Religious heritage in the hague

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GROUP 2.

Religious Heritage the Hague Saskia Hesselink Marialena Kasimidi Clemens van der Linden Houtruskerk [21] Bethlehemkerk [18] Bethelkerk [23]

速MIT

Research & Architectural design AR0681 Msc 2, spring semester 27th足 of March, 2013

(image 1.) Interior during service The Hague, Bethelkerk, photo by the author.

R


PART I (REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE research questions

"The past 40 years approximately 1300 churches (in the Netherlands) have lost their original function. About 100 of them were reallocated and the rest has been demolished. It is expected that in the next decade another 1200 will become vacant.” (RMIT semester manual 2013) It is evident that there is a growing number of church buildings in the Netherlands that no longer serve their purpose. In order to understand the current situation many aspects need to be considered and studied. Most importantly, this research should be able to demonstrate the reasons and the processes that lead to the current situation, as well as to provide an overview of a variety of different factors and contemporary approaches on this matter. Finally, this study should investigate and suggest ways of dealing with this type of building stock, today and in the future. To accommodate the research, three subjects will be examined: context, stakeholders, and finance. Who are the interested parties (and why) in the debate of religious heritage? The complexity in dealing with religious heritage derives, to a certain extent, from the variety of interested parties involved in the process. The owner, the church community, the neighbours, the local authorities and heritage committees, pressure groups, the developers; all are potentially involved in the reallocation of churches, each from a different point of view and with different interests. Some of these stakeholders have financial or administrative needs and ideas, but others, like the church community, are very deeply and emotionally influenced by those changes (Bisdom_Haarlem, 2008 p.115). Therefore, a major aim of this research is to identify the specific stakeholders and their reasons for involvement, and examine the importance of the plurality of their roles. The role of the architect will be cosidered within this framework. What are the financial considerations when dealing with religious heritage? When cultural values are at stake, the economic debate seems often inadequate to correspond with the real situation. On the other hand, it is fair to say that the financial aspects of any intervention on an existing building are important considerations. This of course also counts for religious buildings. Building costs, the future exploitation of the building, and possible subsidies are of great importance for the future of religious heritage. A common presumption is that demolishing a church can be cheaper for the owner to reallocating. (Bisdom_Haarlem, 2008 p.61) But is this really true, or are there also different ways that might offer feasibility or even profit margins? What is the historical, social, cultural and spatial context of the vacant post-war churches, and of their location? In order to understand the meaning and function of post-war churches, it is essential to first investigate the urban environment, which they are part of. Such a topic includes all aspects of urban formation, starting from a historical point of view. Tightly connected to history are also cultural, social, political, economic and religious proceedings – on both a national and a local scale. Currently, a large number of post-war neighbourhoods are facing difficulties pertaining to space or social related problems. Consequently, often ambitious plans and local efforts are being formed to revitalize those neighbourhoods. But how do churches correspond to those plans? Could they play a new role in the neighbourhood, and how do they relate to the changed population and new migrant churches? (Veldpaus, p.9) Methodology Literature, Site visits, Urban and building analysis, Questionnaires and interviews with different stakeholders, Study of local authority’s plans and visions for the neighbourhoods, Reference projects in the NL and internationally, Flowcharts and decision making process graphs.

B2

®mit, religious heritage the hague


(REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE financial considerations

Energy use in Euros per seat per year Valkenboskerk

103,3

Laakkapel

81,3

Kruispuntkerk

68,3

Thomaskerk

63,3

Ontmoetingskerk

56,7

Bosbeskapel

56,7

Maranathakerk

52

Bethelkapel

49,3

Marcuskerk

39

Abdijkerk

37,5

Bergkerk

35

Vredeskapel

34

Shalomkerk

31,25

Duinzichtkerk Bethelkerk

Due to dwindling numbers of churchgoers, church institutions such as the Protestant Church (PKN) and the Catholic Church (RKK) in the Netherlands are coming into financial difficulties. The Churches are very wealthy, but their financial means are locked up in real estate. In order to liquefy these assets, the Churches are combining congregations and selling the left over churches. Because many of these churches are either architecturally or culturally valuable, the broader public has an interest in preventing the vacant churches from being demolished. The question of the financial viability of these transformations is a difficult one: on the one hand the very nature of the church space is difficult to re-use and this option can be more expensive than demolishing and rebuilding. On the other hand the church has an added value which is also intrinsic in the space, its value to the community. This situation is compounded by the fact that the same community which is vocal in not wanting a church to be demolished is often not willing to support it financially (lecture Houben, 2013).

30,75 25

Image 2: Weighed energy costs of the churches. Red staffs indicate churches which were picked for closure. (Own illustration based on figues bakens in de stad)

In evaluating which churches should close and which should stay open, the Protestantse Gemeente te ‘s Gravenhage (PGG) had to take the financial aspects of these churches into consideration. These aspects, including the energy costs, net financial gain (usually negative), and the saleability of a building weighed strongest in their matrix to determine which buildings would close (PGG, 2012). In the end, just looking at the energy costs of the buildings would have given a good indication of which were to be slated for closure (see fig. 1). General overview of churches which will be closed by the PGG.

Image 2 (below): financial values of the churches to be closed. (Own illustration based on figues bakens in de stad)

In 2012 the PGG evaluated its stock of buildings in order to determine which churches should be closed and which should be kept in use. Of the 27 churches 10 were not even taken into consideration, but were deemed important enough to be kept without being evaluated. These churches included almost all municipal and national listed heritage buildings. Further, all churches which were financially independent were not considered for closure.

Form

Maintenance Reasonably good maintenance, new Box shape church which seats up to 600. boilers, little degradation Church is municipal monument because of the concrete, moisture of unique exterior. Seven extra rooms for problems in the house use for other functions, plus living area for and basement is sacristan. outdated.

Energy use

Location

Above average Located in Loosduinen neighborhood. Good energy costs, accessibility with tram and bus, but mediocre church is not parking opportunities. easily insulated Located in Loosduinen neighborhood. Above Rectangular church hall with drop ceiling Lowest overall average incomes and participation with below Bethelkerk (1938) seats 300-400. Behind this hall is a Recently renovated, new energy use average unemployment and an expected community center with smaller rooms. boilers, problems with per seat. increase in minorities. Good accesibility with tram and bus, and free parking nearby. Entrance and cloakroom is small. lintels. Located in Leyenburg across from a sport field, with hospitals and parks nearby. Good Thomaskerk accessible with tram and bus. Parking Church hall seats 200-300 (previously Above (1951) garages nearby, but unknown if these are 550). Besides church hall, 3 other rooms Steel windows and single average and a lot of space in the basement. glazing energy costs. available for use. Located in Loosduinen neighborhood. Above Church requires a lot of Church hall seats 140. Behind there is a average incomes and participation with below Bethelkapel outside painting. New Energy use is average unemployment and an expected smaller room. A house beside the church (1921) boilers and recently average. is also part of the property. increase in minorities. Good accessibility with renovated w.c.'s tram and bus, and moderate to good parking Church hall seats 150 (600 before the renovation). Other than this only coffee New windows with double High energy Located in Laak neighborhood, neighborhood costs per seat is mostly residential. Accessible by bus and glazing, plus roof has room and former living quarters for Laakkapel (1924) sacristan. been fixed. tram with plenty of on street parking. Ontmoetingskerk (1969)

Valkenboskerk (1929)

Kruispunt (1969)

Vredeskapel (1880)

Church hall seats 120-300 guests, with recently replaced furniture. Built in the Amsterdam school style, with large central hall. Two smaller rooms separated by flexible wall, plus office and space for creche. Church hall originally seated 200-300, but current arrangement seats 90. Acoustics for music are mediocre. Architecture is very expressive. Rectangular church with in eclectic style, blends into urban fabric. main hall sits 200. Hassmall communtiy building

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

High maintenance but recently replaced windows. Under floor heating and new boiler. Average maintenance costs. High ratio inside/outside area. New HR boiler. Average maintenance costs, church has double glazing. Renovated in 2005.

Zoning

Heritage status

Social/ Municipal Community monument

Social/ none Community

Social/ none Community

Social/ none Community

Social/ none Community

Highest energy costs per seat.

Located in Escamp in primarily residential neighborhood. On street parking available, accessible by tram.

Energy use is above average to high

Located in Haagse bos neighborhood, this church is located in an area with lots of green Social/ none and nature. Good parking in the vicinity. Bus Community stop in front of the Church.

Situated at the edge of the Center of the Energy use Hague. Not easily reached with public below average transport, and only on street parking.

Social/ none Community

Social/ National Community monument

B3


(REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE financial models

The remaining seventeen churches were evaluated on the basis of functionality, architectural value, size of the parish and use of the building, and finances. Each church was given points on the basis of these items and these were then weighed on the basis of what the Church considered important. In the end, the PGG will close seven churches, the Ontmoetingskerk, Bethelkerk, Thomaskerk, Behtelkapel, Laakkapel, Valkenboskerk, and Kruispunt and the Vredeskapel. In order to save these churches from demolition, a new function should be found for the buildings. The question is what are the values of the churches and how can these be exploited to find a fitting new function (see table 1).

traditional Traditional model Model Traditional Model

The churches all have a zoning for social/community use which limits the possibilities for re-use. The city of the Hague will keep this zoning for two years, after which, if there is still no new function, they will consider changing the zoning. Further, most of the churches are located in primarily residential neighborhoods, built after the second world war. This can also pose some limitations as to the re-use of the building: the new function should either be a “destination” for which people from other neighborhoods will travel, or it should be tailored to the specific needs of the neighborhood. The churches are mostly mid-sized and many have attached community centers or appartments for the sacristan. Only two of the churches are listed buildings, which can have a negative influence on the economical value of the church (Bisdom_Haarlem, 2008). Funding sources: Top down versus bottom up Before the current economic crisis, development of a property had a set order. A developer has an architect make a design, and this was then funded by banks or investors who believe they will get a return on their investment (see figure 2). For buildings with listed heritage status, the local or national government would pay for a part of the building through normal subsidies, hidden subsidies in the cost of acquiring the building and/or tax breaks. A number of research reports (Bisdom_Haarlem, 2008; Duckworth, 2010) note that outside subsidy is a key factor in the financial viability of a reallocated church. The problem is that subsidies are limited and buildings requiring subsidies are not financially sustainable should the funding source cease. This makes these projects especially vulnerable, and raises the question as to whether these cases should be used as positive examples for future reallocations. Since the financial crisis of 2008 banks are far more careful as to which projects they will lend money to and the government has slashed subsidies. The project model of developer-architect-bank(+subsidy) is in most situations no longer applicable (interview Compagne, 2013). Because of difficulties with the traditional funding methods, in order to realise projects developers are finding new sources. Developer Peter Compagne (2013) notes that when funding a re-use it is important to spread the risks where they can be borne. This means seeking more, smaller funding sources in order realise goals. Another way to generate funds for necessary changes and renovations is to use the building temporarily with a function which doesn’t need major renovations. Aside from the money it generates in the form or rent, it can also generate interest from the community to be more actively involved in the project, which in turn can make the above, crowdfund model now possible. A third possibility when not enough funds can be raised to do the entire transformation is building in phases. This involves a plan with different steps spread out over a period of years. The concept is that the changes made in each step will generate enough returns to fund the next one, until the plan is complete. The active involvement of the Church is important in all of these funding models, because startup costs of aquiring the building are often prohibitive, especially for reallocation with a social or community function. Possible forms of involvement from the Church are to sell the building, but remain the owner of the ground, or to invest the building in the project, seeing returns only if the project succeeds. Often, it takes a few years for a business to generate a profit, so offering a graduated rent could make a difference between whether a project succeeds or fails.

B4

bank

investor

cowdfund Crowdfund model Crowdfund Model Model

potential church users / businesses

private community charity

temporary

Temporary Function function model Temporary Function Model Model

government

church community

charity

building in Building in phases phases Modelmodel Building in phases Model

private community church potential charity users / businesses (image 4.) financial model diagrams, own illustration

®mit, religious heritage the hague


(REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE stakeholders

developer / investor parish, owner of church

foundation

local government

architect

contractor

private organisation

collective organisation

cooperativa

Traditional investment model The church does not have to worry about the design process and finding tenants or buyers, they can cash in directly for their property The user and collective organizations has little

This is a tradtional model: a developer or investor buys the church and the ground and hires an architect for the design. After the realisation the property is sold or rented out to private organizations.

or no influence on the design

orientation

In the current economic situation it is hard to

>

initiation

>

plan preparation >

realisation

> admin & maintenance

find investors or developers

This is a tradtional model, a developer or inves hires an architect for the design. After the reali private organizations.

Example: Johannes de Doperkerk - Leeu-

Advantage: 1. The church does not have to worry about th buyers, they can cash directly for their propert

warden (Karstkarel, 2012, p. 25).

Disadvantages: 1. The user and collective organizations has no 2. In the current situation it is hard to ďŹ nd inve

Church as developer of re-use plans The church can control the future destination of their buildings and therefore possible negative emotions of their own church community. The users the catholic church is looking for are

Example: Johannes de Doperkerk - Leeuwarden

In this model the diocese of the catholic church is acting as a developer for re-use plans for their (future) vacant church buildings. They try to sell their buildings including the plans for re-use and the redesign.

no part of the decission making and design proces. It can be hard to match the design with the demands of potential users.

orientation

>

initiation

>

plan preparation >

realisation

> admin & maintenance

re-use and the redesign to a possible user.

Example: H. Pius X – Alkmaar (Bisdom_Haarlem,

Advantage:

2008, p. 153).

Disadvantages: 1. The users the catholic church is looking fo

Local government leads the proces The fact that people from the local community, monument commissions, pressure groups etc are involved in a early phase creates widely spread support for the plans and good ideas from bottum up can be incorporated. The proces can be slowed down because of the influence of many stakeholders. In the cur-

This diagram explains the way the local government can play a role in the re-use of buildings, in order to create functions and meaning for the local community and economy. The blue colors, the collective and private organizations, are stakeholders that are actively involded in the plan making process. orientation

>

initiation

>

plan preparation >

realisation

> admin & maintenance

the financial resources to invest in churches.

This diagram explains the way the local govern buildings, in order to create functions and mea economy. The blue colors, the collective and p are actively involded in the plan making proces

Example: Neighborhood platforms, initiative of

Advantage: 1. The fact that people from the local commun groups etc are involved in a early phase create good ideas from bottum up can be incorporate

rent situation local governments do not have

the local government in Amsterdam (Amster-

Disadvantages: 1. The proces can be slowed down because of 2. In the current situation local governments d in the church buildings.

dam_Oost, 2013).

Exploitation by foundation The church can keep their property with a new source of income. The foundation can come up with a concept, together with the architects, wherin the new users and stakeholders build and invest in the

Example: ?? Plans for Dapperbuurt Amsterdam

Churches do not want to play a role as landlord after the redesign and rezoning of church buildings, they would rather sell their property. A solution can be to rent the building to a foundation that can exploit the building, organize the redesign proces, rent out parts of the building to other private organizations.

part of the building that they rent. This creates low investment costs and space for local entrepeneurs.

orientation

>

initiation

>

plan preparation >

realisation

> admin & maintenance

Churches are not very willing to play a role as church buildings, they rather sell their propert a foundation that exploit the building, organiz the building to other private organizations and

Stakeholders are highly involved and participate in the design process. porary initiatives.

Advantage: 1. The church can keep their property and crea 2. The foundation can come up with a concept new users and stakeholders build and invest in This creates low investment costs and space fo 3. Stakeholders are highly involved and partici

Example: NDSM werf, Stichting Kinetisch Noord

Disadvantages: 1. This stakeholder model is mainly used for te

This stakeholder model is mainly used for tem-

- Amsterdam (ARCAM, 2012).

Example: NDSM werf, Stichting Kinetisch Noor

Private organisations joined in a cooperative company Involvement of the users A relatively new way is creating a cooperative company. The coop rents the buildThe cooperation creates extra value for the ing and invests in the redesign. Shareholders can be private businesses that are property by working together beneficial for the local community. Investment costs can be kept low due to shared It is a new way of dealing with vacant buildfunctions. ings, some initiatives are facing unforseen problems.

orientation

>

initiation

>

plan preparation >

realisation

> admin & maintenance

Examples: HAKA building -The Hague, Garage Notweg - Amsterdam (Gelinck, 2012, pp. 18-23). Sint Jansbergklooster - Halen, Belgium (Engelen et al., 2012, pp. 16-19). (image 5.) stakeholders diagrams, own illustration

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

Developer / investor Parish, owner of the church Foundation Local government Architect Architect, working for catholic church Contractor Private organization Collective organization Cooperative company

A relatively new way of involving stakeholders cooperative company. The cooperation rents th a certain amount of shareholders. Shareholder that are beneďŹ cial for the local community. Inv fact that functions can be shared. Variations wi Initiative support-shares for other stakeholders that do n

Engine of the proces

Advantage: Ideas and design 1. Involvement of the users 2. The cooperation creates extra value for the p Builder

User Disadvantages: 1. It is a new way of dealing with vacant buildin Owner of the spot problems Owner of the building

B5

Examples: HAKA building -The Hague, Garage N 18-23). Sint Jansbergklooster - Halen, Belgium


PART II ANALYSIS OF HOUTRUSTKERK, BETHLEHEMKERK AND BETHELKERK context: urban historic fabric

Several major factors influenced the development of the urban fabric. The German defense wall built during the second world demolished the existing water, green structures and buildings. The prewar expansions of the city turned parts of the former agricultural area's into urban tissue. This process was carried on after the war, during the reconstruction. In the late '70 new neighborhoods were built next to the early postwar districts. During the prewar expansions of The 1924 Hague, the churches played a key role in the development of the neighborhoods and were placed on important axes or modest, but central places within the neighborhood. 1931

tion

Transforma (image 6.) historical morphology The Hague Bomen en Bloemenbuurt and Componistenbuurt. Own illustration.

Bethlehemkerk

Due to their location, the urban pattern and position of the Bethelkerk and Houtrustkerk were endangered by the expanding city and reconstruction after 1936 WWII. After the construction of the two churches they had a clear and impor1938 tant position in the neighbourhood, now they are encapsulated by ‘plan libre’ appartment flats and "woonerfen." The 1946 Bethlehemkerk retained its position and meaning in the urban pattern because it is surrounded by prewar building blocks. Therefore the church was not pushed away by new structures.

Houtrustkerk Bethelkerk

1 2 3

12 11

1971

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After the war the defense wall was replaced by new green and water structures and residential area's. The new green structure develops into a recreational area with a lot of sport facilities. (image 7.) historical morphology The Hague Bomen en Bloemenbuurt and Componistenbuurt. Own illustration.

Age

on ec r y

on

cit

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n zo e af

B6

2013

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st w ar

s

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s an

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p ex

(image 8) historical morphology The Hague Bomen en Bloemenbuurt and Componistenbuurt. Own illustration.

®mit, religious heritage the hague


(REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE context: social dynamics

age groups Loosduinen

Bloemenbuurt -Oost

Bomenbuurt

Componistenbuurt

+65 Segbroek The general trend in the Netherlands is towards an aging population. In the Hague the population currently still has a normal population distribution. The three neighborhoods with the churches are already much older than the hague as a whole, with more than 30% of the people in the Componistenbuurt being senior citizens. With such high numbers of senior citizens, a re-use aimed at this age group is recommended.

The Hague

ethnicity Loosduinen

Bloemenbuurt -Oost

Bomenbuurt

Componistenbuurt

Segbroek While the Hague itself has a large immigrant population, the (non-western) immigrants in the three neighborhoods is negligable. More than three quarters of the citizens of these neighborhoods are ethnic Dutch. The Componistenbuurt, with its senior population, has less than 10% non-western population.

The Hague

income Loosduinen

Bloemenbuurt -Oost

Bomenbuurt

Segbroek The three neighborhoods examined have above average incomes when compared to the Hague in general, but also compared to the districts to which they belong. This can give an indication as to which kinds of re-use can be sustained by the local population.

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

(image 9) Social statistics The Hague Bomen en Bloemenbuurt and Componistenbuurt. Own illustration based on statistics from Buurtmonitor.nl.

Componistenbuurt

The Hague

Income

B7


[18]

HOUTRUSTKERK introduction

Church name: Neighbourhood: Address: Construction year: Architects: Capacity: Monument status: Function:

Houtrustkerk Bomen- en Bloemenbuurt Beeklaan 535, 2562 BE The Hague 1936 L. Blok 225 seats None Church and restaurant/cooking school

description Consecrated before the war, today Houtruskerk accomodates an active liberal protestant community. Despite subsequent significant urban redevelopments in the surrounding area, the building kept its character and use. It underwent major renovation works during mid 60's, that reduced the ammount of seats by two thirds,

and rotated the interior by Most works of, art in- and outside the church, still remain in place. Nowadays, the main hall is offered occasionally for private rent, and the whole basement floor is turned into a cooking school / restaurant. Due to this, the church was never considered for closure, as it appears to be financially healthy.

I.

Green

2

I. III.

2

schools Houtrustkerk Remise

3 2

appartment Papaverhof tower schools

3

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appartment blocks

4

elderly home

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elderly Villa’s home

3

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2 1

pre-war building stock pre war buildingblocks

I.

(image 13) character of the area, own illustration

I.

II.

III

.

postmodern buildings postmodern buildings

historic development

character of the area

The Houtruskerk used to be the centre of the neighbourhood, located at a visible location at the intersection of two axes. Although the green structure in the area has improved, the church has lost its place in the original urban fabric due to demolition, and it is now situated between some post modern buildings.

Situated very close to the waterfront, the Houtruskerk is currently surrounded by an extended green network. The residential buildings have an introvertive character, while the ones on the canal are addressing the neighbourhood instead. Public facilities are limited to the schools.

1

3

III.

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I.

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Bethlehem Houtrustkerk

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(image 11) historic development, own illustration

Water 3

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2013

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1946

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urban environment

Order

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(image 10) houtrustkerk aerial view, google maps

180o.

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(images 14,15,16) street views, own illustration

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B8

residencial blocks

canal

park ÂŽmit, religious heritage the hague


HOUTRUSTKERK

architectural design

Art

axes

volume

Green Identity entrances

position

(images 19) Houtrustkerk volumetric analysis, own illustrations

space identity

business plan

The church is consists of a main hall with above ground basement, an adjacent residence, and relatively large outdoor spaces on both sides. The sloping landscape allows for the maximun exploitation of the basement. Separate entrances are located at side walls with connection to the gardens, not directly on the street.

The administation of the Houtruskerk has rented the entire basement floor to a cooking school/restaurant. The "community use" of the zonning plan supports this new function and allows the church on one hand to have an income and be financially healthy, and on the other hand to be a social focal point for the neighbourhood.

AA

(images 17) Houtrustkerk interior perspectives, own illustrations

restaurant library

program

weekly operation

church hall entrance lobby kitchen library / meeting room residence cooking school / restaurant

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Sat

Sun

am pm

BB AA

A

Horeca

church service

Inactive

3 (images 20) Houtrustkerk program analysis, own illustration

(images 18) Houtrustkerk urban section, own illustration

2 2

1

school

A

church - cooking school

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

AA

apartment tower

parking

school

AA

B9


A [21]

BETHLEHEMKERK introduction

Bethlehemkerk Bomen- en Bloemenbuurt Laan van Meerdervoort 627, 2564 AA The Hague 1931 W. Ch. Kuipers & van Hoogevest 1236 seats local monument since 1988 Church and other religious related community activities

description

II.

III.

1 2

III.

3

3

4

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(image 23) character of the area, own illustration

A B10

1

Bethlehem Houtrustkerk

2 1

schools Bethlehemkerk Remise

3 2

appartment Papaverhof tower Remise

3

4

Papaverhof

4

villa's pre-war building stock pre war buildingblocks

historic development

character of the area

The bethlehemkerk was built during a city expansion in the 1930's and is located along an important axis of the Hague. It is therefore a landmark on the scale of the city as well as the neighborhood. The tower is the highest point in the area and clearly visible from many viewpoints.

The Bethlehemkerk is situated in an interesting area with a mix of pre war building typologies (such as building blocks from the 1930's, villa's and the UNESCO listed Papaverhof), in which the church takes a central place. The site is accessible by car and public transport, but lacks parking facilities. There are many public facilities like shops, restaurants and sportfields.

papaverhof

residential blocks

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street

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residential blocks

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elderly Villa’s home

postmodern buildings postmodern buildings

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(image 22) historic development, own illustration

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1924

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Public transp I.

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urban environment

commuters. The church administration makes use of all adjacent spaces for community purposes, with activities for all ages. Operational and maintenance costs are covered by the financial exploitation of those daily organised activities. The church was considered in the past for demolition, but managed to become a monument to prevent this.

y cit

Bethlehemkerk has a long history which started with its consecration and first service in 1931. Its size and position in the urban fabric affirm the congregation's claims of a city church. On an important street network, the building dominates the residential surrounding, and acts as a landmark. Today, it houses a strong protestant community of locals and I .

(image 21) bethlehemkerk aerial view, google maps

III.

Church name: Neighbourhood: Address: Construction year: Architects: Capacity: Monument status: Function:

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(images 24,25,26) street views, own illustration

Landmark 1

courtyard

church

ÂŽmit, religious heritage the hague


BETHLEHEMKERK architectural design

Height

volume

axes

entrances

position

AA

Walls

(images 28) Bethlehemkerk volumetric analysis, own illustrations

AA

space identity

business plan

Bethlehemkerk is consists of one large religious building, with a high clock tower, bordering a busy street. The rest of the plot is densily populated with lower community buildings. The small courtyard is used for parking and not visible from the street. All entrances are on surrounding (secondary) roads.

There is a variety of religious related activities organised for all ages in-and outside, the community centre. From child care during services to guided tours of the church, the community has managed to be financially independant. Very characteristic is that a CD with recordings of past services recordings can be purchased for 2,75 euros.

BB

(images 27) Bethlehemkerk interior perspectives, own illustrations

program

cafe community childcare youth activities activities

church hall admin community centre tower residence

church service

A

weekly operation Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Sat

Sun

am pm

A

AA

Active

(images 3) Bethlehemkerk urban section, own illustration (images 29) Bethlehemkerk program analysis, own illustration

residential blocks group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

residential blocks

AA B11


[23]

BETHELKERK introduction

Church name: Neighbourhood: Address: Construction year: Architects: Capacity: Monument status: Function:

Bethelkerk (Loosduinen) Bohemen, Meer en Bos Handellaan 50, 2555 WE The Hague 1938 W. Ch. Kuipers 300-400 seats None Church that becomes vacant in July 2013

description

(image 31) bethelkerk aerial view, google maps

5

1

4 4

5

4

V. V.

V.

elderly Villa’s home

sportfields

7

petting zoo

6

V.

4

II.

Residential street Bethelchurch 2 - houses facing water 2 - street with trees, grass6and parking 6 2 on both sides 6 - only traffic inhabitants, quiet area

II. II.

Public3 parc 1 Bethelkerk 2 school - traffic free wooded recreation area Thorbecketower 3 Bethlehem Houtrustkerk 1 - parking and pedestrian library schools Remise 2 4 4 facilities 4 entrances appartment tower Papaverhof 3 the shopping all arround parccentre 5 6

II.

pre-war building stock pre war buildingblocks postmodern buildings postmodern buildings

s

2 2

III.

Sports

Sportfields - open area, clusters of sportfacilities - Thorbecke tower is visible

6

(image 33) character of the area, own illustration

major lanes that connect the several districts with the city of The Hague. The crossings with the streets hood, fitting in the urban pattern and of the neighbourhood are highlighted building block size. Nowadays the with landmarks or natural elements. Bethelkerk is sandwiched between I V.b I V . a Lanes Sportfields The sequence between big lanes and prewar at appartments and post war - open area, clusters ofdistricts. sportfacilities residential streets are indicated by these ‘woonerf’ The church -isbusy still with parttraffic elements. oftower the old urban pattern, but does not fit roads - Thorbecke is visible - connection to residential neighbourhoods in its current surrounding. In its -modesty two lanes for traffic divided by green, buildings, water and parc the church was an important element in along the sides to point out the main crossings the neighbourhood. Between the high buildings and new residential area’s the modesty turns into invisibility.

I V.a

V.

I V.a

I V.b Lanes - busy with traffic 3 - connection roads to residential neighbour - two lanes for traffic divided by green, buil along the sides to point out the main cross

A

Library

B12

- street with trees, grass and parking 2 on both sides - only traffic inhabitants, quiet area 6

Sportfields - open area, area clusters of sportfacilities character of the Thorbecke tower The Bethelkerk is enclosed is offvisible of three III.

Residential street Bethelchurch

3 3-3houses facing water

3

II.

Residential street Bethelchurch - houses facing water historic development street with grass and parking The Bethelkerk is trees, part of a bigger urban onthe bothneighbourhood. sides plan for It stands modestly the inhabitants, back of the neighbour- onlyattraffic quiet area II.

II.

IV. IV.

Public parc - traffic free wooded recreation5area - parking facilities and pedestrian5 entrances 3 all arround the parc 3 5

IV.

1

Public parc - traffic free wooded 1 recreation area - parking facilities and pedestrian entrances all arround the parc

I.

Canal

IV.

7

2

I.

III.

I.

1

2013

(image 32) historic development, own illustration

III.

III.

1 1

I.

I. I.

III.

e dg

ye

cit

1940

III.III.

II.

urban environment

II.

ge ed

The main hall of the church is only used for church services on Sundays. All other activities take place in the community center behind the main hall. The church has a living area for the sacristan, as well as a kitchen and meeting rooms. In the summer coffee after the service is served in the garden at the front of the church. The interior of the church is fairly new, though bare. A drop ceiling hides wooden rafters.

y cit

The Bethelkerk was built in 1938, at the time it was at the edge of the neighbourhood, bordering on green. It is situated at the corner of the Handellaan, Mozartlaan and Traviatastraat. Its placing at a corner between three streets gives the church a prominent location in its immediate surroundings, though I . the three streets are secondary to the neighbourhood.

Edge of two era’s - street between postwar district and district from ‘70 / ’80 - divided by green and water 1

4

(images 34-8) street views, own illustration

®mit, religious heritage the hague


Street walls Entrance of community centre is hidden in a ‘backalley’

Sunpath

Water and green systems

BETHELKERK

urban environment Functions

N

s Function

shopping and business arts and culture

E

W S

education and religious healthcare sports

street walls

water/green system

residential

shopping and business

Accessibility fast moving traffic slow moving traffic unmotorised traffic

arts and culture education and churches healthcare

to the placement of the church within Side entrance locatedDue sunny south theat urban pattern, the facade of the main is a visible element at the corner side and the parc entrance of the block

sports

Entrance of community centre is hidden in a ‘backalley’

Location

housing

Bethelchurch

location Bethelchurch

Due to the placement of the church within the urban pattern, the facade of the main entrance is a visible element

Corner

Sunny

ances

Side entrance located at sunny south side and the park

city centre: 17 min

shops: 400m

bus / tram: 200m Beach: 11 min

Meer & Bos (parc): 14 min

(images 41) Local situation own illustration slow

(images 40) Bethelkerk layers, own illustration

The postwar neighbourhoods in the district Meer & Bos are encapsulated between area’s with a lot of public space and facilities. The residential parts itself contain mainly private area’s for living. The Bethelchurch functions within this area as the public central junction.

park residential area sports public

/

private

/ church / private / public

A

Neighbourhood functions The area around the church can be described as one with a low diversity of functions, each clearly separated from the other. There is a small and unpretentious shopping center. Most of the area is designated for dwellings, with a few healthcare facilities for the inhabitants. Nearby is a large sport field with facilities for clubs. Schools are closely located near the sport fields.

AA (images 39) Bethelkerk urban section, own illustration 1

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

The area lacks functions in the categories of arts, culture, leisure and horeca.

Accessibility The Bethelchurch is located in a relatively quiet neighbourhood surrounded by streets with slow traffic. The residential streets are connected to the busy Laan van Meerdervoort, Groen van Prinstererlaan and Thorbeckelaan streets. On those streets bus and tram sevices are running. Alongside all streets there are sufficient parking facilities, as well as a parking garage at the shopping mall. The city centre, the beach and recreational green area’s are nearby and the Bethelchurch is at its southside connected to a green structure that connects recreational area’s with the sportfacilities.

Hidden

B13


BETHELKERK

dismantling the building Spaces

Outdated

1 main entrance 2 seating area 3 altar 4 balcony 5 stained glass windows

13

*

4

*

20

6 side galleries

19

7 organ 8 tower entrance 9 clock

17 12

16

10 bell

18

11 access to roof 12 suspended ceiling

*

13 pitched roof 14 back access to church

15

11

* 7

15 common room

10

*** 3

2

5

16 residence

14

17 cafe

*

18 common room 19 roof opening 20 entrance 9 Materials brick

6

blue carpet timber floor 8

1

(images 42) Bethelkerkexploded view own illustration

timber wall panels plastered walls ceramic roof tiles

special elements

Bethelkerk has an introverted character, reflecting its main purpose as a house of God. For a public function, it is not as welcoming and comfortable might be expected.

The church building and interior retain many typical elements of the time period in which it was built. Many of these elements are still in very good condition and could potentially be valuable, and integrated into a new design.

materialisation

The same type of red brick is applied on the exterior of the all three buildings. This materialisation is the main unification force. In the interior, the recent renovation re-determined the quality of space. Former black walls are now plastered white, with locally placed timber panels. Very characteristic is the bright blue carpet on the altar, in constrast to the grey one used elsewhere. In the community centre, the ceramic floor tiles and white walls give a feeling of emptyness.

climate Single glazing is used everywhere around the building, posing energy loss issues. Especially on the main hall, heating, cooling and ventilation are hard to regulate. Limited and indirect sunlight comes in both church and community centre. Artificial lighting is the main sourse of light throughout the day. B14

Elements roof structure organ furniture chandeliers stained glass windows bell

Timber roof structure Solid wooden rafters are currently hidden by a plaster and wood drop ceiling.

N

Brick

*

N

space identity

Organ Large organ still in very good condition. Furniture Preachers podium and religious furniture has characteristic design. Chandeliers Wrought iron chandeliers typical of the time when the church was built.

Bell- and clocktower is focal point in a neighborhood of low dwellings

Bethelkerk: mix basilica and box

Bethlehemkerk: bas

Large organ still in very good condition

Stained glass windows High windows with stained glass give typical church lighting.

Bell- and clocktower is focal point in a neighborhood of low dwellings

Large organ still in very good condition

Solid wooden rafters are currently hidden by a plaster drop ceiling.

Bell tower Bell- and clocktower is focal point in a neighborhood of low dwellings.

High windows with stained glass give typical church lighting.

Solid wooden rafters are currently hidden by a plaster drop ceiling.

High windows with stained glass give typical church lighting.

Conclusion: The church building and interior retain many typical elements of the time period in which it was built. Many of these elements are still in very good condition and could be valuable elements to save or integrate into a new design.

Bell- and clocktower is focal point in a neighborhood of low dwellings Preachers podium and religious Large organ still in very good condition furniture has characteristic design. Solid wooden rafters are currently hidden by a plaster drop ceiling.

Preachers podium and religious furniture has characteristic design.

High windows with stained glass give typical church lighting.

Wrought iron chandeliers typical of the time when the church was built.

Wrought iron chandeliers typical of the time when the church was built.

Conclusion: The church building and interior retain many typical elements of the time period in which it was built. Many of these elements are still in very good condition and could be valuable elements to save or integrate into a new design. Conclusion: The church building and interior retain many typical elements of the time period in which it was built. Many of these elements are still in very good condition and could be valuable elements to save or integrate into a new design.

Bell- and clocktower is focal point in a neighborhood of low dwellings

Large organ still in very good condition Solid wooden rafters are currently hidden by a plaster drop ceiling.

High windows with stained glass give typical church lighting.

Preachers podium and religious furniture has characteristic design.

Wrought iron chandeliers typical of the time when the church was built.

is Bell- and clocktower a neighborfocal point in hood of low dwellings

Conclusion: The church building and interior retain many typical elements of the time period in which it was built. Many of these elements are still in very good condition and could be valuable elements to saveand or religious integrate into a new Preachers podium design. characteristic furniture has design.

Large organ still

in very good condition

rafters are Solid wooden by a plaster currently hidden drop ceiling.

Heating

with High windows give stained glass typical church lighting.

Wrought iron chandeliers typical of the time when the church was built.

many and interior retain church building was built. Conclusion: The the time period in which it of condition and typical elements still in very good a new elements are or integrate into Many of these elements to save could be valuable

(image 43-44) Bethelkerk typology, cross section, collage, own illustration design.

速mit, religious heritage the hague


BETHELKERK interior views

design principles

volume

additive

Built in phases, the building tells the story The extrusion of bell tower, main enof its changing needs: the church, the trance and side galleries secures their importance in the design. residence and the community centre.

ity

Original

symmetry

The original (east/west) church orientation overrules the rest spaces.

entrances

circulation

The simplicity of the plan, and clarity of circulation routes on paper do not correspond to the actual space navigation experience.

openings

Glass Church and community centre have own entrances. The last one is recessed and not clearly visible. All other doors are on the side walls without direct access to street.

Large stained glass windows offer a fragmented and diffused view of the sky. Light from a roof opening is only available at the community centre.

Roof roof system

Pitched roofs reflect traditional building styles as well as being effective in removing rainwater from the roof in the wet climate of the Netherlands.

structure

Main structural timber elements that support large spans and roof are hidden by suspended ceiling system.

Small garden is kept by community volunteers and used for coffee in the summerand the building is hidden behind plants and trees on the periphery. (images 45-51) Bethelkerk interior views own illustration

position

(images 52-60) Bethelkerk 3d analysis own illustration

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

B15


BETHELKERK interviews

"I saw the church being built. It would break my heart to see the building demolished."

chair of church board

church goer

"I don't really care what will happen to that building." "Times are hard for everyone." "we don't want the church to close, but we had no other option." "Doesn't matter what comes in, as long as we can still use it." "There are interesting activities in reused building in the area! The zuid 54, for example, is a cultural centre in a former school resident

verger

church board

church goer

resident

local family

"It is more than a pile of bricks.It is a building that has a lot of meaning for people who visit this place since they were kids." "There is also Lourdeskerk in Scheveningen! They do yoga classes there, and meditation." church board

resident

"I'd love to see it be a healthcare clinic." church goer

on

Distincti

local resident canal

pavement

street

garden entrance lobby

main hall

functions

altar

back lecture corridor room

church

cafe

cloak room

street

garden

pavement

housing

community centre

public/private/semi-public pastor

space orientation talk to parishi oners 4

give greetigs

3

7

6

drive off change cloaths 5

1 park the car

leave 2 coat / get dressed

perform service

visitor

4

3 practice yoga

take coat and bag leave 2 coat / lock bag

5 drive off 1

park the car

verger 6 sleep

4 maintane hall

prepare common rooms

5

wake up 1 prepare kitchen 2 and cafe ring the bell 3

parishioner greet 7 pastor 6a drive off / walk 1

B16

park the car / walk

5 take coat / leave bible 2

leave coat / take bible

greet pastor 4

have a coffee 6b and chat

8 walk

take a seat / 3 attend service

速mit, religious heritage the hague


BETHELKERK

functions distribution

program

current program church

space % m23 m

686 m2

entrance lobby cloakrooms wc’s balcony corridor lower level corridor upper level altar side galeries main hall backstage space corridor ground level organ upper level bell tower residence 104 m2 1st floor terraces attic

Jan ar

yt

t

sp se ec rv ia ic l e

ture

lec

ks ee w n tio

ms

baptis

y da

t ry

r

un

*

d or

Aug

ste

ca

ls

ts

va

era

Apr

ea

fun

** *

ascension day lectu re es art g ex hib ria itio ar n m bu st rip

triduum

good friday - easter sunday

hi

e

Mar

w

im

*

ay

sd

w

e

y seniors da

ity commun t info even l cia e sp vice r se

1154 m2

im

len

ed

bus trip

Oct

Sept

h

as

arty

e

Feb

din

ne

as p

nc

sen iors da y specia l servic e

ny

stm

e

ur

re se me rv m ic br e a

chri

ct

Nov

or

spe serv cial ice

iors

le

building

** *

sen

entrance lobby cafe kitchen admin room common room A common room B common room C common room D storage changing room wc’s access to church lobby room C

christmas

ent

adv

epipha

Dec

day christmas new years eve

364 m2

ina

community centre

annual operation

May

Jun

Jul

*

open meal day seniors activities special church services special lectures protestant religious events

€ 14,857

yoga activities classes for elderly

s

€ Result

annual income from activities

€ 18,835

food service

games

dance gardening cafe classes

church community service activities

weekly operation Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

am pm

annual cost of activities

= -3978 net profit margin

(images 61-75) Bethelkerk program and interviews. own illustration with figures based on Bakens in de Stad and Bethelkerk website, as well as interviews.

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

B17


(REUSING CHRISTIAN) RELIGIOUS HERITAGE IN THE HAGUE Summary value assessment HOUTRUSTKERK

CONCLUSIONS

BETHLEHEMKERK

BETHELKERK

value assessment

Church situated in highly Church is situated in urban area on a major thorgreen area on a cul-deHoutrustkerk Bethlehemkerk oughfare. sac with water behind and CHRISTIAN) school across. (REUSING RELIGIOUS HERITAGE THE HAGUE ChurchIN situated in highly Church is situated in urban area on a major green area on a cul-det Summary value assessment r o sac behind thoroughfare. Public transp Church has a strong and acThe onlywith spacewater for commuand HOUTRUSTKERK BETHLEHEMKERK tive parish nity useschool is the across. small library located under the sacristans house.





Green



Water

 

Order 

Horeca 

Identity  Art  

 Inactive  

 

B18



Church is situated in green area on located a cul-deCooking school in sac with water behind the basement of the church There are quite some and school across. gives much needed secondshops and facilities in the aryarea, income. also means is butThis the church the church is in use for much in not directly located The only space for commuof theuse week. this area. nity is the small library located under the sacristans Cooking school locathouse. Stained glass windows and ed in the basement of open rafters give the space a the church gives much spiritual and special feeling. needed secondary Cooking school located inincome. This also means the basement of the church the church is in use gives much needed second-for of the arymuch income. This week. also means the church is in use for much Stained glass windows of the week. Works art could and ofopen raftersbring give profi t if needed, special furthe space a spiritual and niture is nice, but only suits special feeling. Stained glass windows and current function. open rafters give the space a spiritual and special feeling. Works of art could bring profit if needed, special Open raftersis nice, give but spatial furniture only quality, red brick masonry suits current function. walls are sturdy and in good condition. Works of art could bring profit if needed, special furThe only space for comniture is nice, but only suits munity use is the shops small liThere are quite some current function. located under andbrary facilities in the area, butthe house. thesacristans church is not directly located in this area. Open Openrafters raftersgive give spatial spatial quality, quality,red redbrick brickmasonry masonry walls are sturdy walls are sturdy and in and goodin good condition. condition. There are quite some shops and facilities in the area, but the church is not directly located in this area.

Landmark 

The church Church situatedis centered in highly in anarea area a lot of urban on with a throughout major thorChurch is used public facilities. oughfare. the week for community activities.

Active 

Church is used throughChurch has week a strong acout the forand comtive parishactivities. Church munity has a strong and active parish High ceilings and large interior space.

 Height 

Walls  

   

 

Church is used throughout High ceilings and large the week space. for community acinterior tivities. Partition walls brought in to walls divide the in large Partition brought to space ardivide thegive large smaller space give eas uncomfortable and smaller areas uncomfortable High ceilings and large intesometimes claustrophoand claustrophorior sometimes space. bic feel. bic feel. Impressive spans for woodenspans rafters creates Impressive for wooden a too-large for the rafters createsspace a too-large size for of the thesize current conspace of the curgregation. rent congregation. Partition walls brought in to divide the large space give smaller areas uncomfortable The is centered in an andchurch sometimes claustrophoarea with a lot of public facilibic feel. ties. Impressive spans for wooden rafters creates a too-large space for the size of the current congregation. The church is centered in an area with a lot of public facilities.

Church is situated on secondary streets, even with the Bethelkerk church tower it is not visible from busier streets Church is situated on n secondary streets, even e Hidd Shrinking with the and church tower aging com-it BETHELKERK is not visible from busier munity is supportive and streets open to new ideas.





The church is located on is situated a sunny corner, on at secthe Canal Church ondary streets, even with the waterfront.  The net profi t from activities  r tower it is not visible  Corneduring churchthe week is negative. fromisbusier streets This not a sustainable situuS nny ation.

s Functio n s € Result Outdated

  Glass ity Original  Brick

Shrinking and aging community supportive The netis profit from and acopen to new ideas. tivities during the week Community center is negative. Thisisisoutdatnot a sustainable situation. ed and claustrophobic, main hall is box shaped and uninThe net profit from activities teresting. High stained glass Community during the week center is negative.is windows give good, though outdated and claustroThis is not a sustainable situindirect light penetration. phobic, main hall is box ation. shaped and uninteresting. High stained glass Art deco stained glassgood, gives windows give diff used view of the sky, though indirect light nearly newer preaching furpenetration. Community center is outdatniture stylistic. ed andis claustrophobic, main hall is box shaped and uninArt deco stained glass teresting. High stained glass gives diffused view of windows good, though the sky,give nearly newer Interesting wooden rafters indirect light penetration. preaching furniture is styare hidden by a drop ceiling listic. gives the space a boxy which

Library

feel. Art deco stained glass gives diffused view of the sky, Interesting nearly newer wooden preaching raftfurThe neighborhood the ers are hidden by of a drop niture is stylistic. church public ceiling lacks which givesfuncthe tions, there is justfeel. a marginal space a boxy shopping centre in the area. Interesting wooden rafters The neighborhood of are by alacks drop public ceiling thehidden church which gives the space boxya functions, there is ajust feel. marginal shopping centre in the area.

 eating H

The neighborhood of the church lacks public funcHeating costs and entions, is just aare marginal ergy there efficiency poor. shopping centre in the area.

 Roof  

Sports

®mit, religious heritage the hague


CONCLUSIONS

opportunities and potentials Among the three churches analysed in this booklet, Bethelkerk is the one that will stop functioning upcoming summer. Comparing the results of the research and the value assessment scheme, it becomes clear why this is the case. Financial factors play the major role in decision making process that lead to the Bethelkerk selection. In more detail, the church has limited use from an aging community and generates negative income from all extra organised activities. On the other hand, the other churches have developed a currently feasible business plan, either due to subsidies derived from monumental status, or due to successful comercial activities within the building. Energy costs also add to the situation. The value assessment scheme shows the potentials and limitations of a future reuse. Comparing the outcomes, it becomes visible that each building has strong and low points, related to urban, historic, social, architectural and programatic values. Bethelkerk delivers certain potentials that could be further investigated as starting points for a reuse proposal. The main question now is what is more suitable for the area, the people and the building to correspond constructively. Therefore, this initiative adds to the issue of closed churches in the Netherlands, as well as presents the potential in reusing religious heritage. Traditional organizational models are unlikely to succeed in reallocating vacant churches. Due to the current economic crisis it is difficult to find investors that have the funds to buy and develop a vacant church. And besides that, future users and other stakeholders might want to have more influence in the decission making and design proces nowadays. The roles between developer, designer and user are changing. Succesfull examples shows us that creative new organizational models can lead to novel solutions for vacant buildings what might work in the case of the churches in The Hague too. And involving all stakeholders in an early phase of the re-design can avoid unforseen resistance. The matter of reusing protestant churches in the Netherlands is becoming more and more urgent. Other countries, like the UK or the USA, also face the same situation, and therefore connections on an international level should be established to contribute to the debate. Although there is no such thing as an ideal scenario for such an issue, the aim of this study was to underline the variety of approaches and give indications of the potentials that already exist in such buildings.

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

B19


Workshop: exploring the limits WORKSHOP

modeling different options

In this case we research the 'urban shed'. By rem and maintaining nothin In this case we researched the some c option of the 'urban shed'. By reInand this caseloadbearing we researche moving all walls and maintaining nothing but thecan roof and some church function as the 'urban shed'. By remo loadbearing collumns the church canand function as a parasol or nothing umumbrella for functions u maintaining brella for functions underneath. A foodmarket or performances can foodmarket or performa and some loadbearing co be possible functions. But regarding church the location and weather in as possible functions. Buta can function The Netherlands a 'shed' like this will umbrella probably not for be used intenlocation and weather in functions un sively. Netherlandsoraperforman 'shed' lik foodmarket possible Butin re probablyfunctions. not be used location and weather in T Netherlands a 'shed' like probably not be used inte

Adjustments can be made to the roof. Currently traditional rooftiles are used, but for increasing the amount of incoming daylight the roof can be made transparent. Adjustable blinds can help in regulating the indoor climate. Also the use of passive solar energy becomes optional.

Adjustments can be ma Currently traditional ro but for increasing the am Adjustments can be the madr incoming daylight Currently traditional roof transparent. Adjustable Above the suspended ceiling the in but for increasing am the interior of the church the in regulating thetim-indoor berincoming roofstructure is daylight hidden. By re-the ro moving ceiling wooden solar thethisuse of the passive elements are visible for the visitors. transparent. Adjustable b becomes optional. in regulating the indoor c the use of passive solar e becomes optional.

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Above the suspended c interior of the church th roofstructure is hidden. Above the suspended cei this ceiling the wooden interior of the church the visible for the roofstructure is visitors. hidden. B 速 , this ceiling the wooden e mit religious heritage the hague


BIBLIOGRAPHY

consulted literature Amsterdam_Oost. (2013). Focus op de buurten Retrieved march 26th, 2013, from http://www.oost.amsterdam.nl/actueel/nieuwsbrief_oost/2013/nieuwsbriefoost-21/ ARCAM. (2012). NDSM werf: bottom up stedenbouw Retrieved March 24th 2013, from http://bottomuparcam.blogspot.nl/2012/04/ndsm-werf.html Bisdom_Haarlem. (2008). Onderzoek herbestemming kerken en kerklocaties: een in ventarisatie vanaf 1970. Bisdom van Haarlem, het Bisdom Rotterdam en Projectbureau Belvedere. Haarlem. Retrieved from http://www.bisdomhaarlemamsterdam.nl/?p=docs Gemeente_Den_Haag. (2013). Buurtmonitor: Den Haag in cijfers Retrieved march 26th, 2013, from http://denhaag.buurtmonitor.nl/ Compagne, P. (2013). Private interview on March 4th, 2013 Engelen, A., Luypaert, G., Frederik Léger, J., & Decolvenaer, E. (2012). Sint Jansberg klooster - projectomschrijving. Sint Jansbergklooster. Halen. Retrieved from http://www.sintjansbergklooster.be/over-het-project/missie-en-visie/ Duckworth, L (2010). Adaptive reuse of Catholic churches as a community asset. Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Masters Projects at University of Massachusetts Amherst. Gelinck, S. (2012). Nieuwe economie in leegstaande gebouwen. Renda, 1, 18-23. Hagendoorn, T. (2012). From houses of the holy, to...? An analysis of the adaptive re-use of empty churches in the Netherlands. Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht. Hoeben, P., & Van Geel, P. (2013). Lecture february 27th: new functions and de signs catholic churches. Bisdom Haarlem - Amsterdam, department Bisschoppelijk Adviesbureau Bouwzaken. Haarlem. Karstkarel, P. (2012). Hergebruik Fryske Tsjerken. Fryslân: Provincie Fryslân. Nelen, B. (2010). De kantorenmarkt uit evenwicht. Onderzoek naar de manier waar op gemeenten omgaan met de leegstand van kantoorruimte vanuit de context van governance. Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht. Protestantse Gemeente te ’s Gravenhage, Commissie gebouwen (2012). Bakens in de stad. Unpublished commission report, ’s Gravehage. Religious Heritage in The Hague, MSc2 Research based design, semester manual RMIT: Spring semester 2013, TU Delft Van der Leun, A. (2012). Analyse Duitse en Belgische tussenmaat. Lay-Out, 21, 4-5. Veldpaus, L. (2010). Wijkkerk op drift: een studie naar de ruimtelijke en sociale rol van het kerkgebouw in de naoorlogse wijk (pp. 215). Eindhoven: TU/e.

group 2, msc 2 spring 2013

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R Colophon Document title Faculty of Architecture University of Technology Delft

速MIT

Research & Architectural design AR0681 Msc 2, spring semester 27th足 of March, 2013 Group members: Saskia Hesselink Marialena Kasimidi Clemens van der Linden Tutors: Alexander de Ridder Sara Stroux

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