The Jak Mania (Re)designing cities through slums Masters of Landscape Architecture Matthew Hamilton 2011
How can we develop new models of urban design through an understanding and appreciation of the existing human relationships with site? Acceptance of slums in our urban
They are the foundation of the
environment is the first step towards
cultural construct that exists within
reconsidering the way that we design
these informal settlements, shaped
individually by their distinct urban context.
Through the understanding of the unique nature and spatial operations
By engaging with a cross section of
of slum communities and recognition
these variables; landscape typology,
of their place within a greater system,
location and time, it became evident
we as landscape architects, can
that there is a very strong link
begin to create a design approach
between the age of establishment
that operates across the different
and the health of the settlement.
social and infrastructural scales.
By recognising these relationship between time, landscape typology
I have been testing the correlation
and kampong health, opportunities
between location and opportunity
for new hybrid typologies and social
whilst exploring the individual nature
of informal settlements within one of Asiaâ€™s mega cities. By actively engaging
Kampongs in Jakarta; Luar Batang,
there is no singular outcome, that the
Ciliwung, Gembrong Gaplok and
opportunities that design can bring
Petamburan I have been able to
are dependent on the recognition of
establish an approach that focuses
the existing relationships within site.
on the importance of the existing
By allowing ourselves as designers to
relationships between persons and
build on the existing site relationships,
instead of trying to create them, new urban typologies are able to form.
The notion that location equals
Using the Jakarta 2030 spatial master
opportunity is a defining factor in the
plan as a lost opportunity, my design
identification of design possibilities.
Micro economies, religion, sport,
how by designing with the existing
education and living are all social
relationships, no matter how foreign
functions that inform a relationship
can produce new urban typologies
that nurture opportunity.
Slum as a landscape typology The Asian mega city Jakarta 2030
1 2 3 Approach 5 Location as opportunity 5 Precedents 6 Past work positioning _ f2b design studio 8 Jakarta spatial master Plan 10 Petamburan 15 Process 17 Immersing as process 17 Original site 18 Design reflection 19 The Jak Mania 31 Finding Site 31 Intent 32 Accept Accelerate Cultivate 33 Site summary 34 Ciliwung 39 Ciliwung walk 41 Ciliwung Kampong 42 Site Relationships 45 Accepting 46 Gembrong Gaplok 57 Gembrong gaplok kampong 58 Mobile bike school 61 2030 Indicators 62 Site relationships 63 Accelerating 64 Bike School Build & Evolution 72 Luar Batang 77 Luar Batang Kampong 78 2030 Indicators 80 Site relationships 81 Cultivating 82 Project Implementation 93 Project Summary 95 Conclusion 97 Acknowledgments 99 Bibliography 101
INTRODUCTION Slum as a landscape typology ‘Kampong’
translates to ‘urban village’. These Kampongs or informal settlements exist within the cracks of the greater urban environment. They are diverse, social economic micro cultures. They are slums. I believe that even though these settlements consist of shelter which could be considered within the realm of architecture, they also possess a unique relationship to landscape. They could be considered a typology of landscape. Adaptation, fluctuation, compression and expansion are all qualities of landscape. They are also all qualities of these settlements. These spaces are not stagnant, they move and flow with the forces around them. They are an extension of nature through the most basic needs of humans. They are not set in stone with a projected life span, they can last the life of the city and indeed become a city if given the opportunity.
The Asian mega city The Asian mega city has given rise to new a new urban typology that has never before existed to the extent that it does today. Urban population is at its greatest point in human history and if the trend continues the urban landscape will need to evolve just as rapidly. â€œIn 1965 the urban population of Asia was in the order of 430 million, with 1.5 billion people living in rural situations. Today the urban population is about 1.2 billion, and by 2025 the urban population is projected to soar to a staggering 2.5 billion peopleâ€?, (Robins & El - Khoury, 2004). These numbers represent a significant quantitative change to the human element of cities, yet to what extent have these mega cities begun to adapt to this human influx?
Jakarta 2030 Jakarta is firmly situated within the preceding
mega cities, with a conservative population estimate at 10 million. The governmental 2030 spatial master plan attempts to outline very specific ways of addressing this perceived problem The Jakarta Post (09 Jan, 2010) suggest that the draft (spatial master plan) says that for vertical housing
in the new reclaimed area, Kelapa Gading and Penjaringan in North Jakarta is for those from the middleto high-income bracket. It also says low-cost apartments will be built in slum areas around the Tanjung Priok
Koja, Cilincing, Pademangan and in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This approach is common within the cities push for economic growth. It disregards the existing cultures and relationships that exist within
understanding of the affordability of living and is ignorant of the driving social
location as opportunity. 3
APPROACH Location as opportunity A common assumption by many is
legitimizing it, and in turn securing
that the opportunities that exist within
its continued existence. Landscape
informal settlement are very minimal,
architecture is uniquely positioned to
and that these places are a negative
use design as a creator of opportunity,
asset to the urban environment. The
to stimulate or accelerate this natural
solution, such as the proposal in the
2030 Jakarta master plan is vertical
within or around the existing location.
housing. What needs to be recognised
As kaliski states in Opportunistic
is that whilst the person is re-locatable
Urbanism, â€œwhen the designer begins
the culture is not. This is what a
with everyday reality and defines
kampong cultivates and nurtures that
it as beautiful, existing situations
a high-rise concrete tower cannot. The
become a starting point rather than a
opportunity to make money, socialise
stumbling block, reality as opposed to
and practice religion exists within
utopian stability, provides inspirationâ€?
the existing settlement. The level of
(Kaliski 1998, p.107). By approaching
this opportunity is related to the age
each kampong as a different site
of the established settlement. By
with different requirements, dynamic
recognising this relationship with time
design interventions can begin to
and social opportunity, a stimulation
operate on a range of scales. From the
of the existing or surrounding can
intimate opportunities for education
progresses these communities into
to the large scale networks and
a legitimate state. With the help of
processes that provide opportunities
NGOâ€™s there have been excellent
not just for one demographic but for
examples of informal settlements
the entire city.
becoming hives of economic activity and cultural melting pots. Simple interventions such as public toilets and water catchments have the ability to improve an environment, 5
Precedents Elemental Studios Elemental Studios social housing project in Chile is an extremely important precedent for this approach to design. The project celebrates the ability of the residence in creating their sense of place, and the importance location has to stability, economy and culture. By stripping this project back to the basic building armature it becomes viable for government funding, essential in the realisation
Designed armature for personal . Image: Ruby, 2008.
of a project of this nature. Although my approach moves away from single purpose architecture and into hybrid
layered system, the opportunity for personalisation and appropriation is something that is fundamental for a successful outcome.
Personalising of void space. Image: ibid 6
Consumerism USA Waste
Product Manufac f turing
Teddy Cruze Teddy Cruze is a San Diego based designer
potential of the emergence and “design construction” techniques of informal settlements. His practice -“exposes local zones of conflict as Instrumental in redefining the meaning of architectural intervention in the global contemporary city” (RamirezLovering, 2008) ‘Manufactured Sites’ address this sometimes sticky situation through what is a systems approach, it is local in scale and feeds off existing conditions such as factory location, labour and modular structure for construction. Yet, the idea for the design is more important and powerful than the produced outcome. Teddy Cruze is demonstrating that through a local understanding of commerce, labour and construction a simple system could be implemented that would assist in the construction and built integrity of community housing in I Images: Ramirez R i - lovering l i 2008
the area. 7
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
o de futebol
Jardim dim Botanico Bo
Campo de futebol
Clube Farrap pos dos Oficiais da Brigada d Militar
Hosp. universitario daa P PUC
Hospital p Sao Lucas
Parca Darcy Azambuja
Past work positioning _ f2b design studio During F2B studio I was introduced to the design challenges of designing for high density urban environments that contain informal settlements. In this case the site was the city of Porto Alegra, Brazil. Early on in the attempt to understand the site from afar, -another design challenge that I was
again introduce to- we discovered a strategic example of settlement eviction, being the use of car parks as the catalyst for the eviction of informal settlements. (See image on right). We discovered examples of this economic pressure pushing on the established informal settlement within the city, and so, it became the main driver for the design project.
2009 Through out this project I became increasingly interested in the role that
continued to grow, which it would.
the residence of these settlements
I was especially fascinated by the
have within a city. Their need for a
opportunistic or innovative examples
local residence to live and earn money
of living that comes with the critical
was evident, as was the obvious
mass that exists within mega cities.
scavenging of materials that would become increasingly important to the cities functionality as the population 8
Red = car park Blue = Informal settlement
2009 The above images are a time laps demonstration of the opportunistic and innovative cannibalization of an abandoned factory. Clear desire lines develop into established pathways whist the re distribution of the materiality of the factory throughout the settlement is evident.
Note: All f2b work was done in partnership with Niki Schwabe
Jakarta spatial master Plan All four areas of study are located within the ‘high intensity’ are on the ‘Guidance for Prospective Economic Zone Development’.
1. Ciliwung 2. Gembrong Gapolok
3. Luar Batang 4. Petamburan. Due
settlement, all economic activity that exist within the site is considered illegal and therefore is not considered within this top down planning approach. The ‘Guidance for Residential Zone Development Program’ indicates a large amount of new development
and full area ‘restoration’ in the Luar Batang region. Ciliwung, Petamburan and Gembrong Gaplok are zoned under ‘revitalization’ which is vague description at best.
Images: /www.rtrwjakarta2030.com 25/10/10 10
The ‘Guidance for spatial utilization plan’ (above left) indicates a huge amount of economic input into the north shore region of Jakarta. This area currently consists of a mixture of 3
formal and informal economic, living and social programs. This spatial plan demonstrates the desire for more land and large scale economic progress. Luar Batang kampong is zoned for ‘housing & public buildings’. However the expense of new accommodation often leaves the existing residence without a satisfactory relocation plan. Ciliwung and Gembrong Gaplok are
on the edge of ‘Residential and Public Building’ planning zones.
Images: /www.rtrwjakarta2030.com 25/10/10 11
Petamburan P etamburan Test
PROCESS Immersing as process Prior to first hand site experience my design outcomes were based on assumptions and researched theory. This was a fundamentally important process in discovering how to design for these environments. Designing from afar had a limited outcome in this context due to the human relationships that exist between the city and the sites. They exist so profoundly in experience that no level of reading can hope to deliver the intricate details that can be discovered. At this stage designs can be grounded through precedents and theory only. By taking the outcomes of this process to site, the gap between design proposition and
became clear. By immersing myself into this environment, and being able to critically analyse my previous work, I was able to develop an approach that addressed the kampongs needs, and the cities at a variety of scales.
Petamburan is located west of central Jakarta. This particular settlement rests between two rail lines and off a major canal. It was my site for the first half of my research which dealt with the issues that came with designing from afar. I will aim to demonstrate my design strategies and offer analysis as to their level of success based on the second stage of my research process.
Phase I Armature Considering
Dovey in Becoming Places, â€œThere is a tendency to target high profile settlements that are visible from major transport routs for evictionâ€? (2010, p83), and the armature design method from Elemental, I was able to determine a starting point for a design intervention. Focusing on the temporal nature and location of the settlement I began to develop my design focusing on, on-site resettlement and personal construction.
This idea of building armature and separation proved strong enough to further develop. The programs that it could support, location and its form would need to reflect existing relationships on the ground. At this stage the design is still functioning singularly. By this I mean there is yet to be any consideration of conditions and needs outside of this site. By taking this idea of the armature and understanding
exits with the rail line already and the needs of the city the design can start to become
provocative towards a
rethinking of infrastructure. 20
1. Entering the site of the main road, the concrete wall is the governments response to the 2002 floods.
2. Trains pass through as often as every 15 minutes 3. The interior of this rail line is used for storing belongings 4. Water delivery service in action. (Right track) 5. Evicted from the waters edge in 2002, this woman has lived here for the past 9 years and is preparing for her next eviction. 21
Phase II Flood as opportunity. Flood as opportunity was in response to the architectural approach taken in â€˜Armatureâ€™. The desire to use landscape as a driver was fundamental to this design. Though the site would not facilitate this design, the overlays that start to happen are an important step in understanding relationships between,
typologies, site and people. 22
Phase III Water When it Matters. Water when it matters was driven by the need to have an immediate impact on the established settlement. The intent for the design was there, yet the inability to understand the existing conditions on the ground makes the design more conceptual that practical.
‘Water when it matters’ is an excellent example of design that arises from a theory and assumption. The area where this design is located is a kampong that is over 150 years old. It is established and has adequate access to tanked water as well as public toilet infrastructure. The micro
economies are strong, people are happy in their location and there are plenty of children. This kampong functions well and should be dealt with accordingly. Design interventions should be aimed at children and education areas, with the intent to provide a legitimate possibility in
generational change. The obvious differences that exist between this area and the rail line are reason enough for them to be addressed differently. The rail line could benefit from a design interventions that would ‘accelerate, it towards a similar level
of acceptance that exit here. 1. Public toilet infrastructure provide by NGO’s 2. Government census sticker 3. Small restaurant at the entrance to the kampong 4. On site micro economies were strong. 5. Excited children within the streets of the kampong 25
THE JAK MANIA Finding Site Through the experience of designing
existing relationship and my desire
from afar, the fundamental importance
intended to immerse myself within the
to understand these places that
of being able to immerse myself
environment that I was attempting to
pushed my research in this direction.
within site became the next integral
design for. This, I knew, was vital to
The remainder of this document
stage in my research. The process
of establishing a connection and
Through an extensive internet search
building a relationship with my Jakarta
I discovered a news article in an
design responses to site.
liaison, Ronny Poluan, of ‘Jakarta
American online media outlet that
Ronny and his wife Anika were
Hidden Tours’ happen organically
ran the headline, “Jakarta Man Leads
integral to my research as they acted
over time., following online research.
Slums Tours to Raise Awareness,
as a guides, translators and friends,
In reflection of this process, the
Money”, this was my first knowledge
allowing me to unearth amazing details
importance of Ronny to my work, this
about each site, such as the bamboo
form of social interaction and one
As I had based my early research on
life cycle that drove my Luar Batang
to one information and relationship
a very specific site, Petamburan, in
response. These relationships, have
building cannot be overlooked. This
Jakarta, I was extremely interested
the power to increase the opportunity
relationship buildiing is an area of my
in critiquing this design work on the
for actual interventions that can effect
practice that I am extremely proud of,
ground. This essentially was how I
change, to move away from the
and I feel is fundamentally important
expressed my interest to Ronny.
speculative and towards a realistic
to my design process and outcomes.
Although Ronny had never been
However it is also something that,
to the specific Kampong that I was
garden or Jak Manias’ mobile school.
without purpose, can be withheld
interested in, he was none the less
from the narrative of my work.
Finding sites is a simple narrative of
suggested three more sites that had
how The Jak Mania came to be.
a strong, existing relationship with his
such as the education
organization. This was the point that
“My idea is how a person, like an Indonesian
Ciliwung, Luar Batang and Galam
person, meets with another person, comes
Gaplok became connected to me and
together to see and then talk to each other and
my research. It was through Ronny’s
they can share what is their life,” – Ronny Poluan. 31
Intent My approach aims to demonstrate that the cultural, social and economic opportunities that exist within the poor social class are fundamentally important to the city. The existing relationships that exist, no matter how foreign, need to be considered as an integral and unique opportunity to help inform design. A bottom up design approach, with a desire to rethink existing infrastructure and that understands the social requirements of the population is the foundation for the adaptation and transformation of the urban environment. By hybridising existing
accommodate growth and to nurture informal settlements into a stable and legal environment
Accept Accelerate Cultivate Accept
Accepting recognises the existing
Accelerating recognises the need for
Cultivating recognises the existing
infrastructural design interventions
ability of a site to continue to grow
kampong. Design interventions are
that address extreme environments
and support itself and facilitates
aimed at education and services.
with the aim to move out of the
that process through systems. This
Public toilets, water tanks, drainage
process allows for the organic nature
and education aim to foster an
of the site to guide it. It is the aim that
environment capable of projecting the
armatures, access and networks
next generation out of poverty.
‘cultivating’ will lead into ‘accepting’.
to advance from the extremely poor living conditions. It is the aim that ‘accelerating’ will lead into ‘cultivating’.
Site summary Although these sites are different in
establishment, they all have a common thread that binds them together. They are all classified as illegal by the government and therefore open to eviction without resettlement at any moment. The theory of eviction due to visibility is in action at present and is in fact the case with Gembrong Gaplok, which will be the first to be evicted. Luar Batang has been zoned for warehousing and high density vertical living in the Jakarta 2030 master plan, Ciliwung, public buildings and housing.
LUAR BATANG BA BATA
Welcome to the Ciliwung. Two hundred
again I continue down towards the
in school uniform walking past with the
years in existence. Think on this, what
river, I can smell it approaching, muggy
same disinterested stares that come
that means for culture, community, for
and stagnant. I look up to the Victorian
only from girls that age. Interesting
language. Think on thisâ€Ś. A tofu factory
balcony next to its wooden ad hock
though, that the demographic should
filled with hot, sweaty men working to
neighbour, so different yet similar all the
be so diverse, never one but many.
fill the streets with fresh produce, daily.
same. Again I smell food, thick with the
We continue left, down, left, down,
Shirts off, working, sweating, making. I
scent of spice in the air.
right, again two hundred years comes
step out, the air is cool on my face, I
Ah, the word is out, I hear them coming,
back to me, a notice board, a mosque.
know this illusion wonâ€™t last, I savour it
1, 3, 7 more even, laughter, always
Silence, is that silence? No not silence,
and observe the street. Narrow, steep
laughter. This language, laughter, we
just the thankful absence of noise that is
no stairs, there are never any stairs.
should never forget. I continue through
the Jakarta trafficâ€Ś.
Plants, there are always plants. Hot
the settlement, noticing two young girls 39
Ciliwung walk Ciliwung Exit
Ciliwung Walk 1. Entrance into Rt.005 RW.010. This essentially stands for a registered neighbourhood. The following journey down toward the Ciliwung River aims to demonstrate the diversity within these neighbourhoods. The line blurs between legal and illegal. 2. Running parallel to the river at this point, the streets are busy with activity. Although the structures are ad hock the area is clean and welcoming. Micro economy on wheels. 3. This manâ€™s makes a living ferrying people across the river. There is a real pride in his work, with an obvious demand.
4. Deeper in the Kampong,across the river and heading away from the river. This small garden is an example of the pride that exists. The garden became a excellent barometer as to the health and establishment of the kampongs. This kampong was well maintained and had plants squeezed into every possible crack. 41
Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Off location micro economy. Income is generated outside of kampong.
On site opportunities intervention.
1. Potential site for social infrastructure design. This space has be vacant for near on three years. There is an understanding of the importance of this space yet the opportunities that can work towards preserving this ‘void’ have yet to be considered.
200 years old Vibrant micro economies operate within and out of the kampong Facing possible eviction due to new high rise zoning in the Jakarta 2030 spatial plan Clean and socially diverse
2. Men working in a tofu factory within the kampong. The tofu from here works it’s way around the city, drawing invisible connection with the kampong and greater Jakarta.
3. A well worn community notice board demonstrates a great level of self governance and organisation. 4. Small garden often reflect the ‘nature’ or ‘health’ of a Kampong. 5. Two school girls walk through the Kampong on their way home. Not all children have the opportunity to go to a funded school. 6. Open air market space faces out to the main street and bridge access point.
7. Ciliwung River.
Education and opportunity
Tofu and the city
This tofu manufacturer has operated out of this location within the Ciliwung kampong
relationship that this business has with the city can be traced through it â€˜s invisible links. They sell their product whole sale to various restaurants and vendorsâ€™ which operate within the city. Dependent on the vendor, his path may change effectively covering a greater expanse of the city over time. This in turn links a greater percentage of Jakarta to this kampong without City
them even being aware of the process happening. It is only by looking at
what cannot be obviously seen that such details begin to emerge.
1. Education and opportunity mapping indicating that with the kampong there is another layer of social hierarchy. The opportunity that education offers should not be underestimated. 2. Mapping of the tofu distribution throughout the city starting at itâ€™s creation point in Ciliwung kampong. 45
COVERED STORAGE SPACE SEATING
WATER STORAGE Section A
OUTDOOR CLASSROOM SHADE BAMBOO
Entrance ramp. Section B
Accepting The establish nature of the Ciliwung kampong
settlement that through its own system of management has been able to create a dynamic, healthy living environment. Although considered a slum due to the informal nature of the settlement, there are obvious levels 2
of governance that exist within the
space. A RW or Community Council regulates the building of new houses, and new residence must meet certain criteria, either social or financial. The micro economies that exist are predominately food oriented, from tofu making, kiosks or food venders that may or may not operate on or off site. Although this kampong is the most established of all three sites and has a self-supporting nature it is still a slum. The people are still poor and the opportunities for escape are slim.
Yet it is by recognising the established
nature of this kampong that design can begin to offer opportunities within the site.
Images. 1. Sketch design for education garden vision 2. Storage shed with vertical growing opportunities, located next to a living bamboo shade seat for teaching. 3.. Entrance ramp cut from existing landscape, with extracted sol used for basic vegetable garden beds.
Education Garden “......happy with your sketch, with
The uncertainty of how to maintain or
basic environmental education and
ensure the current open aired nature of
human social interaction, I think a very
the specific block within the Ciliwung
good base, first for children, and can
Kampong inspired this social design
intervention. To ensure that this void
I really hope we can make the project’.
remains open, a dynamic socially
important ‘place’ needs to be created. best, Ronny
By focusing on hands on creation and participation through plants and open aired education for the children that are unable to attend funded schools, creates a very specific spatial hierarchy. “The landscape in
which children find themselves is the staging ground for their imagination, their story, their sense of the world” (Blair, 2009) By generating programs within the site opportunities may arise for further development through NGOs,
Ultimately to reach the standard of
living that was demonstrated at the Petamburan Kampong. This project is in partnership with Ronny Poluan of Jakarta Hidden Tours, the previously Images. 1. Vision of education garden 2. Site in kampong for intervention 3 - 5. Testing idea at community gardens in Abbotsford with students from Shelford Girls Grammar
mentioned not for profit organisation dedicated to social progression within Jakarta’s Kampongs
Musa spp spp. pp. pp
Growing Gro owing suggestions
Brassica oleracea capitata
Brassica rap rapa pa
Glycine Glyc y ine soja j
Rheum Rh R he eu um rhabarbarum rha rh ab bar arba baru rum
Spinacia p oleracea
BENEFITS On location school and learning environment Social space Immediate
Recreation Space Secures open environment Production
Stimulation through collaboration and implementation
Help finance construction through hands on social programs and opportunities
NGO’S - Jakarta Hidden Tours
Stimulate further opportunities through networks
- Research - Study tours - Funding
Secondary Drinking water programs Public toilet infrastructure (Petamburan example) Services: Power, drainage, sewer ect
Infrastructure for continued growth
This diagram maps out the immediate effects of this design on both the physical ‘place’ and the projected relationships that are created. The immediate impact followed up by the possibilities of further social infrastructures make this design a catalyst for opportunity. 49
Gembrong Gaplok Accelerate
of a rail line been considered a space
“Ten years, maybe ten years”.
In the middle of the two
for living. Yet here I stand, next to tree
Hot dry gritty air blows past my face.
time as the train goes past, faster,
children that have known no different.
Noise all around me, we wait. So close
louder too. Not loud enough though, to
This relationship, what to make of it?
I could reach out and touch the train
silence the three boys jumping on each
Back on the track, following a train like
as it lumbers past me. We wait, ten,
other at my feet. How old I wonder five,
its second nature. Fifty, one hundred,
twenty maybe thirty seconds till the train
seven? Hard to tell, less than ten, that’s
maybe four hundred meters till I see our
rolls past in a back draft of hot air and
for certain. What is it about this space
destination, an exit from this place.
rubbish. Such a foreign thing to do, to
that is so fascinating? So depressing?
I’ll never forget the feeling of steeping
use an urban train track as a path, but
What is it about this relationship,
through that crumbling, broken down
when I look around it makes sense.
between man and their environment?
piece of concrete…
How else would we enter this place?
This environment, this infrastructure
No plants here, how interesting, that
of a city that now supports life. Never
such a simple observation can say so
before in human history has the interior 57
Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Temporal living structures, tents ect. Squat
On site opportunities. Privately funded school
Gembrong gaplok kampong
4 3 2 1
Young temporal squat.
1. Cross section of site. The middle void is used for storage, play and sporadically for living. The rail itself is used for transit. The wall is the first attempt by the government to remove living space, as you can see it failed. This entire space is up for eviction without relocation
immanent. Poor cross access, rail area acts as a channel. This is an extreme location with a very poor demographic
2. A couple of boys playing in between the tracks. They have known no other living environment, their relationship with the rail lines is one of instinct.
3. Wall and middle void offer the best opportunity for design. 4. This couple live between the train line and have done for the past 9 years. When asked where he would relocate once evicted his response was unsure. 5. Charity funded school located through the wall, offers free education and support to families and children. The location is fixed reducing the number of children that can benefit from the program.
6. Entry point into the rail kampong. The intersections often locate a merge from one rail spatial typology to another. 7. The first exit point from the rail kampong. This hole in the wall provides a necessary crossing point. Separation by the wall allows for an instant benefit in living environment.
3 Image: 1. â€˜Things on wheelsâ€™ precedents. Hot food, rides, ice cream and pet sales. The opportunities for business increase when you are mobile . 2. Understanding the importance of a micro network infrastructure for the support of mobile social programs within the region.
3. By increasing the opportunity for student access through mobility education can have a greater impact on the region.
Mobile bike school Observing the great ease with wich that informal mobile micro economies operated informed the development of the bike school concept. This was a way of addressing the lack of On
opportunity for education within the
Gembrong Gaplok region. Through studying existing â€˜liveâ€™ precedents Possible school location
on the ground in Jakarta. The idea to hybridise a school with a bike created was the foundation of the next design. Access and networks become
important infrastructures if they start supporting social programs such as mobile schools. Mobile school network Rail path entry / exit intersection
Hybrid rail infrastructure for increased mobility
Image: 1. Bike school concept drawing. 2. By hybridising the rail infrastructure with bike infrastructure the opportunity for social programs to embed themselves within informal settlement increases. Existing rail network 61
2030 Indicators The great equalizer of Jakarta is the traffic. This is of high priority within the spatial master plan, with Olivia Stinson suggesting in Expat Indonesia that “the city could reach total gridlock in the streets by 2016” (2010, p36). To
address this issue the Spatial
Master Plan focuses on toll roads, traffic
increase in rail infrastructure. The plans on the left indicate no vision for bike infrastructure, a tested, affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport. The question that presents itself is whether the new rail system will become a replica of the existing relationships that exist in Gembrong Gaplok or if a ‘new’ typology can create opportunity not just for public transport but for housing, access, networks and economies of the informal nature.
Images Top: Traffic and Transportation Mode restriction Plan Middle: Rail Road Network Plan Bottom: Guidance for Transportation Network Development Plan, no indication of bike infrastructure. Images: /www.rtrwjakarta2030.com 25/10/10 62
Site relationships The
existed with the rail line were strong, sometimes genius and sometimes extremely confronting. The drawings on the left are a series of mappings that explore the spatial importance of these relationships.
Images: 1. A micro business operates using the existing infrastructure as a foundation for delivering water. 2. Diagram explores the negative effect the wall has when there are no access or exit points
3. Positive effect from a simple hole within the existing wall. The environment change when steeping through this space was extremely powerful. 4. The rail line operated as a network system for foot and cart traffic, the tracks themselves are the paths. 5. Spatial diagram of how the rail line no longer has a single function. It already operates at a hybrid level. Living storing, playing, walking, commerce all use this space as a foundation. 63
Accelerating It is hard to compare Gembrong
to relocate on site, yet not directly
Gaplok to the previous sites. It is
so. We must allow ourselves to see
so fundamentally different in its
the positives that come from the
nature that it deserves a separate
infrastructural forms that are the
classification. Gembrong Gaplok is
wall and the rail line. By doing this
a squat, the begining of a slum. It is
we remove our instant reaction and
young, no more than 10 years and
begin to critically observe existing
contains no permanent structures.
People live in tents on either side
Opportunistic Urbanism states, “what
and between the rail tracks with
becomes clear is that opportunistic
architectures are tactical endeavours
force from the army is imminent.
that are alternative to strategic planning
There is limited economy beyond
and authorised developments, and
scavenging, less children, and no
that this relationship – between the
obvious community hierarchy. This is
informal ways in which people tailor
an extreme location; it is an example
and adapt their environments, and the
of a new urban typology where an
more formal process of city planning
existing infrastructure is functioning
and building – offers fertile ground
for a purpose that it was not designed
for considering new models of urban
for. The process for dealing with this
design” (Ramirez Lovering, 2008).
site and sites similar throughout
This allows for a new kind of thinking,
Jakarta is to evict with no relocation
to produce new urban typologies that
process. Attempts at building walls
support the existing needs and serves
to eliminate space have failed due to
the greater city.
Exposed steel reinforcement
Stuctual support beams
Exposed steel reinforcement
poor design, and in many case made the situation worse. Yet in all this there is opportunity, if one is willing to step back and examine the relationships. There is potential for a spatial rethink, 64
Bike Path Mobile School Exitt Points Po
Bike Access Points
Existing Rail Line
Emergency Access Path
residence on each side. The armature
The extreme nature of this site and it ‘s
design reacts to The current process
outcome. By expanding on the use of
spatial dimension creates an extremely
of eviction without relocation. As we
the rail line for access and passage,
foreign environment for design that
speak this process is underway in an
and by opening up possibilities
attempt by the government to clear
for entry and exit points and cross
quickly. The idea for the mobile ‘bike
the site and erect another wall. There
flow, a more integrated system to
school’ is the catalyst for this design.
last ‘wall’ failed in its operation, due to
This and the relationship between the
is spatial set back and poor design.
and facilitate the city environment
existing concrete wall and the
This is an example of how design can
the objective for a better
Void On site relocation
Void Banana Farm
Foot crossing Section b
Cross flow, by this I mean the ability of a person to traverse the rail line at the perpendicular is vital to this design. The reduction of the â€˜channelâ€™ effect allows for people to cross more often without the existing situation of enclosure being felt. By expanding on the ability for locals to utilize the linear network, trough spatial dividers, and bike infrastructure, the train line become more dynamic and accessible to a greater proportion of the population. Through programs such as the bike school the network becomes 2
fertilizing the grounds for change.
1. Cross section of rail infrastructure operating across possible programs. See page 49 for section location. 2. Spatial diagram of how the rail armature and path system uses the existing spatiality of the site and intersections. This intersection is located in Gembrong Gaplok. The blue arrows represent path direction and bike entry and exit points. 3. Due to the nature of the rail line, this system for onsite armature, access and networks operates across multiple locations. This spatial plan is Petamburan, my earlier site. With a greater understanding of site the building armature is able to be manipulated to magnify existing working site relationships, such as bike and foot paths, crossings, storage space, and commerce foundation. 4-5. Spatial diagrams of system transformation in relationship to existing rail infrastructure.
Diagram am c
540 5 40.00
80 0 00
50 0 00
50 0 00
48 0. 00
760 7 760 60
76 0 00
800 x 2 780 x 2 760 x 4 540 x 1 500 x 2 480 x 4
780 0 .0 0
778 778 9 5
456 60 . 0
Bike School Build & Evolution
778 x 2 456 x 2
Production component com m mponent
Neck N eck and head head mount
â€˜Lâ€™ beam to width b
Face for join weld
Mounting Mo Mou ounti untit ng g weld we we eld block bloc ck
Luar Batang Cultivate
As I walked through the dark tunnel off the
whispering in their wake. At some point
take form. An edge, the water and what
main open market space I was instantly
the ground below my feet transformed
to the outsider appears as a manic
struck by the amount of commerce that
from concrete to wooden planks, old
network of bamboo stilts, holding
existed within the heart of the Kampong.
broken and cracked yet comfortably, (I
Luar Batang, or Old Port, is exactly that,
tell myself), taking my weight.
construction for human inhabitation.
an old industrial port that has been
As we progress deeper into the body
“……every six months, they have to
colonised over time since the 1960s.
replace their bamboo every six months”.
Dried fish, netting, anchors and all
the processes of life begin to engulf
Remember this; remember this edge,
kinds of marine based industry assault
the walkway, the public space, the
what a concept, slowly edging outward,
my eyes, drawing my attention from
social armature that holds the existing
house by house, over the water and into
one sight to the next. The smell of food
together and offers an edge for the
space. Age could be measured like a
mixed with stagnant water is rich in the
new to cling to. I see a mosque; I hear
cross section of a tree. All the while we
air, the hot, humid, close environment is
the prayers, children being children,
are watched by the eyes of economic
filled with women cooking and selling,
washing cooking eating, and living. All
progress, bearing down form above as
the occasional child runs past with the
at once we are in the open air and the
a towering concrete reality.
cross cultural language that is laughter
real expanse of this warren begins to
Key On location micro economy. Income is generated within the community through sales and services. Off location micro economy income is generated outside of community.
Projected slum expansion area if a continuation of the current construction pattern for Luar Batang is observed. Off site opportunities intervention.
Luar Batang Kampong
Info Old harbour town Established 1960s as an informal settlement Water out for city, toxic, prone to flood 6 children per house ( on average through conversation Bamboo needs replacing every 6 months
Luar Batang 1. The edge of the kampong is the youngest, and often the least established. However the ability to attach to the ‘body’ is a clear accelerant in establishment. This image gives some indication into the reliance on bamboo that exists within Luar Batang. 2. Entry into the Kampong is directly off the market space, most residence work and live within Luar Batang. This walkway operates as a walking ‘plaza’ with everything that one would need, and often not need to live. Cloths, school books, food, water.
3. The old port area is a hive of activity; many marine industries still operate here. Everything from fishing, boating supplies to seafood and other stalls deemed necessary for the environment. 4. Offsite micro economies are strong within Luar Batang. These are fishing boats with a port tour operating in the back ground. These industries are informal, yet are vital to the city.
5. Religion is extremely important within every culture. Here is an ad hock mosque that is located within the heart of the Kampong. The close confines of this environment mean that residence across a multitude of religions live and work together, with complete tolerance. 6. Site for design intervention. Currently operates as an overrun park space. 7. Projected edge expansion over time 8. Concrete towers that are edging closer to Luar Batang. With indications of expansion within the 2030 Jakarta master plan.
9. Youngest point within the Kampong.
The Jakarta 2030 spatial master plan indicates a strong desire and intent for more open green space within the city. As indicated on the plan (above left) several zones have been selected for this endeavour. The Luar Batang region is set for some dramatic change. If this vision is realised, a huge amount of new land will come available for water front living for the middle to upper income bracket. This in its nature is well out of reach for the majority population, new land will become green space at huge expense whilst existing open space will be given over to public warehousing,
green space an upper class privilege. The spatial plan â€˜map 43, Priority Area for Specific Planning Policyâ€™ gives a black and white indication of intent regardless of existing cultures, economies and social networks. Kawasan Wisata Sunda Kelapa = Tourism Region. Images Top: Vision for north shore, Billboard, Jakarta Middle: Guidance for Green Zone Development Plan Bottom: Priority Area for Specific Planning Policy Plan Images: /www.rtrwjakarta2030.com 25/10/10 80
New Land for apartments and green space
Fishing _ relationship with the city
The drawings on this page start to explore the existing relationships on site. The above diagram demonstrates how the informal economy of fishing works its way into the everyday city. From registered restaurant to street venders, until the fish is consumed its path draws out the importance of the invisible relationships that can be traced back to the kampong. Left is a diagram of how the bamboo for the continued construction of Luar Batang has to make its way through the maze of streets and congestion that is Jakarta to its point of sale. Bamboo supply relationship diagram 81
Cultivating Luar Batangs’ system of expansion
rotation period of the bamboo stilts
makes for an extremely interesting
creates a living environment that is
site when all elements of time,
never settled. Like the organic it exist
economy and health are considered.
in a constant state of change, and like
The structural integrity decreases on
the settlement, an intervention that
the edge or ‘expansion zones’ with
addresses the existing and projected
consistent infrastructure issues such
conditions needs to celebrate that
as flooding being common. This issue
then has a follow on effect with health, have a negative effect on all aspects of life. Yet the ability for these ‘new’ settlements to attach themselves to
4. Infrastructure prototype, allows for structural cross beam insertion as well as rotation to avoid spatial dictation.
benefits. Access into an established micro economy speeds up the ability
5. System Diagram. Workers from the kampong farm the park and bamboo is feed back into the kampong. Expansion of the park over time will allow for a greater bleed into the city.
for residents to affect repairs on their personal space and establish a healthier environment over time. This
6. Iterative sketch design in the understanding outward growth for structural pillar locations
relationship between the old and the new is extremely powerful. By adding to this body of economy and culture
2. The selected site currently operates as a ill-used green space. In the 2030 spatial plan the area is marked for industry warehousing, even though there is specific guidelines for an increase in public green space within the city. 3. Projected kampong growth area. As the bamboo farm/park is able to expand so too will the kampong. By establishing a relationship between the two the area can become a dynamic ecosystem. Pillar infrastructures are used as building guides to ensure that all new expansions are above projected water levels.
creating an environment that will
the existing body does have obvious
1. Bamboo Farm / Park combines the need for open space within the city and the continued demand for structural bamboo within the surrounding kampongs. The park is broken into rotational season growing fields, recreation spaces, required storage and hydrology systems for water runoff.
3 7. Park section
the act in itself begins to speed up the transition from extremely poor to, a level of stability that opens people to opportunities. This coupled with the continued deconstruction construction of the settlement due to the six month 82
Bamboo Farm Park The
kampong expansion and bamboo use is what fertilized this design outcome. Recognising this particular kampong has a continual construction process and how important the stability of the greater â€˜bodyâ€™ or established heart of the kampong is providing the opportunity for design. By designing outside of the site in 5
spatial terms but having intricate links between, economy, structural growth, public infrastructure and time, the kampongs relationship with the city becomes even more embedded. These drawings give indications as to how the design operates in space and time. By providing public green space in line with the desire of the 2030 spatial master plan cultivating
an economic and structural system, this design starts to operate on a hybrid level that is required for future urban systems. 7
Recreation space Surrounding Kampong
Field at harvest point
Recreation space 83
Recreational Walking g Tracks Farming Depot and Infrastructure
Farming / Leisure Network
Grow wing Topography
Proje jected Kampung p g Gro owth Direction_Land d
ater wth Direction_Wa p g Grow j cted Kampung Projec
Spatial breakdown of park farm system. Growing topography informs water drainage system as well as farming and recreational path network. All growing surfaces are angled north, north - east, or north - west for optimum growing environment. 84
3 5 Year ea Cyc Cyclic c System Syste Bamboo Plantation _ Field 01 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 02 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 03 Bamboo Plantation _ Field 04 Field e d 01 0 Split Sp t Rotation otat o
6 Month o t Process ocess Bi Annual Process Field 02 _ 3 year growth Field 03 _ 2 year growth Field 04 _ 1 year growth Bamboo Field 01 _ 50% Harvest Period Open Air Drying Period Storage Drying and Bamboo Treatment Market Preparation, Sales and Services Field 01 Season Preparation and Continuation Recreation Period Structural Bamboo Market Weekly Community Market
4 1. Hybrid programming of design 2. Sketch design and iteration for form development 3. The initial park is broken down into 4 farming areas, recreational areas, and infrastructure. Each farm zone
can be biannually harvested or annually harvested. Staged growing harvesting periods insure a cyclic system will follow over time allowing for maximum productivity. If successful the northern areas can be expanded to meet growing demand for material and green space.
4. Diagram of park functioning over time.
ProjectImplementation Within the Jak Mania there are
several design responses that sit
The small scale and specific social
across the various infrastructural
hierarchy of this design allows for a
and social scales. The range of
large amount of involvement by the
variation between the speculative
direct community. The exact process
and the achievable is a reflection of
of the implementation of this project
the varying states that landscape
are still being work out. The opportunity
architecture can intervene with the
to use Jakarta Hidden Tours as an
potential to effect real social change.
existing body to raise funds for this
I believe that I have demonstrated
design is a real possibility. In this
through my research the potential
case Ronny would be able to manage
the establishment of the site whilst
through the process of either small
working with the community leaders in
scale design with the possibilities for
the ongoing operations of the school
immediate implementation or larger
and other social programs.
scale speculative design.
Education Garden Mobile Bike School Network Armature Bamboo Farm Park
ProjectImplementation Mobile Bike School.
Bamboo Farm Park
Although this social program is
As mentioned previously within the
a layered system on the network
government’s desire for more green
armature, it still has the ability to
a strong critic on the present day
space within the city it becomes
operate if implemented immediately.
operation of the government and their
Although there are many examples
preception of on ‘slums’. The scale
suggestion. The scale and cost of
of economic mobility, the’re are little
and infrastructural requirements for
this form of public infrastructure
in the way of social program. Due
this design - the vertical structural
automatically make the government
to the schools being non-profit this
armatures and the concrete surface
program would require a level of
treatments - make it implementable
infrastructural scale there is a social
coordination through an NGO, activist
only through government. However
scale, as not only is the park for the
or charity organisation. Although this
program could be operated through
greater public it also operates as a
structural farm to foster growth. This
community groups, the reality is that
in the Jakarta 2030, such as traffic
is an example of layered systems
the lack of funding or income for such
congestion and bike infrastructure
with differing outcomes for different
an activity would make it unlikely.
make it a plausible option. Through
a demonstration of the importance
of this form of infrastructure and how
communities utilize the park for
it begins to effect more than a small
growing materials, which in turn
community high level government
creates an economy off what is
policy may be positively affected.
traditionally a profitless typology,
can inspire a change of thinking in a predominantly economically driven environment.
Project Summary What this project demonstrates is that
systems design. By doing this the
design has an incredible potential
intervention becomes open for the
to build upon existing social and
adaptation that is required within the
extreme pressures of highly populated urban environments.
Mega Cities in their nature are in continual expansion and layers of
The Gembrong Gaplok (Accelerate)
and Luar Batang (Cultivate) design
foundations for this expansion, which
interventions demonstrate this system
can be represented as built arteries
hybridization approach. Each design
such as rail networks and roads or
builds on existing urban typologies
the social requirements of the people
and reacts to the surrounding social
that inhabit a city, economies and
requirements. This process delivers a
education for example, allows for
new, working system that in time may
dynamic starting point for design.
become the foundation for the next.
These systems are not new, however
Ciliwung (Accept) offers a very basic
as a designer I intend to transcend the
approach to securing the community
existing functionality of these systems
and social benefits of open space
in order to produce new operations.
with the layer systems of education,
What they were designed to do, how
ecology and community participation
these systems currently operate and
for the creation of a socially import
the relationships that exist between
space that has the ability to be the
them and society need to be viewed
catalyst for greater change.
through a new light. The role of the direct population to activate, utilize and especially to evolve the design beyond its first stage of implementation is vital in the process of this form of layered 95
Conclusion The fact that this project evolved into more than just a exploration in design, which for me was the initial aim, is something that I am still in the process of coming to terms with. My involvement with Jakarta Hidden Tours, Ronny and his partner Anika has is many ways added another rich layer to this research. The design of the Education Garden within the Ciliwung Kampong is just as much a thank you to them as it is a response to my understanding of that site. Opportunity
important word through out my research. It operates throughout my process and emerges as an outcome of my designs. The Ciliwung Kampong presented, to me, an amazing opportunity to help Ronny have an even greater impact through his work. In many ways I am adding to the foundations that he has already laid, but this is what good design does, it works with the existing, not against.
Acknowledgments Thanks to Ronny and Anika from Jakarta Hidden Tours and their tireless work, for without them The Jak Mania would not be. Huge thanks to the Masters of Landscape Architecture crew, you know who you are, you made the year in some ways a pleasure. The guidance of the teaching staff,
Marieluise, your influence and guidance has been wonderful over the past 5 years. To my family and to Sarah for her unwavering support in the darkest of times.
Edawards, Robin & El-Khoury, 2004 Shaping the city: Studies in history, theory and urban design, Routledge, new York, usa, p202 Jakarta post 2010, Jakarta 2030? Draft plan not looking good, 09 January 2010 Dovey, Kim, Becoming Places, urbanism/Architecture/Identity/Power Routledge, New York, USA, p83 Kaliski, j 1998. The present city and the practice of city design. Everyday urbanism. The Monacelli Press,New York, P 107 Ramirez-Lovering, Diego, 2008, Opportunistic Urbanism, RMIT University Press, Melbourne, Australia, p127 Stinson, O, ‘The future of Jakarta”, Expat Indonesia, August 2010, p36 Blair, Dorothy, ‘The child and the garden: an evaluative review of the benefits of school gardening programs, Journal of Enviromental Education, 2009, p 15 Images Ramirez-Lovering, 2008, Opportunistic Urbanism, RMIT Press, Melbourne, Australia, p140 Ruby, Ilka & Andreas, 2008, Urban Transformations, Ruby Press, Berlin, Germany, p356 www.rtrwjakarta2030.com 25/10/10