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The Jak Mania (Re)designing cities through slums Masters of Landscape Architecture Matthew Hamilton 2011

How can we develop new models of urban design through an understanding and appreciation of the existing human relationships with site? Acceptance of slums in our urban

They are the foundation of the

environment is the first step towards

cultural construct that exists within

reconsidering the way that we design

these informal settlements, shaped

our cities.

individually by their distinct urban context.

Through the understanding of the unique nature and spatial operations

By engaging with a cross section of

of slum communities and recognition

these variables; landscape typology,

of their place within a greater system,

location and time, it became evident

we as landscape architects, can

that there is a very strong link

begin to create a design approach

between the age of establishment

that operates across the different

and the health of the settlement.

social and infrastructural scales.

By recognising these relationship between time, landscape typology

I have been testing the correlation

and kampong health, opportunities

between location and opportunity

for new hybrid typologies and social

whilst exploring the individual nature

infrastructures emerge.

of informal settlements within one of Asia’s mega cities. By actively engaging








Kampongs in Jakarta; Luar Batang,

there is no singular outcome, that the

Ciliwung, Gembrong Gaplok and

opportunities that design can bring

Petamburan I have been able to

are dependent on the recognition of

establish an approach that focuses

the existing relationships within site.

on the importance of the existing

By allowing ourselves as designers to

relationships between persons and

build on the existing site relationships,


instead of trying to create them, new urban typologies are able to form.

The notion that location equals

Using the Jakarta 2030 spatial master

opportunity is a defining factor in the

plan as a lost opportunity, my design

identification of design possibilities.


Micro economies, religion, sport,

how by designing with the existing

education and living are all social

relationships, no matter how foreign

functions that inform a relationship

can produce new urban typologies

with site.

that nurture opportunity.






Slum as a landscape typology The Asian mega city Jakarta 2030


1 2 3 Approach 5 Location as opportunity 5 Precedents 6 Past work positioning _ f2b design studio 8 Jakarta spatial master Plan 10 Petamburan 15 Process 17 Immersing as process 17 Original site 18 Design reflection 19 The Jak Mania 31 Finding Site 31 Intent 32 Accept Accelerate Cultivate 33 Site summary 34 Ciliwung 39 Ciliwung walk 41 Ciliwung Kampong 42 Site Relationships 45 Accepting 46 Gembrong Gaplok 57 Gembrong gaplok kampong 58 Mobile bike school 61 2030 Indicators 62 Site relationships 63 Accelerating 64 Bike School Build & Evolution 72 Luar Batang 77 Luar Batang Kampong 78 2030 Indicators 80 Site relationships 81 Cultivating 82 Project Implementation 93 Project Summary 95 Conclusion 97 Acknowledgments 99 Bibliography 101

INTRODUCTION Slum as a landscape typology ‘Kampong’




translates to ‘urban village’. These Kampongs or informal settlements exist within the cracks of the greater urban environment. They are diverse, social economic micro cultures. They are slums. I believe that even though these settlements consist of shelter which could be considered within the realm of architecture, they also possess a unique relationship to landscape. They could be considered a typology of landscape. Adaptation, fluctuation, compression and expansion are all qualities of landscape. They are also all qualities of these settlements. These spaces are not stagnant, they move and flow with the forces around them. They are an extension of nature through the most basic needs of humans. They are not set in stone with a projected life span, they can last the life of the city and indeed become a city if given the opportunity.


Luar batang

The Asian mega city The Asian mega city has given rise to new a new urban typology that has never before existed to the extent that it does today. Urban population is at its greatest point in human history and if the trend continues the urban landscape will need to evolve just as rapidly. “In 1965 the urban population of Asia was in the order of 430 million, with 1.5 billion people living in rural situations. Today the urban population is about 1.2 billion, and by 2025 the urban population is projected to soar to a staggering 2.5 billion people�, (Robins & El - Khoury, 2004). These numbers represent a significant quantitative change to the human element of cities, yet to what extent have these mega cities begun to adapt to this human influx?




Jakarta 2030 Jakarta is firmly situated within the preceding




mega cities, with a conservative population estimate at 10 million. The governmental 2030 spatial master plan attempts to outline very specific ways of addressing this perceived problem The Jakarta Post (09 Jan, 2010) suggest that the draft (spatial master plan) says that for vertical housing

Gembrong Gaplok

in the new reclaimed area, Kelapa Gading and Penjaringan in North Jakarta is for those from the middleto high-income bracket. It also says low-cost apartments will be built in slum areas around the Tanjung Priok




Koja, Cilincing, Pademangan and in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This approach is common within the cities push for economic growth. It disregards the existing cultures and relationships that exist within







understanding of the affordability of living and is ignorant of the driving social





location as opportunity. 3


APPROACH Location as opportunity A common assumption by many is

legitimizing it, and in turn securing

that the opportunities that exist within

its continued existence. Landscape

informal settlement are very minimal,

architecture is uniquely positioned to

and that these places are a negative

use design as a creator of opportunity,

asset to the urban environment. The

to stimulate or accelerate this natural

solution, such as the proposal in the


2030 Jakarta master plan is vertical

within or around the existing location.

housing. What needs to be recognised

As kaliski states in Opportunistic

is that whilst the person is re-locatable

Urbanism, “when the designer begins

the culture is not. This is what a

with everyday reality and defines

kampong cultivates and nurtures that

it as beautiful, existing situations

a high-rise concrete tower cannot. The

become a starting point rather than a

opportunity to make money, socialise

stumbling block, reality as opposed to

and practice religion exists within

utopian stability, provides inspiration�

the existing settlement. The level of

(Kaliski 1998, p.107). By approaching

this opportunity is related to the age

each kampong as a different site

of the established settlement. By

with different requirements, dynamic

recognising this relationship with time

design interventions can begin to

and social opportunity, a stimulation

operate on a range of scales. From the

of the existing or surrounding can

intimate opportunities for education

progresses these communities into

to the large scale networks and

a legitimate state. With the help of

processes that provide opportunities

NGO’s there have been excellent

not just for one demographic but for

examples of informal settlements

the entire city.



becoming hives of economic activity and cultural melting pots. Simple interventions such as public toilets and water catchments have the ability to improve an environment, 5


Void Design

Precedents Elemental Studios Elemental Studios social housing project in Chile is an extremely important precedent for this approach to design. The project celebrates the ability of the residence in creating their sense of place, and the importance location has to stability, economy and culture. By stripping this project back to the basic building armature it becomes viable for government funding, essential in the realisation

Designed armature for personal . Image: Ruby, 2008.

of a project of this nature. Although my approach moves away from single purpose architecture and into hybrid




layered system, the opportunity for personalisation and appropriation is something that is fundamental for a successful outcome.

Personalising of void space. Image: ibid 6

Consumerism USA Waste


Waste Waste


Product Manufac f turing


Waste Waste

By Product

Local Appropriation

Teddy Cruze Teddy Cruze is a San Diego based designer




potential of the emergence and “design construction” techniques of informal settlements. His practice -“exposes local zones of conflict as Instrumental in redefining the meaning of architectural intervention in the global contemporary city” (RamirezLovering, 2008) ‘Manufactured Sites’ address this sometimes sticky situation through what is a systems approach, it is local in scale and feeds off existing conditions such as factory location, labour and modular structure for construction. Yet, the idea for the design is more important and powerful than the produced outcome. Teddy Cruze is demonstrating that through a local understanding of commerce, labour and construction a simple system could be implemented that would assist in the construction and built integrity of community housing in I Images: Ramirez R i - lovering l i 2008

the area. 7

Parque Farroupilha

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

o de futebol

Parca J

Jardim dim Botanico Bo

Campo de futebol

Clube Farrap pos dos Oficiais da Brigada d Militar

Hosp. universitario daa P PUC


Hospital p Sao Lucas


Parca Darcy Azambuja

Past work positioning _ f2b design studio During F2B studio I was introduced to the design challenges of designing for high density urban environments that contain informal settlements. In this case the site was the city of Porto Alegra, Brazil. Early on in the attempt to understand the site from afar, -another design challenge that I was


again introduce to- we discovered a strategic example of settlement eviction, being the use of car parks as the catalyst for the eviction of informal settlements. (See image on right). We discovered examples of this economic pressure pushing on the established informal settlement within the city, and so, it became the main driver for the design project.

2009 Through out this project I became increasingly interested in the role that

continued to grow, which it would.

the residence of these settlements

I was especially fascinated by the

have within a city. Their need for a

opportunistic or innovative examples

local residence to live and earn money

of living that comes with the critical

was evident, as was the obvious

mass that exists within mega cities.

scavenging of materials that would become increasingly important to the cities functionality as the population 8

Red = car park Blue = Informal settlement


2009 The above images are a time laps demonstration of the opportunistic and innovative cannibalization of an abandoned factory. Clear desire lines develop into established pathways whist the re distribution of the materiality of the factory throughout the settlement is evident.

Note: All f2b work was done in partnership with Niki Schwabe


Jakarta spatial master Plan All four areas of study are located within the ‘high intensity’ are on the ‘Guidance for Prospective Economic Zone Development’.



1. Ciliwung 2. Gembrong Gapolok

2 1

3. Luar Batang 4. Petamburan. Due






settlement, all economic activity that exist within the site is considered illegal and therefore is not considered within this top down planning approach. The ‘Guidance for Residential Zone Development Program’ indicates a large amount of new development


and full area ‘restoration’ in the Luar Batang region. Ciliwung, Petamburan and Gembrong Gaplok are zoned under ‘revitalization’ which is vague description at best.

Images: / 25/10/10 10


2 1

The ‘Guidance for spatial utilization plan’ (above left) indicates a huge amount of economic input into the north shore region of Jakarta. This area currently consists of a mixture of 3

formal and informal economic, living and social programs. This spatial plan demonstrates the desire for more land and large scale economic progress. Luar Batang kampong is zoned for ‘housing & public buildings’. However the expense of new accommodation often leaves the existing residence without a satisfactory relocation plan. Ciliwung and Gembrong Gaplok are


on the edge of ‘Residential and Public Building’ planning zones.


Images: / 25/10/10 11




Petamburan P etamburan Test



PROCESS Immersing as process Prior to first hand site experience my design outcomes were based on assumptions and researched theory. This was a fundamentally important process in discovering how to design for these environments. Designing from afar had a limited outcome in this context due to the human relationships that exist between the city and the sites. They exist so profoundly in experience that no level of reading can hope to deliver the intricate details that can be discovered. At this stage designs can be grounded through precedents and theory only. By taking the outcomes of this process to site, the gap between design proposition and




became clear. By immersing myself into this environment, and being able to critically analyse my previous work, I was able to develop an approach that addressed the kampongs needs, and the cities at a variety of scales.


Original site

Petamburan is located west of central Jakarta. This particular settlement rests between two rail lines and off a major canal. It was my site for the first half of my research which dealt with the issues that came with designing from afar. I will aim to demonstrate my design strategies and offer analysis as to their level of success based on the second stage of my research process.


Design reflection

Phase I Armature Considering





Dovey in Becoming Places, “There is a tendency to target high profile settlements that are visible from major transport routs for eviction� (2010, p83), and the armature design method from Elemental, I was able to determine a starting point for a design intervention. Focusing on the temporal nature and location of the settlement I began to develop my design focusing on, on-site resettlement and personal construction.


This idea of building armature and separation proved strong enough to further develop. The programs that it could support, location and its form would need to reflect existing relationships on the ground. At this stage the design is still functioning singularly. By this I mean there is yet to be any consideration of conditions and needs outside of this site. By taking this idea of the armature and understanding



exits with the rail line already and the needs of the city the design can start to become

provocative towards a

rethinking of infrastructure. 20




1. Entering the site of the main road, the concrete wall is the governments response to the 2002 floods.


2. Trains pass through as often as every 15 minutes 3. The interior of this rail line is used for storing belongings 4. Water delivery service in action. (Right track) 5. Evicted from the waters edge in 2002, this woman has lived here for the past 9 years and is preparing for her next eviction. 21

Phase II Flood as opportunity. Flood as opportunity was in response to the architectural approach taken in ‘Armature’. The desire to use landscape as a driver was fundamental to this design. Though the site would not facilitate this design, the overlays that start to happen are an important step in understanding relationships between,



typologies, site and people. 22

Dry season



Phase III Water When it Matters. Water when it matters was driven by the need to have an immediate impact on the established settlement. The intent for the design was there, yet the inability to understand the existing conditions on the ground makes the design more conceptual that practical.



‘Water when it matters’ is an excellent example of design that arises from a theory and assumption. The area where this design is located is a kampong that is over 150 years old. It is established and has adequate access to tanked water as well as public toilet infrastructure. The micro


economies are strong, people are happy in their location and there are plenty of children. This kampong functions well and should be dealt with accordingly. Design interventions should be aimed at children and education areas, with the intent to provide a legitimate possibility in


generational change. The obvious differences that exist between this area and the rail line are reason enough for them to be addressed differently. The rail line could benefit from a design interventions that would ‘accelerate, it towards a similar level


of acceptance that exit here. 1. Public toilet infrastructure provide by NGO’s 2. Government census sticker 3. Small restaurant at the entrance to the kampong 4. On site micro economies were strong. 5. Excited children within the streets of the kampong 25






THE JAK MANIA Finding Site Through the experience of designing




existing relationship and my desire

from afar, the fundamental importance

intended to immerse myself within the

to understand these places that

of being able to immerse myself

environment that I was attempting to

pushed my research in this direction.

within site became the next integral

design for. This, I knew, was vital to

The remainder of this document

stage in my research. The process

my research.


of establishing a connection and

Through an extensive internet search


building a relationship with my Jakarta

I discovered a news article in an

design responses to site.

liaison, Ronny Poluan, of ‘Jakarta

American online media outlet that

Ronny and his wife Anika were

Hidden Tours’ happen organically

ran the headline, “Jakarta Man Leads

integral to my research as they acted

over time., following online research.

Slums Tours to Raise Awareness,

as a guides, translators and friends,

In reflection of this process, the

Money”, this was my first knowledge

allowing me to unearth amazing details

importance of Ronny to my work, this

of Ronny.

about each site, such as the bamboo

form of social interaction and one

As I had based my early research on

life cycle that drove my Luar Batang

to one information and relationship

a very specific site, Petamburan, in

response. These relationships, have

building cannot be overlooked. This

Jakarta, I was extremely interested

the power to increase the opportunity

relationship buildiing is an area of my

in critiquing this design work on the

for actual interventions that can effect

practice that I am extremely proud of,

ground. This essentially was how I

change, to move away from the

and I feel is fundamentally important

expressed my interest to Ronny.

speculative and towards a realistic

to my design process and outcomes.

Although Ronny had never been


However it is also something that,

to the specific Kampong that I was

garden or Jak Manias’ mobile school.

without purpose, can be withheld

interested in, he was none the less

from the narrative of my work.


Finding sites is a simple narrative of

suggested three more sites that had

how The Jak Mania came to be.

a strong, existing relationship with his







journey, and

experience, opportunistic

such as the education


organization. This was the point that

“My idea is how a person, like an Indonesian

Ciliwung, Luar Batang and Galam

person, meets with another person, comes

Gaplok became connected to me and

together to see and then talk to each other and

my research. It was through Ronny’s

they can share what is their life,” – Ronny Poluan. 31

Intent My approach aims to demonstrate that the cultural, social and economic opportunities that exist within the poor social class are fundamentally important to the city. The existing relationships that exist, no matter how foreign, need to be considered as an integral and unique opportunity to help inform design. A bottom up design approach, with a desire to rethink existing infrastructure and that understands the social requirements of the population is the foundation for the adaptation and transformation of the urban environment. By hybridising existing




accommodate growth and to nurture informal settlements into a stable and legal environment


Accept Accelerate Cultivate Accept



Accepting recognises the existing

Accelerating recognises the need for

Cultivating recognises the existing



infrastructural design interventions

ability of a site to continue to grow

kampong. Design interventions are

that address extreme environments

and support itself and facilitates

aimed at education and services.

with the aim to move out of the

that process through systems. This

Public toilets, water tanks, drainage




process allows for the organic nature

and education aim to foster an




of the site to guide it. It is the aim that

environment capable of projecting the

armatures, access and networks

next generation out of poverty.







‘cultivating’ will lead into ‘accepting’.


to advance from the extremely poor living conditions. It is the aim that ‘accelerating’ will lead into ‘cultivating’.


Site summary Although these sites are different in





establishment, they all have a common thread that binds them together. They are all classified as illegal by the government and therefore open to eviction without resettlement at any moment. The theory of eviction due to visibility is in action at present and is in fact the case with Gembrong Gaplok, which will be the first to be evicted. Luar Batang has been zoned for warehousing and high density vertical living in the Jakarta 2030 master plan, Ciliwung, public buildings and housing.








37 37


Ciliwung Accept

Welcome to the Ciliwung. Two hundred

again I continue down towards the

in school uniform walking past with the

years in existence. Think on this, what

river, I can smell it approaching, muggy

same disinterested stares that come

that means for culture, community, for

and stagnant. I look up to the Victorian

only from girls that age. Interesting

language. Think on this‌. A tofu factory

balcony next to its wooden ad hock

though, that the demographic should

filled with hot, sweaty men working to

neighbour, so different yet similar all the

be so diverse, never one but many.

fill the streets with fresh produce, daily.

same. Again I smell food, thick with the

We continue left, down, left, down,

Shirts off, working, sweating, making. I

scent of spice in the air.

right, again two hundred years comes

step out, the air is cool on my face, I

Ah, the word is out, I hear them coming,

back to me, a notice board, a mosque.

know this illusion won’t last, I savour it

1, 3, 7 more even, laughter, always

Silence, is that silence? No not silence,

and observe the street. Narrow, steep

laughter. This language, laughter, we

just the thankful absence of noise that is

no stairs, there are never any stairs.

should never forget. I continue through

the Jakarta traffic‌.

Plants, there are always plants. Hot

the settlement, noticing two young girls 39


2 40

Ciliwung walk Ciliwung Exit




2 1

Ciliwung Walk 1. Entrance into Rt.005 RW.010. This essentially stands for a registered neighbourhood. The following journey down toward the Ciliwung River aims to demonstrate the diversity within these neighbourhoods. The line blurs between legal and illegal. 2. Running parallel to the river at this point, the streets are busy with activity. Although the structures are ad hock the area is clean and welcoming. Micro economy on wheels. 3. This man’s makes a living ferrying people across the river. There is a real pride in his work, with an obvious demand.


4. Deeper in the Kampong,across the river and heading away from the river. This small garden is an example of the pride that exists. The garden became a excellent barometer as to the health and establishment of the kampongs. This kampong was well maintained and had plants squeezed into every possible crack. 41

Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Off location micro economy. Income is generated outside of kampong.

Established settlement.

On site opportunities intervention.




Ciliwung Kampong





Ciliwung Kampong

Established kampong

1. Potential site for social infrastructure design. This space has be vacant for near on three years. There is an understanding of the importance of this space yet the opportunities that can work towards preserving this ‘void’ have yet to be considered.

200 years old Vibrant micro economies operate within and out of the kampong Facing possible eviction due to new high rise zoning in the Jakarta 2030 spatial plan Clean and socially diverse

2. Men working in a tofu factory within the kampong. The tofu from here works it’s way around the city, drawing invisible connection with the kampong and greater Jakarta.


3. A well worn community notice board demonstrates a great level of self governance and organisation. 4. Small garden often reflect the ‘nature’ or ‘health’ of a Kampong. 5. Two school girls walk through the Kampong on their way home. Not all children have the opportunity to go to a funded school. 6. Open air market space faces out to the main street and bridge access point.


7. Ciliwung River.




Education and opportunity




Site Relationships

Tofu and the city

This tofu manufacturer has operated out of this location within the Ciliwung kampong





relationship that this business has with the city can be traced through it ‘s invisible links. They sell their product whole sale to various restaurants and vendors’ which operate within the city. Dependent on the vendor, his path may change effectively covering a greater expanse of the city over time. This in turn links a greater percentage of Jakarta to this kampong without City

them even being aware of the process happening. It is only by looking at

Tofu Maker

what cannot be obviously seen that such details begin to emerge.




1. Education and opportunity mapping indicating that with the kampong there is another layer of social hierarchy. The opportunity that education offers should not be underestimated. 2. Mapping of the tofu distribution throughout the city starting at it’s creation point in Ciliwung kampong. 45



BED 01.

BED 02.

BED 03.


Entrance ramp. Section B


Accepting The establish nature of the Ciliwung kampong






settlement that through its own system of management has been able to create a dynamic, healthy living environment. Although considered a slum due to the informal nature of the settlement, there are obvious levels 2

of governance that exist within the

Section A

space. A RW or Community Council regulates the building of new houses, and new residence must meet certain criteria, either social or financial. The micro economies that exist are predominately food oriented, from tofu making, kiosks or food venders that may or may not operate on or off site. Although this kampong is the most established of all three sites and has a self-supporting nature it is still a slum. The people are still poor and the opportunities for escape are slim.


Yet it is by recognising the established

Section B

nature of this kampong that design can begin to offer opportunities within the site.


Images. 1. Sketch design for education garden vision 2. Storage shed with vertical growing opportunities, located next to a living bamboo shade seat for teaching. 3.. Entrance ramp cut from existing landscape, with extracted sol used for basic vegetable garden beds.


Education Garden “......happy with your sketch, with

The uncertainty of how to maintain or

basic environmental education and

ensure the current open aired nature of

human social interaction, I think a very

the specific block within the Ciliwung

good base, first for children, and can

Kampong inspired this social design


intervention. To ensure that this void

I really hope we can make the project’.

remains open, a dynamic socially


important ‘place’ needs to be created. best, Ronny

By focusing on hands on creation and participation through plants and open aired education for the children that are unable to attend funded schools, creates a very specific spatial hierarchy. “The landscape in


which children find themselves is the staging ground for their imagination, their story, their sense of the world” (Blair, 2009) By generating programs within the site opportunities may arise for further development through NGOs,



Ultimately to reach the standard of


living that was demonstrated at the Petamburan Kampong. This project is in partnership with Ronny Poluan of Jakarta Hidden Tours, the previously Images. 1. Vision of education garden 2. Site in kampong for intervention 3 - 5. Testing idea at community gardens in Abbotsford with students from Shelford Girls Grammar

mentioned not for profit organisation dedicated to social progression within Jakarta’s Kampongs

5 47


ficus spp.


Musa spp spp. pp. pp

Passiflora edulis

Growing Gro owing suggestions

Allium cepa

Allium Sativum

Brassica oleracea capitata

Brassica rap rapa pa

Brassica spp.

Capsicum annum

Cucumis sativa

Cucurbita pepo

Glycine Glyc y ine soja j

Phaseolus vulgaris

Vegetables Vegetables

Rheum Rh R he eu um rhabarbarum rha rh ab bar arba baru rum


Solanum melongena

Spinacia p oleracea

BENEFITS On location school and learning environment Social space Immediate

Recreation Space Secures open environment Production

Stimulation through collaboration and implementation

Help finance construction through hands on social programs and opportunities

NGO’S - Jakarta Hidden Tours

Build Awareness


Stimulate further opportunities through networks

- Research - Study tours - Funding

Secondary Drinking water programs Public toilet infrastructure (Petamburan example) Services: Power, drainage, sewer ect


Infrastructure for continued growth

This diagram maps out the immediate effects of this design on both the physical ‘place’ and the projected relationships that are created. The immediate impact followed up by the possibilities of further social infrastructures make this design a catalyst for opportunity. 49






55 5


Gembrong Gaplok Accelerate

“How old?”


of a rail line been considered a space

“Ten years, maybe ten years”.

In the middle of the two

tracks this

for living. Yet here I stand, next to tree

Hot dry gritty air blows past my face.

time as the train goes past, faster,

children that have known no different.

Noise all around me, we wait. So close

louder too. Not loud enough though, to

This relationship, what to make of it?

I could reach out and touch the train

silence the three boys jumping on each

Back on the track, following a train like

as it lumbers past me. We wait, ten,

other at my feet. How old I wonder five,

its second nature. Fifty, one hundred,

twenty maybe thirty seconds till the train

seven? Hard to tell, less than ten, that’s

maybe four hundred meters till I see our

rolls past in a back draft of hot air and

for certain. What is it about this space

destination, an exit from this place.

rubbish. Such a foreign thing to do, to

that is so fascinating? So depressing?

I’ll never forget the feeling of steeping

use an urban train track as a path, but

What is it about this relationship,

through that crumbling, broken down

when I look around it makes sense.

between man and their environment?

piece of concrete…

How else would we enter this place?

This environment, this infrastructure

No plants here, how interesting, that

of a city that now supports life. Never

such a simple observation can say so

before in human history has the interior 57

Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Temporal living structures, tents ect. Squat

Established settlement.

On site opportunities. Privately funded school


Gembrong gaplok kampong



4 3 2 1





Gembrong Gaplok

Young temporal squat.

1. Cross section of site. The middle void is used for storage, play and sporadically for living. The rail itself is used for transit. The wall is the first attempt by the government to remove living space, as you can see it failed. This entire space is up for eviction without relocation







immanent. Poor cross access, rail area acts as a channel. This is an extreme location with a very poor demographic

2. A couple of boys playing in between the tracks. They have known no other living environment, their relationship with the rail lines is one of instinct.


3. Wall and middle void offer the best opportunity for design. 4. This couple live between the train line and have done for the past 9 years. When asked where he would relocate once evicted his response was unsure. 5. Charity funded school located through the wall, offers free education and support to families and children. The location is fixed reducing the number of children that can benefit from the program.


6. Entry point into the rail kampong. The intersections often locate a merge from one rail spatial typology to another. 7. The first exit point from the rail kampong. This hole in the wall provides a necessary crossing point. Separation by the wall allows for an instant benefit in living environment.






3 Image: 1. ‘Things on wheels’ precedents. Hot food, rides, ice cream and pet sales. The opportunities for business increase when you are mobile . 2. Understanding the importance of a micro network infrastructure for the support of mobile social programs within the region.


3. By increasing the opportunity for student access through mobility education can have a greater impact on the region.


Mobile bike school Observing the great ease with wich that informal mobile micro economies operated informed the development of the bike school concept. This was a way of addressing the lack of On


opportunity for education within the


funded school

Gembrong Gaplok region. Through studying existing ‘live’ precedents Possible school location

on the ground in Jakarta. The idea to hybridise a school with a bike created was the foundation of the next design. Access and networks become




important infrastructures if they start supporting social programs such as mobile schools. Mobile school network Rail path entry / exit intersection

Hybrid rail infrastructure for increased mobility

Image: 1. Bike school concept drawing. 2. By hybridising the rail infrastructure with bike infrastructure the opportunity for social programs to embed themselves within informal settlement increases. Existing rail network 61

2030 Indicators The great equalizer of Jakarta is the traffic. This is of high priority within the spatial master plan, with Olivia Stinson suggesting in Expat Indonesia that “the city could reach total gridlock in the streets by 2016” (2010, p36). To

address this issue the Spatial

Master Plan focuses on toll roads, traffic





increase in rail infrastructure. The plans on the left indicate no vision for bike infrastructure, a tested, affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport. The question that presents itself is whether the new rail system will become a replica of the existing relationships that exist in Gembrong Gaplok or if a ‘new’ typology can create opportunity not just for public transport but for housing, access, networks and economies of the informal nature.

Images Top: Traffic and Transportation Mode restriction Plan Middle: Rail Road Network Plan Bottom: Guidance for Transportation Network Development Plan, no indication of bike infrastructure. Images: / 25/10/10 62


Site relationships The




existed with the rail line were strong, sometimes genius and sometimes extremely confronting. The drawings on the left are a series of mappings that explore the spatial importance of these relationships.



Images: 1. A micro business operates using the existing infrastructure as a foundation for delivering water. 2. Diagram explores the negative effect the wall has when there are no access or exit points



3. Positive effect from a simple hole within the existing wall. The environment change when steeping through this space was extremely powerful. 4. The rail line operated as a network system for foot and cart traffic, the tracks themselves are the paths. 5. Spatial diagram of how the rail line no longer has a single function. It already operates at a hybrid level. Living storing, playing, walking, commerce all use this space as a foundation. 63

Accelerating It is hard to compare Gembrong

to relocate on site, yet not directly

Gaplok to the previous sites. It is

so. We must allow ourselves to see

so fundamentally different in its

the positives that come from the

nature that it deserves a separate

infrastructural forms that are the

classification. Gembrong Gaplok is

wall and the rail line. By doing this

a squat, the begining of a slum. It is

we remove our instant reaction and

young, no more than 10 years and

begin to critically observe existing

contains no permanent structures.


People live in tents on either side

Opportunistic Urbanism states, “what

and between the rail tracks with

becomes clear is that opportunistic



architectures are tactical endeavours

force from the army is imminent.

that are alternative to strategic planning

There is limited economy beyond

and authorised developments, and

scavenging, less children, and no

that this relationship – between the

obvious community hierarchy. This is

informal ways in which people tailor

an extreme location; it is an example

and adapt their environments, and the

of a new urban typology where an

more formal process of city planning

existing infrastructure is functioning

and building – offers fertile ground

for a purpose that it was not designed

for considering new models of urban

for. The process for dealing with this

design” (Ramirez Lovering, 2008).

site and sites similar throughout

This allows for a new kind of thinking,

Jakarta is to evict with no relocation

to produce new urban typologies that

process. Attempts at building walls

support the existing needs and serves

to eliminate space have failed due to

the greater city.






Exposed steel reinforcement


Stuctual support beams

Exposed steel reinforcement

poor design, and in many case made the situation worse. Yet in all this there is opportunity, if one is willing to step back and examine the relationships. There is potential for a spatial rethink, 64


Section b

Bike Path Mobile School Exitt Points Po

Building Armature

Section a

Bike Access Points

Pedestrian Crossings

Existing Rail Line

Emergency Access Path

Banana Farming



Network Armature

residence on each side. The armature


The extreme nature of this site and it ‘s

design reacts to The current process

outcome. By expanding on the use of

spatial dimension creates an extremely

of eviction without relocation. As we

the rail line for access and passage,

foreign environment for design that

speak this process is underway in an

and by opening up possibilities



attempt by the government to clear

for entry and exit points and cross

quickly. The idea for the mobile ‘bike

the site and erect another wall. There

flow, a more integrated system to

school’ is the catalyst for this design.

last ‘wall’ failed in its operation, due to


This and the relationship between the

is spatial set back and poor design.

and facilitate the city environment

existing concrete wall and the

This is an example of how design can




the objective for a better





Void On site relocation

Building armature

Rail line

Bike Path

Void Banana Farm

Rail line

Bike Path

Building armature

Section a

Foot crossing

Spatial Divider

Bike Path

Spatial Divider

Foot crossing Section b


Cross flow, by this I mean the ability of a person to traverse the rail line at the perpendicular is vital to this design. The reduction of the ‘channel’ effect allows for people to cross more often without the existing situation of enclosure being felt. By expanding on the ability for locals to utilize the linear network, trough spatial dividers, and bike infrastructure, the train line become more dynamic and accessible to a greater proportion of the population. Through programs such as the bike school the network becomes 2




fertilizing the grounds for change.

1. Cross section of rail infrastructure operating across possible programs. See page 49 for section location. 2. Spatial diagram of how the rail armature and path system uses the existing spatiality of the site and intersections. This intersection is located in Gembrong Gaplok. The blue arrows represent path direction and bike entry and exit points. 3. Due to the nature of the rail line, this system for onsite armature, access and networks operates across multiple locations. This spatial plan is Petamburan, my earlier site. With a greater understanding of site the building armature is able to be manipulated to magnify existing working site relationships, such as bike and foot paths, crossings, storage space, and commerce foundation. 4-5. Spatial diagrams of system transformation in relationship to existing rail infrastructure.


Diagram b

Diagram c

Diagram am c








780 480


480 4

540 5 40.00


80 0 00


50 0 00

80 0.00


50 0 00

48 0. 00

480 4


48 0.

760 7 760 60

76 0 00

800 x 2 780 x 2 760 x 4 540 x 1 500 x 2 480 x 4

76 0.00


780 0 .0 0

778 778 9 5

456 60 . 0

Bike School Build & Evolution



778 x 2 456 x 2

Production component com m mponent

Neck N eck and head head mount

‘L’ beam to width b

Face for join weld

Mounting Mo Mou ounti untit ng g weld we we eld block bloc ck



75 75


Luar Batang Cultivate

As I walked through the dark tunnel off the

whispering in their wake. At some point

take form. An edge, the water and what

main open market space I was instantly

the ground below my feet transformed

to the outsider appears as a manic

struck by the amount of commerce that

from concrete to wooden planks, old

network of bamboo stilts, holding

existed within the heart of the Kampong.

broken and cracked yet comfortably, (I


Luar Batang, or Old Port, is exactly that,

tell myself), taking my weight.

construction for human inhabitation.

an old industrial port that has been

As we progress deeper into the body

“……every six months, they have to

colonised over time since the 1960s.



replace their bamboo every six months”.

Dried fish, netting, anchors and all

the processes of life begin to engulf

Remember this; remember this edge,

kinds of marine based industry assault

the walkway, the public space, the

what a concept, slowly edging outward,

my eyes, drawing my attention from

social armature that holds the existing

house by house, over the water and into

one sight to the next. The smell of food

together and offers an edge for the

space. Age could be measured like a

mixed with stagnant water is rich in the

new to cling to. I see a mosque; I hear

cross section of a tree. All the while we

air, the hot, humid, close environment is

the prayers, children being children,

are watched by the eyes of economic

filled with women cooking and selling,

washing cooking eating, and living. All

progress, bearing down form above as

the occasional child runs past with the

at once we are in the open air and the

a towering concrete reality.

cross cultural language that is laughter

real expanse of this warren begins to








Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Off location micro economy income is generated outside of community.

Established settlement.

Projected slum expansion area if a continuation of the current construction pattern for Luar Batang is observed. Off site opportunities intervention.




Luar Batang Kampong





Info Old harbour town Established 1960s as an informal settlement Water out for city, toxic, prone to flood 6 children per house ( on average through conversation Bamboo needs replacing every 6 months

Luar Batang 1. The edge of the kampong is the youngest, and often the least established. However the ability to attach to the ‘body’ is a clear accelerant in establishment. This image gives some indication into the reliance on bamboo that exists within Luar Batang. 2. Entry into the Kampong is directly off the market space, most residence work and live within Luar Batang. This walkway operates as a walking ‘plaza’ with everything that one would need, and often not need to live. Cloths, school books, food, water.


3. The old port area is a hive of activity; many marine industries still operate here. Everything from fishing, boating supplies to seafood and other stalls deemed necessary for the environment. 4. Offsite micro economies are strong within Luar Batang. These are fishing boats with a port tour operating in the back ground. These industries are informal, yet are vital to the city.


5. Religion is extremely important within every culture. Here is an ad hock mosque that is located within the heart of the Kampong. The close confines of this environment mean that residence across a multitude of religions live and work together, with complete tolerance. 6. Site for design intervention. Currently operates as an overrun park space. 7. Projected edge expansion over time 8. Concrete towers that are edging closer to Luar Batang. With indications of expansion within the 2030 Jakarta master plan.


9. Youngest point within the Kampong.



2030 Indicators

Luar Batang

The Jakarta 2030 spatial master plan indicates a strong desire and intent for more open green space within the city. As indicated on the plan (above left) several zones have been selected for this endeavour. The Luar Batang region is set for some dramatic change. If this vision is realised, a huge amount of new land will come available for water front living for the middle to upper income bracket. This in its nature is well out of reach for the majority population, new land will become green space at huge expense whilst existing open space will be given over to public warehousing,



green space an upper class privilege. The spatial plan ‘map 43, Priority Area for Specific Planning Policy’ gives a black and white indication of intent regardless of existing cultures, economies and social networks. Kawasan Wisata Sunda Kelapa = Tourism Region. Images Top: Vision for north shore, Billboard, Jakarta Middle: Guidance for Green Zone Development Plan Bottom: Priority Area for Specific Planning Policy Plan Images: / 25/10/10 80

New Land for apartments and green space

Site relationships

Fishing _ relationship with the city

The drawings on this page start to explore the existing relationships on site. The above diagram demonstrates how the informal economy of fishing works its way into the everyday city. From registered restaurant to street venders, until the fish is consumed its path draws out the importance of the invisible relationships that can be traced back to the kampong. Left is a diagram of how the bamboo for the continued construction of Luar Batang has to make its way through the maze of streets and congestion that is Jakarta to its point of sale. Bamboo supply relationship diagram 81


Cultivating Luar Batangs’ system of expansion

rotation period of the bamboo stilts

makes for an extremely interesting

creates a living environment that is

site when all elements of time,

never settled. Like the organic it exist

economy and health are considered.

in a constant state of change, and like

The structural integrity decreases on

the settlement, an intervention that

the edge or ‘expansion zones’ with

addresses the existing and projected

consistent infrastructure issues such

conditions needs to celebrate that

as flooding being common. This issue


then has a follow on effect with health, have a negative effect on all aspects of life. Yet the ability for these ‘new’ settlements to attach themselves to

4. Infrastructure prototype, allows for structural cross beam insertion as well as rotation to avoid spatial dictation.


benefits. Access into an established micro economy speeds up the ability

5. System Diagram. Workers from the kampong farm the park and bamboo is feed back into the kampong. Expansion of the park over time will allow for a greater bleed into the city.

for residents to affect repairs on their personal space and establish a healthier environment over time. This

6. Iterative sketch design in the understanding outward growth for structural pillar locations

relationship between the old and the new is extremely powerful. By adding to this body of economy and culture

2. The selected site currently operates as a ill-used green space. In the 2030 spatial plan the area is marked for industry warehousing, even though there is specific guidelines for an increase in public green space within the city. 3. Projected kampong growth area. As the bamboo farm/park is able to expand so too will the kampong. By establishing a relationship between the two the area can become a dynamic ecosystem. Pillar infrastructures are used as building guides to ensure that all new expansions are above projected water levels.

creating an environment that will

the existing body does have obvious

1. Bamboo Farm / Park combines the need for open space within the city and the continued demand for structural bamboo within the surrounding kampongs. The park is broken into rotational season growing fields, recreation spaces, required storage and hydrology systems for water runoff.

3 7. Park section

the act in itself begins to speed up the transition from extremely poor to, a level of stability that opens people to opportunities. This coupled with the continued deconstruction construction of the settlement due to the six month 82


Bamboo Farm Park The




kampong expansion and bamboo use is what fertilized this design outcome. Recognising this particular kampong has a continual construction process and how important the stability of the greater ‘body’ or established heart of the kampong is providing the opportunity for design. By designing outside of the site in 5

spatial terms but having intricate links between, economy, structural growth, public infrastructure and time, the kampongs relationship with the city becomes even more embedded. These drawings give indications as to how the design operates in space and time. By providing public green space in line with the desire of the 2030 spatial master plan cultivating


an economic and structural system, this design starts to operate on a hybrid level that is required for future urban systems. 7

Recreation space Surrounding Kampong

Field at harvest point

Recreation space 83

Recreational Walking g Tracks Farming Depot and Infrastructure

Hydrology System

Farming / Leisure Network

Recreation Zones

Grow wing Topography

Proje jected Kampung p g Gro owth Direction_Land d

ater wth Direction_Wa p g Grow j cted Kampung Projec

Spatial breakdown of park farm system. Growing topography informs water drainage system as well as farming and recreational path network. All growing surfaces are angled north, north - east, or north - west for optimum growing environment. 84



3 5 Year ea Cyc Cyclic c System Syste Bamboo Plantation _ Field 01 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 02 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 03 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 04 Field e d 01 0 Split Sp t Rotation otat o

6 Month o t Process ocess Bi Annual Process Field 02 _ 3 year growth Field 03 _ 2 year growth Field 04 _ 1 year growth Bamboo Field 01 _ 50% Harvest Period Open Air Drying Period Storage Drying and Bamboo Treatment Market Preparation, Sales and Services Field 01 Season Preparation and Continuation Recreation Period Structural Bamboo Market Weekly Community Market

4 1. Hybrid programming of design 2. Sketch design and iteration for form development 3. The initial park is broken down into 4 farming areas, recreational areas, and infrastructure. Each farm zone

can be biannually harvested or annually harvested. Staged growing harvesting periods insure a cyclic system will follow over time allowing for maximum productivity. If successful the northern areas can be expanded to meet growing demand for material and green space.

4. Diagram of park functioning over time.









ProjectImplementation Within the Jak Mania there are

Education Garden

several design responses that sit

The small scale and specific social

across the various infrastructural

hierarchy of this design allows for a

and social scales. The range of

large amount of involvement by the

variation between the speculative

direct community. The exact process

and the achievable is a reflection of

of the implementation of this project

the varying states that landscape

are still being work out. The opportunity

architecture can intervene with the

to use Jakarta Hidden Tours as an

potential to effect real social change.

existing body to raise funds for this

I believe that I have demonstrated

design is a real possibility. In this

through my research the potential

case Ronny would be able to manage



the establishment of the site whilst

through the process of either small

working with the community leaders in

scale design with the possibilities for

the ongoing operations of the school

immediate implementation or larger

and other social programs.




scale speculative design.











em pl





e nt




t Im


t en







e nt




d t


r pe













e Op



e Op








c ds

c Ar






t In




L ut




Education Garden Mobile Bike School Network Armature Bamboo Farm Park


ProjectImplementation Mobile Bike School.

Network Armature

Bamboo Farm Park

Although this social program is

As mentioned previously within the


a layered system on the network



government’s desire for more green

armature, it still has the ability to

a strong critic on the present day

space within the city it becomes

operate if implemented immediately.

operation of the government and their


Although there are many examples

preception of on ‘slums’. The scale

suggestion. The scale and cost of

of economic mobility, the’re are little

and infrastructural requirements for

this form of public infrastructure

in the way of social program. Due

this design - the vertical structural

automatically make the government

to the schools being non-profit this

armatures and the concrete surface


program would require a level of

treatments - make it implementable

infrastructural scale there is a social

coordination through an NGO, activist

only through government. However

scale, as not only is the park for the

or charity organisation. Although this


program could be operated through



















greater public it also operates as a



structural farm to foster growth. This

community groups, the reality is that

in the Jakarta 2030, such as traffic

is an example of layered systems

the lack of funding or income for such

congestion and bike infrastructure

with differing outcomes for different

an activity would make it unlikely.

make it a plausible option. Through


a demonstration of the importance


of this form of infrastructure and how

communities utilize the park for

it begins to effect more than a small

growing materials, which in turn

community high level government

creates an economy off what is

policy may be positively affected.

traditionally a profitless typology,



By the




can inspire a change of thinking in a predominantly economically driven environment.


Project Summary What this project demonstrates is that

systems design. By doing this the

design has an incredible potential

intervention becomes open for the

to build upon existing social and

adaptation that is required within the

infrastructure systems.

extreme pressures of highly populated urban environments.

Mega Cities in their nature are in continual expansion and layers of

The Gembrong Gaplok (Accelerate)



and Luar Batang (Cultivate) design

foundations for this expansion, which

interventions demonstrate this system

can be represented as built arteries

hybridization approach. Each design

such as rail networks and roads or

builds on existing urban typologies

the social requirements of the people

and reacts to the surrounding social

that inhabit a city, economies and

requirements. This process delivers a

education for example, allows for

new, working system that in time may

dynamic starting point for design.

become the foundation for the next.

These systems are not new, however

Ciliwung (Accept) offers a very basic

as a designer I intend to transcend the

approach to securing the community

existing functionality of these systems

and social benefits of open space

in order to produce new operations.

with the layer systems of education,

What they were designed to do, how

ecology and community participation

these systems currently operate and

for the creation of a socially import

the relationships that exist between

space that has the ability to be the

them and society need to be viewed

catalyst for greater change.



through a new light. The role of the direct population to activate, utilize and especially to evolve the design beyond its first stage of implementation is vital in the process of this form of layered 95


Conclusion The fact that this project evolved into more than just a exploration in design, which for me was the initial aim, is something that I am still in the process of coming to terms with. My involvement with Jakarta Hidden Tours, Ronny and his partner Anika has is many ways added another rich layer to this research. The design of the Education Garden within the Ciliwung Kampong is just as much a thank you to them as it is a response to my understanding of that site. Opportunity





important word through out my research. It operates throughout my process and emerges as an outcome of my designs. The Ciliwung Kampong presented, to me, an amazing opportunity to help Ronny have an even greater impact through his work. In many ways I am adding to the foundations that he has already laid, but this is what good design does, it works with the existing, not against.



Acknowledgments Thanks to Ronny and Anika from Jakarta Hidden Tours and their tireless work, for without them The Jak Mania would not be. Huge thanks to the Masters of Landscape Architecture crew, you know who you are, you made the year in some ways a pleasure. The guidance of the teaching staff,





Marieluise, your influence and guidance has been wonderful over the past 5 years. To my family and to Sarah for her unwavering support in the darkest of times.




Edawards, Robin & El-Khoury, 2004 Shaping the city: Studies in history, theory and urban design, Routledge, new York, usa, p202 Jakarta post 2010, Jakarta 2030? Draft plan not looking good, 09 January 2010 Dovey, Kim, Becoming Places, urbanism/Architecture/Identity/Power Routledge, New York, USA, p83 Kaliski, j 1998. The present city and the practice of city design. Everyday urbanism. The Monacelli Press,New York, P 107 Ramirez-Lovering, Diego, 2008, Opportunistic Urbanism, RMIT University Press, Melbourne, Australia, p127 Stinson, O, ‘The future of Jakarta”, Expat Indonesia, August 2010, p36 Blair, Dorothy, ‘The child and the garden: an evaluative review of the benefits of school gardening programs, Journal of Enviromental Education, 2009, p 15 Images Ramirez-Lovering, 2008, Opportunistic Urbanism, RMIT Press, Melbourne, Australia, p140 Ruby, Ilka & Andreas, 2008, Urban Transformations, Ruby Press, Berlin, Germany, p356 25/10/10


Matthew Hamilton, MLA RMIT 2011  

matthew hamilton, mla rmit 2011

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