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Fundementals of

Typography Michael Fabella


This is a typographic book is set in both english and japanese text, to possibly help both japanese and english readers.

This is for future students to use as a design and or reference.


Typographic Principles

Anatomy

2

Kerning

3

Tracking

6

Leading

7

Alignment

9

Column Width

10

Rags

11


Typographic Principles


Beak

Barb

Cross Stroke

Cross Bar

Counter

Ear

Bowl

Bracket

1

Ascender

Apex/Vertext

A M hk G EL

T bq g a H ft


Typographic Anatomy As with any craft that has evolved over 500 years, typography employs mostly describe specific parts of letterforms. it is a good idea to knowing a letterforms component parts makes it much easier to identify specific typefaces.

ascender height cap height median baseline descender height

Mphx Baseline The imaginary line defining the visual bast of the letter forms. Median The imaginary line defining the x-height of letterforms. X-height The height in any typface of the lowercase “x.�

fi fl ff ffl

Ligatures The character formed by the combination of two or more letterforms.

2


Kerning カーニング

“ ” Kern consistently and modestly or not at all.

Kerning is the process of altering the space between selected pairs of letters. Digital fonts are generally kerned through the use of kerning tables, which can specify a reduction or increase in spacing for every possible pair of letters, numbers or symbols. Prefabricated kerning tables are now routine components of well-made digital fonts, but they still sometimes require extensive editing to suit individual styles and requirements. If you use an automatic kerning program, test it thoroughly before trusting its decisions, and take the time to repair its inevitable shortcomings.

Since display type is generally large, any inconsistency in kerning is distracting and tends to hinder readability.

3


Although kerning is based on personal preference, your first priority when kerning should be readability. Type that runs together and type that is too far apart are both unsatisfactory.

不平等のカーング。

匹儔のカーング。

Qu ality Quality 普通には表示に使うタイプサイズは大きいので字形が纏まって無いと 目障りで読み辛くなります。 4


Letter spacing and wordspacing can drastically affect readability, the number of characters per line, and the “color” of the setting of the text. NORMAL SETTINGS

0pts

Letter spacing and wordspacing c a n d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t r e a d a b i l i t y, t he nu mb e r of ch ar acte r s p e r line, and the “color” of the setting o f t he t ex t . LOOSE SETTINGS

100pts

Letter spacing and wordspacing can drastically affect readability, the number of characters per line, and the “color” of the setting of the text. VERY TIGHT SETTINGS

Adjusting the spacing between letters not only affects number of characters that can be set on a line, but also readability.

5

-100pts


文字間

Tracking (もじかん)

字と字の間の間隔を変えたりすると 一行内の字数が変わるだけではなく 読み辛くもなります。

Tracking or letterspacing is the way of adjusting the spaces equally between all the letters. The term letterspacing refers to the space between letters respectively. Adjusting the spacing between letters not only affects number of characters that can be set on a line, but also readability. Spacing was traditionally specified with the following general terms: normal, loose, tight, very tight, or touching. Normal spacing, as the same suggests, is the standard settings, with no extra space added or deleted. Normal spacing is generally the easiest to read and the recommended settings for most applications. With loose settings, space is added; with tight settings space is deleted.

6


L e a d i n gレ デ ィ ン グ

Choose a basic leading that suits the typeface, text and measure.

Leading or linespacing is the space between lines of type. Text settings are improved with the addition of one or two points of linespacing. It is important, however, to avoid excessive leading because the lines tend to drift apart, which make the setting appear grayer and affects the pace at which type read. Proper linespacing not only improves readability but it has an important esthetic function, unfortunately, there is no formula to determine optimal linespacing. If you consider the following factors involved in determining linespacing, you can see why the decision is more a matter of visual judgment than of mathematics.

7


レデイングは全体のセットの深みに影響します。

Linespacing or leading, like wordspacing and letterspacing, can be used to improve readability. Your choice of typeface, typesize, line length, and copy will all affect the amount of linespacing. With so many factors involved, you can see why proper linespacing is more a matter of visual judgment than mathematics.

Linespacing or leading, like wordspacing and letterspacing, can be used to improve readability. Your choice of typeface, typesize, line length, and copy will all affect the amount of linespacing. With so many factors involved, you can see why proper linespacing is more a matter of visual judgment than mathematics. Leading affects depth of setting.

8


Alignment 配置 (はいち) Alignment is the precise arrangement of type in straight lines so that different sizes justify at the bottom (base-line) and ends of lines appear even on the page. Alignment refers to how multiple lines of text are aligned. The four basic typographic alignments are flush left, flush right, full justification and center aligned.

Center Alignment

Right Alignment

So the child, a vagabond in the backwoods of rationality, is brought up to see the world in prosaic terms of grown-ups and eventually forgets it ever saw a purple cow. Now purple cows walk around unseen by anyone.

J

u

s

t

i

f

i

e

d

So the child, a vagabond in the backwoods of rationality, is brought up to see the world in prosaic terms of grown-ups and eventually forgets it ever saw a purple cow. Now purple cows walk around unseen by anyone.

9

So the child, a vagabond in the backwoods of rationality, is brought up to see the world in prosaic terms of grown-ups and eventually forgets it ever saw a purple cow. Now purple cows walk around unseen by anyone.

Left Alignment

So the child, a vagabond in the backwoods of rationality, is brought up to see the world in prosaic terms of grown-ups and eventually forgets it ever saw a purple cow. Now purple cows walk around unseen by anyone.


Column Width コラム 幅 (はば) Measure refers to the width of columns in continuous text. Wider measures require more leading. When the measure is too wide, readers have trouble finding the beginning of the next line; if the measure is too short, justified text will be unevenly spaced and end-line hyphenation will be a concern.

17p0

26p6

14p6

10


Rags

Choose a basic leading that suits the typeface, text and measure.

ラーッグ

In typography, “rag” refers to the irregular or uneven vertical margin of a block of type. Usually it’s the right margin that’s ragged (as in the commonly seen flush left/rag right setting), but either or both margins can be ragged. Rags are distinguised by hard, medium, or soft type of ragging. When setting type with a ragged margin, pay attention to the shape that the ragged line endings make. A good rag goes in and out from line to line in small increments. A poor rag creates distracting shapes of white space in the margin. Don’t rely on the line breaks generated by your software application; get in the habit of spotting and correcting poor rags by making manual line breaks or by editing your copy. Slight adjustments in point size or column width might work as well.

11


I had taken Mrs. Prest into my confidence; in truth without her I should have made but little advance, for the fruitful idea in the whole business dripped from her friendly lips. It was she who invented the shortcut, who severed the Gordian knot. It is not supposed to be the nature of women to rise as a general thing to the largest and most liberal view- I mean of practical scheme; but it has struck me that they sometimes throw off a bold conception-such as man would not have risen to with singular serenity. “Simply ask them to taker you in on the footing of a lodger.”

I had taken Mrs. Prest into my confidence; in truth without her I should have made but little advance, for the fruitful idea in the whole business dripped from her friendly lips. It was she who invented the shortcut, who severed the Gordian knot. It is not supposed to be the nature of women to rise as a general thing to the largest and most liberal view- I mean of practical scheme; but it has struck me that they sometimes throw off a bold conception-such as man would not have risen to with singular serenity. “Simply ask them to taker you in on the footing of a lodger.”

I had taken Mrs. Prest into my confidence; in truth without her I should have made but little advance, for the fruitful idea in the whole business dripped from her friendly lips. It was she who invented the shortcut, who severed the Gordian knot. It is not supposed to be the nature of women to rise as a general thing to the largest and most liberal view- I mean of practical scheme; but it has struck me that they sometimes throw off a bold conception-such as man would not have risen to with singular serenity. “Simply ask them to taker you in on the footing of a lodger.”

Hard Rag

Medium Rag

Soft Rag

12


Emphasis

Asymmetrical

rhythm

unity

Dominance

Stasis

Proportion

balance

gestalic Symmetrical

closure Continuance


Colophon The text is set in 9.5 Univers LT Std 45 light. The main headings are set in 30 pt Univers LT Std 75 black. The subheadings are set in 9.5 univers LT Std 55 Roman. Japanese text is set in 9.5 Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro W3. Japanese headings are set in 30 pt Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro W3. Software used was Adobe Indesign. Printed at BPS Reprographics. Bibliography Typographic Design: Form and Communication Fourth Edition Rob Carter, Ben Day, Philip Meggs Designing with Type The Essential Guide to Typography Fifth Edition James Craig, Irene Korol Scala The Elements of Typographic Styles Second Edition Robert Bringhurst, Susanne Gilbert A Type Primer Second Edition John Kane


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Fundementals of Typography  
Fundementals of Typography  

typography book made in type II.

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