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How can a martial arts’ philosophy be applied to the way we design for locations susceptible to landslides?


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CONTENTS

Abstract

2

Introduction

4

Initial Research Interest Catastrophe/Disasters 6

6

Site: San Marcos

8

Subject: Landslides

12

1

Contents

9

El Salvador 11 Social Condition

Landslide Causes 14 Landslide Triggers 14

15 Negative Effects – 15 Positive Effects + 17

Philosophy: Wing Chun

31

Precedents

43

Design Interventions

Wing Chun Kung Fu 詠春功夫 18 Technique Introduction 20 Landscape Architecture vs Wing Chun 28 Precedents: Siglufjörður 32 Precedents: Blue Isles Plan 34 Precedents: Sabo 36 Japanese Sabo Works 砂防 36 Scenario Introduction 46 Landslide Section, Time Cycle, Scenario 46 Avoiding: Problem 48 Avoiding: Summary 54 Redirecting: Energy 56

61 Redirecting: Summary Scenario: Redirecting Event 62 Controlling: Flow 64 Controlling: Summary 72 Protecting/Diffusing: Life/Power 74 The Way of the Bamboo 78

Scenario: Protecting/Diffusing Event 84 Growth of Bamboo Crop layers over time 86 Improving: Structure 88 Improving: Summary 94 Dispersing: Force 96 Dispersing Summary 102 Scenario: Dispersing Event 104 Reacting: Event 106 Time Cycle to Strategy Implementation 108 Scenario: Reacting Event 110

73 Scenario: Controlling Event 79 Guadua angustifolia 81 Signi¿cance of Bamboo 83 Protecting/Diffusing: Summary

95 Scenario: Improving Event

Other Investigations: Tsunami 134 Kamaishi Breakwater 134 and Tsunami Mitigation Design 137 Presentation/Exhibition 138 References 140 Bibliography 142

Conclusion


Abstract

Name: Zhipeng Cai Project Title: Redirecting Land Morphologies Subtitle: Designing with catastrophic landscape events Research Question: How can a martial arts’ philosophy be applied to the way we design for locations susceptible to landslides?


Abstract

My project explores opportunities in landscape interventions that consider how we might design for and live with the catastrophic landscape event of landslides. My design approach is based on redirection and the transfer of energy; through softness and Àexibility, rather than rigidity. In adapting the concept of ‘acceptance’ from my martial arts practice of Wing Chun kung fu and applying it to my practice of landscape architecture, landslides can be recognised as a natural process of land morphology; one of opportunity rather than destruction. Therefore a condition of inclusion rather than exclusion should be considered when designing with landslides. My design incorporates a strategy which addresses the issue of urban slums in El Salvador, as I am designing the landscape where these shantytowns (tugurios) coexist with landslide events. Through the engagement of bamboo plantations, a micro economy is generated to support the community, stabilising and buffering the landslides. Positioning the body with good structure in advantageous angles, redirecting opposing energies and dispersing focused forces, Wing Chun practitioners are able to control, diffuse, react to and even use a stronger opponent’s attack against them. Employing landscape architectural practices such as cut/¿ll, terracing, grading, soil retention and planting, I am applying the Wing Chun techniques both physically and as strategies. From this my design interventions begin to suggest various ways in which we might inhabit a landslide prone landscape. This aids a new condition that will not only allow for the survival from the catastrophe, but also enable informal settlements to improve their living conditions beyond a cycle of poverty.


INTRODUCTION

In 2010, natural disasters killed more than 236,000 people worldwide, affecting more than 256 million people and cost US$81 billion in the 驴rst nine months of 2010 in repairs. In 2011, the Christchurch Earthquakes and T女hoku Earthquake and Tsunami caused more than 15,800 deaths combined, with the overall cost being more than US$300 billion. As the world begins to realise and consider the seriousness of how we deal with calamity, it must be said that we have lived through many disasters throughout history. In our effort to protect ourselves and to prevent disasters, many strategies and methods had been devised in attempts to deter, if not counter the destructive forces of nature. But is this the best thing to do? Is it even possible? Can we truly control the forces of nature? Is rejection and prevention the only way we can live with catastrophe?


INTRODUCTION

Through my design research project, my intention is to investigate the disaster of landslides and how we might engage, design for and live with such catastrophic landscape events. By applying my martial arts philosophy to the way I design, the concept of ‘acceptance’ from Wing Chun Kung Fu was used to suggest an alternative interpretation of landslides that is often forgotten – one of opportunity rather than destruction and failure. In my design process, I utilised my personal experience and knowledge of Wing Chun techniques to translate them into strategies which can be implemented as landscape practices. These translations also inform the way I generated designs for the different iterations. My design research was conducted through the design of seven iterations of landslide interventions: ‘Avoiding Problem’, ‘Redirecting Energy’, ‘Controlling Flow’, ‘Protecting Life/Diffusing Power’, ‘Improving Structure’, ‘Dispersing Force’, and ‘Reacting Event’, to explore the relationship between different aspects of the site and event. My Site is in San Marcos, El Salvador, and consists predominantly of lower to middle class families living in urban slums. Rainy season during winter increases the risk of landslides as the city sits at the bottom of a valley. To demonstrate how the design strategies might work together, a scenario was created showing a section of the site, which gets developed over ten years. What is also interesting is the fact that my research looks at two different time frames – long term development and the immediate of disasters. In my last iteration, Reacting: Event, a snapshot of a landslide occurrence on my site taken from the eighth year of development will depict both timeframes within a single drawing, where my strategies had all been implemented. With this design research project, I am advocating a different approach to how we think about natural disasters. Through the understanding of Wing Chun techniques and landscape architectural practice, I am suggesting a method of design for natural disasters that focuses on acceptance through redirection, rather than rejection through prevention.


Initial Research Interest

Catastrophe/Disasters At the beginning of the project, I was originally really interested in the topic of catastrophe and how design might be able to help with the adaptation to, mitigation of, preparation for, protection from and prevention of natural disasters. Driven by the events of the Christchurch Earthquake and TŮhoku Earthquake and Tsunami, I decided that it would be a really interesting topic to venture into as a Masters of Landscape Architecture research project. I believed that landscape architecture can play a major role in determining how well prepared a community, town, city and country can become, to protect us from natural disasters. Being optimistic and enthusiastic, I decided to challenge myself with the task of designing for a foreign place where I cannot access physically, where information was also limited. I also wanted to design for multiple disasters and eventually this led me to discover a country which lies on the paci¿c ring of ¿re; El Salvador.

The diagram on the opposite page depicts a number of major catastrophic events and their relationship to other events. What I realised was that disasters do not happen in isolation, because there is a cause and effect, there is often a secondary and tertiary effect.


Initial Research Interest

Meteor

Tsunami

Disease

Famine

http://www.rense.com/1.imagesE/meteor.jpg

http://www.masternewmedia.org/images/ China_2002_wave_350.jpg

http://www.penelopeironstone. com/400influenzaepidemic.jpg

http://thecalloftheland.files.wordpress. com/2009/01/famine.jpg

Sink Hole

Earthquake

Mud Slide

Lightning/Thunder Storm

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2064/19832053 97_0c1cf39f47_o.jpg

http://www.ust.hk/~webgcf/earthquake.jpg

http://www-tc.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/files// home/wnetwp/webroot/wnet/wp-content/ blogs.dir/2/files/2008/07/wa_img_18bullet_ pe_6.jpg

http://iproject20.com/ASerrano247/ thunderstorm1.jpg

Avalanche

Volcanic Eruption

Landslide

Hail Storm

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~alpine/avy/ avypic.jpg

http://www.arenal.net/images/arenal_volcano_ eruption.jpg

http://media3.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/ photo/gallery/091109/GAL-09Nov09-3048/ media/PHO-09Nov09-186758.jpg

http://theworklife.com/graham-miln/ wp-content/uploads/2010/03/hail-stormmelbourne-cbd.jpg

Wild Fire/Bush Fire

Storm Surge

Flood

Water Sprout

http://www.sustainabilityninja.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/02/wildfire.jpg

http://lh4.ggpht.com/_Y9bfALVzbfs/ SOBHOkwBxWI/AAAAAAAABxE/ BNIK8eCaCyg/Storm+Surge.jpg

http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/ images/44029000/jpg/_44029901_gall_ flood1_ap.jpg

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0412/ waterspout_noaa_big.jpg

Drought

Hurricane

Tropical Storm

Tornado

http://tragerwaterreport.files.wordpress. com/2010/06/drought.jpg

http://www.hurricanekatrina.com/images/ hurricane-katrina-category-5.jpg

http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/ archive/00800/palm-treesmotorway_800788i.jpg

http://www.tornadoaction.com/images/ tornado2.jpg


SITE:

SAN MARCOS

Paci多c Ring of Fire

(PRoF, n.d.)

World map

Central America

El Salvador


SITE:

SAN MARCOS

El Salvador El Salvador is a country found within the Paci¿c Ring of Fire and has suffered from years of civil war as well as natural disasters, giving its capital city the nickname “San Salvador La Ciudad Que Se Desmorona” (San Salvador The City That Crumbles).

us Foc

ed

site

Expa

nded

site

NORTH

San Salvador has had a very high crime rate due to gangs, such as the MS-13 and Calle 18, giving it some of the highest murder rates in the world. Corruption is also a big issue in San Salvador and the divide between the extremely poor and the extremely wealthy is very apparent. Although the gang violence and corruption situation has gotten better since 2010, there is still a large divide between the rich and poor, in living conditions, monetary wealth, health and safety.

Slope of Planes de Renderos hills, San Marcos El Salvador’s rainy season occurs in winter, known locally as invierno, extends from May to October. Almost all the annual rainfall occurs during this time, which makes the risk of landslides and Àoods extremely high.

San Salvador


SITE:

SAN MARCOS

NORTH

site sed u c Fo

Focused Site 1:10000

LEGEND Predominance of precarious AUP Low

High

Moderate

Extreme

Area - Total 14.7 km2 795 m Elevation Population (2007) - Total 75,635

San Marcos AUP

(SM AUP, n.d)

San Marcos city data Located in a small valley, San Marcos is one of the 14 municipalities of Great San Salvador. It is home to middle-low to middle class citizens, with the majority of the city being classiÂżed as precarious urban settlements (Acronym is AUP in Spanish), also known as urban slums. These are the poorest areas in urban parts of El Salvador, where access to basic services are not acceptable.

San Marcos doesn’t have much commerce apart from a public market and a textile industry. My site is the slope of Planes de Renderos hills at the south part of the city.


SITE:

SAN MARCOS

Social Condition Out of the national population of 7.1 million people – 48% live in poverty. In 2010, 2508 AUPs were identi¿ed in El Salvador, where more than two million Salvadorians are living; this is more than half the urban population. Out of these, 1275 AUPs were classi¿ed as extremely precarious (approximately half), and 870,000 people live in them, most lacking a home with “minimal sanitation and whose ability to access basic services is very de¿cient.” (Tim, 2004) Typical slum dwellings in El Salvador, constructed out of found material

(SS Slum, n.d.)

Tugurios Slums, known locally as tugurios are often found in hazardous landscapes because the safer areas tend to be bought and protected by the wealthy. Therefore their decision to build and live in locations susceptible to landslides is not out of choice but necessity.

(Guatemala, n.d.)

Illegal squatter settlement on a slope, Guatemala

Because their dwellings are often made of scrap material found by the residents, they do not have much protection if a landslide happens. Aid from the outside often does not address the issue either, as they tend to be short term solutions rather than a long term strategy.


SUBJECT:

LANDSLIDES

Las Colinas landslide, El Salvador

(Landslide, 2001.)


SUBJECT:

LANDSLIDES

What is a Landslide? A landslide is de¿ned by the Working Committee on World Landslide Inventory as the “movement of a mass of rock, debris or earth down a slope” where movement is not only slide but also fall, topple, spread, and Àow in terms of kinematics. It is a process of sediment movement which occurs naturally, most of the time caused by torrential rainfall and as such, have a higher rate of occurring during the rainy seasons in different countries. Generally landslides like most natural disasters, have a negative connotation due to the negative effects it brings to our society. This has caused many governments across the globe to devise methods of mitigation and prevention for landslides, to protect their residents, economy and country. Landslide Type The landslide type I focused my research on is known as slope failure, where generally it is a phenomenon where a slope (or part of the slope) collapses abruptly, due to weak soil structure caused by excess moisture in the ground, under the inÀuence of heavy rain or earthquakes. It is a dangerous type of landslide due to its nature to collapse suddenly, usually without warning, thus it becomes a hazard in residential areas where a higher rate of fatalities can occur.

(LS1, n.d)

(LS2, n.d)

(LS3, n.d)

Slope failure

Debris flow

J-landslide

This is the type of landslide that is shown on the left and the type which occurs on my site.

A type of landslides that occurs along streams

The Japanese Landslide Prevention Law de¿nes landslide as a “phenomenon in which part of land slides or moves downward under the inÀuence of groundwater or other factors”, which tends to be a slow moving landslide. Therefore it is called J-landslide to distinguish it from the term landslide in the broader sense.


SUBJECT:

LANDSLIDES

Landslide Causes

Landslide Triggers

Human intervention: Urbanisation Excess stress on top of the slope increases the driving force; e.g, building a house on top of the slope. Removal of resistance mass at the bottom decreases the resistance force; e.g, cutting into slope to build highway. Poor agricultural practice decreases minerals in the soil resulting in weaker structure; e.g, slash and burn (common in poor countries).

Snow melt Sudden increase of water in the soil.

Weak Materials: Soil Clay is most common material associated with landslides. Granite and other volcanic rocks are also vulnerable because of deep weathering.

Heavy and Prolonged Rainfall Increased water in the soil. Earthquakes Liquefaction. Seismic shaking. Volcanic activity Flank collapse. Eruption.

Water: Groundwater Adds weight to the soil, therefore more gravitational pull. Decreases friction in the soil, therefore less sheer strength to prevent the soil from sliding. Gravity: Gravitational pull Driving force behind mass movement. Power to cause erosion.

(SDA, n.d.)


SUBJECT:

- Negative Effects Displacement People losing their place to stay because their homes were destroyed. Economic loss Damage to properties. Cost of rehabilitation. Infrastructure Destroyed buildings, roads, bridges, etc and the cost of rebuilding. Loss of life People getting killed by landslide force. Environmental Landscape surface change. Destruction of vegetation and wild life.

LANDSLIDES

+ Positive Effects Social Economic balance Landslides keep land values down, as it makes an area hazardous. This provides opportunities for the lower class to take over the land (which is dangerous, but if managed well it can become a starting point for them to move up in the social ladder). Ecology: Change of habitat In streams, naturally occurring landslides can be good for the ¿sh, as it brings logs that they used to feed and take shelter in; a change in the habitat that keeps the stream varied and healthy. New soil Landslides bring new soil, sometimes full of organic matter which is good for agriculture.

I chose the disaster of landslides to be my research subject because it’s a phenomenon which changes the form of the landscape, and is therefore somewhat feasible to design with, as a landscape architect. Whilst I understand the reason why people think of landslides as a hazard, a problem, what I am arguing is that it can actually be seen and interpreted as a positive, but to do that one must be able to accept and recognize that it is a naturally occurring phenomenon of earth, or land morphology. It is a process of soil deposition, and in most cases, stabilization as well. Landslides carry various bene¿ts besides the initial and immediate destruction. It allows for new soil to be deposited which can bene¿t new plant growth in areas where nutrients are lacking; it brings debris which can become habitat for certain animals, which in some cases are essential to their survival. These positive effects are opportunities for survival, but can only be recognized in the long run. As such, landslides also become bene¿cial to the development of disadvantaged communities, where the risks become overshadowed by the opportunity the slope presents, in the form of space for living.


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PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

詠春功夫 Wing Chun Kung Fu Wing Chun Kung Fu is a style of Chinese martial art which specialises in close range combat, utilising direct attacks along a ‘centre line’ to defeat an opponent with a focus on the ‘economy of movement’. Philosophy Wing Chun Philosophy is based on the Taoist principle to “take the middle road” which implies that you should not focus too heavily on a single quality. You should be able to see both left and right, not favouring one side over the other. This is carried through to three of the main principles of Wing Chun: The Centreline Theory – strike and protect the centre line, as this is the shortest distance between you and your opponent; a straight line. Economy of Movement – no wasted movements, simplicity and directness is emphasized. Simultaneous attack and defend – to build on the principle economy of movement, where you attack and defend in one motion, therefore not wasting energy and time.

Grandmaster Ip Man preforming the Sil Nim Tau form, this helps to train your centreline. (Ip Man, n.d.)

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Centreline theory

Economy of Movement

The centreline is one of the main principles of Wing Chun. A person’s centreline is an imaginary vertical plane or axis projecting from the middle of the body. It is said that to defeat the opponent, one must occupy and control their centre line. Wing Chun techniques tend to be executed on the centreline, as it is here that the structure is strongest. Training your centreline will help you build a good structure and gain awareness of your body. Focusing on the centreline will allow you equal access to both sides of your body for attacking and defending.

The principle economy of movement is simple; use as less energy as possible to defeat the opponent. This means, when you can use a single movement to defeat an opponent, you shouldn’t use two, as the second movement a wasted movement. Simultaneous attack and defend This theory allows you to attack and defend with one movement, to conserve energy. In combat it means to use an attack in defence to an oncoming attack, employing tactics of positioning (footwork) and structure (angles, force and body mechanics), to effectively remove yourself from the threat and while doing so, launch your own attacks.

In relation to my research, the centreline can be seen as the landscape itself; the ground plane. To be able to control how a landslide occurs and where, is crucial to the survival of the disadvantaged communities.

In regards to my research, this means to capitalise on the event of the landslide, by implementing strategies which are multifunctional, not only for the sole purpose of landslide defence, but also to improve the quality of life of the community. Redirection In Wing Chun we don’t block attacks, as we believe that blocking means you are still getting hit. Instead, we use the concept of redirection, where we allow the attack to commence, and receive it whilst redirecting the energy away from our body. This is done by positioning your body in certain angles where you are able to intercept the path of the attack while maintain control of where it will go. Masters of this are able to allow attacks to come very close to hitting them without actually getting hit. In terms of my research project, this notion of redirection is important because it differs from the conventional method of blocking landslides with walls, or ¿nding solutions to prevent landslides. It is through redirection of the forces that we can actually learn to accept them and be able to position ourselves in order to evade the dangers yet still bene¿t from them.

Tan Dar attack - Tan Sau drives the opponent’s force away while creating an opening to strike. (Attack and Defend, n.d.)

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Technique Introduction Redirection, Bong Sau: Using the angle of your forearm, combined with a rolling movement and repositioning of your body in relation to an attack, you can deÀect a stronger force.

膀 手

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Control, Fook Sau: Through using a relaxed yet sensitive forearm and wrist to feel your opponent’s movements, you can divert their attacks while creating openings for you to counterattack.

伏 手

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Dispersion, Tan Sau: Utilising a twisting motion of the forearm, attacks to your centreline is driven away, whilst you enter into the opening to counter attack. This can also be used as an entry into your opponent’s guard, which will give you a chance to strike.

攤 手

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Bong Sau defence application As the attacker steps forward using a tan sau to drive the defender’s guard aside, he simultaneously throws a punch from his secondary guard. Feeling the motion in the opponent’s attack, the defender reacts by rotating his elbow into a bong sau while side-stepping, which effectively deÀects the tan dar attack, from this position the defender is able to throw a punch at the attacker.

Attacker’s centerl r ine (Initial)

Attackerr’s centerline (Advanta age)

Attack: Stepping forward, Tan Dar (Tan Sau with Wing Chun punch).

Deffender’s centerline (Inittial)

Atta (dis cker’s adv c ant enter line ag e )

Deffender’s centerline (Dissadvantage)

Def (Ad ender van ’s c tag ente e) rlin e

Atttack & deffence overlay erlay

Defend: Side-Step, Bong Sau, follow with a Wing Chun punch.

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Protection, Wu Sau: Wu Sau is the secondary guard, always at a ready position to deÀect any attack that passes through the primary guard, also to become the counterattack. It is formed using an open hand which gives it versatility.

護 手

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Reaction, Single hand Chi Sau: Single hand Chi Sau exercise teaches you to attack and defend whilst keeping contact with your opponent’s arm. It teaches a ¿ne tune reading of your opponent’s movements using the sensitivity in your arms.

Attack

Attack with palm strike to body

單 黐 手

Redirect force & trap the attacking hand

Attack

DeÀect attack by rolling forearm, Bong Sau

Attack with single punch

Attack/Defend with Tan Sau

Control/trap with Fook Sau

(Single hand CS1, CS2, CS3, n.d.)

膀 手

伏 手

攤 手


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Reaction, Double hand Chi Sau: Double hand Chi Sau training can teach you to do different things with each hand simultaneously, such as attacking and defending.

雙 黐 手

It grants the ability to read the Àow of your opponent’s energy through the slightest movements in their arms and allows to you to respond without having to think ¿rst. You will be able to feel your opponent’s intent before they begin the attack. Reaction training allows you to respond to the threat without pre-empting a response. This technique makes Wing Chun one of, if not the most effective close combat styles available. It trains you to use muscle memory rather than visual cues to react to attacks, which gives a faster response time. Experts in Chi Sau are able to defeat opponents whilst blindfolded.

Double hand Chi Sau, performed by Grandmaster Ip Man and the young Bruce Lee. (Chi Sau, n.d.)


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Protection/ Readiness Dispersion

Deflection Wu Sau

䆭ᢁ

Tan Sau

᭚ᢁ

Bong Sau Protection/ Readiness

㞶ᢁ

Chi Sau

唆ᢁ

Wu Sau

䆭ᢁ Wu Sau

䆭ᢁ

Fook Sau

Յᢁ Protection/ Readiness

Control

Wing Chun Technique diagram This is a rough relationship diagram showing the main Wing Chun techniques I have used to explore my designs. Basically Chi Sau incorporates Bong, Tan and Fook Sau; Wu Sau is always used in combination to the other techniques in a protective and ready position, while they perform a particular strategy to redirect force.


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Landscape Architecture vs Wing Chun Anticipation & Reaction As landscape architects, we tend to design in anticipation for what may happen in the future, because we are designing for future conditions. Our design projects seldom if ever become ‘complete’ (in the sense of how we envisaged it) when construction is ¿rst completed. Plants take time to grow and other conditions might need to be met, all in a matter of time. As Wing Chun practitioners, we are taught not to anticipate, but to react instead. Because by anticipating, you are predetermining a response to something that may or may not occur in the way you expect it to. This causes you to react slower to an attack that is unexpected, potentially leaving you vulnerable.


PHILOSOPHY:

WING CHUN

Time + Space Landscape architecture projects deal with a long time frame in which the strategy comes into fruition not immediately but over time; it may take years, decades and even centuries. The area of effect of our design moves in the landscape can be really large, but sometime it can only be seen as a whole from a distance and is not so obvious when up close. Wing Chun works at very close range, any dispute is dealt with immediately and is usually over within a matter of seconds. From this comparison of time and space, Wing Chun and Landscape Architecture seems to be complete opposites – working at vastly different timescales. However the time it takes to build up the skills required to perform Wing Chun ef¿ciently and effectively may take years of training, and practise; all for several seconds, in a moment of life or death. The better prepared you are the better chance of survival. In order to reach a state of resilience that is able to react to unexpected events such as landslides (as it is dif¿cult to foresee the size, time and location), we must be able to maintain a constant reading of the landscape. This is unrealistic in a landscape architectural sense because we cannot be there inde¿nitely to redesign and prepare for future events. Therefore conventional disaster interventions are rigid and opt for engineering based solutions which work within a limit, are unable to adapt to the unexpected. While there is sometimes ongoing management in terms of maintenance for these defence structures, it is still about predetermining a response and is therefore not Àexible. In order to respond to events such as landslides which may occur in a time frame that is abrupt, landscape interventions must become adaptive and responsive. The only way to do this is to educate the community that is being protected. The strategies which are to be implemented over time needs to be understood as well as the site itself. Through a ¿ne tuned reading of the site, appropriate measures can be implemented to prepare for the unexpected.


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PRECEDENTS

The following precedents are similar to my design research project, but different. Siglufjörður This is an avalanche deÀection dam in Iceland. This project gave me the initial idea for my landslide deÀection dams which I designed in my ‘avoiding’ iteration.

Page 32

Blue Isles Plan This project of reclaimed islands was a precedent from the very beginning of my research (while I was still researching disasters); because it had to do with changing the landscape (or seascape) in order to protect an important and vulnerable area. The agenda for safety also catered for extra housing possibilities as well as habitat creation for wildlife.

Page 34

Sabo Sabo is a precedent because it had been tested throughout history, in Japan, as sediment defence. Although it seems to be the perfect precedent for my research project, it is actually quite the opposite of what I am aiming for in my design; in terms of approach and philosophy.

Page 36


PRECEDENTS: Siglufjörður

Avalanche deÀection dam, Siglufjörður by Landslag This design of an avalanche deÀection dam protects the Icelandic town of Siglufjörður by deÀecting avalanches away from populated areas at the most hazardous locations. The defence structure also doubles as a recreation area, with paths running around the structure and on top of its ridge line, directing people up the mountain, and has a viewing platform at the end of dam. In many ways this project was successful as it is effective in deÀecting the avalanches that endanger the lives of the town’s residents. What it is also notable for is the fact that besides being a defensive structure with a very clear purpose, it has been designed so that it will not be an eye sore. In emulating the ridge forms on the mountain, the deÀection dam’s direction and Àow also allows it to become camouÀaged and almost seem as if it was naturally formed. It has become a cultural icon for the town’s residents, as it basically allows them to survive in this previously hazardous landscape.

DeÀection Dam and town, winter

The town of Siglufjörður


PRECEDENTS: Siglufjörður

This project is similar to mine in that it is also a form of sediment defence. Where it differs is that this project is still about exclusion; to reject the avalanche by deÀecting it into the sea behind the town. However it is still much more innovative than the commonly used engineered solutions, where they disregard the effect the structure will have on the community. Over time vegetation will grow over it and it becomes part of the landscape. Avalanche DeÀection Dam

This project is also about predetermining a structure, because based on past avalanches, they can predict where avalanches might occur when it snows, whereas with landslides, once it happens, the soil moves to the bottom of the slope and the landslides cannot occur in the same way again.

Avalanche hazard zones (based on past events)


PRECEDENTS: Blue Isles Plan

Blue Isles masterplan aerial


PRECEDENTS: Blue Isles Plan

Blue Isles Plan by West 8, Svasek Hydraulics This is the design of several arti多cial sand dune islands off the coast of Belgium and the Netherlands, which provides more reclaimed land for housing as well as leisure activities, but with an agenda for safety. The islands help break the increasing waves which is a threat to the Delta Metropolis - the conglomerate of cities in the west of the Low Countries. Engineered gullies also create off-shore undertow, which causes the sea level to drop during north western storms.

The sand winning (technique of extracting sand for building the islands) causes deep troughs which is suitable for 多sh growth and will lead to an increase number of species and biodiversity. This project was really an inspiration to me from the beginning of my research proposal. It is similarly looking at the agenda for safety, but also as a chain of events, it generates many other opportunities for habitation and change.

Sand winning created troughs

Section through one of the islands


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

Japanese Sabo Works

砂防

In Japanese the term Sabo literally means “defence against earth”, which translates to something along the lines of “the control of and protection from sediment disasters”. It deals with anything sediment related from debris Àow, slope failure, landslides, volcanic mud Àow, avalanche, to stream erosion control.

Volcanic Sabo

Debris Àow Sabo

Avalanche Sabo, protective guards

J-Landslide Sabo

Slope failure Sabo

River channel Sabo (Sabo, 2001)


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

(Sabo, 2001)

Sabo mitigation and prevention works for different sediment disasters


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

Debris flow Sabo Debris Àow happens on mountain streams and watersheds where sediment and debris get Àushed out during heavy rain after collapses up stream. A typical sabo intervention for debris Àow consists of building permeable check dams on the path of watersheds or streams, for which sediment can Àow through under normal conditions; yet when a larger scale debris Àow occurs the sediment would be captured and held temporarily to protect the downstream areas.

Debris Àow Sabo

J-Landslide Sabo Landslides as de¿ned by the Japanese sabo associations are the movement of a large area of landmass, also known as J-landslides; which is a different type of landslide to what naturally occurs on my site, and in my research. Typically this type of landslide is dif¿cult to stop once it has started due to the size, but can be prevented through the use of extensive drainage and retention interventions.

J-Landslide Sabo

Sabo works for Slope failure type landslides Sabo interventions dealing with slope failure type landslides are mainly made up of 3 types: wall type, which is the most intrusive to the landscape; ground surface type, which can be just as intrusive as the wall type unless care is taken to ‘hide’ it in vegetation, or careful consideration to where and how it is placed; and lastly the fencing type, which causes the least damage to existing vegetation, because it can be arranged around existing trees.

Slope failure Sabo methods


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

Sabo works for Slope failure type landslides Retaining wall works Concrete retaining walls are built on the lower part of a slope where a collapse has happened to suppress it directly as well as catching further collapsed soil, protecting the houses down below.

Soldier piles and lagging works Steel piles are driven into the slope to restrain the collapse of the surface soil layer, and then lagging is placed between the piles to prevent downward movement of the eroded soil. This method can be applied without destroying existing vegetation.

Grating crib works Concrete frames are laid onto a slope in which vegetation can grow to help retain soil, preventing erosion. This method can be used in conjunction with ground anchors to directly act as a suppressing structure to prevent slope collapse. Existing vegetation can be retained by adjusting arrangement of the frames.

(Sabo, 2001)


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

Sabo interventions

Concept exploration based on Sabo techniques


PRECEDENTS: Sabo

Reflection on Sabo strategy and my strategy Sabo works are the solution to sediment disasters in Japan and has also been the precedent for many other countries’ sediment defence. But the difference between these Japanese sabo interventions and my design interventions is the strategy. Sabo works tend to be engineering focused and often utilises a hard/harsh style of preventative response to landslides to ‘¿x the problem’. I don’t believe that it is the only way; instead, my strategy is one which accepts the landslide as a natural process, and through my interventions redirects the Àow of the landslide to actually create opportunities out of a calamity rather than attempting to prevent it. Whilst sabo interventions might be effective and appropriate in Japan, where space is limited, this does not mean it will be a right ¿t for other countries, cultures and environments. In order to become more resilient to disasters, we must not become too complacent in depending on ‘technology’, as demonstrated in the devastation of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, where complacent residents did not heed the warning systems to evacuate when the tsunami hit the east coast of Japan, as they thought that nothing can break through their seawalls and breakwaters. It was a painful reminder that whilst we might be able to build large structures, carve out mountains and ¿ll in the sea, our interventions are of little hindrance to the forces of nature, when a disaster beyond our predictions hit, only those with enough preparation and resilience will survive.


{Please take a moment to relax and think about acceptance}


{Please accept this moment of peace}


DESIGN INTERVENTIONS

Throughout my design project, my intention was to facilitate the coexistence of disadvantaged communities and landslides. From the initial desire to solve the problem by avoiding it, to embracing and facing the challenge of designing with catastrophe, I explored various design concepts to eventually 多nd an approach to design which I can call my own. Bringing my knowledge and my passion in martial arts, I was able to utilise this knowledge to inform my design interventions. By translating Wing Chun techniques into strategies in dealing with landslides, I designed landscape interventions that respond to different stages of development on a location susceptible to landslides. Based on what I learned through the design and investigation of different design iterations, I created a scenario on which I can test how the different iterations might operate together. The scenario is represented in a timeline over a period of 10 years and is further demonstrated in a sectional elevation across the slope, where an event of a landslide amongst other interventions implemented on the site, is depicted.


Scenario Introduction

Landslide Section, Time Cycle, Scenario The timeline on the bottom of the page, which I will refer to as a time cycle, is a ten year time cycle in which I have depicted a scenario where my design interventions are implemented during a ten year period. The section on the next page is a snapshot of my 多nal design iteration, Reacting: Event, where it depicts the event of a landslide in the 8th year of development.

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In Reacting: Event, a time cycle representing each year will show the implementation of each intervention in more detail.

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Landslide

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de 08 dsli YEAR Lan YE AR

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Time Cycle to Strategy Implementation - Over 10 years


Scenario Introduction

It is important to understand that this time cycle and section is not a factual representation of how the site will de¿nitely develop over time; it is only one of many scenarios which may occur. How the site would be developed in real life depends on many factors which I have chosen to omit for the sake of keeping to my research agenda; of exploring how a different way of engaging with landslides might change the way we design for catastrophe, one of inclusion and acceptance rather than exclusion and rejection.

TIMELINE LEGEND

Landslide risk due to rainfall

Landslide happens

Temporary dwelling construction

Constructing ‘deflection dam’

Planting bamboo

Constructing dispersion ‘mounds’ and ‘cavities’

Harvesting bamboo

Constructing and moving into dwellings embedded in the mounds

Constructing terraces and waterways

Cleaning up debris and repairs after a landslide


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

A

A

‘Avoiding’ Plan 1:10000

Initial idea Initially the idea was that if the slums were not in the way of a landslide then there would be no risk. Therefore the strategy was to build on top of a lifted platform to avoid direct confrontation with the landslide.

‘Avoiding’ Section AA 1:2000

This design iteration is a platform where the tugurios can be built above the ground plane, to avoid the landslides. While deÀection dams protect existing settlement and redirect any landslides which might occur into the area beneath the raised platform. The soil from the landslide can then be used for urban agriculture atop of the roofs of the dwellings and on one side of the deÀection dam. There was also a notion of increasing protection through an attempt to reduce crime, by using avenues planted with vegetation for passive surveillance.


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

‘Avoiding’ Masterplan 1:25000

Layers of the platform design 01 Raised ‘ground’ layer avoids the landslide.

01 Raised ‘ground’ layer

04 Forestation vegetation

02 Tree and view corridor attempts to increasing protection, by using passive surveillance and vegetated avenues to reduce crime. 03 Small lanes connected the larger corridors making access easier. 04 Forestation vegetation creates a recreational area beneath the platform.

02 Tree & view corridors

05 Slum-rise block division 05 Slum-rise block divisions show an example of the con¿guration of the slum dwellings. 06 Urban agriculture on shacks demonstrates the amount of roof space that can be appropriated for growing food.

03 Small connecting lanes

06 Urban agriculture


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

Taking advantage of the Landslide Soil from the landslide can be used for urban agriculture on rooftops of the dwellings above the platform.

‘Avoiding’ section detail 1:100


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

DeÀection/Soil collection Dam Initial deflection dam concept DeÀection dams protect existing settlement by redirecting any landslides which might occur into the area beneath the raised platform. Some soil will be retained from the landslide for use to grow crops for a community market garden. Water Àows from the top terrace down to the bottom, irrigating the crops through gravitational force. The soil is left to rest every so often to allow for a natural renewal process. Excess soil can be carried to other areas. Different crops can be grown at different times of the year.

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AVOIDING: PROBLEM

Initial concept exploration The initial design idea for an intervention was based on two strategies: block and avoid. In my initial concept sketches I explored how a deÀection wall (inÀuenced by the precedent Avalanche deÀection dams, Siglufjörður) might function as a multifunctional space rather than being only a landslide wall. I also had an idea that if I removed the settlement from danger, then the landslide won’t be a threat anymore. Using that as an initial idea I envisioned platforms that would rise up and keep the settlements out of the landslides way.


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

Further exploration I also considered how the space might become appropriated and how I might set up the conditions for it. Through these concepts I also formulated a plan where landslides might be able to save the world, eventually. Although it all sounds crazy, but at the time it seemed plausible, but I needed to do more research into it and this idea fuelled me.

People left homeless by disasters

The Redirection wealthy Dams direct Mudslides mudslides away Slums from wealther settlements Impoverished Reforestation communities helps prevent brings soil, mudslides Shacks and buildings nutrients made of recycled Under-slum and water materials garden Elevated from Insulation Public space the ground Putting mud More trees on roofs Adaptive Allows mud and Grow food environment debri to collect underneath Save the slums Small livestock Reduced crime rate

Communit Garden

Openess allows survellance

Community Market Vendors

Income

Community Wellbeing

SAVE THE WORLD!


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

Avoiding: Summary This design iteration was based on the notion to evade the danger, but I realised that it was not possible to move an entire settlement away fast enough to avoid the danger, as landslides happen in an instant.

I also realised that if my plan was successful, it would remove the danger of landslides, along with the opportunities. The slums will have to be destroyed and the people living there will be evicted, possible to a more dangerous location, while this now risk free location becomes valuable for development.

Landslide Debri

New soil Grow crops

Destroy

Exis

Redirected

Avoided

Developm ents Raised

ting

Ground Level Tugurios

+ Poor

Don’t have!

Landslide events can still happen

Conc

Slums

ept

Has

Need

Saves/Protects

$$$$$$ Large amount of money

Must

Evacuate/Evicted!

Causes more problems


AVOIDING: PROBLEM

The role of Tugurios in my Design Research Project The tugurios that inhibit my design project site of San Marcos play a critical role in my design research. They are the reason why I need to design not to prevent and block the landslide, but rather embrace it as a part of nature, to work on a method of occupying such a risky location. Because there are slums there, I realised the ideal of ‘build and forget’ cannot be used, not only because it will fail against an unexpected landslide, but also because the people will not be able to upkeep it and instead contribute to its destruction. The lack of knowledge on how to upkeep landslide mitigation systems as well as sel¿shness increase the risk of danger in a community that has not got a strong communal structure. There was also the side that, where if my design was successful in negating the threat of landslides, then the site becomes valuable and therefore development will cause the informal slum community to be evicted. A large part of my chosen design area in the site is actually vegetation. This is because I realised that a major shift in an already established community is near impossible without destroying the community and the complex relationships that are present. Therefore I chose an area that had not been built on yet, as a test site where a community can be developed whilst my design strategies are implemented. At some points during my design process, I did question the role of the slum communities in my design; I wondered whether it was necessary to design for these communities, as I felt that my design was about how I could design a method for people to survive landslides, not necessarily slums. But the more I tried to think why I don’t need to design for them, the more I realise how closely linked they are in my design project and philosophy. Because what is the point for designing a way to live with landslides if I did not have someone who I am designing for? These communities are exactly the people I am designing for, it just took a while to realise that.

From this initial iteration, I realised an important aspect about this design approach; that by solving ‘problems’, we only allow for other problems to take its place. This then made me realise that because we tend to think about landslides and other natural disasters as ‘problems’ to begin with, we are constantly aiming to ‘solve’ or avoid the situation. What has been successful from this iteration was that by applying a strategy to redirecting energy from the landslides using deÀection mounds, landslides are not being prevented; therefore a natural process can still occur. This in turn brings about opportunities to discover how we can utilise this natural phenomenon, to turn a naturally destructive force into a constructive, creative force; one which can cultivate a landscape and its inhabitants.


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

‘Redirecting’ Plan 1:10000

In this design iteration, I explored the form of a ‘redirection dam’ in 3D, as a method of investigating how a Wing Chun technique might manifest itself as a strategy in landscape architectural practice. 1)

Technique: Bong Sau Strategy: DeÀection The aim of this strategy is to redirect the larger force, so that it does not strike the vulnerable spots. This strategy was used because it is a way of protecting a particular area, with no intention of stopping the opposing force of the landslide. It accepts the landslide as a natural process, yet by redirecting the destructive energy, the redirection dam will be able to protect weaker or vital structure, such as hospitals, community centres and homes.

2)

3)


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

‘Redirecting’ Masterplan 1:25000

By designing deÀection dams above vulnerable areas such as settlements, the energy from a landslide is redirected and dissipated by the serrated edges of the dam as well as by thick vegetation. The angle of the deÀection dam also determines the amount of energy absorbed in the impact and how much is transferred down the slope.

R1 Bong Sau

膀手 wing arm

R2 ‘Redirecting’ dam plan detail


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

Landslide Driving Force/Resistance Force angle analysis

Driving Force Resistance angle

Resistance angle

Driving Force

Resistance angle

15°

Resistance angle

30°

Resistance Force

45°

n lta su Re rce Fo

Resistance Force

t

ltan Resu Force t

Resultant Force

Resistance Force

Driving Force

nt lta su Re rce Fo

Resistance Force

Driving Force

The serrated edges act as a buffer to blunt the redirected force and also to trap part of the sediment, so that as the landslide debris travels down the redirection dam, its destructive force becomes less, as the mass and speed is reduced.

‘Redirecting’ dam render R1


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

Driving Force Resistance angle

60°

Resistance Force

Driving Force Resistance angle

Re Fo sulta rce nt

75°

Resistance Force

Result a Force nt

Resistance angle

Driving Force Resultant Force

90°

Resistance Force

‘Redirecting’ dam render R2


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

Redirection dam concept exploration


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

Redirecting: Summary From this iteration, I realised that an intervention of only redirection dams would not be enough to mitigate the force of a landslide much larger than the resistance force of the proposed redirection dam. Therefore to prepare for the unexpected, a Àexible strategy of incorporating other layers to further diffuse the power of the landslide is required.

Landslide

Ov erf

low

Re Red dir ect irec ed tion dam

Original path


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

Scenario: Redirecting Event This intervention was applied to the ten year scenario in the ¿rst four years and was able to redirect and absorb part of the landslide’s impact.

S17 S15

S11 S07

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S07 In Year 01, the ¿rst redirection dam was constructed in 5 months at a lower part of the slope to protect the temporary settlements that have moved onto the site.

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S11 In Year 02, a second, smaller redirection dam was constructed in 3 months at the middle part of the slope for additional protection of the temporary settlements and the bamboo plantation.


REDIRECTING: ENERGY

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Small Landslide

S15 In Year 03, another small redirection dam was constructed further up the slope from the second dam, within 3 months. A landslide occurs during invierno and is redirected and trapped by the second redirection dam.

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S17 In Year 04, the forth redirection dam is constructed in 4 months. The second dam is smoothed out and the site is ready to be formed into different iteration for inhabitation.


CONTROLLING: FLOW

‘Controlling’ Plan 1:10000

This design iteration was once again explored in 3D to visualise it formally and spatially. The notion of controlling the opponent was translated into the strategy of controlling ‘Àow’ within the site. 1)

Technique: Fook Sau Strategy: Control The aim of this strategy is to control the Àow of the opponent’s force, so you are able to direct it into a desired location at a desired time. This strategy was explored because by controlling the amount of water seeping into the soil during rainy season, we are able to reduce the risk of having to face a large landslide. Smaller landslides are easier to manage as the force can be neutralised and the Àow redirected much easier.

2)

3)


CONTROLLING: FLOW

‘Controlling’ Masterplan 1:25000

The strategy of control is applied in my design iteration as terracing, similar to rice terraces which had been used throughout history as a preventive measure to landslides, such as the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Philippines, which had been known to prevent landslides through employing a sophisticated drainage system. The terraces control how water Àows down the slope, as well as how people might navigate the slope, as the design maintains a height of 0.2m per step, with a focus on making it easier to travel on foot. It also determines which spaces can become appropriated by informal dwellings and urban agriculture, through varying the width of the step in the terrace.

Fook Sau

伏手 subduing hand

‘Controlling’ terrace and dwelling opportunity detail


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Stepped Terraces and Waterway 3D modelling A similar application of the steps was incorporated into designated waterways, which converges smaller watersheds to create a drain for excess water during torrential rainfall, therefore reducing the risk of a large landslide occurring, as that is one of the major triggers of large scale landslides.

My terracing and waterway iteration creates controlled points of access up the hill, limiting what can be built in certain areas, as well as act as drainage channels during rainstorms. This allows for a more controlled environment where the landslide becomes more predictable, and easier to subdue.

Stepped Waterway and Terraces render


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Stepped Terraces form exploration & analysis These stairs connect each level of the 10 meter terraced hill as seen in the initial 3D model exploration. Each rise is 20 cm and the tread length differs. The thing I was exploring here is how we could integrate a means of transport by foot yet create pockets of space where people may accommodate and appropriate for their needs.

The three variations tested a certain aesthetic relationship of how the location of the continual/ discontinuous step will affect the Àow of people, as well as water run-off. They also allowed me to explore ways of space allocating, de¿ning space by boundaries above and below (this is assuming the space is Àat or close to Àat, appropriate for building upon, but can be later explored for angular slopes as well).

160

150

140

Path of transition/climb

Zigzag Snaking stairway: height 140m

Stairway on the inner edge: height 150m

Width and location of terraces make it dif¿cult to build large structures, making this an ideal strategy to involve informal settlement.

No risk of falling off the edge of the stairs. Buildings and amenities are on the edge, which gives limited protection as well.

The path is much longer than the other two above, but it is inclusive, passing through the community where as the other two above just skips through, not having to engage with the people there.

Stairway on the outer edge: height 160m Risk of falling off the stairs? Buildings and amenities can be built on large landings allocated for speci¿c uses.


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Stepped Waterway modelling

Waterway morphing explorations

Designing the Waterway with step terraces of 1 metre rises, and differing tread length, keeping in mind that tread has to be 2 times the rise in order to have mitigation effects of stopping debris when it falls. Larger treads have the effect of holding more debris and has the opportunity to create new environments within this particular site. Lower rises of 0.5m are also designed on one side of the Waterway to allow for easier ascension by people for maintenance of the Waterway. The Waterway will be build out of Gabion stacked for extra strength and help hold the soil in place, eventually there will be plant life growing from within the Waterway itself.

Stepped Waterway modelling

Effect of Waterway: This will cause the water to run in from both sides of the Waterway because the hill would slope towards it. The water will travel along “the path of least resistance”. In an event of a debris Àow, where silt, soil, wooden debris, and rock can fall into the Waterway, a sediment trap/dam would be required to prevent large debris from falling into the settlement below.

Stepped Waterway modelling


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Stepped Waterway and Terraces

Terrace 3D model in context


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Stepped Waterway concept

Shaping of the site slope using 10 m contours.

Stairs and ramp concept

Watershed and Waterways concept plan

Gabions in Stepped Waterways stabilize the soil, protecting it from rain induced landslides.

Stepped Waterway section

Steps concepts


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Vertical Terracing conceptual model This idea came from the stairway terracing concept as an alternative exploration of how the form can inÀuence the uses in the site. Instead of creating layers upon layers of terracing the conventional way; horizontally, this concept involved turning the perspective of terracing on its side; layers in front of one another vertically. What this brings to the land form is a series of rolling hills at which various uses might be possible. However due to the overwhelming amount of time required to model it completely and correctly, I decided that whilst it was an interesting idea, it was probably a side-track.

Vertical terrace pattern exploration

Concept of what the access on these vertical terraces might look like.

Road and vertical terrace exploration

Road and vertical terrace exploration - plan

Road/path passing through vertical terrace/mounds


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Controlling: Summary From this iteration I began to understand the importance of strategic planning for future events. By controlling how much water in多ltrates the soil we are able to prevent large scale calamity, while at the same time allowing small scale landslides to still occur at a controlled (prepared) environment. Excess water drained through the waterway can be collected for use in the bamboo plantations, or urban agriculture plots.

Landslides caused by rain

Reduce risk

Terracing Controls access

Watershed

Stepped Waterway Dwelling opportunity More open Scale = Large Site = Large Design = @Large


CONTROLLING: FLOW

Scenario: Controlling Event In the ten year scenario, terracing is a dominant intervention which is implemented almost every year, as it becomes a base for many of the other interventions to be implemented.

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S03 In Year 01, a total of eight months were spent constructing Stepped Terraces for the bamboo plantation as well as the settlement. This is important in the beginning as it determines many factors for the other strategies to be successful.

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S12 In Year 6, terrace works continued for 3 months, these areas later became locations where the dispersal mounds and housing could be embedded.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

B

B

‘Protecting/ Diffusing’ Plan 1:10000

For this strategy of protection in my design, I am proposing a bamboo plantation with a planting schedule for different layers. The idea is that if one layer is not suf¿cient to diffuse a landslide event, consequent layers will.

Technique: Wu Sau Strategy: Protect The aim of this strategy is to support the primary defence, acting as the secondary or tertiary defence in case the primary fails. This strategy of applying a ‘secondary guard’ is to account for the possibility that the ‘primary guard’ fails to diffuse the entire force of a landslide. It acts to buffer larger landslides while becoming a rule for harvesting the bamboo; because there should always be at least two layers of bamboo plantation.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

‘Protecting/Diffusing’ Masterplan 1:25000

Through using a protective strategy, I am not proposing that it can only function for a single purpose, but becomes multipurpose. By implementing a plantation of indigenous bamboo species, my design intervention becomes more than just a protective layer, but also starts to cultivate a community by becoming a source of income through trade as a building material. This strategy can be expanded into creating jobs for the locals and thus generate an economy, which may be able to allow the urban slums to upgrade past their existing social economic situation.

Wu Sau

護手 protecting hand

Bamboo Plantations buffers landslide force


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

‘Protecting/Diffusing’ Section BB

Slope failure area Landslide High ground water (from torrential rainfall) loosens the soil structure and causes the landslide.

The serrated catchment dams redirects the landslide into little pockets where the debris is caught and if there are spill overs, it will be caught by the next pocket in line. Bamboo and various other types of native vegetation help catch the debris of the landslide, preventing it from going further down the slope. The collected soil helps the plants grow back after the landslide.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Other natural processes which also cause landslides are earthquakes and volcanic activity, frequency of landslide occurrence can also be tied to El Nino effects.

Bamboo plantations are mixed into the planting of the native vegetation, but can be harvested while still maintaining a protective belt.

tugurios, are protected by the layers of bamboo and the deÀection mounds.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

The Way of the Bamboo Bamboo was selected in my design iteration because it is very Àexible both in its quality as well as its functionality. It has a strong af¿nity to my design philosophy of adaptation and resilience, which was important as I wanted to use vegetation which has multipurpose values.

Bamboo has been known throughout Chinese history as a symbol of longevity, due to the way it grows, and its ability to ‘spring back’ even after getting Àattened.

3:29 Bruce talking about the bamboo stick in his movie: Game of Death <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNvdSbMW_F8> In the movie Game of Death by Bruce Lee, a famous dialogue between Bruce’s character Hai Tien, and the 3rd Àoor guardian of the pagoda (played by Bruce’s real life student, Dan Inosanto), demonstrates Bruce Lee’s philosophy and his view of traditional martial arts. Here Bruce uses the bamboo whip he wields as a metaphor to suggest that one has to become Àexible, like the bamboo, and that such Àexibility will be able to overcome the traditional and somewhat Àashier styles, albeit that they might have more power.

Hai Tien: [as Tien moves an unconscious Cheh out of the way Hai Tien prepares to ¿ght with his bamboo whip] You know baby, this bamboo is longer, more flexible and very much alive, and if your Àashy routine cannot keep up with the speed and elusiveness of this thing here, all I can say is you will be in deep trouble. 3rd Floor Guardian: That we will have to ¿nd out. Hai Tien: [during the ¿ght Hai Tien gains the upper hand] I am telling you it is dif¿cult to have a rehearsed routine to ¿t in with broken rhythm [they ¿ght and Hai Tien hits the guardian again] Hai Tien: see, rehearsed routines, lack the flexibility to adapt.

Script found at IMDB website

<http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077594/quotes>


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Guadua angustifolia The main bamboo specie I have chosen to use in my design is called Guadua angustifolia. It’s one of the largest species of bamboo and is therefore perfect to be produced into building material.

Facts and Advantages about Guadua angustifolia

Being large also has advantages in the sense that it will be able to diffuse larger forces than smaller species.

It conserves the soil, controls erosion, regulates the Àow of rivers and streams, supplies organic material, and acts as a CO2 sink.

It can be harvested after 4 - 5 years.

Captures CO2 and converts it into oxygen, 35% more than regular trees. Produces zero emissions. Can be changed into a variety of different materials for multiple uses; such as furniture, crafts material furniture & crafts work, raw construction material, panels (plywood, laminates, Àoors), paper industry, charcoal industry, pharmaceutical industries, musical instruments, houses, etc. A tropical Bamboo reaching up to 100 feet with light green canes up to 9 inches in diameter. Very strong wooded and is insect & rot resistant. Guadua angustifolia

(Guadua Aug, n.d.)

Needs precipitation from 80 to 240 inches per year and prefers wet soil.

Bamboo Harvesting

(Bamboo cut, n.d.)

Bamboo shoots

Bamboo Harvesting

(Bamboo plant harvest, n.d.)

(Bamboo shoot, n.d.)

Bamboo Materials

Cut Bamboo

(Giant Bamboo, n.d.)

(Bamboo cor, n.d.) (Bamboo timber, n.d.)


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Soil stabilization bamboo spacing 1,100 plants per hectare are needed for erosion control and landslide mitigation, and can be combined with other fast growing trees.

3m 3m

Productive commercial bamboo spacing 400 clumps per hectare, or 160 clumps per acre, good for species such as Guadua angustifolia.

3m

5m

5m

5m

Bund and Trench method The bund and trench method is good as a planting method, as the bamboo will thrive on the wellworked and turned over soil from the trenches. Soil from a landslide can be added onto the mound around the clumps. Trenches can be used for irrigation, using water redirected from the watershed/stepped waterways.

TRENCH

0.5m

BUND

1m

Bamboo species that are runners (tends to be invasive) will grow to have a large network of roots which act as a net to cover up the grounds surface, trapping and protecting topsoil from erosion. This makes it very similar to the Sabo work from Japan where they use a net woven from straw to stop soil erosion and stabilize the slope. The Japanese precedent was ineffective in the long term because material decay makes the net weaker and eventually it will break. The Bamboo roots system is a natural soil retention system that keeps growing and getting stronger.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Signi多cance of Bamboo The inherent qualities of bamboo and more importantly for me, the philosophical symbolism and connotations that come with using bamboo made it an obvious choice. Several species of bamboo grow naturally in El Salvador and surrounding countries, and can be used for many different things, from building material, timber, clothing, to food and more, as a harvested product. As a plant and as part of a forest/plantation it becomes connected to the site, literally. Its root system will form a network over the ground of the slope, holding the nutrient rich top soil down and preventing it from being washed out by torrential rain. Which then becomes important for other vegetation (which grow much slower than bamboo) to thrive in. The role and the importance of bamboo does not simply end at the event of the landslide, but continues over a much longer period of time to reach and affect a broader aspect of life in San Marcos. The bamboo plantations were inspired by the fact that it is an environmentally friendly material and abundant in nature, grows faster than many other fast growing trees and therefore becomes more effective as treatment to a damaged/ vulnerable sites such as landslide susceptible locations. These qualities make it possible to be grown by disadvantaged communities such as those residing in the tugurios and become a way for these settlements to advance 多nancially through the income/commerce it generates as a micro economy, as well as socially as the community is bound through a communal responsibility to improve the environment they live in.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Bamboo, diffusion concept sketches


LIFE/POWER

PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

Protecting/Diffusing: Summary From this iteration I realised that whilst having ‘protective’ layers is important to prepare for larger landslides, I also need to be aware of how a monoculture of bamboo might affect the local vegetation/ecology. A possible scenario might be to integrate bamboo layers at ¿rst as support to the regrowth of local vegetation (which grow at a much slower pace), and eventually fully integrate them into parts of the slope where it does not affect the ef¿ciency of harvesting the bamboo.

Landslide

Harvest/production B boo Ba Bam Bamboo oo plantation

Increased = Reduced

$$$$$$ Economic gain

Landslide force

Destructive force

Offers

better living conditions Buffe Bu Buff Buf ffff 01 ffer 0 Buffer Bu Bu uffe ffffer fffer err 02 02 Buffer

Diffusing D fusin using sing ing g

Risk of landslide damage

M tb Might Mig be

Monoculture Mono u ure

Problematic to local vegetation

Tugurios Saves/Protects Creative force


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Scenario: Protecting/Diffusing Event In the ten year scenario, the bamboo is planted progressively, in order to create crops of different ages. This allows for the harvesting of each crop as it matures, yet also maintain a protective buffer to diffuse the power of a small landslide.

S05 S02

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S02

Land sl by ea ide caus rthq ed uake

In Year 01, Guadua bamboo is planted as the 多rst crop layer and will be harvested in Year 05 when it matures.

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S05 In Year 08, a mature crop of bamboo is being harvested as the landslide occurs.


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

Harvested Bamboo can be stacked in a cone for drying

LIFE/POWER


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Growth of Bamboo Crop layers over time

Year 01 - Bamboo Crop Layer 01 Initial planting

Year 02 - Bamboo Crop Layer 01 Growing with bamboo shoots

Year 03 - Bamboo Crop Layer 01 Tall and thick crops

Year 02 - Bamboo Crop Layer 02 Growing from shoots

Year 03 - Bamboo Crop Layer 02 Root system

Year 03 - Bamboo Crop Layer 03 Planting new crops somewhere new


PROTECTING/DIFFUSING:

LIFE/POWER

Year 04 - Bamboo Crop Layer 01 Almost ready for harvesting

Year 05 - Bamboo Crop Layer 01 Harvesting

Year 04 - Bamboo Crop Layer 02 Tall and thick

Year 05 - Bamboo Crop Layer 02 Ready to harvest next year

Year 04 - Bamboo Crop Layer 03 Growing on Stepped Terraces

Year 05 - Bamboo Crop Layer 03 Interesting spaces can be formed


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

‘Improving’ plan 1:10000

The original aim of this design iteration was to explore how a literal translation of a Wing Chun technique into a design of a building might enable smaller scale building interventions to survive a landslide event that passes through the settlement.

Technique: Bong Sau structure Strategy: Structure, DeÀection The aim of this strategy is to deÀect a much larger force through using the right structure, form and positioning for which the larger energy can be transferred. This strategy applies the Bong Sau structure to the roof of a building; by positioning the building so that it is embedded in the ground, the roof can transfer the energy of a landslide over and past the building, without destroying the building itself.


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

‘Improving’ - DeÀective Dwelling plan 1:50


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

Bong Sau structure

Bong Sau structure translation

Bong Sau roof structure

Flow over structure


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

For this iteration, the roof structure must be aligned correctly in relationship to the landslideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s angle of occurrence. Similar to Wing Chun, if your structure is good, then you will be able to punch much harder and withstand a lot more force. If the structure is incorrect, in Wing Chun your guard will collapse and you will get hit; and in this intervention, the building will be destroyed.

DeĂ&#x20AC;ective Dwelling Section Elevation


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

Responsive Dwelling concept design sketches


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

Improving: Summary What I realised from this iteration was that it’s predetermining a structure to respond to an unknown force, which is against Wing Chun principles. Where it differs from the Redirecting Energy iteration is that it doesn’t have multiple angles of resistance and therefore it’s not as Àexible when accepting and redirecting stronger forces.

Structure

Wing Chun technique

Landslide Roof

Bong Sau Trans la

tion

Reacts when landslide occurs

Flexible

Dwelling

Existing problem

El Salvador Slum dwellers

Embedded into the slope

Individualism Avoids direct hit “I”

Selfishness

Don’t care about

Uncooperative in community

“Others”

Disaster risk


IMPROVING: STRUCTURE

Scenario: Improving Event Furthermore, upon reading a report about disaster mitigation in El Salvador’s precarious urban settlements, the idea of individual buildings deÀecting a landslide becomes unrealistic in the sense that it will not help the rest of the community. The report reveals that ‘improvements’ to one’s home in landslide susceptible locations often increased the risk of landslides for the rest of the community. This is due to people working to protect their own homes and assets with little regard to the rest of the community; such as taking bricks from retaining walls to build a wall for their own dwelling. However I also realised that such a structure could perhaps be an important building for the settlement, perhaps as a hospital or community gathering centre, which means that it may still be considered as a strategy worth investigating further into.

While this iteration has not been depicted on the landslide section, there are lessons which I incorporated into the design of the embedded dwellings, which sit within the dispersion mounds; such as a gradient on the roofs of the dwellings to keep the Àow going, water or debris. The advantage of being embedded into the mound is that by becoming part of the dispersion structure, the resistance force is increased which aids in withstanding the impact from landslides. Because the dwelling is underground, only the entrance is uncovered, it allows the landslide to ‘spill over’ without destroying the actual building itself. Obviously there are concerns with ventilation and other aspects of being underground, but these are schematics which can be worked out if I chose to look at the architectural aspects of my research in more detail. A particular concept I was quite fond of was one which utilised the strength and Àexibility of bamboo, to react to pressure in an event of a landslide. The bamboo is lined up to create a sort of awning for the embedded dwellings, and is able to bend to create an arched passage way when a landslide occurs on top of the bamboo awning; forming a safe passageway for evacuation.

Bamboo reaction awning

Embedded dwelling in landslide section


DISPERSING: FORCE

‘Dispersing’ Plan 1:10000

In this design iteration, I explored the notion of dispersion; using ‘¿ll’ to create dispersion mounds that would divide the force of landslides in two, to be redirected into cavities ‘cut’ in the ground.

1)

Technique: Tan Sau Strategy: Dispersion The aim of this strategy is to disperse a larger force into smaller forces. This strategy was used to divide the destructive force of landslides, to lower the speed and power of the landslide, and to reduce the impact it makes on the settlement.

2)

3)


DISPERSING: FORCE

Dispersing Mound and Cavity detail

Dispersing Cut/Fill

Mound/Dwelling render

Mound/Dwelling Area

Path/Access Space

Cavity/Catchment Area

In this iteration I am utilising a cut and ¿ll method of landscape intervention, where I am designing cavities and triangular mounds which become the device for dispersing the force of landslides. As the landslide hits the mound, it will be divided up and redirected into cavities on both sides of the mound, which trap and hold the debris until it spills onto the next layer of mounds and cavities. In doing so, the mass of the landslide is divided into smaller and more manageable parts. The mounds also become an area where housing can become embedded to become more formal.

Tan Sau

攤手 dispersing hand

‘Controlling’ terrace and dwelling opportunity detail


DISPERSING: FORCE

C

D

On the top of the dispersion mounds are areas which would not normally be hit by landslides, and therefore suitable for dwellings to be built on. Even if a large landslide spills over the top of the dispersion mound, it will Àow over the dwellings, as they are embedded into the mound, similar to the Bong Sau building.

‘Dispersing’ Section Elevation CC 1:200

C D


DISPERSING: FORCE

The cavities would trap the debris until it overÀows, in which case it will be divided again by the next dispersion mound down the hill.

‘Dispersing’ Section Elevation DD 1:200


DISPERSING: FORCE

‘Dispersing’ 3D modelling and renders


DISPERSING: FORCE

‘Dispersing’ concept design sketches


DISPERSING: FORCE

Dispersing Summary This iteration applied the strategy of dispersion in order to weaken the force of landslides as it happens, and captures the debris in the cavities which can be used for growing crops as well as rebuilding any damaged parts of the dispersion mounds.

By dispersing the force of a landslide and dividing up the debris, spreading it over a large area to protect the mounds where dwellings and other infrastructure may be located, the power of the landslide becomes thinned, and easier to manipulate.

It allowed me to explore the project at a medium scale where I had to consider access of the mounds and cavities, which also gave me ideas on how these spaces might be used.

Landslide Dispersing point

This means that the act of dispersing the landslide force can reduce the risk of landslide damage while retaining the advantages of having a landslide occur.

Protected

Landslide force split up

Dwellings

New soil

‘Fill’ mound

Recreation

Open space

‘Cut’ cavity Catches Debris

Less mass = less force = less destructive

Urban Agriculture


DISPERSING: FORCE

{acceptance does not mean yielding, thank you}


DISPERSING: FORCE

Scenario: Dispersing p g Event In the ten year scenario, the dispersion interventions are constructed from the fourth year to the seventh. They became areas to stay safe from the landslide, whilst the cavities played a large part in trapping and reducing the amount of debris travelling down the slope, and therefore reducing the destructive force. S13 S12 S11

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S10 In Year 04, ten months were dedicated to the construction of the initial dispersion mounds and cavities. These were larger than the ones built later on as they need to be able to hold and disperse a potentially large landslide.

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S10

S11 In Year 05, smaller mounds and cavities are constructed above the initial mounds. These mounds and cavities are located on the lower-mid section of the slope, and can embed one dwelling each.


DISPERSING: FORCE

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S12 In Year 06, construction continues with the single dwelling type dispersion mounds and cavities.

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S13 In Year 07, another multi-dwelling sized dispersion mound is constructed at the upper-mid section of the slope; the size will be able to sustain the impact of a larger landslide before dispersing it to the smaller mounds downslope.


REACTING: EVENT

Technique: Chi Sau Strategy: Reaction The aim of this strategy is to react to a situation in order to perform what is necessary to turn the situation around, instead of predetermining a response. This strategy requires us to not design in anticipation, but instead we should design in preparation, for reactions to events that will happen. Maximum preparation will allow us to react effectively against different events, whenever and wherever and in whatever order they may occur.

éť? ć&#x2030;&#x2039;


REACTING: EVENT

In this Âżnal design iteration, I am attempting to bring together the knowledge accumulated through the design of the previous iterations and interventions. I experimented with the depiction of two different timeframes by using time cycles to represent the staging of my interventions, implemented over time on my landslide section, as well as illustrating the effect of a landslide which occurs at an instantaneous timeframe, captured in my section. In this snapshot of the instant when the landslide occurs, the different strategies come into play in order to redirect, disperse, trap, diffuse, protect and control the force and Ă&#x20AC;ow of the landslide, so that is does not destroy everything in its path.

(Double Chi Sau, n.d.)

Grandmaster Ip Man and the young Bruce Lee doing the double hand Chi Sau exercise.


REACTING: EVENT

Time Cycle to Strategy Implementation These time cycles demonstrate the different strategies as they are implemented on the site, based on the scenario which I created.

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Each strand circling the time cycles represent a different strategy, or phases within a strategy (such as planting and harvesting bamboo). The red Àags depict the event of a landslide which occurs in an instant, but has a long term effect in terms of reconstruction and clearing of debris.

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Each time cycle has a constant – the winter months known as invierno – danger period, from May to October, where the risk of landslide triggered by rainfall is high.

Small Landslide

JAN

AU G

SEP OCT

SEP OCT SEP OCT

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YEAR 05

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YEAR 02

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REACTING: EVENT

TIMELINE LEGEND Temporary dwelling construction Planting bamboo Harvesting bamboo Constructing terraces and waterways OV

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MAR APR

SEP OCT

N

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YEAR 06

Constructing ‘deflection dam’ Constructing dispersion ‘mounds’ and ‘cavities’

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Constructing & moving into dwellings embedded in the mounds Cleaning up debris and repairs after a landslide Landslide risk due to rainfall Landslide happens

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SEP OCT

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Lan ds by e lide cau arth s qua ed ke

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REACTING: EVENT

Scenario: Reacting Event

Lan ds by e lide cau arth s qua ed ke

Particular events or strategies depicted in the section are connected to their respective implementation stage in the time cycles.

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REACTING: EVENT

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Small Landslide

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Year 6

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Year 7 TIMELINE LEGEND Temporary dwelling construction Planting bamboo Harvesting bamboo Constructing terraces and waterways Constructing ‘deflection dam’ Constructing dispersion ‘mounds’ and ‘cavities’ Constructing & moving into dwellings embedded in the mounds Cleaning up debris and repairs after a landslide Landslide risk due to rainfall Landslide happens

JUL

AU G


REACTING: EVENT

S01

S02


REACTING: EVENT

S01

S02

Comalapa Highway â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the linking freeway that connects San Salvador to the International Airport of El Salvador.

Bamboo harvesters are harvesting a mature crop of Guadua angustifolia bamboo.


REACTING: EVENT

S03

S04


REACTING: EVENT

S03

S04

Layers of bamboo plantation planted at different years to offset the age of the crops, providing a consistent opportunity to harvest and sell the bamboo as materials every year.

Another crop of bamboo being harvested whilst several other crops continue to provide protection.


REACTING: EVENT

S05

S06


REACTING: EVENT

S05

S06

A crop of bamboo which was harvest the year before is now starting to regrow from where they were harvested.

Multiple layers of bamboo.


REACTING: EVENT

S07

S08


REACTING: EVENT

S07

S08

A deĂ&#x20AC;ection dam redirects and traps the debris from the landslide as the remainder of the landslide debris gets subdued by the bamboo plantation.

Transition area on the site where the growth of native vegetation has been encouraged, together with smaller bamboo species which are able to stabilise the soil.


REACTING: EVENT

S09

S10


REACTING: EVENT

S09

S10

A dispersion mound which houses multiple embedded dwellings diverts and divides the debris keeping the mound safe.

Dispersion mound and catchment cavity traps a large amount of debris from the landslide and reduce the amount which continue downslope.


REACTING: EVENT

S12 S11


REACTING: EVENT

S11, S12 A series of smaller dispersion mounds and cavities which houses one dwelling each is able to spread the debris over a larger area, therefore reducing the concentration of the force from the landslide.


REACTING: EVENT

S14 S13


REACTING: EVENT

S13

S14

Uppermost dispersion mound blunts the oncoming landslide and divides it into two paths, reducing the destructive power.

The landslides can be seen here as it collapses down the slope.


REACTING: EVENT

S16 S15


REACTING: EVENT

S15

S16

Another deĂ&#x20AC;ection dam which redirects the energy from the landslides and simultaneously reduce the landslide impact by trapping debris with the serrated edges.

Landslide travelling downslope over the vegetation.


REACTING: EVENT

S17

S18


REACTING: EVENT

S17

S18

The Âżrst deĂ&#x20AC;ection dam to engage with the landslide, taking in the full force and reducing it considerably through the redirection of the energy and trapping of the debris, it is here that the initial size and velocity of the landslide becomes diminished and allows the interventions further downslope to better cope with the powerful force or nature.

The landslide as it travels down the slope to engage with the Âżrst line of landscape intervention, a lot of dust is produced as it crashes down the slope with horrifying velocity and destructive energy.


REACTING: EVENT

S19

S20


REACTING: EVENT

S19

S20

The area of the top of this slope which used to contain all the soil that is now a crashing wave of earth and debris.

The landslide portrayed here occurs on the 8th year of development, unexpectedly as it was triggered by a nearby earthquake, the size is larger than that of landslides triggered by rainfall.


REFLECTION ON ‘ACCEPTANCE’


REFLECTION ON ‘ACCEPTANCE’

My design iterations and interventions are all conceived based on the concept of ‘acceptance’. By accepting and remembering that landslides are a natural process of soil deposition and land morphology, I am not aiming to prevent it from happening. Instead, my design approach is to design with the event of landslides in mind. By accepting that landslides will occur, I am able to approach my design with the mindset of redirection rather than prevention. Accepting this in my design proposal means to facilitate protection through redirecting forces. The notion of ‘acceptance’ therefore becomes a catalyst for generating my approach to design. The notion of acceptance is important in my project, but it can also be understood in a different sense. By my understanding, acceptance is not about just taking things as they come and feel that there is nothing we can do about it. This is sadly the case with some Salvadorans living in disaster prone landscapes, who accept that they live in a hazardous landscape and have nothing but faith to hold on to. Some would rather pray than to go out and improve their chances of survival. Acceptance as I believe it means to face the issue rather than avoid it and hope it does not affect you; accepting does not mean yielding. As a Wing Chun practitioner, I accept that during sparring I may get hit, but that does not mean I will just run from it. Through utilising different techniques which I have trained over the years I am able to face the challenge and accept the condition of being in danger of getting hit, only at this point will I be able to apply my techniques and have a chance to take control of the situation. My understanding of acceptance in martial arts is what allows me to transfer the notion of acceptance to other aspects of my life and in design. It transcends the topical boundaries of my personal interests, crosses from a highly physical and philosophical point of view, into a somewhat conceptual and unconventional method of thinking about the way we design; of how I approach design and practise as a Landscape Architect.


OTHER INVESTIGATIONS:

TSUNAMI

Kamaishi Breakwater and tsunami mitigation design

Ship access route

Breakwater

Inner breakwaters become areas for small buildings, access by car and boat

Vegetation Bioshields

Tsunami design strategy for the town of Kamaishi

Mangrove Bioshield

Section of the breakwater and bioshield

Seawall and catchment pockets


OTHER INVESTIGATIONS:

TSUNAMI

The philosophy of ‘acceptance’ is important to disaster survival because it allows us to concentrate not on rejecting the event, but rather accept that it may one day happen. The latter allows us to prepare psychologically and physically to be able to overcome the eventual catastrophe, whereas the former provides a false sense of security through complacency and reliance on walls and technology in an attempt to keep the dangerous side of nature out. In addition to landslide interventions I also researched other disasters, such as the tsunami, chosen in the wake of the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami event. I reviewed the successfulness of the breakwaters in the town of Kamaishi, which boasted the Guinness world’s deepest breakwater record. These breakwaters however, failed to prevent the tsunami from hitting the town of Kamaishi and wiping out much of its coast side infrastructure. This led me to consider what it means to mitigate a disaster? How can we go up against the forces of nature? In my research I compared two main approaches to tsunami mitigation; hard style of seawalls; and soft style of vegetation bioshields. My design intervention at the end of this research combined both into one strategy as I did not believe one method is enough to account for all the possibilities. This design intervention for tsunami defence utilises sandbars and breakwaters designed to dissipate the energy of the large waves. Using multiple layers and angles to reÀect and deÀect the waves so that much of its destructive energy is dissipated, my design did not attempt to keep the waves out, but instead ‘accepted’ that it will occur and was designed to control how the wave passes through each layer of defence. Besides incorporating a hybrid seawall and bioshield, my design intervention also explore the opportunities in utilising and inhabiting the spaces formed by these structures, from human habitat to wildlife and vegetation.


CONCLUSION

{Please accept my thanks for reading the entire book}


CONCLUSION

My design research project investigates how a martial arts philosophy can be applied to the way we design for locations vulnerable to landslides. Through understanding the concept of ‘acceptance’ from Wing Chun Kung Fu, we are able to see landslides not only as a negative, but also as a positive. This shift in perception is integral in determining what sort of design approach a designer takes when designing with catastrophic landscape events. Through translating Wing Chun techniques into strategies for landslide interventions, I was able to experiment with different design techniques in order to generate design interventions for my site in San Marcos. Each iteration I experimented with revealed the effectiveness of the particular strategy it was working with, as well as any shortcomings. This allowed me to improve on certain aspects while testing other parts of the design proposal to understand how all the different strategies might operate together. In the end, I realised that a single strategy will not be enough to prepare for the unexpected nature of landslides; only when the different strategies are combined and implemented over a period of time, can a design truly be called adaptable and resilient. There is no single solution to disasters, as I don’t even believe in the idea of a solution; because it is a predetermined outcome made to solve a problem. If we perceive landslides and other catastrophe solely as problems, then we are not truly accepting them, and our design will become rigid; lacking Àexibility. To become able to respond to catastrophic events, we must not rely on preconceived and predetermined methods of practice. Only through being prepared (on many different levels) we are able to react to the unexpected. By suggesting a different approach to how we think about disasters and disaster interventions, I am advocating a different method of designing for, and with, catastrophic events; not to prevent and protect, but to accept and redirect.


Presentation/Exhibition

Demonstrating Wing Chun during the presentation, with assistance from my friend Kevin Yap

(Image credit goes to Marieluise Jonas)


Presentation/Exhibition

Final Exhibition Panels: 3.6 x 2.4 metres. Bottom Panels are angled for easier reading while standing

How can Wing Chun be applied to Landscape Architecture?


References

Web References AES: Aid El Salvador, NGO. 2011. AES: Aid El Salvador, NGO. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.aidelsalvador.org/news. php>. [Accessed 5 September 2011]. Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures associated with 2011Tohoku district - off the Paci¿c Ocean Earthquake, 2011. National Police Agency of Japan. [ONLINE] Available at: <http:// www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf.> [Accessed 4 November 2011]. Dave’s Landslide Blog: Some statistics on disasters worldwide. 2011. Dave’s Landslide Blog: Some statistics on disasters worldwide. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://daveslandslideblog. blogspot.com/2010/10/some-statistics-on-disasters-worldwide. html> [Accessed 25 September 2011]. Christchurch Earthquake | List of Deceased | New Zealand Police. 2011. Christchurch Earthquake | List of Deceased | New Zealand Police. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.police.govt.nz/listdeceased>. [Accessed 4 November 2011]. El Salvador - Climate. 2011. El Salvador - Climate. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://countrystudies.us/el-salvador/19.htm> [Accessed 25 September 2011]. El Salvador - Quality of Life. 2011. El Salvador - Quality of Life. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://countrystudies.us/el-salvador/34. htm> [Accessed 11 September 2011]. El Salvador NGO Resources. 2011. El Salvador NGO Resources. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.nonpro¿texpert.com/ countries/el%20salvador.htm>. [Accessed 5 September 2011]. Ganu, D,. 2010. Effects of Landslides [online publication] Available at: <http://www.scribd.com/doc/36273555/Effects-ofLandslides> [Accessed 13 June 2011] GeoNet – New Zealand Earthquake Report - Feb 22 2011 at 12:51 pm (NZDT). 2011. GeoNet – New Zealand Earthquake Report - Feb 22 2011 at 12:51 pm (NZDT). [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.geonet.org.nz/earthquake/quakes/3468575g.html>. [Accessed 4 November 2011] GIB, 2009. Why do people live on dangerous steep slopes in Guatemala? Landslides under Microscope [blog] Available at: <http://landslides-gib.blogspot.com/2009/06/why-do-people-liveon-dangerous-steep.html> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. Guadua Bamboo, 2011. What is Guadua Angustifolia Kunth? [online] Available at: <http://www.guaduabamboo.com/what-isguadua-angustifolia.html> [Accessed 16 May 2011]. International Sabo Network, 2004. Technical Guidelines [online] Available at: <http://www.sabo-int.org/projects/index.html> [Accessed 8 April 2011]. Irwin, S., 2010. Bamboo And Soil Erosion: Holding The Earth Together One Plant At A Time, Green Earth News [blog] Available at: <http://blog.greenearthbamboo.com/20100809/bamboothe-environment/bamboo-and-soil-erosion-holding-the-earthtogether-one-plant-at-a-time/> [Accessed on 11 June 2011]. Japanese Sabo Association, 2001. Sabo in Japan. Sabo Publicity Centre. [Online Publication] Available at: <http://www.mlit.go.jp/ river/sabo/panf/j_sabo/english/> [Accessed 8 April 2011]. Pruned, 2010. Disaster Tumuli. Pruned [blog] 15 June 2010, Available at: <http://pruned.blogspot.com/2010/06/disastertumuli.html> [Accessed 16 march 2011].

San Salvador: Weather from Answers.com. 2011. San Salvador: Weather from Answers.com. [ONLINE] Available at: <http:// www.answers.com/topic/san-salvador> [Accessed 11 September 2011]. SAPRIN - EL SALVADOR. 2011. SAPRIN - EL SALVADOR. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.saprin.org/elsalvador/elsalvador.htm>. [Accessed 5 September 2011]. The Game of Death (1978) - Memorable quotes. 2011. The Game of Death (1978) - Memorable quotes. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077594/quotes> [Accessed 24 September 2011]. Tim. 2004. Tim’s El Salvador Blog [blog] Available at: <http:// luterano.blogspot.com/search/label/Natural%20disasters> [Accessed 22 March 2011]. Tim. 2004. Tim’s El Salvador Blog: El Salvador’s slums. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://luterano.blogspot.com/2010/04/el-salvadorsslums.html> [Accessed 7 September 2011]. Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History. 2011. Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.accuweather.com/blogs/news/story/47459/top5-most-expensive-natural-d.asp.> [Accessed 4 November 2011]. UNDP El Salvador - Descargas | Pobreza | Documentos DH y ODM. 2011. UNDP El Salvador - Descargas | Pobreza | Documentos DH y ODM. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www. pnud.org.sv/2007/component/option,com_docman/task,cat_view/ gid,253/Itemid,99999999/?mosmsg=Est%E1+intentando+acced er+desde+un+dominio+no+autorizado.+%28luterano.blogspot. com%29> [Accessed 11 September 2011]. Wamsler, C. 2007 ‘Bridging the gaps: stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and ¿nancing for the urban poor’, Environment and Urbanization, [ONLINE] Available at: <http://eau.sagepub. com/content/19/1/115.full.pdf> [Accessed 11 September 2011] Wing Chun, 2009. Wing Chun Hands. wingchunonline.com [online] Available at: <http://www.wingchunonline.com/ Wingchun/Training_hands.html> [Accessed 13 June 2011].

Journals Geuze, A., 2009. Blue Isles Plan. Topos the International Review of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, 66, pp.36-41.


References

Image References [Bamboo cor] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://forest. ap.nic.in/JFM%20CFM/CFM/Special%20Reports/VSS%20 Worskhops%20on%20Bamboo%20Harvesting_¿les/image014. jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Bamboo cut] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://www. mastergardenproducts.com/guadua23jpg.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Bamboo plant harvest] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http:// www.guaduabamboo.com/image-¿les/bamboo-plantations.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Bamboo shoot] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://www. pyroenergen.com/articles/images/bamboo-shoot.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Bamboo timber] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://www. treehugger.com/cali-bamboo.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2010]. [Chi Sau] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://4.bp.blogspot. com/_lzJNRmq77t8/Su9xgj2sfnI/AAAAAAAAAB0/efc6fODFvK8/ s320/qgtw439l8q52iw97LRMqobiDo1_500.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Double Chi Sau] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://a7.sphotos.ak.fbcdn.net/photos-ak-snc1/ v3005/49/19/76171832349/n76171832349_1627788_4194186. jpg> [Accessed 11 August 2011]. [Giant Bamboo] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http:// markgeorge.net/saengkham/GiantBamboo.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Guadua Aug] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://www. guaduabamboo.com/image-¿les/guadua_forest.jpg> [Accessed 28 April 2011]. [Guatemala] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://4. bp.blogspot.com/_KgO4-IuCa4c/Si5vmCfnpII/AAAAAAAAA6I/ gIdSXC87phA/s400/guatemalla.jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Ip Man] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://www. appliedwingchunph.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/yipmandg. jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Landslide] 2001. [Photograph] Available at: <http:// monkeyinmymind.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/landslide. jpg> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [PRoF] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://media.nowpublic. net/images//51/8/518d355e792acf26f46fd01a0bf360a5.jpg> [Accessed 28 April 2011]. [Single hand CS1] n.d. [image online] Available at: <http://www. wingchunkungfu.de/images/danchi1.gif> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Single hand CS2] n.d. [image online] Available at: <http://www. wingchunkungfu.de/images/danchi2.gif> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [Single hand CS3] n.d. [image online] Available at: <http://www. wingchunkungfu.de/images/danchi3.gif> [Accessed 12 June 2011]. [SS Slum] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://1. bp.blogspot.com/_cJU3_HXGCe8/S9m69kpPQQI/AAAAAAAAAdc/ NK69E3qWI70/s1600/margin.jpg> [Accessed 9 August 2011].

[wu4] n.d. [Photograph] Available at: <http://4.bp.blogspot. com/_xHTglwaStcQ/TP4-TOGQc7I/AAAAAAAAAeg/7vP12o4zbKs/ s1600/wu4.jpg> [Accessed 3 November 2011].

Note [LS1], [LS2], [LS3] on page 13, [SDA] on page 14, are sourced from: ‘GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WARNING AND EVACUATION SYSTEM AGAINST SEDIMENT DISASTERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: BASIS OF SEDIMENT DISASTER’ GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, 2004. Technical Guideline: INTERNATIONAL SABO NETWORK, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.mlit.go.jp/sogoseisaku/inter/ keizai/gijyutu/pdf/sediment_e.pdf> [Accessed 9 April 2011]. [SM AUP] on page 10 is extracted from: ‘Mapa de Pobreza Urbana y Exclusión Social El Salvador. Volumen 2. Atlas. Localización de AUP.pdf’, which can be found here: UNDP El Salvador - Descargas | Pobreza | Documentos DH y ODM. 2011. UNDP El Salvador - Descargas | Pobreza | Documentos DH y ODM. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www. pnud.org.sv/2007/component/option,com_docman/task,cat_view/ gid,253/Itemid,99999999/?mosmsg=Est%E1+intentando+acced er+desde+un+dominio+no+autorizado.+%28luterano.blogspot. com%29> [Accessed 11 September 2011]. Top image on Page 31, Images on Pages 32, 33 are sourced from: Pruned, 2010. Disaster Tumuli. Pruned [blog] 15 June 2010, Available at: <http://pruned.blogspot.com/2010/06/disastertumuli.html> [Accessed 16 march 2011]. Middle image on Page 31, Images on Pages 34, 35 are sourced from: Geuze, A., 2009. Blue Isles Plan. Topos the International Review of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, 66, pp.36-41. Bottom image on Page 31, Images on Pages 36 - 39 are sourced from: Japanese Sabo Association, 2001. Sabo in Japan. Sabo Publicity Centre. [Online Publication] Available at: <http://www.mlit.go.jp/ river/sabo/panf/j_sabo/english/> [Accessed 8 April 2011]. Google earth images are used in the creation of some of the drawings, diagrams and mappings. Quotes: The quotes on acceptance on page 43 and 132 are available at: < http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/acceptance. html> The quote by Ip Man on page 17 is available at: <http://www.traditionalwingchunkungfu.com/History.html> All other images are created by the author (Zhipeng Cai).


Web References Barbey Thomas, 2011. Avalanche protection structures by Landslag ehf, Siglufjordur, Iceland. Vulgare [blog] 17 December 2008, Available at: <http://www.vulgare.net/avalancheprotection-structures-siglufjordur-iceland/> [Accessed 16 march 2011].

the_learners_1557> [Accessed 25 September 2011]

Baum, R. L., Godt, J. W. and Highland, L., 2008. “Landslide mapping in Seattle, Washington” in Landslides and Engineering Geology of the Seattle, Washington, Area. The Geological Society of America. [online e-book] Available at: <http://books.google. com.au/books?id=neA6HWzDUVQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onep age&q&f=falses> [Accessed 16 March 2011].

Jóhannesson, T., Gauer, P., Issler, P. and Lied, k., 2009. The design of avalanche protection dams. European Commission. [online publishing] Available at: <ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/ environment/docs/avalanche-protection.pdf> [Accessed 22 March 2011].

Brettcherry, 2010. How many people die from landslides? Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience Blog [blog] Available at: <http:// ihrrblog.org/2010/11/25/how-many-people-die-from-landslides/> [Accessed 11 June 2011]. California Geological Survey, 2003. Hazards From “Mudslides”... Debris Avalanches and Debris Flows in Hillside and Wild¿re Areas [Online Publication] (November 2003) Available at: <http://ftp// ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/CA/programs/EWP/MudslideHazards.pdf> [Accessed 16 march 2011]. Chung, W., 2011, Wing Chun and the Principles and Philosophy of Design by Instructor Wilfred Chung [online] Available at: <http:// www.wingchun.edu.au/media/wing-chun-articles/students-andinstructors/wing-chun-principles-philosophy-design/> [Accessed 22 March 2011]. Davis, M., 2006. Planet of Slums. [Online publication interview] Available at: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.15405842.2006.00797.x/pdf> [Accessed 22 March 2011]. Earthtrends, 2003. Forests, Grasslands, and Drylands - El Salvador, EarthTrends Country Pro¿les. [Online publication] Available at: <http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_ pro¿les/for_cou_222.pdf> [Accessed 16 May 2011]. El Salvador . 2011. El Salvador . [ONLINE] Available at: <http:// travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1109.html>. [Accessed 11 November 2011]. Fujikawa Sabo, 2011. Outline of Sabo Projects 2007. [online] Available at: <http://www.ktr.mlit.go.jp/fujikawa/english/project/ index.html> [Accessed 9 April 2011]. Grímsdóttir, H., 2008. Avalanche hazard mapping and risk assessment in Iceland [online Publication] Icelandic Meteorological Of¿ce, Avalanche Research Center, IS-400 Ísafjörður, ICELAND. Available at: <http://arc.lib.montana.edu/ snow-science/objects/P__8224.pdf> [Accessed 16 march 2011]. Hargreaves Associates, 2011, GUADALUPE RIVER PARK [online] Available at: <http://www.hargreaves.com/projects/PublicParks/ GuadalupeRiverPark/> [Accessed 16 March 2011]. Horelli, J. A., 2005. Landslides in Hong Kong. [online thesis] Available at: <http://ethesis.helsinki.¿/julkaisut/maa/talou/pg/ horelli/landslid.pdf> [Accessed 24 May 2011]. Human Rights Watch, 2004. El Salvador: Child Labor on Sugar Plantations. hrw.org [online] Available at: <http://www.hrw.org/ en/news/2004/06/09/el-salvador-child-labor-sugar-plantations> [Accessed 16 may 2011]. In times of change the learners will inherit the earth, - Eric Hoffer quote. 2011. In times of change the learners will inherit the earth, - Eric Hoffer quote. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www. saidwhat.co.uk/quotes/famous/eric_hoffer/in_times_of_change_

International Sabo Network, 2004. International Sabo Association. [online] Available at: <http://www.sabo-int.org/projects/index. html> [Accessed 8 April 2011].

Mathema, P. and Joshi, J., 2011. Assessment of smallscale landslide treatment in Nepal [Online publication] Available at: <www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/ download/3502/3024> [Accessed 8 April 2011]. Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters | GFDRR. 2011. Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters | GFDRR. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.gfdrr.org/gfdrr/nhud-home> [Accessed 25 September 2011]. News and Information for the International Disaster Community, 2001. DISASTERS PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION IN THE AMERICAS. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.paho.org/ english/ped/ped401e.pdf>. [Accessed 2 September 2011] Palsgraaf, P., 2005. City upon a Chicken. Pruned [blog] (17 February 209) Available at: <http://pruned.blogspot. com/2009/02/city-upon-chicken.html> [Accessed 23 march 2011]. Petley Dave, 2011. The Landslide Blog [blog] Available at: <http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/> [Accessed 11 June 2011]. Popescu, M. E. and Sasahara, K., 2011 Engineering Measures for Landslide Disaster Mitigation [online publication] Available at: <http://www.geoengineer.org/Popescu_Sasahara_Ch32.pdf> [Accessed 8 April 2011]. Progressive Wing Chun Milton Keynes . 2011. Progressive Wing Chun Milton Keynes . [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www. progressivewingchunmk.co.uk> [Accessed 24 September 2011]. Quick Response Report # 142 - Disaster and Development: El Salvador 2001 . [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.colorado. edu/hazards/research/qr/qr142/qr142.html>. [Accessed 11 November 2011]. Rae, A., 2002. Update on Recent Volcanoes and Earthquakes, Geo¿le online. [online publication] Available at: <http://www. geographylwc.org.uk/A/A2/A2tectonics/pdf/gf417.pdf> [Accessed 22 March 2011]. Rose, W. I., 2004. Natural Hazards in EL Salvador. Geological Society of America. [online e-book] Avilable at: <http://books. google.com/books/about/Natural_hazards_in_El_Salvador. html?id=j52TYoUOUjMC> [Accessed 16 March 2011]. Rozell, N,. 1998. Avalanches, Landslides, Good For Some, Alaska Science Forum. [Online article] Available at: <http://www2. gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF13/1393.html> [Accessed 13 June 2011] Sanyal, S., 2010. Reinventing Slums: No Home Left Behind. indiatoday.in [online] 11 September. Available at: <http:// indiatoday.intoday.in/site/story/reinventing-slums-no-home-leftbehind/1/112196.html> [Accessed 16 march 2011].


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books Schuster, R. and Highland, M. L., 2011. Impact of Landslides and Innovative Landslide-Mitigation Measures on the Natural Environment, Colorado, U.S.A. [online publication] Available at: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/op/HongKongJuly/HongKongJuly21sm. pdf> [accessed 13 June 2011]. Tækker, C., 2010, ORANGE TREES TO STOP MUDSLIDES. Cowi [online] (24 March 2011). Available at: <http://www.cowi.com/ menu/specialfeatures/Water/Orangetreestostopmudslides/Pages/ default.aspx> [Accessed 16 March 2011]. Tellman, E. 2011 Community Resilience and Hurricane Ida: How Marginalized Salvadorans Lacking NGO and Governmental Support Cope with Climate Shock. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www. ehs.unu.edu/¿le/get/5412>. [Accessed 23 August 2011]. The Association of Chartered Engineers in Iceland, 2008, International Symposium on Mitigative Measures against Snow Avalanches [online publication] Egilsstaðir, Iceland. Available at: <http://andvari.vedur.is/snjoÀod/varnarvirki/ EgilsstadirProceedingsEAbstractsRS.pdf> [Accessed 16 March 2011]. The Live Dummy. 2011. The Live Dummy. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.wingchun.org/viewpt/one/2/vp1-2n.html> [Accessed 24 September 2011]. Usher Shaun, 2007. Incredible engineering: the maeslant storm surge barrier. deputydog [blog] (26 November 2007), Available at: <http://deputy-dog.com/2007/11/incredible-engineeringmaeslant-storm.html> [Accessed 6 march 2011]. What Is Urban Upgrading?. 2011. What Is Urban Upgrading?. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/ upgrading/whatis/what-is.html> [Accessed 11 September 2011] Wing Chun Kuen. 2011. Wing Chun Kuen. [ONLINE] Available at: <http://www.wingchun-kuen.com/forms.htm> [Accessed 23 September 2011]

Buck, N D 2001, ‘Continuous Space in the Urban Landscape’ in Responding to Chaos: tradition, technology, society, and order in Japanese Design, Taylor & Francis, London. van Ginneken, Wouter (1999) Social security for the excluded majority. Geneva: International labour of¿ce. Hall, Anthony and Midgley, James (2004) Social policy for development. London: Sage publications. Kerr, A 2001, ‘Demons: The Philosophy of Monuments’ in Dogs and Demons: The Fall of Modern Japan, Penguin, UK. Kerr, A 2001, ‘Environments: Cedar Plantations and Orange Ooze’ in Dogs and Demons: The Fall of Modern Japan, Penguin, UK. Of¿ce of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (1984) “Disaster prevention and mitigation- A compendium of current knowledge” Volume 11, Preparedness aspects. New York: United Nations. Rose, W. I., 2004. Natural Hazards in El Salvador. Geological Society of America.

Journals Davidson, Colin H; Johnson, Cassidy; Lizarralde, Gonzalo; Dikmen, Nese and Sliwinski, Alicia (2007) “Truths and myths about community participation in post-disaster projects” in Habitat International. Fernández, Gabriela; Verdejo, Guadalupe (2001) “Earthquakes in El Salvador” in Epidemiological Bulletin. Glanville, R 1999, Re-searching Design and Designing Research, CybernEthics Research, UK, pp. 1-14. Harada, K & Imamura, F 2005, ‘Effects of Coastal Forest on Tsunami Hazard Mitigation — A Preliminary Investigation’, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, vol. 23, part 2, pp. 279-292. Tanaka, N 2009, ‘Vegetation bioshields for tsunami mitigation: review of effectiveness, limitations, construction, and sustainable management’, Landscape and Ecological Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71-79.

Acknowledgements Special thanks to Kevin Yap for assisting me during my presentation as my demonstration partner. Thanks to Jen Luong, Zhi Yan Cai, Kevin Yap, Agnes Soh, Christina Ting, Tech Yann Ooi and other fellow students who helped me in preparing and setting up my exhibition and presentation. Thanks to family and friends who supported me throughout this year and for the past 5 years.

Cover inspired by Kung Fu manuals.

(wu4, n.d.)



Zhipeng Cai MLA 2011