something is happening but the government is ignoring. Rapid urbanization transfers more and more land away from agricultural production, threatening Chinaâ€™s capability to feed itself. Because of rapid industrial development and population growth, the land base for agricultural production has been shrinking steadily. According to paper analyses from International Food Policy Research Institute said that since 1952, more than 13 million hectares of arable land have been lost. Farmers are losing their livelihood. Farmers will go to the city to find jobs lead to city area is getting crew.
Fig 1-5: Farmers life After urbanisation
DESIGN THEORY Forces drive the development
My argument is that the development needs to be processed naturally. The tangled making gives an inspiration about what is the naturally status. Although the tangle looks like mass, it is the best for balancing the forces.
From the observation of tangle making, I found the force in the process is interesting. What forces caused urbanisation? Are they Governance, Politics, Economics, or Science? Of course, the population growth is the main force for urbanisation. The urbanisation is happening around fast developing countries. It is already become a strong force in development.
Developer need to design the city under force of urbanisation. What effects are generated under the force? People lost their jobs because of the fierce competition. The infrastructure needs to be enhanced due to vernacular demand. The consumption of energy in the world is a common issue. Especially, the urban residents use 3.6 times as much energy as rural residents. The agricultural land is replacing by contemporary development practicing.
How does contemporary developers response those issues? The sustainable strategy is good one. Designer prefers to design a sustainable system, but it is still replacing the agricultural land. The farmers are losing their livelihood. The city is getting crew because of rural people step into the boundary. Some other designers are design an agricultural area in peopleâ€™s life. This is wisely one. The value of the agricultural land is rising because of urbanisation. People like rural life and nature. Those ideas are providing a different quality of life for people.
Are those designers inspiring the developersâ€™ mind? Did they rethink about development mode? In China, I admit that the policy is a biggest force for the developer. However, developer did not think about the better solution for both government and vernacular life.
I suppose that the solutions will never coming unless you are trying. As a designer who has life experience in china more than 20 year, I have strong motivation for the better solution.
What is the natural response for the forces? I like to consider the question in a simple way. Of course it is depends on the materials from the forces. Let us think about the city fabrics like agriculture, residential, open space, industry and commercial. It is not hard to see that different fabric have different force supporting. Agriculture is supporting food chain. Residential and commercial are providing the space for living and working. Open space is giving a chance for entertainment. Industry is the basic part of economy in the country. When one of the forces is attacking others, the contemporary response is replacing. The material of the city fabric seems like solid and inelastic. I doubt that assumption because the material of city fabric is actually obeying the sustainable strategy.
The forces are changing all the time because of the policy or economy. No matter what kinds of forces, the contemporary development mode cannot face it flexible. There is a simple example about my understanding of forces. Sometimes people struggle about one thing right or wrong. The good way to deal with it is that people adjust the motion by themselves. In this process people find a balance position help to feel better. The material of the force is soft and flexible. Because people have a chance to negotiate, the conflicts are not that strong. When developers design the city, different city fabrics have no chance to negotiate. The developers are too rushing to make all possibilities. This development mode is what happening in China.
The diagram on the left is shows that how the site changing under the force. Two directions are the highway. On the right side, it is the HaiHe River. The government is developing this area in recent years. The potential of the space where near the river will be obvious. The blue area is the agriculture land. The surrounding villages are already developed. What I mean by that is the urbanization has sweep away agriculture.
In general the red lines represent the direction of the city growth. On the site picture, there already have new residential that provide for urban and Fig 2-1: Forces analysis on site
local people. However, the development is getting close to the boundary of agriculture area. The conflicts are showing. For example, the land used rate is nearly zero. The farmer is find job in near villages to make money. The urban residential is face to bold land every day.
I explore the conflict on the site to understanding about the force. Using paper as a site, imitate the force analysis to see what happened. In this test, I found the force wrinkle the paper. When the conflict happening, the simple way should be like that. When the urbanization meets the agriculture, the natural conflict should be like this. The agriculture area should like the wrinkle. How to do that? I believe this is the opportunity for tangle to achieve the natural development mode.
Meanwhile the model is support the previous one. The agriculture should existing in some formats not just disappeared.
Fig 2-2: modelling forces
DESIGN THEORY Conflicts within the forces When I was first time made tangle, I did not notice how I did that. Of course, the force is main reason. However, conflicts are the other reason. Otherwise, it may be a line or network. In the reality world, development of city is already crossed. So I am trying to understand that what is the original status of development?
When two or more forces were met each other in opposite direction, the conflicts are happening in the boundary line. When the forces were pushed the city development, the conflicts are existing between them. About the relationship of force and conflicts is not new topic.
Around 1880, people already understanding about conflicts. Conflict theories are perspectives in social science which emphasize the social, political or material inequality of a social group, which critique the broad socio-political system, or which otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservatism. As a Landscape Architecture, I can see some conflicts are happening in our daily life. We should take advantages from the understanding to deal with the conflicts.
In China, developer is ignoring the conflicts and creating a better environment still. I supposed that is impossible. The conflicts are not disappearing unless someone to take care of it. The conflicts in China are draw attention to people. People are getting noticed what is happening. In large scale, there are thousands of conflicts happened in the universe. But why we still have good order for living? I believe that the conflicts are already balanced by the universe itself. In my point of view, this is a special ability of universe, which is called ‘nature’. The natural means the balance or the harmony. I am going to explore the ‘harmony’ status on urbanisation area. The design project is trying to create a ‘natural’ development mode through ‘tangled development ’in order to balance the conflicts from urbanisation.
The balance theory could provide a harmony environment. The ‘conflict theories’ are focus on the small scale. Why not try different scale: country, city and individual. Fig 2-3:Force lead to conflicts
The solution of conflicts is borrowing the chinese TaiChi. The design is not avoid the conflicts but based on it. The model I made is trying to demonstrate that the solution of conflicts is not destroy it. The different colors only change the position in spatial way. It is just like agriculture land which does not have to be replaced. It is just existing in other forms.
HOW CITY DEVELOPMENT
FOLLIE KEY WORDS
Fig 2-4: City need to deal with the conflicts
Harmony of development conflicts
Philosopher Heraclitus, suggests that â€œThe unlike is joined together, and from differences results the most beautiful harmony. Tan-
gled development will produce a harmony living environment for both locals and new migrants. Why the harmony is important for Chinese? Actually harmony is quite sensitive word in contemporary society in China, which means the important of that.
The harmony itself is not steady but changing. The status of harmony is just like Chinese Tai chi which is changing but harmony.
In the design project, I explore the harmony living environment in small scale and large scale. The conflicts are changing follow
the forces changing. Therefore, my understanding about harmony status is not stable but flow. The function of land use is flow. With the changing of land use, people could experience different life style. This development mode is not forced by human but the force itself. The activities for people are flow. The small scale for
people living space will be more interesting. Different activities are holding on different time. Locals have right to decide the topic of activities. Also, the agricultural land will generate different colour production through time line.
G E 15
PRECEDE NT STUDY
Reading Precedent At the beginning of this semester, I did some readings about city development. The text readings are useful for theory and methodology. Before I reading the text precedents, I am not sure about methodology and focus. The readings did give me some inspiration.
For example, Dublin city development plan, it got strategy for the future development. This is helping me in next step. Because the master plan of design project is under the strategy, it is quite convinced. And the aim of the Dublin city development plan was remind me the other direction of my project could be. Because the city grows fast, the aim is sustainability and quality of life. Sustainable development is kinds of what I like because it is the way to negotiate. The other text precedent I reading is called Birmingham Big City Plan. It have three things I have learnt: aimed to have its own distinctive city, in terms of visually, culturally, economically to plan, make a real global impact. The plan process is useful for me. The diagram shows that what I am looking in the reading.
Fig 3-4: Big City Plan
Fig 3-5: Dublin city development plan
PRECEDE NT STUDY
Sometimes negative precedents are helpful as well. The pictures below are negative precedents which I do not like. These are contemporary development in china. You could see the city is full of the buildings. The urbanization is sweeping away all other things. This is the reason why I want to explore tangle into city development. The negative precedents are quite useful for me, because it is really helps me to make my own position stronger. It could clearly shows that my project should not be like that. At the same time, I could show you how city looks like at this moment.
Fig 3-5/3-6/3-7: Density of urbanisation
PRECEDE NT STUDY
Sometimes useful precedents are supporting ideas. Bernard Tschumi’s “Cross-programming“ Bernard Tschumi’s principles of “cross-programming“, as explained in Architecture & Disjunction (1994: 253-254) will be used to investigate transformation in architecture. In this publication he proposes principles of adaptation and change.
Architecture is the combination of space, events and movement without any hierarchy.’ Tschumi’s concept of cross-programming referrers to two aspects: Activities must be able to overlap and building must be able to adapt to different programmes over time.
Both of these concepts will allow for a flow of dialogue by emphasising transformation, adaptation and change as movement in deisgn.
Overlapping of the programme within a design will allow for users to cross paths and for vibrant urban interchange.
Tangled development has a similar idea with Tschumi. Bernard Tschumi is more focus on architecutre which is smaller scale than tangled development. Tangled development allow for cross city fabrics to create a new development mode.
Fig 3-8: Diagram from Event-cities cross-programming
SITE INTR ODUCTION
Fig 4-1: Google Map of TianJin
Fig 4-2: View of TianJin CBD
Tianjin is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People’s Republic of China. Its name means ‘the place where the emperor crossed the river’. Facing the Bohai Sea, Tianjin, the onetime imperial port, serves as Beijing’s vital gateway to the sea. In recent years Tianjin receives more and more attention from tourists due to its illustrious historical heritage and other travel resources.
In terms of urban population, it is the sixth-largest city of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China, and its urban land area (Binhai New Area is not included) ranks fifth in the nation after Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Tianjinâ€™s urban area is located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal in Tianjin. Although already at 11 million residents, Tianjin is expected to see a surge in population by 2030. TianJin is facing big challenge due to urbanisation. What is happening under such rapid urbanisation pace? The common problems are happening on the site.
BoHai Fig 4-3: Google Map of TianJin
Fig 4-4: Location of ShuangGang Town
About ShuangGang Town
The location of test site is a part of ShuangGang town. ShuangGang Town is five kilometers from the city centre. The existing agricultural productive land is being displacing by current urbanization practice. There are four villages on the site: LiLou, TaoYuanGu, LiuTai and XiaoXinZhuang. The total land area is approximately 1400 Acres. The land ownership is belonging to the local farmers. About land ownership has a different situation with the other countries.
Chinaâ€™s land-tenure system combines private use rights with public ownership to provide economic incentives for farm households, while stopping short of allowing full land ownership and alienable rights. Nominally, agricultural land is collectively owned by the xiaozu, which are groups of 30-40 households (hereafter called groups); in some cases, the village is the collective owner (there are around 10 groups in each village). Regardless of who owns the land, the village leadership may still influence, or sometimes dictate, land-use and land-allocation decisions. Local farmers are allocated land-use rights so long as they use the land for agricultural production.
At this moment, the site area is under developing. The government is going to buy the land ownership from the village. The local farmers will receive single lump-sum payment for property from the government. Nevertheless, the locals are losing their livelihood. The productivity agricultural land will replace by the building or the infrastructure. Such development mode is good for city or country. What benefits will get from this process? In my point of view, the government and local farmers are all get short-term profit. Because of the resources in the world are getting less. The agricultural land will be more valuable in the future. The production from the agriculture could self-sufficient for locals. The government will get rid of the food problems. According to contemporary development mode, there will have not enough food supply for people in the future.
Fig 4-5: Boundary between agricultural land and urban land
Evolution Of ShuangGang Town From 2002-2010 2002 In 2002, the agricultural land on the site is 90 pecents. Only the local farmers live in the village. The agriculture is the main llivlihood for locals. The infrastructure is old.
2005 In 2005, the agricultural land are mixing uses. The greenhosue and land cultivate are main method. Some new investment are negotiate with village authorities.
Mixing greenhouse and land cultivate
2009 In 2009, the new investment s were built on the south of the site. the agricultural land was dramatically decreased. Some third industry start moving into the village.
Cotton fields was the main production
2010 In 2002, the agricultural land on the site is 90 pecents. Only the local farmers live in the village. The agriculture is the main llivlihood for locals. The infrastructure is old.
Agricultral land is not productive any more. 27
Existing Quality Of Test Site
The site is developed by government. The old agricultural land already displaced by urban inLiuTai
frastructure. The old farmers are moving out of the village. Some agricultural land is waiting for developed next stage.
Fig 4-6: Google Map of site
Fig 4-7/8/9: Existing site picture
TaoYuanGu Cun Agricultural Land: 179 acres Population: 1079 families
Fig 4-10: Google Map of site
TaoYuanGu Cun is large part of test site. It is connect with HongNi river. The first picture shows the old a water gate. The design quality has a potential value. Water gate as an infrastructure could design as part of open space. People always chase the water element in the design.
Fig 4-11/12/13/14: Existing site picture
XiaoXinZhuang Cun Agricultural Land: 91 acres Population: 457 families
XiaoXinZhuang Cun is located on the one side of the HaiHe river. Because of the location the land value is suppose higher than other. As the pictures shows that it is a good space for open space and agriculure. The price of the property will be rising value. Fig 4-15: Google Map of site
Fig 4-16~21: Existing site picture
LiLou Cun Agricultural Land: 93 acres Population: 821 families LiLou
Fig 4-22: Google Map of site
LiLou Cun is close to the city. Because of the highway on its west side, the location of it is quite good as well. Some New migrants have moved into the village. However, the life on the village is mess and boring.
Fig 4-23: Existing site picture
Fig 4-24: Collage for urbanisation in TianJin
Fig 4-25: earthworm in the earth
Fig 4-26: Boys is enjoying the pressure well
Rethink Contemporary Situation
Who will get benefits from such development mode? Many factories are built on the areas since economic benefit was the sole purpose of the urbanisation from the beginning, which will benefit to local economy, which goes to the wealth of government. Then the government find another place to explore.
So far people noticed that the contemporary development mode result in some serious issues. Some developer give some sustainable strategies which are quite helpful. However, shall we step back to rethink about the development mode. Are there any better ideas about tackle the issues?
I was born around 80s in China and I notice the fast changes are happening around my life. At the beginning I feel good about it because the quality of life is getting better. We live in bigger and cleaner apartment. There are convenience infrastructure could make life easy like the market, restaurant and bus stations. Since when the life is no longer continue like the way before. The space is getting crowed everywhere. Especially, I was enjoyed to live in my grandmaâ€™s house. The location of it is quite closed to the site of the project. Several years ago, the village is quite natural. When I was a little girl, I enjoy the agricultural life. I remember the old infrastructure like Pressure well (Fig 4-26). I also remember that the smell of the earth and the earthworm from the agriculture land(Fig: 4-25). People like to talk each on the street. When there have any harvest, people like to share with neighbour and other locals.
Right now, there is no more old pressure well and agricultural land. When I get there, full of private cars on the narrow street. The people are losing the characteristic of honest, kind-hearted. Some of the locals have move to new apartment, the locals have no chance to have a conversation.
I can see the serious influence by urbanisation. I claim that there is have other chances could make the development better. The â€˜tangled developmentâ€™ could be a possible to provide the harmony life for both locals and new urban people.
Desig n Project Version 001
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 In project A, I was design a strategy for the site - self-sufficient. I purposed that the production of agricultural land on the site could enough for the people who live in there. The agricultural land is keeping effectively product. The farmers are still keeping their livelihood. At the same time, the agricultural is tangled with infrastructure and open space as well. Five layers and tangled exploration
Fig 5-1: Methodology of Version 001
I am starting to put the ideas into tangled development. The diagram shows that my intension of the design project (Fig 5-1). The new development mode is keeping the world balance in somehow. I try to study ‘the tangle’ form and the way of thinking to explore the new development. Identifying the qualities that describe ‘tangle’ as a specific operation that is employed through specific criteria, which engage with specific qualities of site. In the research process, I try to locate my position through negative precedents. Because It is easier to say what I do not like. This approach is quite useful as well because it helps to narrow down the boundary and refine the position.
I believe that the tangle idea is working in some way. I will demonstrate my idea of ‘tangled landscape’ Test and describe the benefits, of these outcomes against other appropriate contextual modes of development.
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001
Fig 5-2: Elements in urban and rural area
The version001 design project is designed throguh different layer. It is clearly to know relationship between different city fabrics. Also it is a good practice for version002. Basically, this is the begining information in my mind.
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 Residential Intractructure Public space Industry
Agriculture Agriculture Agricultrue Infractructure Agriculture
In version001 design project, some good ideas about tangled development are irrigation road which is infrastructure tangled with agriculture. The function of irrgation tower is the core water storage area. The irrgation tower could transfer the water to the main irrgation road, agricultural field, public space or other village.
Firstly, the water is the Fundamental for the agriculture. The water itself is a force which belong to agriculture. It could support agriculture to survive. Therefore, tangled development provide an opportunity for both urban and rural area. Because of this deisgn theory, I found in terms of landscape design, it could Fig 5-3: Irrigation Road Plan
provide a amazing environment for people. On streetscape, people could ride bike away from the chaos cars. The irrigation tunnel is in the middle of car and bike road. At the same time, different combination of irrgation tunnle, bike path, car road and pestrain could be more interesting and functional.
Fig: 5-4: Different combination of irrigation road on street scale
Agricultural could be part of infrastrcture
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 Because of the idea of tangled development is not limited the possibilities. In version001, I tangled market and industries. I design a market strategy in industry zone. In the industry zone, most of them are third industry. Workers could sell their products to local with low prices in order to balanc their sales . At the same time, farmers could sell their agricultural products to other people.
Review this idea I found the market could tangled with open space as well. It could be a part of culture. Chinese have a habit that is to go to the market very early, it is called GanJi. It have long history in China. However, because of the way of organisation are oler. There have no chance to go the market like this in the urban area. I preper to design a event open space for the market on weekend. The farmers could sell their products on weekend when the peak population on the open space. At the weekday, the open space just like a rest area or quite area for people. Such a tangled design is what I like. Those ideas will be tested on version002.
Fig 5-8: Intention of agricultural market area
Fig 5-7: Market and industry section
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 Strategy self-suffiency In the future, the population of the site will be 48400 at 2050. However, the agriculture land only 500 units of area. What if the site achieve the goal, it need 1000 units of area more agriculture land to support. This 1000 units of area is the opportunity for tangled development.
Residential Industry Infrastructure Open space
The proportion of the site is 40% urbanization and 60% agriculture land now. I suggest if city fully urbanization by following contemporary Urban
development mode. The poportion will be as followed.
Fig 5-5: Proportion of existing development practice
Fig 5-6: Analysis site population and land use movement
Population Farmers = a% workers = b% c% is the key factor new invest = c%
Land use Agriculture = d% new invest = c%
Tangle opportunities of Site 1500 units of area - 10% (500 units of area) = 1000 units of area
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 The master plan seems like just start to tangle
but not very much. I will explore it further in version002. This master plan is more based on data of proportion which is less details design on the site. The perspective of design is LEGEND
only one scale. When I
think about the project within tangled theory, I think there are more
IRRIGATION ROAD (TANGLE 03) MAIN ROAD INFRUSTRUCTURE
PUBLIC SPACE TANGLE 04
choices to do. For instance, I could design
TANGLE 02 TANGLE 05
it in different scales,
which is quite reasonable and more logical. Also, I think there is more political information need to be considered in design which is good for understand what kinds of life does people like. Fig 5-8: Urbanisation on the site over time
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001 The master plan in version001, it is following the self-suffi-
tangled development which is not too much. It has not yet
cient strategy. In project A, I was a little confused about my
exerted the power. Tangled development is focus conflicts
design. My position of Tangled Development is not focus
within different forces, which is not a one single force. I
on form. However, because of the form of tangle is special
need to consider for government as well. The main reason
and spatial, I hope I could design for that as well. Actually,
for supporting from the government is the profits within
it is not quite what I mean to do with project. In project B, I
the development. I totally understand this aspects. In ver-
realize that I need to make sure my position. Tangled Devel-
sion002, the strategy for the government is quite impor-
opment is not a form exploration but the way of thinking.
When the developer or designer plans the city, they should consider like tangle. Tangled development means that the
In version001, I did some designs which may works now.
conflicts are not to be avoided or ignored. As a designer, we
For example, some of the products from the agriculture
need to deal with conflicts without limits.
could dry on the roof of the farmer house. It could improve the economical profits and another industry chain. It also
The version 001 could reach the aim of self-sufficient. Does
continues a roof culture of rural area.
government accept the development mode? To be honest,
The diagram shows that the colour in different season on
I do not think it could successful. As a small scale, it is a little
the site. Different seasons will product different vegetables or fruits. It could create different colour of house roof.
Fig 5-9: Change of colour geometry in different seasons spring
Desig n Project Version 002
Productive Agriculture Land
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002
In version 002, I design the site in different scale: city scale,
site is quite valuable. It is only five kilometres from the city
town scale and individual scale. I am exploring the theory of
centre. There is a continuing subway in the corner of the
tangled development into design further than version001.
site. One of the main highways is on west side of the town as well. It is really need to be design well.
In large scale, the left mapping shows that the existing city fabrics. The urbanisation is expanding along the HaiHe
In the large scale, tangled development could reactivate
river. The agricultural land is getting less. However, it could
the value of agricultural land. According to the tangle the-
be a force to support agriculture as well. As the old saying
ory, the force of agriculture has conflict with urbanisation,
in china goes, when a thing is scarce it is precious. Tangled
the agriculture need to be keeping in city centre area as
development could design the site in difference way, there-
well. It will subvert the contemporary development prac-
fore the value of it will be rising. Besides, the location of the
ticing. However, I start to test the ShuangGangTown first.
Fig 6-1: Deisgn the site in large scale
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002 Potential development quality of site in large scale
These four mappings are shows that the poTraffic Status
tential of the site. In terms of Traffic status, ShuangGang Town is only five kilometres from the city centre area. The contemporary transportation is public buses. I believe the subway will be constructed soon. At that time, the public transportation will be more convinence.
TianJin is is a metropolis in northern China. It is obviously on the mapping that the agriculture fields are facing urbanisation. With the developing, it will be disappear. The site is under the contemporary development practicing. It is emergency for developer to making decision. Tangled development provide opportunities for agriculture by cross programming.
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002 Potential development quality of site in large scale
In urban density mapping, it could be seen Urban Density
that the density is almost reach peak point in city centre are. It is expanding to rural area. The white area has constructed. The site is on the boundary of contemporary development. The site is quite worth to be Density +
reserved. The tangled development could provide the opportunity for agriculture. Therefore, the value of the site will be in_
creased for the city.
At the same time, TianJin is a busy city and
there is not enough open space for people. Tangled development could mix-use land in order to change the value of the land. The function of land is changing over time. The open space will tangled with agriculture and infrastructure. It is creating an interesting space on the site.
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002
The second scale is town scale. The strategy of project is divided land reasonable and beneficial for both government and locals. The land value could see from the force analysis. The high-risk building will built on the site as a residential. It will tangle with agriculture, open space, infrastructure and commercial. All farmers could get their land for agriculutral cultivation. The mapping below shows that the existing land ownership plan. Tangled development will break them up into differen scale. Land Ownership Of Four Villages
Fig 6-2: Land ownership on the site
New Land ownership Plan 1:2000
Fig 6-3: Ten colour zones of land ownership
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002 From version 001 road system, there are several disadvantages. Firstly, the road system is not improving the social interaction between farmers and urban people. Secondly, The road is not convinence for urban people visit the farmers. Although there have fields in high density area. Thirdly, it is missing focus on river side which is quite valued land.
I n ve r s i o n 0 0 2 , t h e r o a d s y s t e m p r ov i d e s n e w
VERSION001 ROAD SYSTEM
intention (Fig 6-3). Firstly, the road system is circle which is convenience for people interact with each other. Secondly, the road is constructed on historical track which was people used to follow. Thirdly, the agricultural are tangled with living area. It is easy to cultivate. Finally, the riverside area is designed a mixing program area. It could provide a different experience along the river included: different agricultural types, open space and commercial. People who come from neighbourhood village could walk along the riverside street enjoy different style.
There are main road and second
Road Plan + Residential Plan 1:2000
road on the site. The main road is average ten meters width. The second road system exists in different types: pathway, open green space and residential inner pathway. The second road system is higher density than main road. It is more flexible as well. People could walk to neighbourhood by using inner pathway. It is kinds of open space. Fig 6-3: Ten colour zones of land ownership
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002
Irrigation System Plan 1:2000
Fig 6-4: Irrgation system plan
The irrigation system plan is support agricultural land productively. It is also a part of infrastructure. At the street scale, the irrigation tunnel cooperates with others. The idea is coming from version001, it is works well. And it can provide a surprised streetscape. It is also could help to clean the dust in the air. The location of the site is beside the river. The water could provide by river. There already have three irrigation and drainage pump-
are constructed with main road. Also thirty percents are built with second road on the site. The Fig 6-5 is section of irrgation road.
Fig 6-5: Section of irrgation road in different scenario
ing station. The irrigation tunnel have ninety percents
street landscape > 8m width
600mm minimum width for each pedstrains
24 floors for 30-40 thousands people
minimum= 70cm *70cm
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002 Cross Programming
Area about 5-10 acres. Depth of water about 2-3 meters. The water source is important.
Green grass sufficient. Bull ring need to be circle.
water and sunlight condition good the condition of soil is good the topography need to be plane.
Organic Greenhouse Sunlight and air condition good good soil water source condition wall: bottom 5-6meters, height 4 meters angle of sunlight: >30 length: 100 meters
DESIGN PROJECT Version 002
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001
First irrgation Road
Second irrgation Road irrgation Branch Vegetable Farming Crop Farming
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001
DESIGN PROJECT Version 001
TO BE CONTINUED...... __________________________