Discovering the assignment

Page 1

Discovering the assignment

RMIT MSc3 Graduation Studio Sarajevo Green Design Nov 2013


Preface What is the aim of this report

This document is made for the purposes of the RMIT Sarajevo Green Design studio, held in 2013 at the Technical University of Delft. It is evident that after an elaborated research on the given assignment, there is a clear need to summarize the work and produce a booklet that provides an overview of the past 9 weeks. Moreover, this document is meant to explain the assignment and discuss the different ideas and challenges faced as well as the choices made during this period. Finally, the main aim is to set up the guidelines for the next steps, regarding the redevelopment of the chosen location(s), by combining theory with practise. The potential intervention strategies developed here are the starting points of our research by design approach.

Phased delivery

The work is divided into three separate parts. Weeks 1.1 to 1.3 were introductory to the assignment. This first phase concluded to a presentation on the 17th of September regarding the so far research outcomes for BiH and the city of Sarajevo. The next phase was during the field trip, on weeks 1.3 to 1.6. The stay in Sarajevo is related to an intensive interdisciplinary workshop, leading to a public group presentation at the Green Design Festival conference on the 4th of October 2013. The last phase was conducted back in Delft, and used for the elaboration of the assignment up to the P1 presentation, focusing on the urban analysis and intervention strategies.

This document is the outcome of the group work of the following RMIT MSc3 students: Walter van Jaarsveld Simone Op den Kamp Marialena Kasimidi Many thanks for contributions by: Job Roos, Frank Koopman and Hielkje Zijlstra (TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture, RMIT) Nasiha Pozder and architecture students (University of Sarajevo, School of Architecture)




[Phase A, B + C] [Phase A] [Phase A+B]

1. Plan of approach 2. Introduction to the Balkans + BiH 3. Welcome to Sarajevo

[Phase B]

4. Novi Grad green municipality

[Phase C]

5. Layered analysis of ex-industrial area

[Phase C]

6. Planning strategy and potential scenarios












2-8 Sept

9-15 Sept

16-22 Sept

23-29 Sept

30-6 Oct

7-13 Oct

14-20 Oct

21-27 Oct

28-3 Nov

4-10 Nov



Discovering the assignment



Exploring the city




Research by Design

Aims Indentify Sarajevo Define position + goals

Aims Exchange outcomes Establish connections Re-discover the place Choose a site

Methodology: Literature review Statistics / Numerical data Mapping + Diagrams Value assesment Online research Google maps

Methodology: Site visits Sketching Video/Photo shooting Workshop + Interdisciplinary collaboration Interviews

Methodology: Literature review Mapping + Drawings Illustratios + Diagrams Value assesment Other media

Collect / Analyse / Evaluate [Scale + Time] Tangible context

Collect / Analyse / Evaluate [Scale + Time] Intangible context

Analyse / Evaluate [Scale + Time] Tangible and intangible context

Urban planning + development Morphology of the city Infrastructure Geography / Clmate / Landscape Social + Cultural characteristics Architecture + Typology Politics + Administration Technology

Aims Draw conclusions from analysis Set starting points for redesign

Conclusions [Scale + Time] Urban potentials Planning strategy

The spirit of place + people Borders within the city Public life / Green areas Continuity and disruption

Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Novi Grad Ex-industrial site

17/09/13 Research outcomes [ group booklet / presentation]

Phase A

04/09/13 On-site workshop outcomes [Conference group presentation]

Phase B

P1 Presentation [group booklet / presentation] AR3Ar022 Urban analysis of city and landscape

Phase C

Plan of approach

Methodology and phased approach The delivery of this report corresponds to the way of work within the group of students. Equality of team members, constant exchange of information and ideas, as well as collective work became the principles of our working process. The delivery was split in three distinctive phases, organised around the trip in Sarajevo, which lasted from the 19th of September to the 8th of October 2013. Phase A

Initially, the focus was placed in discovering the identity of Sarajevo by researching the past, present and future of the country, the city and the chosen municipality of Novi Grad. Those three different scales (macro, meso, micro) were investigated from day one and several resources were used to accommodate the research. A review of available literature about Sarajevo, but also urban analysis and RMIT approach were essential. The availability of audio-visual material for the recent history of Sarajevo made the progress faster, as well as the variety of online web links and the use of google maps and wikipedia. The tangible characteristics of those three scales were researched, and formed the expectations of the field trip.

Phase B

During the stay in Sarajevo, the research outcomes of phase A were tested and enhanced. The main aim though was to establish connections, exchange ideas, and investigate specific locations within the industrial zone of Sarajevo. During that time, the Green Design Workshop occupied most of the efforts to identify the city life, and most importantly to understand the neighbouring residential sites located around the industrial zone. Intangible values, like invisible boarders, culture or public life became clear at that stage.

Phase C

Finally, the last phase aimed to elaborate the analysis, draw conclusions and set the starting points for the redesign projects. The biggest challenge was to comprehend a large amount of information and resources that were collected so far in Delft and Sarajevo, and to be able to classify those, and set up a complete storyline. The industrial zone became the target of an elaborated mapping analysis, as well as the test field on potential scenarios and urban planning principles.



Bosnia and Herzegovina macro


Sarajevo meso

Novi Grad industrial zone micro


Plan of approach Structure

Plan of approach

Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Welcome to Sarajevo

Novi Grad green municipality

Layered analysis of ex-industrial area

Planning strategy and potential scenarios

The structure of this report is based on the aforementioned research method. All different scales (macro, meso, micro) are explained in terms of their past, present and future conditions. In the first chapter, the plan of approach is presented and explained. Here, the topic of this research and scope of work are discussed, so that the reader can have a precise overview of the content of the report, and an understanding of the potential interest of it for the broader public. Additionally, the method of work is described as well as the main research question that leads this analysis. Secondly, there is a small introduction about the Balkans and BiH. The aim is to convey the basic reasons for the current complex character of the country. The research zooms in the city of Sarajevo, in order to draw conclusions for its urban fabric and culture. While the past and future parts became available from reading and talking to others, the present of the city is derived much from the experience of it during the trip. Furthermore, Novi Grad municipality becomes the target to explain the challenges and potentials of the whole city, and the transformational character of its industrial zone. The workshop outcomes are explained here, to demonstrate the potentials of a green municipality, present the neighbours of the industrial zone, and clarify its role within the city. The fifth chapter contains the urban analysis of the industrial zone, and expresses an effort to reach constructive conclusions about the current state of this site. Factors like economy, networks, use of space, building types, etc are shown in the form of numerous maps, accompanied by diagrams and relevant information. Finally, the research is used to set up the design principles that correspond to the initial research question and draw a strategy for the redevelopment of the whole industrial zone of Sarajevo. This concludes to three different but interrelated locations, research questions and topics for the next steps. Every chapter is set in such a way to produce and discuss the arguments that lead to the next scale.


Research question Sarajevo is a city that integrates many different stories. It is a place with a long and complex history; starting from prehistoric settlements, to a difficult recovery from one of the most recent and violent wars. It is a place of unique landscape, as it develops along a river valley, in a constant ‘battle’ with the dominating surrounding mountains. It is a place where religion and politics blend-in; a place where culture unites people, as well as divides them. Today, the city is under transformation. Foreign Investments on one hand and relatively low living standards on the other hand, are responsible for the co-existence of new high-rise administrative glass towers and malls, competing in height to the steep hills packed with illegal private housing.


Therefore, the task of this studio is to (re-)define the direction in which the city of Sarajevo will be developed. Taking into account the huge gaps of urban activities within Sarajevo’s fabric, like its ex-industrial site, and the recent establishment of initiatives, like the Green Design Festival, the assignment focuses on sustainable transformation strategies, which will not only address every-day life, but also boost economic, technological and societal growth and plurality. Adaptability becomes, therefore, an anchor point in this research as the main principle of approach. How can the (ex-) industrial zone of Sarajevo act as an incubator for an adaptable city? Research and design are connected and dependent on each other through the aforementioned research question: The vision (‘the adaptable city’) will be achieved through the development of a strategy (‘incubator’) that applies on the specific place and time (‘the ex-industrial zone of Sarajevo’). This report will try to specify each of those elements and justify their choice and use towards the re-definition of the city’s identity.

Plan of approach Three scenarios

The research question addresses the need to have a complete overview of the assignment, and a wider strategy for the city. This study basically accommodates this goal, but aims to invest all efforts in finding ways to specify into three individual questions, under the same frame of thought. Those processes were took place parallel to the reasearch. Therefore, there are three research themes selected: Society, Economy and Technology/Ecology. Furthermore, there are three different scenarios and locations chosen, which are assisted by this study.




Themes: Society Economy Technology / Ecology Research questions: How can the heritage tram infrastructure of Sarajevo be a tool to raise social awareness by increasing citizens’ participation? How can the underused railway network be reactivated in order to boost urban metropolitan conditions that benefit the neighbourhood and the city? How can an old industrial facility be transformed in terms of a technology assisted climate concept, and a new adaptable function without disrupting its unique character?


Investigated scenarios: ‘The revival of a sleeping zone’ ‘A cross-border local hub’ ‘Introducing adaptable heritage’


Locations: Tram depot and service site Area along railway line at the north-east of the site Old steel factory and adjacend warehouse units


Students: Simone Op den Kamp Marialena Kasimidi Walter van Jaarsveld



Plan of approach Scope and interest of study

Cities in transition are not a new ground for researchers and designers. It is in the nature of urban settlements to change through time and adjust to different incentives and parameters. In this way places gain their diversity and unique characteristics. It is also a common challenge for the recent decades that industrial sites located within or at the edge of the urban nest become derelict. De-industrialisation, for example, has forced many companies to close down or reallocate to updated facilities, leaving the former grounds with no use. Those places and their surroundings form large non-functional gaps, at the same time when cities continue to grow. The conversion of industrial sites has been a strategic approach to revitilising the cities. Designers and policy-makers have been developing plans of approach for such sites for the past decades. From comprehensive redevelopment to temporary uses, there is a variety of different ways to treat those areas. Additionally, all possible stakeholders with potentially clashing interests play their role, and make the revitalisation process complex, time-consuming and risky. research by design What is new in this research, and needs to be stressed, is the plan of approach. This study is undertaken by master students of the RMIT department at the Technical University of Delft, and therefore it is structured to address a certain point of view and methodology. In RMIT, the research by design approach is one of the main elements that distinguish this studio from other fields of architectural studies. The focus here is the elaborated research on the existing values of a place, and the relation of the research outcomes to the final design. The steps to work according to such an approach are to 1) find what is there, 2) imagine a potential scenario, 3) set principles for research by design, and 4) learn from others. Research and design are tightly related to each other during the whole process of the studio, in order to be able to show and justify the existing values of a site, and to attach new meanings.


Literature review

RMIT research

Semester manual, concept version (Sept 2013) Roos, J. (2007) Discovering the assignment. NL: VSSD Coenen, J. (2006) The art of blending, inauguration speech at the RMIT Department Zijlstra, H. (2009) Analysing buildings from context to detail in time; ABCD Research method. Amstersam: IOS Press Lowenthal, D. (1988) The past is a foreign country. Cambridge: Univeristy Press

Bosnia and Herzegovina + Sarajevo


Campschreur, W. (2002) BosniĂŤ-Herzegovina. NL: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen. Mazower, M. (2000) The Balkans: A Short History. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Demick, B. (2012) Besieged: Life Under Fire on a Sarajevo street. London: Granta Reid, A. Schofield H. (2011) Goodbye Sarajevo: A True Story of Courage, Love and Survival. Bloomsbury Publishing. Sarajevo: A biography Association of Architects Das-Sabih (1994) Warchitecture: Urbicide Sarajevo. Centre Pompidou (1994) Urbicide Sarajevo; une ville Blesse. Keesom, J. Mulder K. (1998) New wallpaper, Dandelion Carpet; City link. Amsterdam, Sarajevo Keesom, J. Mulder K. (1995) Leven achter folie: Het beeld van Hrasno; de achilleschiel van Sarajevo. Stedelijke Woningdienst Amsterdam. Keesom, J. Mulder K. (1997) Werken aan de wederopbouw van Hrasno; een woonwijk van Sarajevo. Stedelijke Woningdienst Amsterdam. Curcic, S. (2010) Architecture in the Balkans; From Diocletian to Suleyman the magnificent. Yale University Press Canton of Sarajevo (2006) Prostorni Plan Kantona Sarajevo, za period od 2003 do 2023. Godine. Sarajevo: Kanton Sarajevo Arhitektonski fakultet Sarajevo, Katedra za urbanizam i prostorno planiranje. Urbanisticki Plan, Grada Sarajeva, za period od 1986 do 2015.


Galloway, S.(2008) The Cellist of Sarajevo. Riverhead

Urban analysis and planning

Norberg-Schultz, C. (1980) Genius Loci; Towards a phenomenology of architecture. London: Academy Editions Lynch, K. (1992) The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press Cullen, G. (1971) The concise townscape. London: The Architectural Press Rowe, C. Koetter, F. (1978) Collage City. Cambrigde: MIT Press Rudofsky, B. (1965) Architecture without Architects. New York: Museum of Modern Art Boelens, L, Sanders, W. (2003) The big Kan Atlas. Mental atlas of the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban network. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers Sassen, S. (1991) The global city. Princeton: Princeton University Press (2013) Adaptable city; inserting the urban rythms. Europan 12 Theme Brochure

Plan of approach Ovink, H. Wierenga, E. (2011) Regions in transition; Designing for adaptivity. Design and Politics #5. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Hamilton, I. Dimitrovska Andrews, K. Pichler-Milanovic, N. (2005) Transformation of cities in central ans Eastern Europe; Towards globalization. Tokyo: United Nations University Press Bulkeley, H. (2003) Cities and climate change. Critical introductions to urbanism and the city. New York: Routledge (2012) Compendium for the civic economy. What our cities, towns and neighbourhoods should learn from 25 trailblazers. London: Trancity-Valiz



Emir Kusturica (1995) Underground Srdjan Dragojevic (1996) Pretty Village, Pretty Flame / Lepa sela lepo gore Jasmila Zbanic (2006) The land of my dreams / Grbavica Michael Winterbottom (1997) Welcome to Sarajevo

Short movies / videos / documentaries

Eylem Kaftan, (2013) Sarajevo My Love, Al Jazeera World episode for Al Jazeera. Available online at: [Accessed on 4 September] Vice Documentaries (2012) Around the Balkans in 20 Days. Available online at http:// [Accessed on 22 August] (2012) The death of Yugoslavia. BBC Documentaries. Available online at: http://www. [Accessed on 9 September]

Online resources http://www. online open-source encyclopedia online map with buildings classified by age Sarajevo construction info Sarajevo 1992-1995: looking back after 20 years Bosnia-Hercegovina timeline Climate information Sarajevo Green Design Festival official website


Introduction to the Balkans + BiH The past, present and future of a complex location

Historic timeline of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)

223 B.C. Roman invasion Illyrie


500 A.C.

Slavic people arrive on Balkans


Change Tribal system to feudal system


Bosnia independent by Ban Kulin

Ca. 1318 1463

Bosnia Bosnia part of independent the Ottoman by Kotromanic Empire dynasty


Most areas of Bosnia part of the Hapsburg empire

Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Past // Continuity and Disruption

Start of WWI

Start of WWII



Whole Bosnia under control of the Hapsburg empire


Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians



Kingdom of Yugoslavia


Part of German occupied Croatia

Referendum for independ-

Peace Treaty





Part of Federation and Socialistic republic of Yugoslavia


Declaration of independence as the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina




Bosnia Establishment Herzegovina Brcko district splits in Federation Bosnia Herzegovina and Republic Srpska

Prehistoric times - 500 A.C: Romans and Slavs

There are several indications that assume the existence of prehistoric settlements in Bosnia. For the developments of the Roman times there are safer evidence though. After the collapse of the Roman Empire a long period of dismanagement followed, where various tribes ruled over the area. That situation changed in the 6th century when Slavic tribes arrived from the north-east of Europe. They were mainly agrarian colonists, but succeeded to take over the entire area. Later, in the 7th century, new Slavic tribes arrived.

6th century A.C. - 5th century B.C: Dynasties in the region

During the following centuries the system of the area changed form a tribal system into the feudal system. Furthermore, from the 12th century a few dynasties were set in the region. The first dynasty was the Ban Kulin. This family declared Bosnia independent from Hungary. As a consequence, there was a wealth growth in the country while an independent Bosnian church was established. The Kotromanic dynastie ruled in the next periode. Under the management of Tvrtko I Kotromanic, Bosnia expands significantly in an area streching to the Dalmatian coast and Croatia.

5th century B.C. - 19th century B.C: Ottoman and Hapsburg Empires

In the fifth century, the dynasties come to an end. The Ottoman Empire controled Bosnia. Sarajevo develops enormous in this period. Bosnia was more a profit country for the Ottomans, they used the land to strengthen its own empire. The Ottoman empire


Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Past // Between the West and the East

Schematic timeline of South-East Europe

Byzantin Schematic timeline of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Pre-history / Classical antiquity / Romans

Contested area

Slavic counties (S from north east Eu

Schematic timeline of Western Europe

Early Middle-ages: Feudalism an Christianity

500 B.C. 20




Slaves urope)


Wars: World+cold wars


Ottoman Empire Habsburg empire

2 Kingdoms by Serbia and Croatia

collapse of ECCP / independent countries


Part of Hungary nineteenth century

High Middle-ages: Divided Late Middle ages: Famines Church/ Holy Wars and plagues


Yugoslav war

Socialistic period

Early Modern Europe: Renaissance/ Discovery / Reformation / Crisis / Enlightenment


2000 21

was under pressure by the Hapsburg Empire (Austria-Hungaria) and was finally completely defeated in that area. That process took quite a long time. During the country’s occupation, there was a huge influence by the Western culture. In 1908, Austria-Hungary decides to annex whole Bosnia Herzegovina. The South-Slaves (Yugoslavs) were angry. The Hapsburger prince Frans Ferdinand was shot by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip which led to the beginning of WWI. Interbellum: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Serbians strived for one big centralised state, controlled by them. The Croats and Slovenians did not want that. However, in 1929, the king Alexander (who is a Serbian), changes the system and named it ‘Kingdom of Yugoslavia’. The whole Balkan area was controlled by the king.

WWII: German occupation

Because of WWII, Bosnia Herzegovina becomes part of Croatia. The Germans decided that, with in mind one Big-Croatia (which fits the idea behind fascism). The Jews and Roma, who had a good life in Sarajevo, were being transported in this period. The Ustasa (Croatian fascists) killed them. Also Serbs are victims.

Ottoman empire 1830

Hapsburg empire 1908

Kingdom Yugoslavia 1929

Part of Croatia 1941

Federation Yugoslavia 1946

Federation Bosnia Herzegovina 1996


Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Past // Changing boarders Post-war period: Socialistic Republic of Yugoslavia

After the WWII, Bosnia Herzegovina became part of the newly formed Socialistic Republic of Yugoslavia. The most important figure in this period was Tito, who was the president of Yugoslavia from 1953 till his death in 1980. He built up a whole new society based on socialistic principles. Some liberalising groups were being under pressed. But the wealth is enourmously rising and the different levels between groups shrunk. However, because of the domination of the Serbians, the system eventually collapsed.

1990’s: Split of Yugoslavia and Bosnian war to independency

In 1992, a referendum was held for independence of Bosnia Herzegovina. The result of the referendum was the beginning of the war in Bosnia Herzegovina. That was because the Serbian Bosnians boycotted the referendum, they did not wanted to become independent. They wanted to split the country and add one part to Croatia and the other to Serbia. That is the reason why they boycotted the referendum. The result was an enormous victory for independence.

1996: Dayton Accord

The war was finished in 1996 because the NATO became involved after some serious conflicts in Sarajevo. The Americans took the camp of the Croats and together they conquered areas back from the Serbians. After a period of negotiations the Dayton Treaty was made and the land was split in two peaces. The Brcko district is the result of an area on which the two parties could not agree on. Therefore, the district has its own local government and serves under the sovereignty of Bosnia Herzegovina.


Brcko District

Political map


Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Republic of Sprska

Cantons of Federation of BiH




3 4 6 10

9 7 8



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Una-Sana Posavina Tuzla Zenica-Doboj Bosnian Podrinje Central Bosnia Herzegovina-Neretva West Herzegovina Sarajevo Canton 10

Ethnic majorities Serbs over 66% 50-65% under 50% Croats


over 66% 50-65% Bosnians over 66% 50-65%


City of Sarajevo

Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Present // The legacy of the war Three entities

The Bosnian war ended in 1995 with the common approval of a peace aggreement, called the Dayton Accord. According to this document, Bosnia and Herzegovina is an independent state, which consists of two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Republic of Sprska. A third entity, the Brcko District, situated on the north of the country was established in 1999.

Local administration

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is further subdivided into 10 cantons, which have independent local governments and a certain degree of autonomy within the federation. Each canton is also divided in municipalities. The city of Sarajevo and the surrounding area form the Sarajevo canton.


During and after the war large movements of ethnic groups were detected. The tendency was to concentrate people of the same ethnic group in homogeneous settlements. Dayton Agreement finally arranged which areas are under the control of Serbs, Croats or Bosnians.

sources: own illustrations based on book: Campschreur, W. (2002) BosniĂŤ-Herzegovina. NL: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen.




Introduction to the Balkans + BiH Future // European orientation From potential candidates to future members

In 2003, the countries that once formed the Republic of Yugoslavia were accepted as ‘potential cantidates’ for European Union membership. Since then, the negotiations on trade, human rights and visa have started in order to comply with the EU regulations.

‘So similar, so different, so european’

Nowadays a number of campaigns have been launched to promote the effects of enlarging EU with the Balkan countries. The last big ‘upgrade’ is considered to be a success for both the EU and the new member states (ex-Soviet countries, Cyprus). Bosnia’s neighbouring countries are placing their focus on becoming EU members. Croatia became one in 2013, and Serbia, Montenegro and FYROM are ahead in the accession process as potential candidates.

What does it mean to be a european nowadays?

EU is a political union of countries, which also develop common financial, industrial, educational, etc policies. The economic climate though is becoming more and more difficult. Skeptisism and critisism on whether there is a benefit in all that gains more ground recently.

sources: own illustration based on


Welcome to Sarajevo The survival story of a european city



Welcome to Sarajevo Past // The birth of the city


Dragon of Bosnia





The river

Public life in Ottoman times

Traditional costumes

The Ottoman building style

Welcome to Sarajevo Past // The birth of the city First settlements

In the Neolithic age, there was a settlement of the Butmir culture on the grounds of suburb Ilidža. Unique ceramics and pottery were found there. The next prominant inhabitants were the Illyrians. In Roman times Ilidža was called ‘Aquae Sulphurae’, referring to the spring of the river Bosna.

Birth of the city

Sarajevo was founded by the Ottoman Empire in 1461. Isa-Beg Ishaković transformed villages into a city by building a mosque, marketplace, public bath, hostel and the governor’s castle, the ‘Saray’. This is where the name Sarajevo comes from. With 100.000 residents, Sarajevo became to be the largest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul itself. Many christians converted to Islam in that period.

Attacks and rebellions

Prince Eugene of Savoy attacked the city in 1699 and set the city on fire. Sarajevo was nearly completely destroyed. Numerous other fires weakened the city too and the population shrank to 60.000 residents by 1807. In the1830s there were battles of the Bosnian rebellion led by Husein Gradaščević. A major street is called ‘Dragon of Bosnia’ in his honor.




Welcome to Sarajevo Past // A unique blend of cultures





The Habsburg streets

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife


New connections

The Habsburg building style

Welcome to Sarajevo Past // A unique blend of cultures A unique blend

In 1878 Bosnia was occupied by Austria-Hungary. Sarajevo was rebuilt as a modern European capital. Because fires burned down parts of city, a unique blend was formed with the Ottoman context. Various factories, other buildings and institutions were built and westernized. The citizens started writing in Latin script.

A trigger for war

In 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were assassinated by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. This was the beginning of World War I.


Sources: Sarajevo in Pictures:


Novi Grad

Welcome to Sarajevo Past // A rapid growing city





The socialist building style


The olympic capital


Welcome to Sarajevo Past // A rapid growing city Interbellum

After WW I, Sarajevo was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and was not as significant as in the past. Virtually there were no contributions. During WW II it was the territory of the Independent State of Croatia and was bombed from 1943 to 1944.

The olympic capital

After the liberation Sarajevo became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. The communists invested heavily in the city. Novi Grad and Novo Sarajevo were born. The city’s industry grew rapidly. It was one of the Balkan’s chief cities. The crowning moment was the Winter Olympics of 1984.


Modern Sarajevo starts with the declaration of independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina from Yugoslavia. Between 1992 and 1995 the city was besieged. Not only economical and political, but also many cultural sites were destroyed. 12.000 people got killed, 50.000 wounded. The years after the siege were a period of heavy reconstruction. Nowadays Sarajevo is hosting international events again and it is one of fastest developing cities in its region.



Yugoslav heritage

Ottoman heritage

Habsburg heritage


Ottoman Habsburg Interbellum Socialist Contemporary

Welcome to Sarajevo Present Past // Heritage Distribution of heritage

Sarajevo’s cultural heritage is mainly located in the old city centre. Most of the heritage of the Ottoman times, more than half of the Habsburg times and even some of the Yugoslav heritage is located there. Demolition by city fires and battles in the Ottoman period made place for projects of the Habsburg Empire. The most important Yugoslav heritage is more or less scattered across the valley, but can mostly be found in the Habsburg part of the city centre. However, most Yugolavic building blocks of less importance can be found in the west part of Sarajevo. The centre is still the place where cultural activities and events are happening.

Types of heritage

The Ottoman heritage mainly consists of mosques, a Dervish house, a Muslim school, Jewish temples, hostels, a turkish bath, a tower clock, covered market places, warehouses and a library. The most important Austro-Hungarian heritage is the post office, the national museum, the city hall, the Academy of Fine Arts and several churches. Yugoslav heritage are the train station, the Olympic stadiums, offices, communal housing, parks and the RTV Dom.

The distribution of heritage over the city









Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Landscape The valley and the mountains

Sarajevo lies in a valley in the middle of the Dinaric Alps, at a height of about 518 meters above sea level. The valley once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the Yugoslav era. The city is surrounded by heavily forested hills and five major mountains: the Treskavica (2088m), Bjelasnica (2067m), Jahorina (1913m), Trebevic (1627m) and Igman (1502m). The last four are also known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo, because of the Winter Olympics in 1984. The city itself has many steeply inclined streets and lots of residences on the hillsides.

The river

The Miljacka river is one of the main geographic features of the city. It flows from its source in the town of Pale to the east of the city through the center to the west where it eventually meets the Bosna river. The source of the Bosna, Vrelo Bosna, is another natural landmark, located near Ilidza. B A D


Principle sketches





neogene / paleogene trias

holocene / pleistocene



holocene / pleistocene (2500 years ago - now) neogene / paleogene 66 million - 2500 years ago) trias (250 - 200 million years ago)

Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Geology Stability

The cities mountainious character creates natural conditions for the occurence and development of phenomenae such as slope instability: unstable ground and groundwater. Despite of this, the biggest part of the area are stable courts, 89.3%. These courts have the most favorable conditions for residential buildings, infrastructure, etc. Conditionally stable courts occupy 8.6% of the land and are mostly located on the slopes. 2.1% though is unstable.


The Mesozoic sediments in the inner Dinarides are volcanosedimentary and flysch sediments. The beginning of the sedimentation of this epoch started 70 million years ago and continues to this day. Quaternary is present in the geological structure of the Dinarides in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beside Neocene limestone and classic deposits, freshwater sediments are present, of which the largest one is the SarajevoZenica coal basin. The youngest Pliocene and Quaternary deposits are widespread, in almost all basins and valleys. Special are the Holocene deposits represented by pebbles, sand, loam and clay, and limestone and cave deposits.

Natural sources

Sarajevo is known for its natural mineral sources and their exploitation since the Roman times. It offers natural building materials as gravel, sand, clay, dolomite, limestone, quartz sandstone, but also manganese, mercury and mineral water. In and around Sarajevo there are currently 13 quarries to exploit the minerals limestone and dolomite, and one clay mine at Rapajla (Ilidza). On the right bank of the river Bosna, there is a coal mine. The most valuable natural source of Sarajevo is the drinking water from the field of Sarajevo.

Source:, Prostorni plan Kantona Sarajevo, 2003 - 2023


Sun path diagram










25 C 20 C 15 C 10 C 5 C 0 C -5 C

Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Climate Temperature

The city Sarajevo is characterized by two climate types. Its climate is continental up to 600m above sea level and from that height on it is a continental mountain and Alpine type of climate. The mountains make winter recreation possible, while the lowland regions can offer summer recreation. The average annual air temperature lies between 8.6 C째 and 9.8 C째. In some parts of the city the average temperature is higher due to heat islands, f.e. in the city center. The coldest month is January, the warmest July.




average temperature jul






Source: Gaisma:, Prostorni plan Kantona Sarajevo, 2003 - 2023

Sun path diagram

average clearness


average wet days







Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Climate Clearness and rainfall

The city Sarajevo is characterized by two climate types. Its climate is continental up to 600m above sea level and from that height on it is a continental mountain and Alpine type of climate. The basic characteristics of this climate are harsh winters and warm summers. The average rainfall is 1000-1200 l/m2. Snow showers are abundant, especially at higher elevations.








Source: Gaisma:, Prostorni plan Kantona Sarajevo, 2003 - 2023

Wind rose (yearly)

2 - 5 mph 5 - 7 mph 7 - 10 mph 10 - 15 mph


15 - 20 mph 20+ mph







Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Climate Wind

The distribution of air flow is largely conditioned by the relief of the city and its surroundings. The prevailing winds have a north-west, west or south-east direction, which is due to the orientation of the plain of Sarajevo. Very strong winds are a rare phenomenon and the average wind speed is around 2.2 m/s in norht-west direction.








Source: Gaisma:, Prostorni plan Kantona Sarajevo, 2003 - 2023


Vogošća Centar Novi Grad




Stari Grad Novo Sarajevo Republic of Srpska


Welcome to Sarajevo

Present // Population and city development

Suburban / Rural 24% of the canton population

Novo Sarajevo


Stari Grad

88% of the canton’s area


12% of the canton’s total area


76% of the canton population







Sarajevo is the centre of a wider metropolitan region that contitutes the Canton of Sarajevo, one of the ten administrative Cantons of the Federation of BiH. It hosts in total aproximately 400.000 residents (2013) in all nine municipalities. The city of Sarajevo -the urban area- is divided into four condenced municipalities that accumulate most of the city’s activities. Stari Grad is the olderst part of the city and the traditional trading centre, with about 40.000 inhabitants. The municipality of Centar, at the old AustrianHungurian part, hosts 71.000 residents and many administrative, educational and cultural venues. Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad (=“new city”) are the 20th century developments with an estimated population of 77.000 and 125.000 respectively. Novo Sarajevo is the place of the national parliament, embasies and new high-rise shopping centres and office buildings. Novi Grad, on the other hand, was designed to accomodate an industrial area in-between sleeping zones for the growing population of the 60’s. The rest of the Canton’s municipalities are: Ilidža with 59.670 inhabitants, Vogošća with 21.400, Hadžići with 19.710, Ilijaš with 13.700 and Trnovo with 1.690 inhabitants. Ilidža is the only municipality that makes a countable effort to densify its urban fabric, promoting its touristic assets (thermal spa) and attracting international students with its private academic facilities. It is evident that the urban municipalities have a greater degree of density. Those four administrative areas are therefore heavily populated, within limited space. The urbanisation of Sarajevo is expected to continue, while Novi Grad is and will be the most densely populated municipality.

Novi Grad



Central Railway Station



International airport 56


Old and inadequate network systems Tightly related to Sarajevo’s landscape and history is the development of the city’s infrastructure. Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second in the world (after NY) to have a tram network, crossing the valley parallel to the river. The investments on public transport continued ever since but faced abrupt difficulties due to the Bosnian war. Since the end of the siege, public transport became operational again mainly due to donations of buses, trams and trolley buses from countries all over the world. Today, there is still much to be done in order for the city to have and updated European standard network of infrastructure.

City Centre

Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Networks infrastructre Railway network

The railway network is in general underdeveloped in relation to the north European ones, mainly due to landscape limitations. Mountainous areas that need to be crossed require big investments, heavy and time-consuming works, but offer picturesque views after completion. This is the case of the railway network of the whole country, as well as for the rest of the Balkans. Sarajevo is connected with the main line that runs the country from the north to the south-west. There tracks ‘entrer’ Sarajevo from the west only until the Central Station, in Novo Sarajevo. There is no rail connection further, to the east side of the city. Additionally, trains do not run regularly, and are used for cargo, which is the reason for the big customs terminal in Sarajevo.

to Banja Luka

* to Mostar

Main road arteries to Banja Luka M-18 M-5 M-17

to Belgrade

to Mostar to Podgorica

Public transport

Kosevo central station city centre Ilidža


Sarajevo is quite well connected with surrounding areas by motorways. The M-18 is the main north-south connection of BiH, while M-17 connects the city to the west and south-west (Mostar). M-5 is the main east connection reaching Serbia. The traffic of the east-west motorways is transferred to the main road artery of the city, the Bulevar Mese Selimovica, which rus parallel to the river. The whole city is developed along this road that is also connected to the airport.

Public transport in Sarajevo is accommodated by trolley buses, buses and the tram. Most of those means of transport run parallel to the river and the main road, leaving the areas on the hills largely without good connections. Only buses climb some hilly residential areas and are not very regular. On the contrary, the trolley buses that connect the sports area of Kosevo to residential Dobrinja and the city centre, are usually packed. Finally, the most busy and regular line is the one of the tram. It stretches from Ilidža all the way to the centre, and the Railway station.

trolley bus: Dobrinja - City centre - Kosevo tram: Ilidža - Central Station - City centre


Kosevo sports area




Mojmilo new park

City cemeteries

City parks

Welcome to Sarajevo

Present // Green areas in and outside the city Rural and suburban green

Due to its unique landscape, Sarajevo can present a variety of green spaces surrounding the city. The Olympic Mountains are frequently visited by residents and tourists, for the beautiful countryside views and winter sport facilities. Furthermore, there are several fields for farming on the suburbs of Sarajevo. Those rural areas are connected to smaller villages and settlements that are part of the metropolitan area of the city.

Urban green

On the contrary, inside the dense urban nest, there are only a few green areas available. Almost half of those are cemeteries, which occupy large areas within or at the boarders of the city. There are also smaller plots scattered around the city that serve the same purpose. Several parks are located close to the centre. The Kosevo sports area is situated on the north-east end of Sarajevo. On the other side of the city, is the location of the new Mojmilo Park, on the hills between Dobrinja and Ali pasino polje neighbourhoods.

No relation to river green is not enough

Unfortunately, none or just few of those green areas are related to the Miljacka river. Overall, the experience of the city does only correspond to the dense urban nest while the green areas are too few. This feeling is completely reversed if one climbs the surrounding hills and mountains. On top of the landscape, nature dominates over every sense.


american embassy school of architecture national library

BBI shopping centre history and national museums


parliament of BiH N

Distribution and coverage of city area

functions: 31% of culture+Admin 18% of commerce+Horeca



4% of sports (Kosevo area)


Commerce + Horeca

Culture + Admin

% of the total built area of those

12% of airport area 35% of industry

Welcome to Sarajevo

Present // Economy and distribution of functions The economy of a capital

Since Sarajevo is the national capital of BiH it is consequent to act as an important economic centre, a place where the most influencial business and administative activities gather together. But Sarajevo accomodates a large number of industrial activities, as well as rural areas, developed outside the city.

Culture + Admin

There is a clear congestion of cultural and administration functions in the city centre of Sarajevo. The Austrian-Hungarian part and several places on both sides of the river gather theatres, galleries, bars, museums and academic institutions. Various cultural institutions are also located in the old Ottoman centre. Additionally, the parliamentary buildings are closely situated with embassies, office buildings and municipality management activities.

Commerce + Horeca




The star of Sarajevo’s commercial activities is undoubtedly the city centre. The traditional street market of the Ottoman part attracts many tourists besides residents. Hotels, restaurants and cafes are consequently located there. It is evident though, that the newer parts of the centre accommodate a large variety of international shopping brands either on the Ferhadija pedestrian street or on the Marsala Tita highway. There is a clear tendency today for shopping malls that also host office space or hotels. Those developments are showing up one by one along the main road artery of the city. Sport facilities are scattered around the city. Kosevo sports park on the north-east is one of the most important ones, while others are located in all 4 different municipalities. Tourism, furthermore, is dually oriented: from one hand it is concentrated in the old centre, but on the other hand winter sports attract people to the surrounding Olympic Mountains. It is a fact that tourism rises gradually per year. Minerals exploitation, production and manufacturing activity, construction materials storage, and warehouses are among the industrial functions of Sarajevo. The complete designated industrial area is situated in Novi Grad municipality, and stretches between the main road and the railway lines.


Velesici hill




Dobrinja Ilid탑a

Collective housing

Typology of private housing

Private housing

Typology of collective housing

Distribution and coverage of city area % of the total residential area: 82% of private housing 18% of collective housing

Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Residential areas From the hill to the valley, and from the family house to the high-rise

As every city, Sarajevo has its fair share in hosting a large number of population. It is consequent that a certain degree of diversity would arise to cover the continuously growing residential needs. In Sarajevo there are two main housing types: private housing mainly on the hills, and collective high-rise socialistic housing. The urban fabric has remained largely the same for the past decades. On the contrary, IlidĹža grew independently to be a municipality of its own, with local touristic attraction, cultural and administrative activities.

Private housing

Historically, the citizens built their houses on the hills in the form of Mahalas, a traditional ottoman way of structuring a neighbourhood. The houses were built close to each other, with high walls to protect private life from public streets. Certain communal functions were located at the small local centres, like a bath house, a fountain and a bakery. Later in history, this pattern was exploited by many newcomers who settled on the hills and built their own private housing. The vast majority of the hills sourounding Sarajevo valley are by today been taken up by private family houses. Most of those were illegaly built and later got the permition. None of those neighbourhoods was designed or planned, and therefore organically grown.

Collective housing

During the post WWII period there was considerable effort to create high-rise collective houses for the majority of the new population. Yugoslavian government managed to construct many of that type of buildings, exclusively situated in Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad, on the valley. Otava, Dobrinja and Ali pasino polje are some examples that are stil standing. Today, those blocks form much of Sarajevo’s identity.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The valley and its life Characteristics

In the previous paragraphs we’ve discussed some facts about Sarajevo on city scale, like its history, geography and climate. The awareness of the city’s position in time, its location on earth and of its scale, helps to understand the the tangible characteristics of today.

The human scale

The following pages form an analysis of the contemporary city on a human scale. How do the Sarajevans live? Ten sketches, each guided by only one or two pictures, try to grasp the main topics of Sarajevo’s city life, from the experience of the landscape to the appearance of the man made environment.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The valley and its life Defenition of space

The mountains form a visual limitation of the city’s space, especially in the old part of Sarajevo. The steep slopes on both north and south side of the valley increase the sensation and doominance of these landscape features. Going westwards, along the river, the surrounding changes from higher mountains to shorter hills. To the south the valley extends. That’s where merely the man made environment forms the limitations of the urban space.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The valley and its life Scattered across

Urban space is not only defined by its physical limitations. The elements scattered across the city have influence on its experience too. In Sarajevo three of these elements are the stray dogs, the gypsy boys and the Sarajevo roses that symbolize memories of the recent past.



Welcome to Sarajevo

Present // The valley and its life Flows of people

The way people move through Sarajevo is very much influenced by its geographical features. The steep mountains complicate vehicle transport. That is why most people walk in north-south direction. The main connections of public and private transport are in the valley and find their way along the river, in east-west direction.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The valley and its life Public interaction

Public interaction takes place on different scales. In the city centre in the valley, people gather on squares, in shopping streets or in cafes or restaurants. Even the steep streets onto the hills and mountains also form places where people meet, when walking back home or towards the centre. In the residential areas in the west of the valley, people meet in smaller spaces that are defined by greenery and benches.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The city’s personality The Ottoman intermediate

In Sarajevo public space and private cores are often separated by several intermediate layers. The value the Sarajevans attach to privacy most probably has its origin in the Ottoman time. The Ottoman architecture has many intermediate places like courtyards, halls, and corridors. Typical are the wooden shutters in front of the windows that offered the inhabitants a view outwards, but prevented passersby to see through.

Traditions and symbolism

Many of the traditions of the Sarajevans also date back to this time, when most citizens converted to Islam. Taking off shoes, streaming water and flowers as symbols of life are only few out of many examples.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The city’s personality The intermediate

Intermediate spaces between public activities and private life can be found in all parts of the city. The courtyard of the Gazi Husrevbeg mosque in the old city centre is a good example. People passing by can have a look inwards, but would only enter the space if it was on purpose. The fountain gives shade and forms a smaller space were people can wash themselves, which is a more private activity. Then before entering the mosque, columns form an intermediate space where shoes can be taken off before entering the core of the complex. Another example of intermediate spaces are the balconies of the communative buildings. The fences in the industrial zone create an intermediate space between the public street and the buildings’ entrances.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The city’s personality The private core

In both the private housing and the collective ones, the private cores are very closed and are only to be seen or entered when personally invited. Most of the times curtains are closed and block the view inwards. On the other hand you will regularly encounter Sarajevans watching public life from their window, if you look up so now and then when walking through the city.



Welcome to Sarajevo

Present // The city’s personality Presence of religion

The presence of religion in the city differs much from east to west. In the old city, the courtyards of the mosques are hidden and quiet places. In the Habsburg part of the centre, the streets form a wide sightline to the Cathedral. In the west, there are fewer, but bigger mosques, that are clearly visible in the open urban space.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // The city’s personality People’s habits

Though many Sarajevans are not practicing religion, many of their habits derive from religious traditions of the last centuries. Before entering a private place, shoes have to be taken off for example. Cats are allowed as pets, whereas dogs not, because they are not as clean. A completely different habit is the one to drink a lot of coffee, which is one of the most common ways to socialize.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Versatile appearances Materials, colours and light

The appearance of the various human interventions is influenced by the available material at the time of construction and the legacy of time. The attached colours are not always natural, but often applied to enhance recognition or for mere esthetical reasons. Thereby light, of course, is an important and versatile factor in the appearance of the environment.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Versatile appearances The man made

The heritage from Ottoman times is mainly made of stones, wood, clay and plaster as a cover. The wood is often used to express richeness and beauty made as a craft. More recent structures are mainly made of concrete skeletons filled in with the cheaper and lighter bricks. By adding plaster or concrete panels together with insulation material, the appearance of the bricks is mostly covered. In the industrial zone this is not the case. Here the concrete, bricks and steel form the main appearance of the built environment.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // Versatile appearances Recognition

The man made environment is shaped in several ways and with different purposes. Differences in appearance make the various places recognizable within their common environment. Examples of recognition in Sarajevo are the building style of a certain empire, the damage of buildings by war or the colour palettes of companies.



Welcome to Sarajevo Present // City life


Decrease differences between the urban areas Wider network urban centres

Harmonization of 92 urban functions

Control urbanization of small urban areas

Develop according to the needs and requirements

Canton of Sarajevo

New infrastructure systems

Creation and development urban centres Protection natural and cultural-historical values

Source: The following pages are based on the documents of Canton of Sarajevo and the masterplan of Sarajevo , listed in literature.

Welcome to Sarajevo

Future // The metropolitan strategies, general objectives Here the general objectives for development stated by the Canton of Sarajevo are presented. They regard the whole metropolitan area, including all 9 municipalities. The long term goals are: - Complete integration into a wider network of urban centres in the region and the Republic, taking into account the demands of the urban area of Sarajevo to continues to develop as a place holder and implement specific activities which will function as centre of the region and of the Republic, - Emollient spatio-temporal distance and the natural limitations of five main urban areas, their functions and the establishment of a partial transformation of the current role of the urban area of Sarajevo , the corresponding redistribution of urban functions and reducing the difference in the quality of life between these areas, - Directing the development of basic urban areas in terms of satisfying the needs and requirements - Development in relations in the use of space based on a fuller evaluation of natural and created resources and conditions and the relevant requirements of socio -economic development, - Harmonization of urban functions within the construction site: better ratio zones work and housing, more balanced social deployment, transport and utilities infrastructure, and with a fuller appreciation of the optimal density of the settlement construction and coefficients, - Creation and development of the city’s urban centres as well as an open and dynamic system, which requires adequate flexibility and adaptability of their physical structure - Building infrastructure systems ( transportation, water- economy, energy and other utility infrastructure ) in order to strengthen the general conditions of development activities in the area, and mutually coordinated complex of large engineering and urbaneconomic systems, - Separation of narrow urban areas requiring complete social control and direction of the process of urbanization, - Conservation and protection of natural and cultural-historical values.


There are also specific urban planning objectives for the area, which are based on the requirements for a successful realization of established concepts: Those are:


- Establish and develop an active social relationship to demographic trends and direct flows of movement, so that the 2015th The total population does not exceed the number of 527 000 inhabitants, which primarily requires ease migrations to this area. - Accept the size and structure of the urban area with the growing needs of existing and future residents while preserving and enhancing environmental quality . - Preserve valuable agricultural land and organize intensive food production , - Provide in the urban fabric immediate formation of urban areas as part of the construction land - New building sites, next to existing , should have a spatial standard of about 150 m2 of building land per capita. - Maintain all existing areas of urban greenery, improve the quality of life, and provide a unified system of urban greenery - Protect areas with cultural, historical and natural heritage by continuous evaluation - Preserve forest land, protect forests and primarily improve their general social function - Provide space for the formation of protective zones of water sources - There has got to be full satisfaction of housing needs, while improving technical and physical standards of living. - There should be a adequate area for the development of economic activity and thus create conditions for establishing new and restructuring existing capacities to change the economic structure of Sarajevo as an environmentally clean city, which wants to join the community of healthy cities in Europe. - Stimulate the favourable conditions to meet the growing needs of the population, for the formation and development of the system of centres and their harmonious design . - There should be an organizational system of urban centers with a special emphasis on the development of new centers and peripheral areas of the city, in order to connect the urban fabric into a coherent whole.

Welcome to Sarajevo

Future // The metropolitan strategies, specific objectives - Intensify the development of commercial activities , especially in rural areas which are deficient in this content - Development of urban greenery is needed to strengthen generally useful functions. Its role will be primarily aesthetic and recreational, but also to improve the overall quality of the urban environment, a higher level of satisfaction of the appropriate needs of the population and to the harmonious design of urban structures of certain areas and the city as a whole. - The operation and development of transport will meet the specific needs between buildings and the development of the City as a whole - Freight transport will be developed according to the needs of the economy and the population , and conforming to the role it plays in the integrated transport and will supply the needs of all types of people. - Modernize the existing communication systems PTT and RTV. - Provide population and economy of sufficient quantities of water - Development in energy generation will provide uninterrupted economic growth to meet the grown needs of all forms of energy - Other municipal and urban facilities will be built and used in the field of common and individual utility consumption - Protection, maintenance and enhancement of the environment will be continuously through adequate urban planning , architectural and other solutions in the organization and planning of urban space, the implementation of active care and treatment of the source of pollution of soil, air and water. Special attention will be given to the protection of noise and unplanned constructions - There should be adequate attention to the contents of cultural-historic and natural heritage through the protection and preservation, reconstruction, rehabilitation and presentation of objects and spatial units - Planning measures , primarily based on own experiences of life in the city will be blocked , and new regulations will ensure optimum physical conditions for the implementation of project- operational , technical and other measures to protect against natural disasters , war and technological disasters.



This is the latest masterplan published in collaboration with the University of Sarajevo. The involved authorities and institutions have now been working on a new masterplan since this one is only valid untill 2015. A few of the proposed strategies were never implemented.


Welcome to Sarajevo Future // The masterplan of 1980’s

Arhitektonski fakultet Sarajevo Katedra za urbanizam i prostorno planiranje




Sarajevo wants to create a sustainable future. Therefore the city participates in several programmes. Beneath, the most important attended programmes are displayed with the goals for Sarajevo. Also festivals like the Film Festival and the Green Design Festival are made to progress its relations with the world, to improve and maintain its culture and to improve the life. - International Association of Peace Messenger Cities (IAPMC) It strives to improve the role of Sarajevo in the culture of peace in the world, by promoting and spread the spirit to fight wars and poverty and the use of nuclear weapons or other deadly weapons.


- Union of Central and Southeastern European Capitals(UCSEEC) This union is used to mantain the peace of the Southern region (and Vienna) by cooperation between the capitals and is focused on understanding, solidarity and activities.

Welcome to Sarajevo Future // The initiatives

- Balkan Cities Network (BALCINET) The goals of this network is to improve the neighbourly contacts. The measures are: cultural, economic and inter-university cooperation, the use of joint projects, the promotion of the region and its cities to the world and to learn from each other by specific cultural values and exchange experiences. - Healthy Cities Network of the World Health Organization (WHO) This organization tries to improve the cities health through healthy urban planning, improvement of quality of life and take care of the public life (including war victims). - European Coalition of Cities against Racism (ECCAR) This organization fights against racism, discrimination and xenophobia. Sarajevo wants to promote the equality in the city. - Network of Major European Cities (EUROCITIES) This Network is used to make connections between European cities and institutions to influence the process of decision making in the EU institutions. - World Union of Olympic Cities (UMVO) This association wants to exchange experiences between formaly host cities of the Olympic Games and the new Candidates, offer challanges, analyse the impact on cities where the Olympic Games are held, educate the nature of the Olympic movement and implement cultural activities. - The League of Historical Cities (LHC) This is a nonprofit organization its aims and goals are: be part of each historical city’s future development and exchange experiences and information and make connections between historical cities around the whole world.


Novi Grad Green Municipality Aspirations and potentials of a challenging municipality

The municipality and its neighborhoods










Population and demographics Bosnians Serbs Croats Yugoslavs Others

Novi Grad Green Municipality

Past // The growth of the 70’s, the Olympics and the decline by war The growth of the 70’s

During the 1970s Sarajevo had a rapid economic and cultural development, mainly focused on population and industry. Novi Grad was a direct result of this heavy growth. Many acres were transformed into socialist urban centers of residential buildings. Since Novi Grad was first considered a municipality, it had 60.000 citizens in 18 neigbourhoods.

The Olympics

For the Winter Olympics in 1984, two villages were built within the municipality to host the athletes and the press. The olympic village of Mojmilo was built to the south of Alipasino polje and the press village Dobrinja next to the airport.

The decline by war

1991 Novi Grad had 136.616 citizens, but four years of warfare In brought this number down tremendously. Novi Grad was the first municipality to be occupied by the aggressors and to be showered by mortar shells. Almost 92% of the 33.517 residential buildings were damaged. Novi grad has since made an enormous recovery, 103 and today is the ground for many re-developments.

527.049 401.118

Novi Grad 359.448 115.000

The growth, the Olympics and the Modern Sarajevo decline 2013 1996 1992

78.173 66.317

Yugoslavia 1945 1941 Siege gj of Sarajevo v

1918 1914


Winter O Olympics Modern Sarajevo

Yugoslavia Sources:

Private residential occupation of hills


Industrial post-war development

Socialistic housing

Novi Grad Green Municipality Present // Diversity and transition Diversity of neighbourhoods

Nowadays, Novi Grad presents a quite diverse and complex urban environment that in a certain degree corresponds to its history. The influx of people after WWII was related to the rising number of jobs created with the implementation of the industrial zone of Sarajevo, also located in this municipality. Parallel to those processes that were centrally planned and executed, settlements of private houses started occupying illegally the bottom of the surrounding hills. Those family housing neighbourhoods grew to be a huge urban sprawl that looks over the valley to the high-rise socialistic flats and the industrial zone.

A place in transition

Novi Grad is facing today a complex situation that triggers strong transition forces. From one hand, the high-rise flats suffer from lack of care and maintenance, which makes the socialistic housing experiment look failed and inadequate to adapt to time. On the other hand, the industrial zone is changing: heavy industry is being replaced by warehouses and offices, and the train, and road 105 network seam insufficient for the growing needs of the municipality. Consequently, it is evident that there is a clear need to understand and interpret the existing conditions, in order to be able to draw guidelines and visions for a potential future.

The key role of the industrial zone

Under this frame of thought, the industrial zone offers the ground for a new urban experiment leading to sustainable design choices. This part of Novi Grad maintains a degree of independency and if well connected, could become the incubator of change for the rest of the city, and the surrounding neighbourhoods. In tis chapter, the different neighbourhoods of Novi Grad are presented in an attempt to introduce the character, challenges and potentials of the area. The analysis and outcomes of the Green Design Festival Workshop are used to assist this approach. The aim is to reinforce the arguments for the new role of the industrial zone.


Novi Grad by neighbourhoods A diverse municipality

Directly related to the industrial zone are six neighbourhoods of Novi Grad. Four of them are connected with the main road in the east west direction. Most of the areas are mainly residential. However, one big surface is reserved for industrial functions inbetween those sleeping zones. The perception of this area is therefore quite different. Another part which is very different from the others is Buco Potok. This neighbourhoud originally is developed with illegal dwellings.

The Green Design Festival workshop was an interdisciplinary student workshop, orginised by the Universtity of Sarajevo and the 107 Green Design Festival. Students from the RMIT Sarajevo studio (Architecture), and SWAT studio (Building Technology) worked in mixed groups with students from the University of Sarajevo (Architecture and Urbanism).

Dobrinja and Mojmilo Nedzarici Alipasino Polje Svrakino (Ex-) industrial zone Buca Potok


Dobrinja and Mojmilo Challenges and potentials -Olympic village -Residential area -Park hill -Airport -End of federation of Bosnia Herzegovina

Mojmilo was build to serve as the Olympic village of Sarajevo during the Olympic winter games in 1984. Dobrinja on the oher hand was planned to be a residential neighbourhood for the press, next to the airport, but due to its position was completely isolated during the recent war. Many buildings in Dobrinja were damaged during the war: bullet marks are still visible on the facades. Due to the isolation of the area during that period, the residents developed their own system of urban planning that eventually was implemented by local authorities. Here the borders with the Republica Srpska are. However, there is no visible disconnection. The only elements that reveal this border is the cyrilic writing on the street signs and a mosque and an orthodox church facing each other.

The biggest potential for this area lies in the connectivity. This part of Sarajevo is not east-west orientated and therefore not directly housing hallenges otentials connected towards the main network infrastructure. The Green 109 Greenery // Hill // Connections Design Festival showed the potentials of introducing a cable car to water enhance the connection possibilities with the city and the airport.



tram Relations // Challenges trolley bus

hill Relations // Potentials water bikes

shopping Connections // Challenges Challenges

airport housing Connections // Potentials





Challenges and potentials -75 ha -5000 inhabitants, planned 2000 -Illegal housing -Unplanned and planned public space -New and old along main road

Nedzarici is mainly an area of illegal housing, with low density. Next to the main road are some new high rise buildings, however, directly adjacent to them are some scarves of the war. This neighbourhood benefits from some renewal projects. Those new residential schemes have adequate and functional green areas, and even a small biking lane. Nedzarici is even less connected with the rest of the city compared with Dobrinja. The main potential in this area is therefore to improve its connectivity. There are plans made by the municipality to add a new tram line that would run through the area to Dobrinja. The suggestion at the Green Design Festival was to move it along the build area so that the total amount of demolished buildings would decrease. A financially feasible plan was also studies that was inspired by the existing sponsored developments by other countries. 111

NEDZARICI: N. Smajlovic // S. Alibegovic // D. v Halewijn // L Mynett

10m 20m 50m




Alpasino Polje Challenges and potentials -Over 10% of the city’s population -Social housing -Lack of employment -High rise -Unplanned open space

This part of Novi Grad has one of the highest densities. There are almost exclusively high rise buildings with undefined green spaces in the middle, built on a slope. The neighbourhood was initially planned to be selft-sufficient in terms of local facilites, like schoolds and medical centres, and energy. Today, small shops are becoming vacant because of the domination of bigger stores and markets. Therefore, the ground floor of most of the buildings is underused. A power plant is situated in the south part of the area. The potentials which were investigated during in the Green Design Festival were related to the improvement of the building’s quality and diversity, as well as the reactivation of the ground floor. In that way the buildings and the area could be more attractive for the citizens. and the public space would be more intensively and better used. 113

cHalleNGes poTeNTials









+57,00 +556,20

+57,00 +524,20

+28,50 +527,7

1 : 750






Challenges and potentials -6000 inhabitants -60% of the area are public facilities -1 km long of river bank -Big mosque -Varied urban fabric

Svrakino is a diverse neighbourhood, with a variety of local identities. There is low rise and high rise built space, public and private facilities, and a number of buildings in a bad state. The river is crossing through this neighbourhood and divides it in parts. The potentials of the area are enormous according to the outcomes of the workshop. The river could become the main connecting element at that part of the city. It encloses a sports zone and could be part of a network of green, water-related areas along its course.
















(Ex-) industrial zone Challenges and potentials -Many old warehouses -RTV building -Tram garage -Much brown grounds -Train tracks

The (old) industrial zone has a lot of vacant areas and undefined green. A lot of old warehouses can be found there. The biggest icon on the south part of the area is the RTV building which is used for purposes of the national TV and radio. The river is running through this area. However, there is no connection with it. Some main roads are on the edge of the site and new developments are already forming the planning agenda. Mainly high rise offices and commercial facilities are popping up at that location. Green Design Festival research showed that the old industrial zone could be used to connect the different parts of Novi Grad. Since it originally was an area full of job opportunities, it would be a great step to reclaim them back again. There was proposed to make the area suitable for sustainable industry, such as research institutes that develop improvements in the field of climate control, 117 health control etc.

Involvement Jobs






Buca Potok

Challenges and potentials Originally illegal housing Residential area Unplanned Urban farming Bad isolated and pollutting

This area is quite hilly and with an organically grown settlment. Connections are so bad that at some places it is even imposible to get from the east to the west. The density is quite low and there is a variety of building conditions. There are a few new well insulated buildings, but in general they are in a relatively good state, though they use coal to heat. Many dwellings have a garden, and farming is present in the whole neighbourhood (from growing fruits till raising chickens). The workshop of the Green Design Festival led to a reinvention of the old mahallas, where the residential area was assisted by public functions like a public space, a church and a bakery. The vision addressed the lack of public space in the current condition of the settlement, and focused on the introduction of it from a technology perspective. This would lead to a more sustainable neighbourhood which is less polluting and more energy efficient. 119


SVRAKINO PARK natural reserve

120 autum




Novi Grad green municipality

Outcomes of the Green Design Festival workshop as starting points for the design -Focus on the old industrial zone - Reinvent new functions - New connections needed

At the left page is a collection of the local visions of all the different areas in Novi Grad. The pictures show that the outcome of the Green Design Festival was quite diverse. Some proposals were focused on the scale of the city, others on the neighbourhood or the building complex. On the bigger scale the connections between neighbourhoods and the city are to be improved. We can conclude that the (old) industrial zone is the most interesting to work on to improve Novi Grad. First of all, because it was the main reason that the surrounding neighbourhoods developed. Also it has a lot of empty and undefined spaces. There is not much industry left, and the area needs a new trigger. Furthermore, it is central positioned in Novi Grad and well connected to the city centre, although it could be questioned whether it needs further improvements or not. This area forms the investigation of the next chapter. And last but not least, it is a working area, but after 17.00 on weekdays it becomes deserted. 121

carbon: green transportatIon challenge iNtersectioN poiNts of the Networks



Layered analysis of an ex-industrial area

Investigating the extisting fabric


Layered analysis of ex-industrial area Mapping as a tool to understand the genius loci of a place

Mapping is used in this research as a tool to document and present in a coherent way the results of the analysis, on-site observations and concluding ideas of the industrial zone of Sarajevo. The analysis of the previous chapters on the different scales comes together here, to assist in the quest for understanding the distinctiveness of the place. The maps are treated as different layers of information that classify the collected data in categories of networks, functions, ownerships etc. The final aim of this approach is to be able to combine those layers and make conclusions of the situation on site. The maps are space and time-related and try to convey the experience of the place and the dynamics that formed it and continue to identify it.


525 m 500 m


475 < 500 m above sea level 500 < 525 m above sea level


127 525 m

N 0


Sources: University of Sarajevo, Google Earth

This map and sections show that the ex-industrial zone is located in the valley of Sarajevo, at 475 to 525 meters above sea level. It is ‘embraced’ by hills, which explains why the river goes its path through the area.

neogene/ paleogene

holocene / pleistocene


holocene / pleistocene (2500 years ago - now) neogene / paleogene 66 million - 2500 years ago) trias (250 - 200 million years ago)


129 neogene/ paleogene

N 0



The landscape of the ex-industrial zone is formed during the holocene and pleistocene time periods and the surrounding mountains in the neogene and paleogene period. This difference is probably there because of the river deposition.


river flow bridges



N 0

500 Source: Google Earth

The river flows from the east to the west. Its path goes along the south side of the area untill it enters it after making a curve. It leaves the area at the west side. There are several bridges that cross the river. Three of them are located at the borders of the area and three of them within. The river varies in width with the change of seasons.




Change versus stability



N 0


Sources: University of Sarajevo, Google Earth


MENT The topography and geology of the ex-industrial zone and its surroundings show that it is an area of movement and changes. The river flows from the mountains in the east to the valley to the west in between the hills that ‘embrace’ the ex-industrial zone.


wind strength

average temperature 25 C

2 - 5 mph

20 C

5 - 7 mph

15 C

7 - 10 mph

10 C

10 - 15 mph

5 C

15 - 20 mph 20+ mph

0 C -5 C

Sun path, temperature and wind

june 21


dec 21

N 0


Source: Gaisma:

The diagram at the right shows the sunpath. In the morning the sunlight reaches the ex-industrial area a bit later than sunrise, because of the nearby mountains to the south-east. More information about the temperatures can be found in the chapter about the city. The diagram at the left shows the wind rose of the yearly average. The wind mostly comes from the north-west.

3 km


waste water treatment plant rainwater drainage by river

average wet days jan




rainwater drainage by sewage system may


Rainfall and drainage


N 0


Source: Gaisma: ,Google Earth, Wikimapia

Here the average of wet days during each month and the rain water drainage is shown. One part of it is transported by the river, another part by the sewage system. Both streams go westwards. The waste water treatment plant is located at a 3km distance. jul







rain water flow jan


sun path mar


wind rose may


Climate patterns


N 0


Source: Gaisma: ,Google Earth, Wikimapia

All climatologic diagrams together form certain patterns. Rain water streams downwards from the mountains. The sun enlights the area, shining over the mountains and the wind comes from the valley. Important are the changes during the day and with the seasons. These variables (sun, rain, wind) continually change and are not adaptable, which means that it has to be adapted to. jul






ko sa Vi




Density 08.00




Road network








N 0


Retrieved from open streetmap and

Main roads

Secondary roads

Tertiary roads

Walking paths

On the south and the west side the industrial zone is surrounded by main roads. The other borders are created by secondary roads. A third secondary road is going through the area and has some connections with the main road. There are some small roads connected with the main network. They connect in general warehouses and a militairy terain. The north-south connection is bad. Ther are only two pedestrian paths in the industrial zone. One of them is not official and is on the train track.

Vi sa





ije Br






























Density 08.00







o jak

Bus network pa


R k-















k hja

in as



ar to nS Po statio a c s Bu Bu












N 0


Retrieved from open streetmap and

Bus line

Bus stops

The buses drive in three directions on the borders of the industrial zone. The upper route is line 23 which ends a few stops later in the north-west and starts at the central bus station. Line 15 and 23c cross the industrial zone at the east. Line 24 and 22a have Stup as final stop. They follow the main road to the north-east.










Density 08.00





Train network







rai oT





N 0


Retrieved from open streetmap and

Train track

Old train tracks


The train tracks go from the east to the west through the industrial zone. It is possible to reach the rest of Europe from this station. Also there is some intercontinental transport. However, the train tracks are underused. The density of trains is in this area very low. That explains why pedestrians can walk on the track. A lot of old train tracks can be found in the area. They were used as transport lines for the industrial functions. Many old tracks are now transferred in paths, but they are still recognisable in the urban fabric.


146 ar


Ne z

a Av



a Av









Tram network



a Tram g

in as

o Ot




city cent





V RT in


s ipa




N 0


Retrieved from open streetmap and


Tram stop

The tramline is situated at the bottom of the industrial area. During rush our it is very crowded. But also during daytime it is used a lot. That is caused by the mainly residential function of Novi Grad. People use the tram to reach the city centre. The trams are quite old and not in a perfect shape. They are being controlled and maintained in the industrial zone (see map above). Also they are stored here during the night. Very old previous used trams can be found here.

East west

North south connection lacking


Conclusion - Networks



t orien

es East w


est East w



N 0

500 Own illustration

Tram main direction Road main direction Busline main direction Train main direction Disconnection

The overall network connections are east-west oriented. In that way there is a lack of connection from the north to the south. The only way for cars to reach the other side is from the left side of the terrain or the right side. Also for pedestrians there is only one bridge over the train track. That is why pedestrains just walk over the track at other places.


% of coverage of space


Build space


N 0

500 Retrieved from google maps


The building density in this area is low. In the eastern part of the industrial area the density is higher. However, the buildings that can be found here are smaller than in the western part. In the western part, the middle and the south, buildings with a bigger footprint can be found. The building pattern is not strict. The buildings in the northern part of the industrial zone follow the road. There is a certain north-south and east-west grid found in the rest of the zone. However, some building rows differ from the grid.


% of coverage of space


Open space


N 0


Retrieved from google maps and own pictures

Open space

Open space is leading in the industrial zone. Enormous areas are vacant, in particular in the western part of the zone at some distance of the main road. In the eastern part, closer to the city center, the amount of open space is less.

Urban farming


Run track


% of coverage of space

3% 8% 34%

Green and open space by demolition

Fun fair 155

N 0


Retrieved from google maps, own pictures

Unused green space Used green space Unused space by demolition

A lot of green can be found in the industrial zone. However, most of the green space is undefined. For example, a large area along the train tracks is not used. First there was even more undefined green space in the west of the industrial zone. That changed during time. Now there is urban farming in that area. Thereby, there is a military terrain where green is used as a run track. During the years, some old industrial buildings have been demolished. Not all the new available surfaces did get a new destination. So there are also some empty open spaces as a result of demolition.


Conclusion - Vacant green zones


N 0

500 Own illustration

Green Buildings Terrain

No relation

A lot of the green areas do not have any connection with the surrounding activities. There is a strict border notable, at the place where the companies terrain starts. There is no real transition. The first big green zone is along the train tracks. There are huge areas of ‘nowhere lands’. The other green zone also has the east-west direction and follows thereby the main roads and the overall direction.


% of total coverage category 9% 2,6%



Functions - Industrial


N 0


Retrieved from google maps , open streetmap , wiki maps and own pictures


Energy related

Development industry

Heavy industry

Warehouses are the main type of industry which can be found in the industrial zone. They occupy most of the area. There are only a few energy related buildings in the area. Still they are quite well intergrated in the perception of the area. The reason for that is the fact that the buildings are quite iconic because of their shape and proportions. They can be seen from a far distance. Additionally, the development industry is not very large in the industrial zone. A few buildings are active in this scene. The heavy industry is a story apart. Also this type of industry is not supported by much companies. However they cover a big area.



% of total coverage category 3% 14% 3%


Functions - Offices, shops, horeca, residential


N 0


Retrieved from google maps , open streetmap , wiki maps and own pictures

Commercial Horeca



Shops are quite present. In particular, they are concentrated along the main roads. However, some shops are scattered over the industrial zone. Most of them are big commercial markets like furniture shops. Horeca is lacking in this area. There are only a few restaurants, and in the middle there is a big new hotel (Hotel Sarajevo). The horeca is more concentrated at the east. This part is closer to the city centre. The bigger offices are quite new and are located along the axis, which leads to the city centre. There are also offices inside the industrial zone, but they are of smaller proportions. Private dwellings are not that many and mostly located close to the railway

Primary school

Soccer s

Military camp

Sport field


% of total coverage category


28% 10% 8% 7%

Functions - Sport, military, education, healthcare

Electrotechnique school and train education


Woman training centre Health centre Fire-brigade RTV building


N 0


Retrieved from google maps , open streetmap, wiki maps and own pictures

Health care Education Sport

Tv station

Military terrain

A lot of green areas can be found in the industrial zone. However, most of the green areas are undefined. For example, a large area along the train tracks is not used. Initially there was even more undefined green space in the west of the industrial zone. That changed during time. Now there is farming in that area. Thereby, there is a military terrain where there is a run track. During the years, some old industrial buildings have been demolished, but not all free surfaces have a new destination yet. There are a few empty open spaces as a result of demolition.


Conclusion - Functions


N 0

500 Own illustration

Industry Certain patterns can be revealed in the combination of the function maps. Commercial For example, the commercial functions are most of the time situated along the main roads, so that they benefit from the road visibility. Public/ governmental For the warehouses that is of less importance and they can functions be found in or near the centre of the zone. Some industry still remain on the main road, but most of them are related to the railway.


Conclusion - Obstacles


N 0

500 Own illustration

Point obstacle Line obstacle Mountains

There are two different types of obstacles in the area: points and lines. An important obstacle is the military field. The government is planning to put this facility elsewhere. Other obstacle points are the mountains. They give a pressure on the area, because it is harder to build in the mountains than in the valley. The other type of obstacles are lines. This type can be devided into three elements: the river, the main roads with the tram tracks and the train tracks.


Train traffic

Vehicle and tram traffic

Experience // Sounds

N 0


Source: Own experience 10/2013, own pictures

Most of the sounds come from the traffic at the boundaries.The main street through the middle of the area is less noisy. Along this road and the train tracks the noise of the heavy industry can be heard. Another sound that reaches part of the area is the call for prayer from the nearby Isticlal mosque. The strength of the sounds change with the rythms of the day and week. Heavy industry

Call for prayer





Experience // Smells

N 0


Source: Own experience 10/2013, own pictures

The smells in the ex-industrial area mainly come from its traffic and heavy industry that pollute the air. The river also smells, because of waste water that is discharged into the river instead of the sewage system. Around the paper recycling industry garbage is stored which smells bad too. The only nice smell in the area is the smell of flowers, of which there is very little to be found. Pollution by industry and traffic




Experience // Visibility


N 0


Source: Own experience 10/2013, own pictures

River Closed wall Fenced property with visibility

Most of the terrains are fenced. On the contrary, most of the residential and commercial functions are open to the surroundings. Since a lot of industrial and storage activities are concentrated next to the river there is no public and optical relation to the water.


Experience // Conclusion

N 0


Source: Own experience 10/2013, own pictures



% of total coverage category







Buildings - Building conditions


N 0


Retrieved from google maps and own pictures

Bad Average Good

There is a huge difference between buildings in this area and building conditions. Some are really in a bad shape and others are quite recently built and therefore in a good shape. Most of the new buildings in good condition can be found along the main roads. But also some new hotels, apartment buildings, shopping centres and warehouses are in an excellent state. However, there are also some buildings in a bad shape. Most of them are old industrial buildings and operate as steel production facilities or warehouses. They are almost collapsing. Most of the buildings can get the average label. They are not really energy efficient and have some small problems, but can still be used for the function they were intended to.


% of total coverage category 7,4% 3,6%


Buildings - Building heights


N 0


Retrieved from google maps and own pictures

0-3 levels 3-6 levels 6+ levels

Most of the buildings in the industrial zone are low rise. In general those are the warehouses and the old industrial buildings that occupy most of the area. Along the main road, higher buildings are popping up. Most of the time they have commercial or office functions. On the contrary, in the eastern part, closer to the city centre there are some higher buildings. They are smaller, but at the same time the density is higher.


% of total coverage category 22% 2% 0,7% 2,3%


Buildings - Building typologies by roofing


N 0


Retrieved from google maps and own pictures

Pointed roof Sawtooth roof

Rounded roof

Special form

Flat roof

Most of the buildings in this area share the same typology when investigating the roof typologies. They have typical pointed roofs. Almost every warehouse has such a roof. The newer buildings are mostly built with flat roofs. So this typology is rising in attendance. A few old industrial buildings have a sawtooth roof or a rounded roof. Also in this case this regards warehouses, where big spans are needed. A couple of buildings do not fit in the other groups. They have different roof structures and thereby another appearance. Those building store different kind of functions as a hotel or soccer stadium.


% of total coverage category


47% 12% 8%

Buildings - Historical development


N 0


Retrieved from maps from the University Ownofillustration Sarajevo

<1959 <1971 <1999 <2013

The industrial zone expanded much during the years. It was the so called ‘drive’ of the surrounding residential neighbourhoods. In 1959 the industrial zone was not that developed yet, it took quite some years to become what it is now. First it developed form east to west and later on there was a renewal and an increase in density. That is why the image is quite diverse, buildings from different periods of time are standing next to each other.


Conclusion - Building character


N 0

500 Own illustration

Flat roofs, many built levels, in good state Pointed roofs, few building levels, bad state

In general the newly built buildings have more levels than the typical old industrial ones. Thereby, most of the time they have a flat roof and are in a good state. This also counts the other way around. The older buildings are in general in a less good state with pointed roofs. In this map, the darker and warmer colour, show how old the buildings are in combination with flat roofs and low rise. The lighter and colder buildings are newer, have most of the time a flat roof and are in a good state.

Train track zone

Military camp


% of coverage of space

17% 64%


Grass Tram garage


RTV 187

N 0


Retrieved from google maps , guard Grass, wiki maps, university of Sarajevo

Private grounds owned by private owners Private grounds owned by the government/ state

The government owns some of the land in the industrial zone. On that land there are functions that serve the city and the country. For example the military camp and the national television building (RTV). Also the ground of the tram garage operated by the firm Grass is owned by the municipality.




N 0

500 Own illustration

Most of the companies located in the industrial zone have easily accessible information. This relates to the businesses along the main road and the cluster of smaller companies gathered in the heart of the industrial zone. Here their logos are displayed accordingly to the size of the land in which they operate.


vacant buildings and sites demolished sites buildings under construction

Vacancy / Demolition / Construction


N 0

500 Own illustration

There is a fair degree of vacancy in the industrial zone. Several buildings, like a wire factory, a chemical factory and warehouses, which are scattered around the site have become vacant. Some other buildings are demolished, like the large plot in the centre of the zone. Finally, there are a few buildings that are at the moment under construction.


New developments


N 0

500 Own illustration

The area is clearly in transition. Here, the future developments are portrayed that vary from business centres to housing estates and shopping buildings. A new conference centre is planned to be located along the main road, whereas the military camp will probably be reallocated to a different site, releasing a huge area that is now not accessible. Finally, the housing schemes are concentrated at the borders with Novo Sarajevo municipality, where housing is more intense.


Disco Militairy camp



ed gr

fin Unde

ure Press

renew llution

d po ise an



What can be concluded from the mapping, is that most of the movements are east-west oriented. The networks are oriented like that because the valley and the river are also east-west oriented. Buildings are concentrated along the networks that leads to long building ribbons with green in between. However, that is not the only reason of the green zones, the old train tracks are responsible for the upper green zone. There are a few elements that limit the area, like nature itself (surrounding mountains). The neighbourhood in the east also puts pressure on the area, due to its density.

Conclusions from mapping

n Bus

re from Pressu rhoods ou neighb





ighr and h

y Noise b e mosqu


ith the

tion w connec





N 0

500 Own illustration

Finally the networks pressure the area furthermore. There is a visible conflict between the low rise older industrial buildings and the newer high rise, flat roof business or office complexes that pop up along the main road.The network also pollute the area in sense of air quality and noise. So the next step is to develop a strategy to deal with those pressures and challenges. Thereby connections need to be made with the north and the south part of the (old) industrial zone. Also, the relation with the river can be improved. Inside the area are a lot off empty spaces which need a function to be assigned. That function might be also partly public, since that is lacking right now.

Planning strategy and potential scenarios Re-investing in place: how to become adaptable

global competition climate change economic crisis mobility

urban congestion



place-specific approach

The objectives What is the challenge of today?

European cities are currently in a state of transition. Global competition, economic crisis, urban congestion, mobility and climate change push designers and policy makers towards a comprehensive re-thinking of the future. Changes affect all aspects of development: economy, society, technology and ecology constitute a new cast of actors in reversed hierarchies. At the same time, nations loose their protagonist role over dominant entrepreneurial cities, which grow in demands and acquire international branding. (Sassen, 1991) The times when everything seemed solid and permanent are well gone, and the future looks unreliable and very much centred around the networked development of those urban environments.

What are the international trends?

Current trends in dealing with European cities explore concepts such as sustainability and resilience, in all levels of scale and different aspects of development. It is evident though, that despite the considerable efforts, sustainability largely remains an undefined 199 field of knowledge with a huge variety of interpretations and fields of action. To be able to understand sustainability, and therefore implement it in our strategy and design approach, we chose to narrow it down and try to define and describe only specific aspects of it. Inspired by the Europan 12 theme, adaptability becomes here the principle focus of future cities.

How to apply a vision?

Generic approaches of the past are no longer part of today’s reality. The time when Modern Movement ideas where implemented as a future vision on cities across the globe is now gone, and a placespecific approach is more than needed. Of course, this is a current trend, but the value of this research lies in the capacity of RMIT studio to investigate and discover the real assets of a place, and design in direct compliance with the local dynamics. Therefore, past and future join forces to produce a re-development strategy that can make a difference for a specific city.

The adaptable city Adaptability is the key to unlock the future of cities. Derived from the theme of Europan 12, places should ‘adapt in change, without losing their identity, slow down and speed up, adjust to cycles and transformations in the context of an uncertain future.’ (Europan Brochure, 2013) The brief of Europan 12 becomes the brief of this assignment: ‘It is about anticipating the inevitable impacts of change, allowing a plurality of uses, but also being capable of making creative use of what already exists. And therefore, adjusting to what is already there while developing visions of the possible that take account of both permanence and variation.’ (Europan Brochure, 2013) Urban thinkers and designers take all that into account when they talk about sustainable, smart or resilient cities. While resilience has to do with the capacity of a place to recover from shocks 200 and stresses (Bulkeley, H. 2003), adaptability focuses more on the quality of space itself. It is not a matter to be as flexible or farsighted as possible, but a way to work on ‘scenarios for appropriate transformation between legacy (history of places), invention (innovation to accomodate a plurality of uses) and reversibility (temporary developments). [...] It is a method of establishing links between natural and cultural environments and finding compensations and connections, [...] by adding meaning and purpose (re-connections)’ to buildings. (Europan Brochure, 2013) The challenge of this assignment is to make spatial concepts that boost the strengths of the place and at the same time increase its adaptability. For this cause, a strategy should be investigated that is based on joining forces with possible stakeholders, accepting own limitations and recognizing the potentials of a place. (Ovink, H. Wierenga, E, 2011) The adaptable city is therefore the vision in this quest to answer the principle research question: How can the ex-industrial zone of Sarajevo act as an incubator for the adaptable city?


Re-imagine Sarajevo The scope of this study is to re-imagine Sarajevo, and show the city and its citizens the possibilities of their future. Therefore, a strategy is essential to be developed that will not only reflect on the current European climate, but will also address the potentials and needs of the city and its people. The context, consequently, is as crucial, as the vision. Our plan of approach further reinforces this potential, as it focuses on the existing values of the place. It should be clear through this document that the adaptable future perspective is suitable and necessary for the city and its character. The previous chapters of this report support as much as possible this idea, and conclusions are made regarding this potential. Adaptability and Sarajevo are tightly related in this research. Accordingly, this approach on adaptability should contribute to the ‘distinctiveness of place’, and ‘combine economic development with the preservation and enhancement of spatial qualities’. (Ovink, H. Wierenga, E, 2011) 201 Making Sarajevo adaptable, and especially its (ex-) industrial zone, is a potential that needs to be further supported and developed in order to answer all the possible implications. This is the task for the next steps of this studio, through the investigation of the individual locations and topics. At this stage, the effort was to come up with a strategic transformation model that could be applied in the whole industrial zone, become the starting point, and produce design principles for the definition and development of the individual projects.



The strategy

the principles of an adaptable city development


Activate bottom-up planning


Discover and meet the local needs and ideas


Strengthen networks and communications 203


Reclaim nature and landscape


Re-invest in the existing building stock


Boost diversity in all levels


Set the ground for a civic economy


Use technology to accomodate visions


Activate bottom-up planning challenge

In Sarajevo, administration is deeply fragmented and dysfunctional. Different levels of management have caused complexity in decision making, delay in delivery, and citizen’s mistrust and bypassing of local authorities.


A way to overcome those long-lasting implications is to reverse the planning process from top-down to bottom-up. That makes processes easier and faster, reducing the role of state authorities, and promoting self-organization of local initiatives.


Adaptability is applied here as a method of participation and equality. If all citizens have an active role in developing their neighbourhoods, they can better adjust them to their needs. For the long-term this strategy of adjusting and re-adjusting can be a vital survival guide. It also reflects the real challenges, needs and potentials of a place. But such a method also benefits the freedom and transparency of the administration. Especially in Sarajevo, 205 where bordering is an important procedure to identify territories of influence, local needs can find a place of reference in collaboration and maybe even replace trust in those authorities. Freedom and equality are essential, as well as pluralism of opinions.


Despite the many advantages of such a strategy, self-regulated communities can be misunderstood as self-regulated economies serving neo-liberal politics, where the state has limited power over the ‘greedy’ market. This is clearly not the aim here. The benefit lies in the constructive collaboration of all actors involved, by redefining their roles and placing more value to the needs of the people instead of the market.


Discover and meet the local needs and ideas challenge

Planning documents usually skip the investigation on people on local level. Statistics and numerical data do not say much unless they are combined with the constant and interactive documentation of the user’s needs and ideas. For Sarajevo’s industrial zone, it is clear that such approach was never implemented.


To contribute to the distinctiveness of place, it is essential to understand the very unique dynamics of Sarajevo’s industrial site: find what businesses are there, who owns them, who works or crosses the area, and finally, what all those different stakeholders need and expect from the quality of space they use. The lack of public space is definitely an aspect to investigate.


A situation-specific approach that is rooted in unique space-time relation is the benefit of such a principle. Adaptability here is directly related to the people, and their needs and aspirations. In the case of the industrial site, none of the existing users has the opportunity 207 to enjoy public spaces in the area, because simply there aren’t any. Therefore, if the introduction of public space addresses a real need, then the area will adapt to its users’ needs and offer something back to them.


To understand what the people think of their neighbourhood and what they miss is a long-term process that requires many on-site visits and interviews. For the delivery of this project, miles away from Sarajevo, this possibility is limited, but we think it is worth to be explored.


Strengthen networks and communications challenge

Mobility is becoming a crucial aspect of the development of European cities. People, products, services and ideas tend to be on a constant move in space and time. (Castells) All means of transport and most importantly the internet have created another space, with diffused boarders. Sarajevo though, lacks infrastructure that could connected it with the rest of its neighbours and the world.


By placing value on the networks, both physical and digital, Sarajevo can start envisioning a more connected future. Technology can support this aim as well as the growing mobility of its society.


Without connections the city will decline. Sarajevo’s history is indeed one of networks and communications. Along the ottoman trading routes, and with the first European tramline, the city can be proud of its former role. Today, competition is much greater and Sarajevo has to invest much more on its trans-regional connections in order to bring in people, companies, and ideas. In that sense, a 209 city can adapt to changes.


Investing in infrastructure shouldn’t though be self-referential. Mobility and networks are a tool to achieve greater adaptability, not an end in itself. Cities should still maintain their local identities and not become enlarged airport sites.


Reclaim nature and landscape challenge

Existing potentials and limitations of nature were always a key of urban development. In the last century, cities found different ways to expand with the use of emerging technologies. Today’s Sarajevo seems to have destroyed most of its assets, like the river, and left urban sprawl take over its dominant landscape.


In order to find its way back to nature, Sarajevo has to collaborate with its existing landscape and natural resources. Its future perspectives depend on the preservation and use of those assets.


The organically built residential settlements on the hills express this potential, as they have adapted to their natural environment. The valley on the other hand, has lost its connection to the river, where sewages, domestic and industrial waste are thrown for years now. Turning this wasteland into an asset will be valuable for the whole city, not only for its immediate neighbours. Natural elements within the city’s fabric enhance the living conditions, reduce pollution, 211 and offer spaces where people and nature can meet.


There are no big limits in such an approach, unless collaboration is not balanced and highlights the wrong developments. This is an ever-lasting process, and measures have to be continuous and adaptive.


Re-invest in existing building stock challenge

It is often misinterpreted that only buildings with a monumental status or heritage value are to be reserved in the cities. Derelict sites, old industrial areas, places between highways or at the edges of the city, all tend to be neglected as part of a certain local identity. In Sarajevo, this situation is repeated in many locations.


The reality is thought slightly different. The existing fabric inevitably contains values that might be visible or not, but can be used as strong starting points of an adaptable city. Why to destroy what is already there, when the very same thing can become the incubator of change?


By retaining their building stock, the cities can still adapt to future needs. This strategy reduces enormously the demolition waste, and financial costs of destroying and re-building, and poses a large degree of creativity in re-design.


It is fact though that there are certain limitations, regarding this strategy. A clear set of criteria and method of evaluation needs to be implemented in order not to end up with a confused and uncomfortable built environment, where everything is retained without any justification or vision. The first step is the documentation and classification of built structures, which in many cases can be time-consuming, and with lack of relevant information.

‘new ideas need old buildings’ (Jane Jacobs)



Boost diversity in all levels challenge

The zoning plan of the Modernism period (Chapter of Athens) was implemented greatly in ex-Yugoslavia, producing separated sleeping, working, transport and leisure zones. The city of Sarajevo suffers from this fragmentation at the ‘new’ municipalities, and especially in Novi Grad. The centre on the other hand incorporates a certain extend of diversity due to its history, small scale and concentration of public facilities.


Cultural, social, economic, spatial and natural diversity are the primary reasons for being faced with an adaptable community. Without diversity on different levels the cities become rigid and in the mercy of comprehensive redevelopment. Quality of urban environments depends much on their capacity to provide variety and contrast.


In a diverse environment adaptability can find its place and time. When one function operates, another one can sleep and vice versa. 215 But if those are combined in the same location, then the people and the place are enhanced with new meanings and space qualities.


Possible hazards in this approach come up when considering just some aspects of diversity and ignore others. Cultural diversity promotes and depends on an economic one, for example. Collaboration is once again the key to create diverse and adaptable environments in Sarajevo.


Set the ground for a civic economy challenge

The multiple consequences of the economic crisis are by today a common experience. Europe still has to deal with an on-going situation that highlightens the problematic of such a financial and fiscal system. In architecture, this means that big redevelopment plans are over and investments are scarce. Sarajevo has maintained a certain financial level due to its relative financial independency from Eurozone and recent input of money from Turkey and Arab countries. But the problem still remains for Sarajevo as well.


Europe is in need of a new model in economics, and a new way of evaluating investment plans. An adaptable civic economy based on local needs and networks is a potential worth investigating. The starting points can be set today.


UK-based think tank has recently published a book that offers a new perspective coming from local initiatives. (Compendium for the civic economy) Adaptability can be found in the civic economy 217 concept, which is explained through examples from all over Europe, where inspiring individuals or groups of people initiated their own local economy. Lessons are still to be learned, but the time is definitely right for change. Adaptability comes in when the aftermath of change is so strong that becomes the reality.


It is the future that will show whether this experiment has solid ground or not. Limitations come also from the fact that this is not a completely planned process. The initiatives are mostly unexpected and local and therefore, might not work if applied as such in other locations or situations.


Use technology to accomodate visions challenge

Sarajevo has a long tradition in innovations and technological solutions. For example, it was the place of the first tram line in Europe, for example. Today, the effort to promote and invest in this sector on central level does not have the same importance. On the contrary, a few private companies, as well as the local universities host a countable scientific work force that could potentially be used to assist technological visions.


Technology is a valuable ally when dealing with regular everyday problems, or when imagining the future. Training, developing, and producing are those aspects that allow people to think innovative, test and use their products for the benefit of the society and the city.


Efficient use of science, local knowledge and expertise, are the components of an adaptable use of technology. Making space available for those people, and invest in gaining skills (from technical to scientific) can generate new job opportunities and a better 219 educated population. Furthermore, if rewarding businesses for their innovative production planning, then they will also eventually adapt in response to the needs of the society. Manufacturing those products reinforces those potential benefits, and allows the city to grow in knowledge, people, technology and facilities faster.


It should be noted that some sort of regulating body would be needed in such a case. This would be a scientific body that not only takes into consideration the market profits of such an experiment, but also tries to address the societal needs and current or future urban challenges.


Overview of strategy and design potentials Combining the aforementioned principles, we were able to produce an overall planning scheme for the industrial site of Sarajevo. Once the 8 principle sketches were placed on top of each other, as different layers of dressing, the urban concept was revealed. In this scheme, all previous points of interest come together to accommodate a wider frame of planning, that can further justify the selection of the specific locations, and topics. In more detail, the area is divided in three parts according to their capacity to be used for training people, developing innovative solutions and producing those. This partition corresponds to the existing facilities. For example, the Electrical Engineering school is located in the east part, many developing industries are situated in the middle of the zone, and finally industrial facilities in the western part of it. 221

The east side becomes more dense and populated with new functions. A new metropolitan line is introduced that crosses through the industrial zone and provides new connections with the existing networks. The railway tracks are also revitalised with new stations along the site. Those places will act as intemediate elements between the steep landscape and the valley, in order to break the fragmentation of the areas. The large green areas along the river become the place where water is reintroduced into the city life. Therefore, new public activities and cultural spaces are being implemented to reverse the lack of those facilities in the current situation. In terms of economy, those new added functions, plus the clustering and networking of the existing businesses will provide enough potentials for people to work together, meet and exchange ideas and visions. For this purpose, community areas will also assist the residents of the surrounding neighbourhoods. Diversity in all levels (people, economy, nature, etc.) is expected to increase, enforce the existing values and add new ones to the industrial zone of Sarajevo.

How can the ex-industrial zone of Sarajevo act as an incubator for the adaptable city? Locations: Tram depot (Simone) Area along railway line at the north-east of the site (Marialena) Old steel factory and adjacend warehouse units (Walter)


The next steps The next steps of this study are related to the individual research topics and locations. Following the same frame of thought and under the umbrella of the initial research question and adaptability concept, the three independent projects will focus more on the related subjects. The research by design approach will continue assisting our study. At that stage more detailed analysis in architectural and technical scale is required, as well as a development of a specific position and theoretical framework for each project. Additionaly, reference projects need to be studied. Scenarios and design assignments: ‘The revival of a sleeping zone’ (Simone) The assignment on an urban scale is to improve the connections from the (ex-) industrial zone with the rest of the city, using the heritage infrastructure. On a local scale, the service site / sleeping zone of the trams is now hidden. To give it back to the city it 223 has to be opened up, by reviving the tram infrastructure, adding transparent activities, and involving citizens’ participation. ‘A cross-border local hub’ (Marialena) The old regional railway network should be reconnected with the city, as well as the isolated industrial zone. The aim is to create a station that would offer this ‘lost’ relation, enhance public space and local economy, be a place for people to meet and interact, and finally re-introduce the area in the city and the region. ‘Introducing adaptable heritage’ (Walter) An old industrial complex deals on one hand with vacancy and low maintenance, and on the other hand a variety of development businesses, and a great amount of industrial equipment. The task is to make it into an adaptable building complex, with an improved climate concept, new added cultural functions, and the introduction of flexible spaces.