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‘PULLANDASE’ ARC310 - MICHAEL KOSKELA


2 SECTION 01: CONTEXT - Pages 3-44 1. The Brief Your conceptual approach to the client requirements Needs and aspirations of the user Room and area schedule 2. Site Cultural and Social Context - Response to place Chosen site Device Historical Context Topographical Context SECTION 02: CONCEPT PROPOSAL - Pages 44-55 1. Proposal Context and Masterplanning Site proposal Building proposal – Design iterations 2. Precedent Analysis Arts and Cultural Precedent Context/Site Precedent Building Precedent Technical Precedent SECTION 03: TECHNOLOGY - Pages 56-72 1. Structural Strategy Structural Strategy Proposal – Detailed 2. Environmental Strategy Strategy for : Acoustics Lighting

Visual performance Thermal performance Technical Construction 3. Sustainability Strategy Sustainability approach to the context and place Building services strategies Materials specification and source Life Cycle Analysis Design for Disassembly SECTION 04: DETAILED DESIGN - Pages 73-95 1. Proposal Context and Masterplanning Site proposal Design iteration analysis and development Building proposal SECTION 05: PROFESSIONAL CONTEXT - Pages 96-100 1. Programme Design Stages 2. Statutory Framework and Legislation Land Law - ownership and party wall Development Control – Planning Building Regulations CDM - Health and Safety 3. Procurement Buildability 5. Design Team Architect in practice

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


SECTION 1 - THE BRIEF

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MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


11 5 SECTION 1.1 My conceptual approach to the project was driven by the need to create a new epoch where humans work in harmony with nature instead of at odds with it. The research I have undertaken, the site specific conditions and the feeling of connection the community has with the place has led me to the final proposal. My Architectural intervention will be a Compendium devoted to the stories of the pool. An elemental place that will only show its stories under the right conditions using light and water to do so. A journey of transitions that would need to be taken to find the secrets of the pool. The proposal will be made from the materials taken from the land and sea at the site. The space would be a celebration of the pool for the community to add and share their stories. A test center that would use the seaweeed materials as its structure to be able to generate a new epoch of working with nature better, healing the landscape and healing the community. Room schedual Entrance - 18 sqm Tunnel - 54 sqm Compendium - 300sqm Store - 4 sqm

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


10 6 SECTION 1.2 The human race stands at a cross roads, never before have we effected the planet and our habitat more than we do at the present time. Dramatic changes are nedded to reduce carbon emmissions and halt the 2 degree increase that would be so catastophic for future genertions. With the Amazon burning, the ice caps melting, oceans being choked by plastic, co2 emmisions at an all time high, unprecedented wildfires in Australia and America, more frequent natural disasters the world over caused by the effects of human activity on the planet, the time really is now to make the step change necessary. If a new epoch is to be generated where we can not only co-exist with nature but also encourage, nuture and protect it then new ideas, new materials and new process’ need to be sort and implemented.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


8 SECTION 1.2 Cultural and Social Context Response to place The overall site is located in the far West of Cornwall in an area known as West Penwith or the Tin Coast.

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The stretch of coastline was granted Unesco World heritage status in 2006 due to it’s mining heritage and influence on the industrial revolution, not only in the U.k but across the globe. The area has had settlements dating back to the Bronze age, with Tin streaming recorded as early as the 14th century. It is most notable though for the boom period between 1700 to 1916 where it was at the forefront of hard rock minig and technology such as the high pressured steam engine. The Cornish knowledge and inventions around mining meant they were in high demand during this period and many migrated to help other mining communities around the globe. Today the landscape is litered with the remants of its mining past, scarred by the human activity above and below ground. THE TIN COAST

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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PENDEEN WATCH

SECTION 1.2 Cultural and Social Context Response to place The Tin Coast stretches from Cape Cornwall in the South to Pendeen Watch or lighthouse in the North. During the boom period of 18th and 19th century Cornwall was the worlds leading producer of Tin, Copper and arsenic. There would have been as many as 25 mines packed into the 4 mile stretch of coast due to it’s geological make up and rich veins of minerals. At that time one of the bigger concerns Botallack was making over £1000 a month over 1.5 million in todays money.

CAPE CORNWALL

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


10 9 SECTION 1.2 Cultural and Social Context Response to place The first day on site was spent walking, photographing and sketching the site to try to get a feel of place.

PENDEEN WATCH

I started at Kenidjack Valley and headed to Cape Cornwall before then making my way all the way up to Geevor Tin Mine, taking in the breathtaking scenery of the harsh, scarred, human effected landscape.

GEEVOR TIN MINE

The views got me thinking of utilising the power of the sea and somehow using it for my device, but with little access down my thoughts drifted towards harnessing the wind as the conditions I experienced were 3 days worth of weather in 1, as is traditional in Cornwall!

LEVANT MINE

THE CROWNS, BOTALLACK MINE

On the second day I decided to start at the Northern extreme of our site at Pendeen Watch. I walked the Southwest coast path back to Geevor Tin mine looking a site that spoke to me but nothing seemed to fit, so I headed back to the lighthouse.

KENIDJACK CLIFF CASTLE

Just around to the East of the lighthouse was Boat Cove. A small tranquil, sheltered cove with a couple of fishing boats.

CAPE CORNWALL

WALKED ROUTE 26/09/19

WALKED ROUTE 27/09/19

With access to the sea, inlets and gullies carved out of the veins in the rock by the ocean it re-enlivened the idea of a tide or wave driven device.

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SECTION 1.2 Site photo’s from the first day of exploring, showing the many ruins sat amongst the beautiful scenery. A completely different tale compared to the noise, smoke and bustle that would have taken place in it’s heyday. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2 At boat cove I found something much more magical, that i was instantly drawn to. There was a tidal pool near the boat ramp and its beauty and tranquility really stood out in the wind and rain battered conditions. With my go pro I managed to get some shots from the other world under the water. The colours and light transition were unbelievable, easily the most impressive piece of the coast I’d discovered.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


14 N BOAT COVE PENDEEN WATCH

SECTION 1.2

With the discovery of the pool I decided I had to utilise Boat cove as my chosen site. The chance to explore the area in more depth and eventually propose an Architectual intervention at the site was too big a draw to pass on. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


1 15 SECTION 1.2 Proposed site

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The dark grey shaded area was to be my site boundry, with the pool under the site label. The arrows relate to the site photo’s on the next page.

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I spent a lot of time at the site trying to understand and experience it. I took in a sunset and sunrise while shooting a timelapse, filmed and photographed the pool, swam in it, harvested seaweed from the sea and free dove there. All of which connected me to the place and I feel added to the journey of the project. Whilst at the site I recorded the ebb and flow of the tide and it’s effect on the pool. From 2 hours before high tide untill 2 hours after the tide would engulf the pool and replenish it. The timelapse and photos can be seen on my blog; https://michaelkoskela.com/copyof-learning-journal

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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DECEMBER SOLSTICE

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MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


18 SECTION 1 Site section through my proposed site and the sea pool. Not to scale

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Pool

Proposed site

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


19 Proposed site

Pool

SECTION 1.2

Site 1;500 @ A3

There is a mixture of fishermans shacks at the site presently occupying a site with breath taking views. From there you can either head down the steps to the miners pool or venture down the slipway onto the beach. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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https://steampunk.fandom.com/wiki/20,000_Leagues_Under_the_Sea_(Book)

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Poster_for_the_1960_film_The_Time_Machine.jpg

SECTION 1.2 To view the site in a different way we were set a brief to develope a device to experience the site through a sense, I chose vision as I wanted to make the unseen, of the pool seen. After researching about the height of the mining era in the Victorian age with its innovation, inventions and technology.

I began to think of the contraptions in Jules Verne’s 20,000 leagues under the sea and H.G.Wells Time machine. I wanted to design something of this era to hark bark to the sites halcyon days. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2 A modern up to date version of the steam punk aesthetic is by Carl Kleiner and Attributverket. I find these devices intriguing, they’re telling a story of how we could use natural ingredients to produce hot water. I really like the clean, clinical take on machines that would have been completely opposite to this in the past. http://www.carlkleiner.com/ commission/fjarrvarme/

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


23 SECTION 1.2 These were my initial sketches based around my precedents. The idea was that minerals and seaweeds would be harvested then broken down and be subjected to chromatography to expose the colours. From there the pigments would be added to a wind drawing/ painting machine, where they would run down a copper wire onto some Quartz (which in the mining would would normally be found sandwiching the all importanat minerals and ore). The machine would then funnel the wind through a gramophone trumpet and blow the pigment on a roll of paper. Much like you would of done as a child blowing paint with a straw. The results were planned to make the unseen seen, by displaying the colour of the minerals and seaweeds in a new form that was powered by the wind.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


25 SECTION 1.2 Final device drawing. Scaled to fit project report as original was 1:50 @ A3 Have a look at my blog to see me building the device... michaelkoskela.com

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


26 SECTION 1.2 The results produced by the device were mixed, partly due to the conditions and partly down to the device! The chromatography worked well on a couple of the samples producing some fantastic colours. Pinks, reds and greens from the seaweed but once transferred to the device to try and draw with the pigments/mixtures they were too watery to give a clear output. The machine didn’t catch the wind as expected mainly down to the position of the wind mill that was supposed to drive the paper roll. Even when the drawings were looking good storing the finished work was a problem with nowhere to dry them. So I took stock to come back another day learning from the lessons. After alterting the device by moving the wind mill to the leading edge and adding an inlet pipe to the gramaphone horn I headed back to the site. This time locating the device at the top of the hill at boat cove allowing me to transfer the drawings straight to the van! The results were massively improved, with the machine producing some pictures that resembled the seaweed they were taken from. See my blog for video’s... michalkoskela.com

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2

These are the results taken from the second day, the bottom picture is the Hematite soil mixed with seawater. Showing a fairly consistant wind from start to finish with a possible slight direction change in the middle.

The top result is the remants of the soil which has mixed itself with the Copper Sulfate I found at the bottom of the cliffs by the pool. Again a steady wind speed untill the end where a gust has separated the pigment in different directions. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2

The top result was taken from some red Dulse seaweed found in the pool. Cut and ground into a pigment which was a purple/burgandy colour when applied but dried very pale. A slower wind speed on the start of this test with a stronger gust towards the end similar to the Copper sulfate.

The second was again from the pool a seaweed called Corallina officinalis often known as Coral weed as it deposits Calcium Carbonate into the tissues of the seaweed. This gave a beautful pink colour when broken down but dried to leave a pink/ green painting.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2

Interim Review #1 - 21/10/19 For the review I displayed the device along with the results. I included the pigments the seaweeds made (after alot of work!) my choice of site and some site analysis videos that can be seen on my blog - michaelkoskela.com

The review was positive with interest in the seaweed pigments aswell as the engaging stories of the pool. It was asked by the reviewers “what do the pigment do for you?’ and where does the project go from here.They also noted to focus on the cleansing/ restorative nature of the pool and how

it could be developed in to a design. I left feeling that the pigments weren’t going to drive my design but only be a part of it so decided to focus more on cleansing/restorative nature of the pool along with the amazing histories and social history aspect of the pool itself. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2

Interrim review #2 - 7/11/19 For the second interim review I made the above exploratory site model based around the importance of the various miner’s pools to the community.

How they would become the focus for cleansing, recreation, socialising and joy amongst the community. Something often forgotten when mining is talked about, normally the focus is on the harsh, unforgiving toils the miners had to undergo. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 1.2

Initial seaweed bricks for interim review #2 Along with the expolaratory model I presented the development seaweed bricks, they need work as they have a cake like consistency so far! With the seaweed prototypes I had made not being overly awe

inspiring the proposal was not greatly received. The reviewers suggested further investigation of the bricks whilst suggesting that combining the stories and the factory could be a difficult task.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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Hunter gatherer’s settled in the area

Hill forts created along coast

Tin Streaming at Kenidjack

First attempted Roman Invasion

Early Trade in Tin

First writing of the name Kernow

St.Pirans Oratory

Glasney College built

Plen an’ Gwari St.Just

Glasney College destroyed

500 BC

500 BC

43 BC

350 AD

400AD

600AD

1265 AD

1400 AD

1548 AD

10,000 BC

2,400 BC

600 BC

Ancient Megalith stones placed

Re-naturalisation work still ongoing

400 BC

First Celt’s Arrive

Pendeen Fogou created

100 BC Chysauster settlement built

43 AD

1099 AD

500 AD

1987 AD

1990 AD Geevor Tin Mine closes

SECTION 1.2

1967 AD

1967 AD

1930 AD

The Great Tin crash Levant closes causes tin price to drop a 1/3 in a week. All Cornish mines close withing the following years

1909 AD

Roman Invasion

1919 AD

1909 AD

1900 AD

1895 AD

1893 AD

1873 AD

1862 AD

1863 AD

Man engine Pendeen Lighthouse 19 men and a boy 8 miners and a disaster Levant becomes drown in West Wheal boy killed in killing 31 men operational Owles disaster Boscawen shaft

The area around Pendeen has human history dating back to around 10,00BC, with the minerals very much being at the focus from very early on. Pendeen is home to it’s own fogoue, a Iron age stoned walled underground passage only found in West Cornwall. There are also other remants of the Iron age,

1536-45 AD

1858 AD

Cornish Prayer Book Rebellion

Cornwall Foreshore case

Miners hit a Richard rich lode of Trevithick builds Copper at first steam engine Botallack

1858 AD

1842 AD

1857 AD

Miners Man engine association installed at formed Levant

such as the hill fort at Kenidjack and the supposed castle under the lighthouse at Pendeen. As Pendeen is translated to means ‘Headland of the castle’ The timeline shows these points, but it also documents the tradegy that surrounded the community and it’s

1549 AD

Dissilution of Monestories

Ordinalia Mount's Bay English Invasion written in inundated by the Cornish sea making St Michael's Mount an island

The Heinz National Trust Levant reforms as Franci Oats builds Botallack closes company present Boscawen shaft acquires the beam Limited co. New Cape Cornwall Porthledden house due to flooding & Boscawen shaft opens to the National Trust engine at Levant dressing mill added at Cape Cornwall low Tin price abandoned Botallack

2019 AD

1350 AD

Botallack mine formed from a consolidation of small independent mines

1801 AD

1813 AD

1780 AD

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Pumping engine John Stackhouse Mineral specimins installed at the Publishes - Nereis taken from Levant Crowns Brittanica about his Botallack Seaweed research

The two went hand in hand all, with mine closures and emigration having a dramatic effect on the community all the way through to the last mine at Geevor closing in 1990. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


34 8 SECTION 1.2 Historical Context The History of the West Penwith area is varried and interesting but it is most widely known for the boom period that left us so many reminders along the coast. The conditions of thses times were harsh with the average life expectancy being just 41 years old. With Boys as young as 8 had to work the mines. The landscape refelcted the lives of the miners harsh and unforgiving. Miners could spend 3 hours a day just ascending and descending the ladders in the mine, either side of their 6 hour shift. Not knowing if they would make any money as many of them were paid by the amount of ore mined. Some even had to buy their own dynamite and candles, meaning if they were unlucky not to find any ore they would end up in debt to the mine. During this period it was at the forefront of engineering and technology, with the invention of the steam engine by Richard Trevithick the Cornish mining industry took a huge leap forwards. Unesco status was given due to it’s part in driving the industrial revolution. With demand for mining knowledge, the Cornishman’s reputation for hardwork, the closure of mines and the exhaustion of lodes all lead to the Cornish Diaspora.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


35 1 SECTION 1.2 Over 250,000 Cornishmen are estimated to have emigrated during the period between 1861 and 1901. The locations varried with some heading to Australia, America, Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand to name a few. This would have had another massive effect on the community at the time. It was also where the term ‘Cousin Jack’ came from as a Cornishman often asked if there was any work for his ‘Cousin Jack’ back home! The final axe fell on the last mine in Penwith in 1990 with Geevor succumbing due to the crash in tin prices worldwide. This heralded the end to hard rock mining in the area and brought more hardship to the community.

Photo Copywrite JC Burrows http://min-eng.blogspot. com/2015/05/an-appreciation-ofjc-burrow-pioneering.html

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


36 SECTION 1.2 Little is written of the joys in all the harshness that the miners might have had but i’m sure the pool would have been one of them. Swimming in it after a long day of hard graft in the dark must have felt magical and restorative. The seemingly natural sea pool that I had found at Boat cove was anything but. During a trip to Geevor Mine I found the photo on the left showing some of the miners children at a seapool the miners had created just down from the Geevor on an outcrop of rock called the Avarack. I focused on trying to find as much information on the pools as possible. In doing so it was confirmed that the pool at Boat cove had been blasted with dynamite to create it, along with others in the area at Avarack and Kenidjack. The pool at Boat cove was blasted by a local Geevor miner called Jack Freestone, apart from this there was very little information available even at Kresen Kernow. I pushed on intrigued by the snippet of information about it’s history and on one of many trips to the site I managed to speak with one of the elderly swimmers in the pool. She gave me the name of a water photographer who was known to be researching the miner’s pool’s but mentioned he may not be keen to share too much information.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


37 SECTION 1.2 With just a name to go on I set about finding the underwater camera man. After a few dead ends i found who I was looking for and arranged a video call. At first he was reluctant to share too much information, but as we discussed the project he started to open up and share some of the wonderful stories he had gathered whilst researching. There were many but one of note was how in the summer when the mines would close for 2 weeks all of the miners would descend on the Avarack. Some 600 of them headed down to the pools that were equiped with, diving boards, changing areas and even a yearly paid subscription. Competitions were held there with the locals diving in for porcelin plates that were the prizes and membership to the club involved an initiation ceremony. These places really were at the heart of the community, somewhere to celebrate and come together. To forget about the toils and harsh realities they had to endure. The more we talked I realised the reason he hadn’t published the book he had compiled. It was down to not wanting to spoil the mystery and magic of these places that were so special to the community. Image courtesy of Greg Martin

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


38 SECTION 1.2 There was also stories of other pools around Cornwall and a very special one built at Stackhouse Cove near Marazion. The famous Victorain Botanist and seaweed researcher John Stackhouse built Acton House at the cove due to its variety of seaweed species and named it after his wife Susanna Acton. Stackhouse had numerous pieces of his work published but his beautiful book; ‘Nereis Britannica ; Containing All the Species of Fuci, Natives of the British Coasts: with a Description in English and Latin, and Plates Coloured from Nature’ was his most recognised. He built into the cliff a bath for his wife to bathe in, aswell as a seapool to swin in as he believed the seaweed to have restorative powers. This story changed the direction of my project again staright back to the seaweed I had been investigating to formulate the pigments and bricks.

https://www.iberlibro.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=12935320314&searchurl=pt%3Dbook%26sortby%3D0%26vci%3D51735868&cm_sp=msrp-_-msrpdesc-_-bdp#&gid=1&pid=2

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MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


43 SECTION 1.2 Geology The geological make up of the site is the reason it became the epicentre of hard rock mining. Formed nearly 300 million years ago by a collision of continants. Gases from surrounding rocks crystalised in fissures of the granite causing the minerals and lodes that the mining industry prospered from. On the map to the left drawn in 1909 you can clearly see the divide between Granite and Metamorphic aureole surrounding Granite or what they call locally as Killa’s. After visiting Geevor Tin Mine the guide informed us that usually the mineral or lode would be sandwiched between two layers of Quartz.

Image Courtest of Kresen Kernow Archives - AD2753/P/140/5 - 1909

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


45 SECTION 2 Context and Masterplanning For my initial masterplanning I decided upon a wide site area that would be able to accomodate a seaweed farm for carbon capturing and a factory to dry and produce the seaweed bricks I had been investigating. The proposal would need access to the sea via the ramp to harvest the seaweed, with large areas for drying and manufature of the bricks. I wanted the proposal to be hidden from sight, set into the hillside. So set about investigating what would be needed to facilitate the opporation. The site was well connected via a track the the fisherman of Pendeen use to access the cove, which also doubles as part of the Southwest coast path before it carries on West around to Portheras beach.

Southwest Coastpath main walking route

Route to Boat Cove

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


46 SECTION 2 Refined site boarder Whilst designing the proposal for the seaweed farm and factory something didn’t sit well with me. Placing something like that on a place the community holds so dear didn’t seem right. The way the stories were recounted and hard to come by made me feel that they needed to be celebrated before they are lost. I felt they needed to be treated with delicacy, like I was designing a memorial. The reason the water photographer has never published his book was due to the pools importance to the community and not wanting to spoil the mystery and magic.​​​​​​ Following the second interim review I decided to solely focus on designing a place of celebration and joy for the community.

Updated proposed site 1;500 @ A3

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


47 SECTION 2 Initial proposal After sketching some preliminary ideas I moved on to making small 1;500 models which included the topography of the site. They worked better than the sketches, gaiving me a greater understanding of the site and how to work with it to create a form. My intial concept was to make the land look like it hadn’t been touched. The proposal would sit on the plateau that houses the fishermans sheds presently, but starting with a long tunnel back up the hill to keep the entrance out of view. This would then open up into a large space of stories. The concept worked in principle but the form for the stories lacked the magic of the pool. There wouldn’t be much light in the space so I quickly moved onto another sketch model.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


48 SECTION 2 Building proposal – Design iterations Untouched lots of work These were my Initial proposals and after the second interim review I de I really disliked the second form! From the shape, to the materials I used and the growing realisation that to make the proposal look like it hadn’t touched nature there actually would have been a lot of excavating to achieve it. The one good thing to come from the design though was the after thought chimney stuck on top! I had placed it there to allow some natural light into the space from above. This led me down another path and onto doing some light experiments to see if I could generate some reflections from water inside the compendium.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


49 SECTION 2 Iwanted to make the reflections from the water to dance on the ceiling, giving it a magical alive feeling like the pool. I made 4 different light models to see how the light inside would react, the photo’s are from the more successful experiments with the 2 on the left utilsing a taller chimney shape. The top photo has got the water above, whereas the bottom picture has a pool at the bottom. I soon discovered that light hitting the water from above and reflecting back up the walls or onto the ceiling was what I was looking to achieve. The flatter the ceiling the more impressive the ripples, so I adapted the model on the right to capture more light on the ceiling. The experiments were driving the form of the building, I know knew the space needed to be light from above, have a relativly flat ceiling and have a body of water for the light to reflect on.

The video’s on my blog give a better representation of what I was looking for; https://michaelkoskela.com/arc310light-investigation

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


50 SECTION 2.2 Arts and culture precedent During the introducton to the project and of the idea of the Anthropocene, Tom mentioned a recent book writen by James Lovelock called ‘Novacene: The Coming Age of Hyperintelligence’, The book was written in a post Anthropocene world in the next epoch Lovelock called the Novacene. The book reminded me of ‘The Gaia effect’ a book written by the same author I had read many years previous to this project. The Gaia theory was and is a principle idea that the earth is a living and self managing entity, where all life is connected. This is something I beleive James Cameron’s ‘Avatar’ was strongly influenced by. The ideas and theories in the book went hand in hand with the principles of the project in working with nature and the earth in a better way.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


51 SECTION 2.2 Arts and Culture precedent Whilst researching further into the possible uses of seaweed I found an in depth article in the National Geographic about seaweed carbon sequestration. This hugely undervalued natural element could produce world changing results. Capturing carbon 35 times faster than a rainforest, stabilising the oceans acidification, the ability to be used for biofuels, fertiliser, cattle feed, bioplastics and seaweed glass. The list is impressive but with Governments looking at it to capture carbon before it dies and falls to the seabed locking in the Co2 didn’t seem like a long term solution. The article got me thinking could it be harvested with the carbon locked in and be utilised in a different way?

https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment-and-conservation/2019/08/seaweed-forestscan-help-fight-climate-change

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


52 SECTION 2.2 Context and site precedent Once settled on designing the compendium I knew I wanted to make the proposal part of the earth. Cesar Manrique’s Architecture seamed a ideal place to start as his work is synonymous with working with nature and bringing it into his designs. The way he balances the light and the natural elements is something I’ve tried to encompass in my proposal, not just placing a proposal but making of that place.

https://icondesign.it/places/casa-studio-lanzarotecesar-manrique/

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


53 SECTION 2.2 Building precedent This building in Japan by MAD, treated the light in a similarly delicate way to Manrique. They way it connects with the outside, the play with water and how it draws the colours of the valley in are all elements I was looking to include. To give a feeling of experience whilst inside the space. To bring the elements inside and make them the drama and the proposal just a way of facilitating them in the space.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


54 SECTION 2.2 Technical precedent While researching seaweed further I found the below article about utilising seaweed and clay to make adobe bricks. In Mexico and many parts of the Carribean the problem of invading Sargassum seaweed is one that needs solving. In an area reliant on tourism the seaweed is a big problem. Omar Vázquez Sánchez thinks he’s found a soloution to that problem by utilising the abundance of seaweed to help form Bricks. The article changed the way I was looking at seaweed and made me think differently about what I was trying to achieve. Could I mix the seaweed with other componants to make usable materials. Much like Vázquez Sánchez had done with soil was there other ingredients that could be added?

https://magazinemayaluxe.com/articles/making-houses-out-of-seaweed

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


56 SECTION 3.1 Technology Structural stratergy The overall structural strategy would rely on the seaweed compsite being strengthened with reinforcement steel to allow it to cope with the spans involved. The exterior walls will take the load of the roof, with supporting beams on the angle and a ring beam of the same depth in the middle. These beams would be picked up by pillars in the space to allow for the large open space I wanted. The seaweed composite panels would sit over the top of these beams. Interlocking like precast concrete panels would. The proposal would be a test bed to experiment the possibilities of this material. This being said I can only propose a strategy not knowing the full possibilities of the material.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


57 SECTION 3.1 The Interlocking panels would make up the perimeter load bearing walls but also that of the roof. The connection between each panel would be tied by steel rebar or bolted.

Reinforced roof beam

Interlocking seaweed panel

Foundation connection

Wall to roof connection

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


58 SECTION 3.2 Environmental strategy Acoustics The journey down the tunnel would slowly dampen the noise of the outside world. The main Comdendium space would be tranquil, peaceful like the pool. Giving a chance for reflection, comtemplation or relaxation. I would expect the seaweed composite to be a good insulator of sound, this would be proved of disproved when the proposal is in use. After spending a vast amount of time at the site the only things that were audible were the crashing of the waves and the calls of the seabirds and when leaving the building these would appeared heightend after the quite, visual, elemental experience.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


59 SECTION 3.2 Lighting The Compendium uses natural light as it’s primary element to create the atmosphere and feeling in the space. It will be used to project the stories, in the transitions through spaces, reflect off the pool to and make the space come alive. It was also flood the space from the full height seaweed glass window that points towards the pool at the North eastern end of the building.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


60 Winter morning

Winter mid-day

Winter evening

SECTION 3.2 Heliostat A device that reflects the suns rays ways using mirrors. The design behind the heliostat would be that i can capture and harness the sun at any time and angle. Giving the ability to project the stories onto hanging displays as well as reflecting off the pool to create the alive feeling I was trying to achieve. Being in Cornwall and especially in the St.Just area there would be days the sun wouldn’t be powerful enough to project the stories but this would add to the experience of the Compendium, as it wouldn’t give away it’s secrets all the time!

Summer morning

Summer mid-day

Summer evening

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


61 SECTION 3.2 Detailed drawing of the heliostat 1:20 at A1

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


62 SECTION 3.2 A lightbox i built for the final review to show how I was planning to make the unseen.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


63 SECTION 3.2 Visual performance The visual performance will be addressed on the outside by the seaweed composite, making the proposal fell part of it’s surroundings as it has a similar aesthetic to the Killa’s rock. Internally the Compendium will be a visual feast in the right conditions! It will be a magical space where no to visits would be the same due to the changing stories and the changing weather conditions and seasons.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


64 SECTION 3.2 Thermal performance The Compendium’s thermal envelope is shown in red. To keep an ambient temperature the proposal would utilise a ground source heat pump sited in the store/ plant room located at the southern side of the building. As the building is designed to be elemental I didn’t want a fully conditioned space as it would loose some of it’s connection to nature. It would though need to be a comfortable place to sit and enjoy. In the summer months this wouldn’t be a problem with solar gain through the seaweed’s thermal mass and only having one apperture it should hold a fairly stable temperature. Building services strategies The buildings need for services is limited only needing a minimal electricity supply that could be provided by p.v’s to power the ground source heat pump. Storage batteries could also be sited in the store room to draw power when requested.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


65 SECTION 3.3 Sustainability approach to the context and place As the coastline and the landscape of the Tin Coast has been so scarred and effected by human activity I wanted from the outset of the project to try to restore the harm we as a race have done. There is an oppotunity to work with the land and sea better than we have in the past which is why I worked so hard to produce a material that has the possibilities of doing this. The Compendium would be severly carbon negative and set a precedent of a new way to build if the test process was a success.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


66 SLATE

SECTION 3.3 Materials specification and source

SALTBLOCK

The material board I produced for the final review shows the materiality of the proposal. I spent alot of time experimenting with the seaweed composites to eventually produce a feasible result.

PEBBLE

I utilised 3 differnt processes to get to the end result. The first batch wasn’t successful so I changed my approach and adapted the process. Adding binders to the blocks allowed for further exploration and I ended up with a comprehensive range of materials, with each having unique properties. COMPOSITE

SEAWEED

The ingredients of each are list on the display board in my portfolio. Seaweed glass was also be used in the build, a process that has been used in Cornwall dating back to the 1700’s and it gives a green/blue tint to the glazing.

GLASS

SEAWEED COPPER

The salt blocks were an off shoot of the seaweed process as I was trying to mnake the process as circular as possible. They would be pigmented with the seaweed pigment I first produced with my device to add a unique element to the tresholds of the space. The pebbles would be side layed on the entrance of the tunnel as they are in the fishermans sheds at the site.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


11 67

& SAWDUST SEAWEED


SEAWEED BRICK PROCESS CHART

PROCESS #1

MOULD

RE-AQUIFY

SEAWEED POWDER GROW/CARBON CAPTURE

HARVEST

AIR DRY

DRY

RE-AQUIFY

FINISHED SEAWEED BRICK

3D PRINT

COMPACT DOWN

PROCESS #2

GROW/CARBON CAPTURE

HARVEST

BOIL DOWN

STRAIN

BLEND

MIX IN ADDITIVE/ BINDER & ADD BIOPLASTIC IF NECESSARY

COMPACT DOWN

MOULD

DRY OR BAKE

FINISHED SEAWEED COMPOSITE BRICK


69

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


70 SECTION3.3 The natural materials were all lovingly collected from the site itself at Boat Cove, the seaweed, sand and Hematite soil. For the project I propose that the bricks/composits/panels would be produced in the community. Helping to heal the place aswell as generating a new industry that Penwith would be at the forefront of. Harking back to the days it used to be the lead in hard rocking mining and engineering in the 18th and 19th century, but this time round working with the planet instead of at odds with it.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


71 SECTION 3.3 Life Cycle Analysis A big aspect of my project was to generate a new Epoch of working in harmony with nature, the Compendium would need to last as long as possible to further reduce its footprint. In terms of life cycle, the building would need to facilitate this longevity, but being a test facility to showcase but also analyse the capabilities of the material knowledge on its life cycle and abilities would be limited. Investigations would be needed to record it’s performance over a set time period to discover what elements and conditions it could endure.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


72 SECTION 3.3 Design for Disassembly As the building is designed to be a test center for the application of the composite seaweed materials, disassembly could be required if the material was to degrade. As the material is in a panelised form it could be taken away treated and re-used or broken down for other applications. The seaweed glazing could be utilised on another build as could the Copper highlight elements. In total the Compendium would have a very little effect on the enviroment with the possibility of being carbon neutral or even negative depending on the amount of Carbon the seaweed sequests before being transformed into bricks!

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


74 SECTION 4

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


75

Sitemap 1:1250 @ A3 MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


76 SECTION 4 Site proposal 1:200 Site model This model outlines the journey to the Compendium through each of the element models and also how the building connects with the site. Element models; Model #1 - Entrance Model #2 - Tunnel Model #3 - Saltblock threshold Model #4 - Compendium

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


77 SECTION 4 Design iteration analysis and development The light experiments had started to draw out a form to work with, a central aperture in the roof to light the space, with gently sloping ceilings to capture the light reflection from the pool. The leading edge to the Northeast was to point towards the pool, but the overall feel of the shape was as something had landed on the site rather than being part of it. So I moved on to try and connect with the place in a better way whilst still retaining what was needed for the interior light.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


14 78

1

2

The progression took shape in the form of small sketch models. I combined these with a topographical model to be able to see how the proposal could meet the ground. I extendended the length of the form in number 4 to allow the roof to grow from the land but it lost some of the initial feel.

3

4

No.5 brought success allowing the north western edge of the roof to meet the ground and the southern and western walls set to the height of the hill behind. The only problem was the leading edge pointing to the pool as it was too tall and would have been severly imposing on the site aswell as not providing the

5

ceiling inside for the light dance! No 6 I brought the peak down giving flatter surfaces but also a more uniform feel. I made one more adjustment bringing the south western corner back down and no.7 is seen on the 1:200 site model. I then progressed this to a 1:100 light model to really test the space.

6

SECTION 4

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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Model #1 - Entrance model 1:50

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


80

Model #2 - Tunnel light model 1:100

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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Model #3 - Saltblock threshold 1:20 MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


82

Model #4 - Northern elevation 1:50

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


83

Model #4 - 1:50 MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


84

Model #4 - Plan view - 1:50 MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


Ground floor plan 1;50 @ A1


Section AA 1;50 @ A1


87

Entrance to the tunnel on the journey to the Compendium. The script reads ‘Cows nebus, cows da’ which translates from Cornish as ‘Speak little, speak well’

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


14 11 88

A view looking down the tunnel to the Compendium. The light drawing you in and down towards the saltblock threshold.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


11 89 SECTION 4 The stories would be added to the Compendium in a yearly celebration of the pools. One such event already exists as a celebration of the sea at Boat cove. Members of the community would be invited by the nominated curator of the compendium to add their stories at the event which would bring the community together in celebration. The stories, history and social side of the pools need to be recorded before they are lost as many only exist through spoken word. An elemnetal place like the Compendium would serve as a magical place to hold the almost mystical stories.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


SECTION 5.1 - WORK STAGES

96

WORK STAGES OF THIS PROJECT

The stages of a project are based on the RIBA Plan of Work 2013. These stages are intended to provide a straightforward mapping of projects for all forms of procurement across the industry.

Stage 0 – Strategic Definition

Section 1

This is a preparatory stage designed to analyse and test the needs of the project before a brief is compiled.

Research, site analysis and context

Stage 1 – Preparation and Brief

Section 1

Includes the preparation of the initial brief which outlines the goals of the project. It will include site information and analysis.

Creation of brief, needs of users and room schedual

Stage 2 – Concept Design

Section 2

The concept for the project is generated and initial concept drawings are provided, including outline structural proposals. The brief is finalised at this stage ready to move forward to stage 3.

Concept proposals tested through design iterations

Stage 3 – Developed Design

Section 3

The concept design is developed to meet the criteria of the finalised brief. RIba advise Planning permission can be applied for following this stage.

Concept proposal added to with technology, materiality and enviromental proposals

Stage 4 – Technical Design

Section 4

Technical details are defined in preparation for construction. Structural and building service elements are decided. Consultation with building regs at this stage.

Detailed design showing finalised proposal.

Stage 5 – Construction The project/building is constructed following the drawings and information produced. The Lead Architect will often oversee this process to ensure a smooth build process.

Stage 6 – Handover and Close Out Handover of the project/building once construction is completed. This involves the inspection of the completed works with any defects to be rectified before sign off from the Architect, dependent on the contract type.

Stage 7 – In Use This stage does as it states when the project is In Use. It can also involve a post-occupancy evaluation, covering the projects performance, outcomes and development. MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


97 SECTION 5.2 Developmental control Obtaining planning permision for such a proposal would be extremly difficault on a Unesco world heritage site. The only possible mitagatation could be that there is already development at Boat cove in the way of the fisherman’s stores. The Cornwall local Plan 2010-2030 also states the following in it’s objectives; Theme 4: To make the most of our environment. Objective 9: Make the best use of our resources by; a. Reducing energy consumption while increasing renewable and low carbon energy production; b. Maximising the use of previously used land; c. Supporting local food production, and d. Increasing resilience to climate change Objective 10: Enhance and reinforce local natural, landscape and historic character and distinctiveness and raise the quality of development through; a. Respecting the distinctive character of Cornwall’s diverse landscapes; b. Maintaining and enhancing an effective network of open space and environmental stewardship for our ecosystems services network for food production, ood control and wildlife; and c. Excellence in design that manages change to maintain the distinctive character and quality of Cornwall. After completion of Riba work Stages 0-3 planning permission could be sort on the basis of these objectives noting the following of such policies in the design phase.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


98 CDM - Health and Safety CDM Construction design and management 2015 aims to improve health and safety standards by managing the risks on site. The Architect, lead designer, appointed contractor, or health and safety officer will embark on completing the CDM for the project, using the guidelines below; Plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the pre-construction phase. Help and advise the client in bringing together pre-construction information. Provide the information designers and contractors need to carry out their duties. Work with any other designers on the project to eliminate foreseeable health and safety risks to anyone affected by the work and, where that is not possible, take steps to reduce or control those risks Ensure that everyone involved in the preconstruction phase communicates and cooperates, coordinating their work wherever required liaise with the principal contractor, keeping them informed of any risks that need to be controlled during the construction phase. http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/2015/ principal-designers.htm Risk assessments would be produced for instance when the initial pile foundations are going in to provide a guideline of who and how this would happen and how to minimise the risk.

Landlaw - ownership and party wall The plot itself would have to be purchased from the current land owner and before any work could be undertaken on the plot a Party wall notice would have to be served to the adjacent properties as they would fall within the 6m notice guideline. The Party Wall etc Act 1996 provides a framework for preventing and resolving disputes in relation to party walls, boundary walls and excavations near neighbouring buildings. As excavations fall into this category a letter would be sent informing the neighbours of the intended work, giving them 14 days to reply. Their decision would affect what happens on the site but a negative response or the need for them to involve a surveyor could cause hold-ups and would need to be clarified before any work was started.

Building Regulations Drawings would be sent to Building control following planning permission being granted and a contractor being appointed, to verify they meet current legislation. Building regulations are updated annually and are a guideline to which the project should be built. This project would be no different and all Part’s of Building regulation 2010 would need to be adhered to.

Certain processes would be written into the CDM file such as the day the seaweed panels are lifted into position, requiring a cordoned off area of the build with a qualified crane operator, banksman and contractors with experience in the process.

SECTION 5.2

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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SECTION 5.3 Buildability As the the building will be a test center for the new materials and be built from the seaweed composite panels the construction phase will require contractors that are willing to push boundries in construction. The seaweed panels are designed to work in a similar way to precast concrete so once excavations and foundations are prepared the panels will be able to be craned into position along with the supporting roof pillars. The panels could be produced off site and transported down the track ready to lifted and fitted. The build should be fairly straight forward assuming accuracy is sought in the site analysis and production process as tying the new wall panels into the rock faces will require precision. Once completed they will make up the perimeter of the building fairly quickly allowing the roof to be craned on again in panels. Waterproofing the build would come next.

Procurement The procurement route will be a traditional one known as design bid build. With the client appointing design consultants to design the project in detail and then prepare tender documentation, including drawings, work schedules and bills of quantities. The client will then invite contractors to submit tenders for the construction of the project. The design consultants will then oversee the construction process for the client.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


100 SECTION 5.5 Design Team - Architect in practice The Lead architect, who is the Principle designer would take on the responsibilities of overseeing the project and be responsible for the Health and safety aspect. A Project manager could also be appointed to free up the Architect but in smaller builds, this would be taken on by the lead contractor. CONSULTANTS

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TEAM STRUCTURAL DESIGN TEAM

DESIGN TEAM

M&E DESIGN TEAM

CLIENT QS TEAM

CONTRACTOR

A Health and safety officer would again only be employed or appointed on bigger projects. This responsibility would fall on the Architect, site/project manager or lead contractor. Site surveyors to undertake a ground and site survey before any work could go ahead and they would deliver a report that the structural engineer and Architect could work to. Quantity Surveyors would be used to quantify materials and costings for the project. Structural Engineers to advise the architect on loading and what is possible. Usually working closely with the Architect to help realise the Architects vision.

SUB CONTRACTORS

Building control /Building inspector would be involved to make sure the project is meeting building regulations. Normally involved at the major stages of the project. Foundations, structure, insulation/thermal envelope.

MATERIAL SUPPLIERS

There’s a whole host of professionals that could be utilised and brought on board dependent on the project type, scale and function. The insight and knowledge from them was invaluable in putting the project together bringing with them a reality of what we were trying to achieve. Contractors Following the completion of the design for the project the client would invite contractors to submit tenders for the build aspect. This could be through teams frequently used by the Architect or sourced by the client based on previous work or recommendations.

MICHAEL KOSKELA - ARC310


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