Page 1

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

ANNUAL REVIEWS

Further

15:27

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Click here for quick links to Annual Reviews content online, including: • Other articles in this volume • Top cited articles • Top downloaded articles • Our comprehensive search

Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Cord Injury: Some Facts and Mechanisms Serge Rossignol1 and Alain Frigon1,2 1 Groupe de Recherche sur le Syst`eme Nerveux Central (FRSQ), Department of Physiology, and Multidisciplinary Team in Locomotor Rehabilitation of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Universit´e de Montr´eal, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada; email: Serge.Rossignol@umontreal.ca 2 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Universit´e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke JIH 5N4, Canada

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011. 34:413–40

Keywords

First published online as a Review in Advance on April 4, 2011

spinalization, central pattern generator, electromyography, kinematics

The Annual Review of Neuroscience is online at neuro.annualreviews.org

Abstract

This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113746 c 2011 by Annual Reviews. Copyright  All rights reserved 0147-006X/11/0721-0413$20.00

After spinal cord injury (SCI), various sensorimotor functions can recover, ranging from simple spinal reflexes to more elaborate motor patterns, such as locomotion. Locomotor recovery after complete spinalization (complete SCI) must depend on the presence of spinal circuitry capable of generating the complex sequential activation of various leg muscles. This is achieved by an intrinsic spinal circuitry, termed the central pattern generator (CPG), working in conjunction with sensory feedback from the legs. After SCI, different changes in cellular and circuit properties occur spontaneously and can be promoted by pharmacological, electrical, or rehabilitation strategies. After partial SCI, hindlimb locomotor recovery can result from regeneration or sprouting of spared pathways, but also from mechanisms observed after complete SCI, namely changes within the intrinsic spinal circuitry and sensory inputs.

413


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Contents LOCOMOTOR RECOVERY AFTER COMPLETE SPINAL TRANSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Inescapable Central Spinal Pattern Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Key Role Played by Sensory Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCOMOTOR RECOVERY AFTER PARTIAL SPINAL LESIONS . . . . . Accessing the Locomotor Circuitry by Descending Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanisms of Locomotor Recovery After Partial Spinal Cord Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compensation by the Intrinsic Spinal Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMANS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY . .

SCI: spinal cord injury Central pattern generator (CPG): a circuitry of interneurons in the spinal cord capable of generating the basic rhythmic alternating activity between multiple groups of muscles with the proper temporal pattern of activation NE: norepinephrine 5-HT: 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) T13: thoracic level 13

414

414 417 420 422 422

425 429 431

Spinal cord injury (SCI) models in animals provide an opportunity to study function in the central nervous system (CNS). The spinal cord possesses well-characterized descending and ascending tracts and well-defined inputs of diverse sensory modalities, as well as autonomous circuits that produce a rich variety of quantifiable motor outputs, ranging from simple reflexes to more complex motor patterns, such as scratching, fast paw shake, and locomotion. Multiple aspects of spinal function can be investigated by inactivating or stimulating specific inputs and measuring outputs using behavioral, electrophysiological, genetic, and pharmacological tools. Lesions of spinal tracts or peripheral nerves have been key in demonstrating fundamental neurobiological concepts, some of which are gaining importance in the design of more effective and targeted rehabilitation therapies in humans with SCI. The present review focuses on locomotor recovery after SCI by first describing some basic concepts, such as pattern generation by intrinsic spinal circuits and its control by descending and sensory inputs. Adaptation within these circuits and how their outputs Rossignol

·

Frigon

are modified by SCI to regain functions, such as locomotion, are then discussed. We propose that plasticity within intrinsic spinal circuits is a critical component of hindlimb locomotor recovery after SCI and that inputs from descending and peripheral sources that undergo functional and anatomical changes contribute to recovery mainly by accessing and modulating the modified spinal network. Figure 1 illustrates some key features of locomotor control, consisting of (a) a specialized spinal circuitry, identified as the central pattern generator (CPG); (b) several descending pathways; (c) neurochemically defined pathways that release neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT); and (d ) afferents from peripheral receptors of different sensory modalities. The roles of these components are largely derived from lesion studies and are discussed below. All these components interact, and after SCI, these interactions are disrupted as new ones become prominent. We first describe the effects of a spinalization, which leaves only the spinal circuits and sensory afferents to organize hindlimb locomotion. We then discuss the effects of a partial spinal lesion in which a combination of spinal, supraspinal, and sensory mechanisms remains to establish new interactions for the generation of hindlimb locomotion.

LOCOMOTOR RECOVERY AFTER COMPLETE SPINAL TRANSECTION Cats with a complete SCI (i.e., spinalization) at the last thoracic segment (T13) gradually recover hindlimb locomotion on a treadmill following a few weeks of locomotor training. Although initially well studied in kittens (Grillner 1973; Forssberg et al. 1980a,b), hindlimb locomotor recovery after spinalization also occurs in adult cats (Barbeau & Rossignol 1987; Belanger et al. 1996; de Leon et al. 1998a,b; Rossignol et al. 2000, 2002) as well as several other species (Rossignol et al. 1996). In the adult cat, a few days after spinalization, with the forelimbs standing on


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Corticospinal Rubrospinal Reticulospinal Vestibulospinal

DRG

Do

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

DLF

CPG

Muscle

E

F

F

F

F

E E

al

er

t ola

rs

DC

E

s

ulu

L3

ic un

f

s ulu c i n fu al er t la ro nt e V NE, 5-HT, ACh, GLU

VLF

Skin

L

R

Figure 1 General framework of locomotor control. This scheme shows a lumbar spinal segment (L3-L4) with gray and white matter. In the gray matter, a specialized network of interneurons termed the central pattern generator (CPG) produces alternating activity between flexors and extensors on one side and is coupled with the CPG on the other side. The specialized interneurons activate flexor (F) and extensor (E) motoneurons. Some interneurons are under the influence of the CPG and respond to various inputs in a phase-dependent manner. Other interneurons are outside this zone of influence but receive various inputs as well. Descending inputs and sensory afferents can reach different types of interneurons. The main descending pathways coursing through the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) are the cortico- and rubrospinal tracts. The reticulo- and vestibulospinal tracts are found in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF). Other pathways are defined mainly by the type of neurotransmitters released, such as norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), glutamate (GLU), or local circuits releasing GABA or acetylcholine (Ach). Sensory afferents originate from muscle or skin and project to the spinal cord through mono-, di-, and polysynaptic pathways. Abbreviations: DC, dorsal columns; DRG, dorsal root ganglion.

a fixed platform (see Figure 2) and manual stimulation of the perineum, small alternating steps can be evoked in the hindlimbs, although plantar foot placement is absent and a prominent foot drag is observed. After 2–3 weeks of daily treadmill training, cats can walk with alternate hindlimb movements, hindquarter weight support, and plantar foot contact.

The activity of hindlimb muscles [i.e., electromyography (EMG)] during treadmill walking is remarkably similar before and after spinalization in the same cat (Belanger et al. 1996, figure 5a,c). However, EMG amplitudes in extensor muscles can be of smaller amplitude, probably because of the loss of vestibulospinal or reticulospinal pathways. When present,

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

EMG: electromyography

415


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Head socket (EMG) Intrathecal cannula

0 1 0 2 0 3 1 0 Time code

Spinal lesion

Reflective marker Kinematic model

T13

Hip

EMG electrodes Knee

Foot contact

Foot lift

Swing

MTP

Stance

Hip Knee Ankle

MTP EMGs

Angular excursion Foot lift Stance

Foot contact

L St R St

x

110 Hip Ext

Swing

Fle

R Srt

70

Joint excursion (掳)

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Ankle

140 Knee

L VL R VL

80 160 Ankle

F E1

L GL

E2 + E3

R GL L GM

80 250 MTP

R TA

160 0

1.0

Phase of the step cycle

416

Rossignol

Frigon

2.0

L HL R HL 1s


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

changes in EMG timing are most often observed between flexor muscles operating at different joints, such as hip and knee flexors, which might explain deficits such as foot drag during early swing. In animal preparations with complete SCI, only the intrinsic spinal circuitry (i.e., CPG) and sensory inputs from peripheral receptors remain to initiate and organize hindlimb locomotion. The spinal locomotor CPG, except under strict experimental conditions, never works in isolation because it dynamically interacts with inputs from the periphery and from descending pathways (comprehensively reviewed in Rossignol et al. 2006). After complete SCI, access to the spinal locomotor circuitry by these inputs is altered because of the obvious loss of descending pathways controlling these circuits and also in regulating inputs from peripheral afferents. The sections below discuss important aspects of the CPG and peripheral sensory inputs in relation to recovery of function after complete SCI.

The Inescapable Central Spinal Pattern Generator From the extensive work on spinalized animals, a circuitry within the spinal cord capable of generating the basic locomotor rhythm

must exist (Grillner 1981, Rossignol 1996, Rossignol et al. 2006). The expression spinal pattern generator refers to the locomotor circuitry remaining after spinalization, which can still interact with tonic and phasic sensory inputs from the hindlimbs. The term central pattern generator should only be used to refer to spinal circuits capable of generating an organized bilateral rhythmic pattern in the absence of descending and sensory inputs. Indeed, in acutely spinalized and paralyzed cats, a well-organized rhythmic output (fictive locomotion) can be recorded directly from flexor or extensor nerves with pharmacological stimulation (L-DOPA) in the complete absence of overt movement (Grillner & Zangger 1979). In chronic spinal cats, fictive locomotion can occur spontaneously (i.e., without drugs), indicating that functional changes have occurred within the spinal locomotor circuitry enabling the spontaneous expression of this endogenous pattern (Pearson & Rossignol 1991).

Spinal pattern generator: a spinal circuit capable of generating locomotion after complete spinal transection, which is subjected to tonic or phasic sensory afferents from structures located caudal to the transection Central pattern generator: such a pattern can be generated centrally in absence of phasic sensory afferent inputs after curarization

Functional organization of locomotorgenerating circuits. Although the spinal locomotor CPG is better characterized in swimming vertebrates, such as the lamprey (Buchanan 2001, Grillner 2003) and Xenopus tadpole (Roberts et al. 1998), a considerable body of work in adult cats and neonatal

←−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Figure 2 General methodology for the study of locomotion in cats with spinal lesions. (Top panel ) With complete lesion of the spinal cord at T13, cats are positioned with their forelimbs standing on a platform fixed above the belt while the hindquarters are free to walk on the moving treadmill. With a partial lesion, the cat is free to walk with all four limbs on the treadmill. Pairs of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes are implanted into various muscles (only one pair represented here). The multipin EMG connector is cemented to the skull. Reflective markers are placed at different joints on the hindlimb to reconstruct angular excursions. The swing and stance phases of each cycle can also be determined. To prevent overlap of the stick figures, each one is displaced by an amount equal to the displacement of the foot along the horizontal axis. The bottom panels illustrate normal locomotion at 0.8 m s−1 . (Left bottom panel ) Mean angular excursions of the hip, knee, ankle, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of 10 cycles of the left hindlimb. Angular values decrease in flexion and increase in extension for all joints. Subphases of the cycle are defined as flexion (F), first extension (E1) during swing, and second extension (E2) and third extension (E3) during stance, as proposed by Philippson (1905). (Right panel ) The EMGs recorded in both hindlimbs and presented with stance phase duty cycles (black bars) in the four limbs. The downward arrows represent touchdown defining the onset of stance, whereas upward arrows represent the onset of liftoff defining the onset of swing (L HL, left hindlimb; R HL, right hindlimb). Muscles are abbreviated as follows (L, left; R, right): St, semitendinosus (knee flexor/hip extensor); Srt, sartorius (knee extensor, hip flexor); VL, vastus lateralis (knee extensor); GL and GM, gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis (ankle extensors and knee flexors); and TA, tibialis anterior (ankle flexor). The digital (SMPTE) time code (upper right) is used to synchronize video and EMG recordings. The spinal lesions are made at T13, unless otherwise specified. Modified with permission from Rossignol et al. 2009. www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

417


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

rodents has identified some key features of the mammalian spinal locomotor CPG (recently reviewed in Kiehn 2006, Goulding 2009), although overall, details of the mammalian CPG remain elusive. In quadrupedal mammals, the four limbs are controlled by distinct, but interconnected, CPGs. The CPGs controlling the hindlimbs can be uncoupled using a hemicord preparation, in which the lumbosacral spinal cord is split longitudinally along the mid-line (Kjaerulff & Kiehn 1997). The CPGs controlling fore- and hindlimb locomotion can be uncoupled by blocking transmission in propriospinal pathways that connect the cervical and lumbar enlargements (Viala & Vidal 1978, Juvin et al. 2005). Humans are thought to employ a coordination similar to quadrupeds during bipedal walking (Dietz & Michel 2009, Zehr et al. 2009). After incomplete SCI, homologous (i.e., between limbs of the same girdle) and homolateral (i.e., between fore- and hindlimbs on the same side) coordination during quadrupedal locomotion can be disrupted to various extents, giving rise to independent walking frequencies in the fore- and hindlimbs or to asymmetrical coupling between limbs in adult cats (Kato et al. 1984, Brustein & Rossignol 1998, Barri`ere et al. 2010). The mammalian locomotor CPG is thought to be composed of interconnected modules that coordinate activity around specific joints (Grillner 1981). This ensemble of modules may or may not be dissociated from the rhythm-generating circuitry. A multilayered spinal locomotor CPG, in which rhythm-generation and pattern formation are functionally separated, has been proposed to account for some experimental findings (reviewed in McCrea & Rybak 2008). In this two-level CPG, the rhythm generator controls features of the rhythm (i.e., cycle period, phase durations/transitions) and projects to the pattern-formation level, which coordinates and distributes activity to motor pools. Inputs from peripheral mechanoreceptors or supraspinal structures can regulate activity at either level, including spinal motoneurons. Inputs producing an abrupt phase transition, or prolonging

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

L1: lumbar level 1

418

Rossignol

·

Frigon

the ongoing phase, thereby disrupting the post-stimulus rhythm, indicate a more direct access to the rhythm-generating circuitry (Hultborn et al. 1998, Pearson et al. 1998). Spinal localization of locomotor-generating circuits. In limbless vertebrates, such as fish, all segments are interconnected and are more or less equivalent in terms of rhythm-generating capacity to produce a smooth progressive traveling wave that exerts force on the water to move forward or backward, depending on the order of intersegmental coupling (Grillner & Wallen 2002). Although remnants of such rostrocaudal traveling waves exist in mammals (de Seze et al. 2008, Cuellar et al. 2009, Perez et al. 2009), not all lumbosacral segments are equivalent in their capacity to generate the locomotor pattern. For instance, although rhythmogenic properties within the lumbosacral spinal cord are somewhat distributed over several segments, the L3-L4 segments in cats (Marcoux & Rossignol 2000, Langlet et al. 2005, Delivet-Mongrain et al. 2008) and L1-L2 segments in rodents (Cazalets et al. 1995, Kiehn 2006) are critical for rhythm generation. Inactivating or damaging these segments will generally abolish or severely impair locomotion, although other rhythms such as fast paw shake can still be evoked. This segmental heterogeneity has important implications for the recovery of walking after SCI. A balance between excitation and inhibition. Function within the spinal locomotor network is governed by excitatory and inhibitory connections. During locomotion, motoneurons receive rhythmic alternating pushpull patterns of glutamatergic excitation and glycinergic inhibition during the active and inactive phases, respectively (Shefchyk & Jordan 1985, Cazalets et al. 1996, Grillner 2003). Excitatory connections are sufficient to drive rhythmic bursting because blocking inhibitory transmission, through GABAA (i.e., bicuculline) and glycine (i.e., strychnine) receptor antagonists, does not abolish oscillatory activity (Kjaerulff & Kiehn 1997, Grillner & Jessell


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

2009). However, inhibition is necessary to produce appropriate flexion/extension (Cowley & Schmidt 1995) and left-right (Cowley & Schmidt 1995, Kremer & Lev-Tov 1997, Hinckley et al. 2005) alternations (Grillner & Jessell 2009). The flexibility of the system also permits synchronous gaits, such as galloping and hopping, which probably involves reconfiguring inhibitory and excitatory connections within the spinal locomotor CPG (Cowley & Schmidt 1995). After SCI, synchronous rhythmic bursting in flexor and extensor muscles in one limb or between homologous hindlimb muscles can appear (Norreel et al. 2003, Courtine et al. 2008), and this could be related to deficient control in inhibitory pathways (see below). Intrinsic properties of central pattern generator neurons. The locomotor rhythm is generated by spinal neurons with selfgenerating oscillatory properties (i.e., pacemaker cells) and through synaptically or electrically coupled excitatory interneurons with synchronized discharges (recently reviewed in Brocard et al. 2010). Intrinsic properties of spinal neurons are thought to facilitate the emergence of the locomotor rhythm. For instance, voltage-dependent persistent inward currents (PICs) that amplify excitatory synaptic inputs and sustain neuronal firing are thought to facilitate rhythmogenesis by timing and shaping locomotor output (Brownstone et al. 1994, Kiehn et al. 1996, Tazerart et al. 2008). PICs could also be involved in initiating pacemaker-like activity in CPG-related interneurons (Tazerart et al. 2008). Monoamines released from brainstem pathways, primarily 5-HT and NE, strongly modulate PIC amplitude and threshold (Heckman et al. 2003, Hultborn et al. 2004). The advent of transgenic mouse lines has provided genetic tools for identifying interneuronal populations involved in generating locomotor output in the mammalian spinal cord (reviewed in Goulding 2009, Grillner & Jessell 2009), which should eventually facilitate identifying key elements of the CPG and how these may change after SCI.

Cellular changes in spinal locomotorgenerating circuits. After SCI, changes at the cellular level will directly impact how inputs are processed and integrated, thereby influencing function at all levels of organization, from spinal reflexes to the more complex CPG circuitry. Immediately after SCI, the excitability of spinal interneurons and motoneurons is depressed because of the loss of excitatory neuromodulatory inputs from brainstem-derived pathways, particularly the monoamines 5-HT and NA, which strongly regulate intrinsic neuronal properties, such as PICs (Heckman et al. 2003, Hultborn 2003). The depression of neuronal excitability can be prolonged, and its duration can vary widely between species (Eken et al. 1989, Hultborn 2003). The return of neuronal excitability is required for functional recovery and can be mediated by several factors. In one study, alpha-1 and alpha-2 NE receptors and 5-HT1 receptors were upregulated for 3 months following spinalization in adult cats followed by a return to normal levels, as determined by autoradiography (Giroux 1999). However, locomotor recovery did not result from this upregulation, at least for NE, because blocking NE receptors with yohimbine did not impair spinal locomotion. The role of 5-HT receptors was not addressed more fully because, in cats, 5-HT agonists do not induce locomotion after spinalization, although they modulate locomotor activity. An elegant recent study showed that some 5-HT receptors became constitutively active following SCI in adult rats, indicating that intracellular signaling occurred without normal ligand binding. More specifically, the 5-HT2C receptor, which regulates a Ca2+ -dependent PIC, became constitutively active after complete SCI in adult rats, despite, and perhaps because of, the absence of brainstem-derived 5-HT (Murray et al. 2010). In rodents, such as rats and mice, 5-HT agonists have a role in initiating locomotion after SCI (Antri et al. 2003). Some receptors can also become supersensitive to remaining endogenous sources of neurotransmitters. For example, the amount of 5-HT or NE required to activate motoneuron

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

Persistent inward current (PIC): dendritic current (calcium, sodium), studied mainly in motoneurons, that can amplify synaptic inputs; influenced by various neurotransmitters

419


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

PICs is considerably reduced following chronic complete SCI in adult rats (Harvey et al. 2006, Li et al. 2007, Rank et al. 2007) and cats (B´edard et al. 1979; Chau et al. 1998a,b). Changes in inhibitory circuits could also play a part in modifying neuronal excitability following SCI. For instance, levels of a GABA-synthesizing enzyme increased within the spinal cord of adult cats after complete SCI (Tillakaratne et al. 2000). Increased levels of inhibitory neurotransmitters (i.e., more inhibition) could depress neuronal excitability and impair specific spinal circuits. PICs are extremely sensitive to postsynaptic inhibition (Heckman et al. 2003) and increased inhibition could prevent or prematurely terminate PICs. Interestingly, levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme were downregulated by locomotor treadmill training (i.e., less inhibition) but not by stand training (Tillakaratne et al. 2002). Moreover, administering glycinergic or GABAergic antagonists (i.e., less inhibition) improved hindlimb locomotion in chronic spinal cats that were not responding to treadmill training (Robinson & Goldberger 1985, de Leon et al. 1999). It thus appears that modifying the level of inhibition within spinal circuits through locomotor training or pharmacology facilitates functional recovery. Although the return of neuronal excitability is required for functional recovery, impaired regulatory mechanisms also produce maladaptive changes, such as spasticity. Spasticity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, with varying definitions, and symptoms that can include hyperreflexia, hypertonus, clonus, and muscle spasms (reviewed in Nielsen et al. 2007). A major underlying mechanism of spasticity appears to be inappropriate regulation of spinal neuronal excitability. The tail of adult rats has proven an effective experimental model to study neuronal mechanisms involved in spastic-like behavior. In the tail of SCI rats, spastic-like muscle spasms involve a Ca2+ -dependent motoneuron PIC (Bennett et al. 2001, Li et al. 2004). With little to no regulation from brainstem pathways, this PIC is not easily turned off, producing muscle spasms and long-lasting

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

420

Rossignol

·

Frigon

reflexes. Constitutive 5-HT2C receptor activity might contribute to these muscle spasms (Murray et al. 2010). A PIC-like phenomenon has also been linked to spasticity in leg muscles of human SCI subjects (Gorassini et al. 2004). The emergence of spasticity could also involve impaired regulation of inhibitory circuits between agonist/antagonist pairs. In humans (Crone et al. 2003, Xia & Rymer 2005) and adult rats (Boulenguez et al. 2010), group Ia afferent-mediated reciprocal inhibition between agonist/antagonist pairs can switch to facilitation. The switch from inhibition to facilitation in adult rats was partly attributed to downregulation of potassiumchloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in lumbar neurons (Boulenguez et al. 2010, Boulenguez & Vinay 2009). KCC2 expression progressively decreased within the ventral horn following complete or incomplete SCI, and increased levels of intracellular Cl− diminished the efficacy of synaptic inhibition.

The Key Role Played by Sensory Inputs Sensory inputs play a key role in the regulation of normal locomotion, which can be altered after SCI. Some of these changes can facilitate or hamper locomotor recovery and even the expression of locomotion. Spinal reflexes during locomotion. Although sensory inputs are not required to produce the basic rhythm, they are critical in adapting and modulating locomotion to meet the demands of the environment, by selecting behaviorally relevant motor patterns and performing rapid postural corrections. The spinal locomotor CPG circuitry interacts dynamically with afferent inputs from receptors located in muscles, joints, and skin, which shapes the locomotor output (comprehensively reviewed in Rossignol et al. 2006). Reflex responses are state- and phase-dependent, indicating that sensory processing is regulated by context or, in other words, the current configuration of the spinal circuitry. Locomotor-generating


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

circuits are active in this process to ensure pattern stability and appropriate state- and phase-dependent modulation of responses to various converging inputs. Afferent inputs most relevant to walking primarily arise from stretch- and load-sensitive mechanoreceptors located in muscles and skin. Inputs arising from muscles that flex the hip and extend the ankle are particularly important for adjusting phase transitions or reinforcing ongoing muscle activity (reviewed in Rossignol et al. 2006; Pearson 2008). Sensory inputs from skin mechanoreceptors of the foot are involved in positioning the feet and become increasingly important when performing difficult locomotor tasks in which precise foot placement is critical, such as ladder walking in the cat (Bouyer & Rossignol 2003a). Activating receptors located in the skin of the dorsal foot during the swing phase of walking produces a coordinated reflex response to overcome obstacles or perturbations in cats (Forssberg 1979), human adults (Eng et al. 1994, Schillings et al. 2000), and human infants (Lam et al. 2003). Cutaneous inputs also appear to be involved in scaling the magnitude of other sensory cues when performing postural corrections during locomotion (Bolton & Misiaszek 2009). Cutaneous inputs from the plantar surface of the paw can also reinforce extensor activity in decerebrate cats walking on a treadmill (Duysens & Pearson 1976) or during fictive locomotion (Guertin et al. 1995). The importance of reflex pathways from group II hip flexor afferents, group I ankle extensor afferents, and low-threshold cutaneous afferents from the foot likely stems from their direct access to the rhythm-generating circuitry of the spinal locomotor CPG, inferred by their ability to reset or entrain the fictive locomotor rhythm in adult cats (reviewed in Rossignol et al. 2006, Frigon et al. 2010). The relative contribution of these various inputs in modulating locomotion most likely changes with behavioral context and following SCI (Frigon & Rossignol 2006a, Pearson 2008). Changes at the cellular level following SCI will directly impact the regulation of peripheral sensory inputs

and their interaction with the spinal locomotor CPG. Changes in spinal reflexes after spinal lesion. The general role of sensory inputs after complete SCI is illustrated by the fact that deafferentation of one hindlimb drastically perturbs air stepping or the locomotor pattern (Giuliani & Smith 1987). Moreover, experiments by Kato (1989) demonstrated that the isolated hemispinal cord (hemisection and longitudinal myelotomy) depends on afferent feedback to recover locomotion. Locomotor training after SCI is based on the principle that sensory inputs reactivate and reorganize the spinal locomotor circuitry (Rossignol et al. 2006). After SCI, some cutaneous reflexes, which normally have an inhibitory effect on extensor muscles, can exert an excitatory effect, thus increasing the activity of these muscles during the stance phase (Forssberg et al. 1975, Frigon & Rossignol 2008). If a small portion of sensory feedback is reduced by lesioning specific peripheral nerves before a complete SCI in adult cats, the recovery of hindlimb locomotion is severely impaired, with reduced weight-bearing capability, improper foot placement, nerve-specific deficits, and in some cats an inability to express spinal locomotion (Carrier et al. 1997, Bouyer & Rossignol 2003b, Frigon & Rossignol 2009). If the same denervation is performed after complete SCI, once spinal locomotion has been established, only transient locomotor deficits are observed, indicating that the underlying processes of locomotor recovery after complete SCI require intact sources of peripheral sensory feedback. Indeed, the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, such as epidural stimulation of the spinal cord in adult rats (Lavrov et al. 2008), is greatly reduced if sensory feedback is diminished. In contrast, providing phasic sensory feedback can facilitate locomotor recovery after SCI in chicks or adult rats (Muir & Steeves 1995, Smith et al. 2006). To summarize, after complete SCI, intrinsic changes at the cellular level of the CPG promote the return of hindlimb locomotion

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

421


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

through interactions with peripheral sensory inputs.

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Mesencephalic locomotor region: a brain stem nucleus below the inferior colliculus that evokes locomotion in the decerebrate cat when electrically stimulated

LOCOMOTOR RECOVERY AFTER PARTIAL SPINAL LESIONS The previous sections summarized observations after complete severance of the spinal cord, and the following sections describe mechanisms implicated in the recovery of locomotion after partial spinal lesions. Damage to specific spinal tracts or lesions that affect several pathways concomitantly produces characteristic deficits and directly influences locomotor recovery. After incomplete SCI, spared pathways originating from supraspinal and propriospinal structures can play an active role in the recovery process, and also in restoring some voluntary control. However, intrinsic spinal circuits and peripheral afferents still remain to initiate and organize hindlimb locomotion.

Accessing the Locomotor Circuitry by Descending Inputs The role of descending pathways on motor control can be viewed from different perspectives

depending on whether it is studied by recording cells of origin, by stimulating specific tracts, or by observing the behavioral consequences of inactivation. Figure 3 summarizes the location of the main descending pathways in the cat spinal cord (Petras 1967, Holstege & Kuypers 1987) that may be damaged after spinal lesions. Ventral and ventrolateral lesions (reticulospinal and vestibulospinal pathways). Reticulospinal and vestibulospinal pathways may be critical in initiating locomotion and postural control. Electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region elicits locomotion in decerebrate cats through the activation of reticulospinal cells (Shik et al. 1966, Orlovsky & Shik 1976). Various diencephalic and telencephalic structures in turn project directly to the mesencephalic locomotor region and to the reticular formation (Grillner et al. 1997, Jordan 1998). Electrically stimulating reticulospinal (Perreault et al. 1994) or vestibulospinal (Russel & Zajac 1979, Gossard et al. 1996) pathways can reset the hindlimb rhythm during fictive locomotion in the adult cat, indicating

Dorsal

DC

Serotoninergic

Corticospinal Rubrospinal Medullary reticulospinal

Propriospinal

Vestibulospinal Ventral Noradrenergic

Pontine reticulospinal

Figure 3 Descending pathways in the cat, based mainly on work by Petras (1967) and Holstege & Kuypers (1987). Modified from Rossignol et al. 2009. Abbreviation: DC, dorsal columns. 422

Rossignol

·

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

direct access to the spinal rhythm-generating circuitry. It was suggested that sparing a small part of a ventrolateral quadrant is required to initiate hindlimb locomotion after SCI (Afelt 1974; Eidelberg et al. 1981a,b; Contamin 1983). However, it was later shown that cats (Gorska et al. 1990, 1993a,b; Zmyslowski et al. 1993; Bem et al. 1995; Brustein & Rossignol 1999; Rossignol et al. 1999) and monkeys (Vilensky et al. 1992) could walk with their hindlimbs even after large bilateral lesions of ventral pathways at the last thoracic segment (T13). Similarly, humans with a surgical section of ventral pathways for pain relief can retain walking ability (Nathan 1994). Dorsal/dorsolateral lesions (corticospinal and rubrospinal pathways). Corticospinal and rubrospinal pathways are important for volitional and goal-directed aspects of locomotion, as well as fine control of the distal musculature. They also appear to play a critical role in more difficult locomotor tasks, such as obstacle avoidance and ladder walking (Liddell & Phillips 1944, Drew et al. 2004). Electrically stimulating the pyramidal tract during fictive locomotion in the adult cat can reset the hindlimb rhythm, indicating that the corticospinal tract has direct access to the rhythmgenerating circuitry (Leblond et al. 2001). In contrast, the rubrospinal pathway does not reset the hindlimb locomotor rhythm. Thus, although it has similar functions to the corticospinal tract, it may not directly access the spinal rhythm-generating circuitry (Rho et al. 1999). Cats can walk over ground after large lesions of the dorsolateral white matter, which contains corticospinal and rubrospinal pathways (Gorska et al. 1993b, Zmyslowski et al. 1993, Bem et al. 1995). Studies have shown that lesioning the dorsal/dorsolateral spinal cord produced only transient deficits in overground or treadmill locomotion (Eidelberg & Yu 1981, Gorska et al. 1993b). However, some deficits can persist (e.g., foot drag) even during undemanding locomotion, such as treadmill walking

( Jiang & Drew 1996, Muir et al. 2007, Kanagal & Muir 2008). Coordination between the foreand hindlimbs is impaired, but the coupling between homologous limbs is not ( Jiang & Drew 1996, English 1980, Gorska et al. 2007). Corticospinal pathways are mainly involved in skilled movements and precision movements (Metz et al. 2000b, Ghosh et al. 2009), as well as in anticipatory controls (Yakovenko & Drew 2009), which are affected by SCI. Other pathways. Aside from the long classical pathways damaged by lesions, others that are less well defined or characterized anatomically may also be damaged. Propriospinal pathways. Spinal segments are interconnected by short and long intraspinal pathways (i.e., propriospinal) that run close to the gray matter bilaterally (see Figure 3). For example, the tract of Lissauer is located at the entry of dorsal roots and distributes afferent inputs to different spinal segments. Other connections may also be established by spinal interneurons that project their axons through short or long pathways. The original work by Sherrington & Laslett (1903) established quite clearly the importance of propriospinal pathways. It was demonstrated that after corticospinal tract lesions in rats, new connections could be established with the lumbosacral cord through cervical propriospinal pathways (Bareyre et al. 2004). Propriospinal pathways appear to be of considerable importance for volitional aspects of locomotor recovery after an incomplete SCI in adult mice (Courtine et al. 2008) and cats (Kato et al. 1984) through the formation of new functional circuits. Noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways. Important neuromodulators, such as 5-HT and NE, are synthesized in the brainstem. The serotoninergic pathway originates from subdivisions of the raphe nucleus, whereas the noradrenergic pathway originates from the locus coeruleus. Projections to the spinal cord are widespread, and neurotransmitters may be

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

423


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

released at specific synapses or in the environment by a mechanism known as volumic transmission, whereby several neurons can be influenced (Figure 1). These pathways release their neurotransmitters throughout the spinal cord, and receptor subtypes are distributed differentially at various segments (Schmidt & Jordan 2000). As such, drugs acting on receptors at different segments may affect different functions. Lesions of the spinal cord will deprive the spinal cord of an important source of neuromodulators, which will vary depending on lesion extent. The loss of neurotransmitters will in turn have important consequences on the membrane properties of target neurons, as shown below. Activating or blocking 5-HT or NE receptors after SCI is thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Rossignol et al. 2001, 2006; Rossignol 2006).

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

Multiple pathways severed by contusions or hemisections. Whereas previous paragraphs dealt with rather specific lesions, in contusion or hemisection models, several pathways are severed simultaneously, a situation approaching the clinical situation in which spinal impact due to accidents or falls damages several pathways. Contusions. Contusions are achieved by various impact devices or by compression clips and damage several pathways simultaneously. Contusive lesions are diffuse (Choo et al. 2007) and result in a central cavitation surrounded by spared white matter (Metz et al. 2000a, Poon et al. 2007). The majority of SCIs in humans are contusions due to an impact to the vertebral column. Contusion models in animals have improved our understanding of biological mechanisms involved in the secondary injuries that follow the initial SCI (Siegal 1995, Young 2002). The extent of spinal white matter damage is strongly related to locomotor deficits (Shields et al. 2005, Li et al. 2006, Majczynski et al. 2007, Poon et al. 2007). The level of contusion is also important because injury at T13-L2 produces greater loss of locomotor function compared with the same injury at L3-L4 (Magnuson et al. 2005). Contusion at 424

Rossignol

·

Frigon

T13-L2 could damage key elements of the spinal CPG for hindlimb locomotion thought to be localized at L1-L2 in the rat (Cazalets et al. 1995, Magnuson & Trinder 1997, Bertrand & Cazalets 2002). Mild contusion SCIs mainly affect the central spinal cord, whereas more severe contusion SCIs also damage pathways located more peripherally. Based on such comparisons, it was found that locomotor recovery did not depend on the sparing of corticospinal or long propriospinal pathways (Basso et al. 1996), indicating a role for short intraspinal circuits. Hemisections. Unilateral hemisections damage ventral and dorsal tracts primarily on one side. After such lesions, treadmill and overground locomotion recovers in most species (Kato et al. 1984, 1985; Helgren & Goldberger 1993; Bem et al. 1995; Kuhtz-Buschbeck et al. 1996, Saruhashi et al. 1996, Suresh et al. 2000, Courtine et al. 2005, 2008; Gulino et al. 2007; Barri`ere et al. 2008). In the first few days after a thoracic (T10– T11) hemisection in cats, the ipsi-lesional hindlimb is flaccid, and the cat walks with a tripod gait, requiring assistance to maintain weight support (Helgren & Goldberger 1993, Barri`ere et al. 2008). Within 2 weeks, cats recover hindquarter support, with reasonable joint excursions, but a foot drag during swing persists. The coordination between the fore- and hindlimbs is also affected (Helgren & Goldberger 1993, Bem et al. 1995, KuhtzBuschbeck et al. 1996, Barri`ere et al. 2008). With smaller lesions, cats maintain a one-toone ratio between the fore- and hindlimb cycle durations (Barri`ere et al. 2010). With large lesions, the fore- and hindlimbs can walk at different rhythms, as is the case for ventral lesions (Brustein & Rossignol 1998). Skilled locomotion (ladder and grid walking) is also impaired in cats, monkeys, and rats following hemisection (Helgren & Goldberger 1993, Suresh et al. 2000, Gulino et al. 2007). Therefore, although substantial recovery of hindlimb locomotion is observed following lateral hemisection of the spinal cord, some


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

deficits, mostly observed on the side of the lesion, can persist. Deficits observed after hemisection resemble those associated with ventral (transiently impaired body equilibrium, interlimb coupling) and dorsal (impaired skilled locomotion) lesions.

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Mechanisms of Locomotor Recovery After Partial Spinal Cord Injury As illustrated in Figure 1, locomotion is controlled at multiple levels of the CNS, and after various types of spinal lesions, the recovery of functions involves optimizing interactions between remaining structures. Although models of complete SCI are important in determining intrinsic spinal mechanisms involved in locomotor recovery, most SCIs in humans are incomplete, and spared descending pathways can still access the spinal circuitry. However, as shown below, intrinsic spinal mechanisms and afferent mechanisms are still critical in locomotor recovery after an incomplete SCI. In turn, new interactions can modify spared structures throughout the CNS, not just the spinal cord. Therefore, the end result is a combination of phenomena with short- and longer-time courses owing to the immediate loss of excitability and connectivity within spinal neurons followed by the subsequent development of compensatory physiological and morphological mechanisms, which optimize basic locomotor function. The underlying model of research on functional recovery after partial SCI has been more implicit than explicit. Indeed, in partial SCI models, functional recovery has often been attributed to the growth of new axons (regenerating or sprouting) from remaining pathways, but it is not easy to establish the extent to which this recovery depends on these new fibers. Therefore, functional recovery is often thought to result from a combination of regeneration, sprouting, or other ill-defined plastic changes in descending pathways (Cafferty et al. 2008). The review by Bradbury & McMahon (2006) clearly states the problem: “An implicit assumption of much SCI research, at least

until recently, has been that the major goal is to induce damaged axons to regrow, to reconnect to appropriate targets and thereby restore function (as is indeed possible in the peripheral nervous system).” In the following sections we present evidence that changes in sensory afferents, descending pathways, and intrinsic spinal circuitry participate in the recovery of hindlimb locomotion after partial SCI. Compensation by sensory afferents. After chronic spinal hemisection, sprouting of sensory afferents on the lesioned side is prominent and could partly account for the functional recovery of various motor patterns, including locomotion (Goldberger 1977, Helgren & Goldberger 1993). The sparing of only one dorsal root (L6) can be sufficient to regain locomotion. Although sensory axons from primary afferents can regenerate within the CNS after SCI, there is evidence that afferents invading the dorsal columns remain in a pathophysiological state (Tan et al. 2007) and that sprouting may not be as abundant (Wilson & Kitchener 1996). Deafferenting a hindlimb followed by a hemisection of the spinal cord at L1 can render the limb unusable (Goldberger 1977), indicating that sensory feedback is of crucial importance in the recovery process. After SCI, the role of sensory feedback from the periphery is heightened because of the loss of descending inputs from supraspinal structures. Moreover, the processing of sensory feedback within spinal circuits at rest and during locomotion is altered after SCI, as revealed by several reflex studies in rodents, cats, and humans (comprehensively reviewed in Frigon & Rossignol 2006b). Following a period of reduced reflex activity, primarily due to the loss of motoneuron or interneuron intrinsic excitability, considerable changes in reflex pathways develop over time, as a consequence of the injury, spontaneous phenomena, and activitydependent processes, such as locomotor training (Cot´ ˆ e et al. 2003, Cot´ ˆ e & Gossard 2004). More noticeable changes include the appearance of reflex responses not normally present in the intact state and modified regulation of

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

425


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

reflex pathways. Evaluating reflex responses before and after spinal lesions provides indications of how the spinal circuitry is reconfigured by SCI. Recent studies using recordings in the same cats, before and after a complete or incomplete SCI, showed the appearance of shortlatency excitatory responses, evoked by cutaneous nerve stimulation, during the stance phase of locomotion after the spinal lesion, which replaced the more common shortlatency inhibition (Forssberg et al. 1975, Frigon & Rossignol 2008, Frigon et al. 2009). A dual spinal lesion paradigm (i.e., partial lesion followed by complete transection) showed that some reflex changes after incomplete SCI resulted from intrinsic spinal changes because they were retained after complete SCI (Frigon et al. 2009). At rest, longer-latency responses can also appear following SCI in adult rats, evoked by epidural stimulation of the spinal cord (Lavrov et al. 2006), and in humans, elicited by cutaneous nerve stimulation (Roby-Brami & Bussel 1987, Dietz et al. 2009). The appearance of long-latency responses was associated with locomotor recovery (Roby-Brami & Bussel 1987) because they are reminiscent of locomotor-like late discharges in acute spinal cats following administration of L-DOPA (Anden et al. 1966, Jankowska et al. 1967). The appearance of long-latency responses after SCI was proposed to reflect functional changes within the spinal circuitry that enable the emergence of locomotor activity (Viala et al. 1974, Roby-Brami & Bussel 1987, Lavrov et al. 2006). However, others (Dietz et al. 2009) have associated locomotor recovery, assessed during robot-driven air stepping, with the early reflex component. The issue requires further investigation. Another prominent change in spinal reflex pathways after SCI is a reduction in the efficacy of disynaptic reciprocal inhibition (Dimitrijevic & Nathan 1967, Okuma et al. 2002, Crone et al. 2003, Xia & Rymer 2005). In some patients, disynaptic reciprocal facilitation is evoked, instead of inhibition, which is thought to be

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

426

Rossignol

·

Frigon

mediated by an oligosynaptic excitatory pathway (Okuma et al. 2002, Crone et al. 2003, Xia & Rymer 2005).The rate-dependent depression of the H-reflex is also reduced following incomplete or complete SCI in adult rats (Thompson et al. 1992, Boulenguez et al. 2010) and human patients (Calancie et al. 1993, Schindler-Ivens & Shields 2000). Although downregulation of KCC2 was linked to reduced rate-dependent depression after spinal transection in adult rats (Boulenguez et al. 2010), changes in presynaptic mechanisms have also been suggested (Thompson et al. 1992, Calancie et al. 1993, Schindler-Ivens & Shields 2000). Changes in reflex pathways at rest and during locomotion reflect the new state, or configuration, of the spinal circuitry Compensation by descending pathways. The compensation by descending pathways may take different forms. Damaged pathways may regenerate while undamaged pathways may sprout or may change the efficacy of their transmission. In doing so, new circuits could result from new anatomical connections (new circuits) or from enhanced connectivity (enhancing existing circuits) Regeneration and sprouting. After SCI, substantial research efforts have focused on reconnecting supraspinal and spinal levels by promoting the regeneration of damaged pathways or by favoring a takeover of function through collateral sprouting of undamaged pathways. This is a formidable task because powerful inhibitory cues or barriers exist that minimize or limit regeneration. Numerous and active labs have been working on deciphering these molecular inhibitory cues, or on minimizing the glial scar that forms a physical and chemical barrier to regeneration caudal to an SCI, which has been reviewed several times (Bradbury & McMahon 2006, Maier & Schwab 2006, Thuret et al. 2006). The case has been clearly made (Bradbury & McMahon 2006) that there is a lack of hard evidence that regenerated lesioned axons induce significant functional improvements because of


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

the small number of regenerating axons. This might not be, in itself, a strong argument because function could be sustained by small numbers of spared fibers, provided that the outcome being measured (e.g., hindlimb locomotion) is generated by other mechanisms, such as intrinsic functional changes within the spinal cord. In this case, the remaining descending fibers play more of a triggering role and not a controlling one (Figure 4b). Very limited extension of regenerated fibers past the lesion site may also be a serious argument against a functional role for regenerated lesioned axons. However, it is only a cogent argument if the underlying model requires regenerated descending fibers to access targets located throughout the lumbosacral cord. More rostral segments could be sufficient to organize the rhythmic output of the spinal cord generated by more caudal segments (see section above on propriospinal pathways). As stated, new functional circuits composed of short propriospinal connections are most likely involved in the recovery process. An extension of collaterals (i.e., sprouting) from damaged and spared systems can make synaptic contacts with new targets, which are themselves connected redundantly to the original target (Figure 4). Such new connections could promote or hinder functional recovery. Recent work in primates suggests a key role of corticospinal projections in the recovery of hand function and locomotion in monkeys (Rosenzweig et al. 2010). This work further suggests that the recovery in nonhuman primates may rely more on such regeneration of the corticospinal pathway than in rodents. The formation of new circuits through propriospinal pathways is of great interest (Bareyre et al. 2004, Maier & Schwab 2006). Other descending systems may also serve similar roles (Ballermann & Fouad 2006), and even in the presence of substantive regeneration, the role of these other pathways cannot be minimized. Are regenerated fibers even necessary for the studied function? In that context, a second lesion is not necessarily convincing because the second lesion may not influence restored function but may affect compensation from

spared structures. A critical question is whether regenerated fibers are even functional. Regenerated fibers can conduct impulses because electrical stimulation of the motor cortex after spinal hemisection clearly evokes cord dorsum potentials below the lesion (Bradbury et al. 2002). However, this does not mean that the regenerated fibers can mediate any complex functions, such as interacting with reflexes or the spinal locomotor circuitry in an appropriate manner. After unilateral spinal hemisection, it is tempting to think that contralateral pathways play a major role in functional compensation. However, experiments using staggered spinal hemisections show that the regeneration of long descending pathways is not necessary (Kato 1989). Work by Helgren & Goldberger (1993) in adult cats also suggests that contralateral pathways are not crucial. Experiments on the isolated spinal cord (Kato 1989), consisting of a hemisection at L2 and a longitudinal myelotomy, clearly show that hindlimb locomotion can be generated without crossing fibers, which indicates that locomotor recovery depends more on intrinsic spinal mechanisms and contributions from sensory afferents. After a unilateral left cervical hemisection at C3/C4 (equivalent to a Brown-S´equard syndrome) in the rat, the forelimb on the right side was predominantly used, which led to an expansion of the left cortical sensorimotor representations of the forelimb, as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging and voltage-sensitive dyes (Ghosh et al. 2009). Increased collateral sprouting of corticospinal cells from the left cortex that recross at cervical and lumbar levels was observed. Interestingly, the forelimb on the side of the lesion remained impaired, whereas the hindlimbs recovered an almost normal pattern during overground and skilled locomotion (Ghosh et al. 2009). The same work (Ghosh et al. 2009) also showed that after large bilateral T8 lesions that damage both corticospinal tracts, rendering the hindlimbs paretic, sprouting of surviving hindlimb corticospinal tract neurons occurred in the cervical cord, which could account for the greater use of the forelimbs during overground and skilled

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

427


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

locomotion. The strategy of transferring body propulsion to the forelimbs was also observed in the cat after large bilateral ventrolateral spinal lesions (Brustein & Rossignol 1998).

New/old circuits. Another important issue stemming from regeneration and sprouting studies is whether new axons represent new circuits or strengthening of existing connections

a

b

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Sprouting

Regeneration Partial lesion

Relays

CPG

Muscle Spinal cord

Central pattern generator ( CPG)

Limbs

Skin 428

Rossignol

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

(Bareyre et al. 2004). Serial hemisections and pharmacological stimulation in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord (Zaporozhets et al. 2006, Cowley et al. 2008) demonstrated that propriospinal neurons transmit command signals from the brainstem to the spinal cord to initiate rhythmic locomotor-like activity of the hindlimbs. After double staggered spinal hemisections at different levels in the cat (Kato et al. 1985), animals recovered voluntary locomotion, indicating that descending commands reached the lumbar spinal cord through a system of interconnecting propriospinal neurons that formed a link from the brainstem to the lumbar cord. Sherrington & Laslett (1903) described in much detail the organization of these intrinsic spinal cells and showed how they might be responsible for the return of some spinal functions after SCI. An overall scheme of activation of the spinal locomotor CPG by brainstem stimulation was previously proposed (Shik 1983) based on Lloyd’s (1941) concept of spinal organization. Similar conclusions were reached in the mouse (Courtine et al. 2008) and rat (Grill et al. 1997, Murray et al. 2010), highlighting the potential role of the propriospinal system after SCI. There is no doubt that the propriospinal systems (long and short) can reach the CPG, but should we think of the CPG as part of the propriospinal system? The CPG circuits can be viewed as a particular set of interneurons organized to generate rhythmic alternate activity, which can be accessed by various long descending pathways, either directly or indirectly through propriospinal pathways, as well as by sensory afferents. Propriospinal

pathways, especially the short intersegmental pathways, probably provide a robust circuit for basic functions such as posture and locomotion, which could bridge supraspinal and intrinsic spinal circuits after SCI. Such an organization explains how lesions of specific pathways or sensory afferents in isolation do not prevent activation of an interconnected neuronal network. What is the number of spinal segmental neurons required to give rise to a given behavior? We showed previously that lesions below L4 prevented hindlimb locomotion in adult cats (Langlet et al. 2005). We also showed that blocking several spinal segments simultaneously above L4 prevented hindlimb locomotion in decerebrate cats, consistent with interference of a multisegmental propriospinal system involved in generating locomotion (Delivet-Mongrain et al. 2008).

Compensation by the Intrinsic Spinal Circuitry As stated above, the recovery of hindlimb locomotion after a complete SCI in cats, rats, and mice absolutely requires a spinal circuitry capable of generating the basic locomotor pattern independently of descending commands (Grillner 1981; Rossignol 1996, 2006; Rossignol et al. 2006). How important is the spinal CPG for the recovery of hindlimb locomotion after partial spinal lesions, considering that spared descending pathways still access the spinal cord? The essential role of the intrinsic spinal circuitry was clearly demonstrated by a dual spinal lesion paradigm, in which a partial spinal lesion at T10-T11 was followed several

←−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Figure 4 Two conceptual models of functional recovery. (a) Descending pathways project to the spinal cord directly or through connections in the brainstem or other descending circuits, including long propriospinal tracts that also reach the spinal cord. In this model, we assume that the spinal circuits are not organized in functional modules. In the model, regenerating fibers or sprouting axons (both in green) after spinal cord injury (SCI) will have to reach the spinal cord directly or indirectly to organize the rhythmic spinal locomotor output. New fibers have the complex task of rewiring with spinal components to regain function. (b) Processes of regeneration and sprouting are the same, but the new fibers reach (directly or indirectly through propriospinal pathways) a central pattern generator (CPG) that has been modified to function more autonomously following the partial SCI. The two conceptual models emphasize that recovery of function, such as locomotion, can be simplified if one integrates the CPG circuitry as a major component of the recovery. www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

429


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

a

21 May 2011

15:27

b

Intact 0.8 m/s

c

Incomplete spinal: 18 d 0.8 m/s

Complete spinal: 24 h 0.8 m/s

L Srt L St L GM R Srt R St R GL L HL R HL 1s

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

Hip

5 cm

Knee MTP

Ankle

Swing

1s

1s

Stance

Swing

Stance

Swing

Stance

Figure 5 Left hindlimb kinematics and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity of a cat walking at 0.8 m s−1 in the (a) intact, (b) incomplete, and (c) complete spinal states. The traces below the EMGs show the associated duty cycles of the stance phases for both hindlimbs (HLs). The stick figures at the bottom illustrate a typical swing and stance for each condition reconstructed from video recordings. Muscles are abbreviated as follows (L, left; R, right): Srt, sartorius (knee extensor, hip flexor); St, semitendinosus (knee flexor/hip extensor); and GL and GM, gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis (ankle extensors and knee flexors). Abbrevation: MTP, metatarsophalangeal. Figure reproduced with permission from Barri`ere et al. (2008).

weeks later by a spinalization at T13 (i.e., two to three segments below the initial partial lesion and where complete spinal lesions are usually made in the cat). Hindlimb walking was observed within hours following spinalization, demonstrating that important intrinsic changes had already occurred within the locomotor spinal circuitry following the partial spinal lesion (Barri`ere et al. 2008, 2010). Figure 5 illustrates sequences of locomotion recorded in the same cat in three states: intact, hemispinal, and 24 h after spinalization. Despite some minor changes in the timing of EMG bursts, the overall pattern in the three conditions was remarkably similar, as would be expected from a pattern generated by an intrinsic spinal network. Sherrington & Laslett (1903) observed that cats with an initial cervical hemisection (C4 or C6) had brisker reflexes on the side of the lesion following spinalization at T4 or C8 several months later. Basso et al. (1996) showed that rats with an initial spinal contusion had some retention of function after a complete SCI 430

Rossignol

·

Frigon

performed 7 weeks later so that their BBB (Basso et al. 1996) scores tended to be better than those of rats with only a complete SCI. Recent work on the escape swim of a mollusc (Tritonia diomedea) showed near immediate changes within the functional connectivity of the swim CPG following a lesion within the intrinsic circuitry that compensated for the loss of long projections and reinstated function in the absence of regeneration (Sakurai & Katz 2009). Intrinsic functional plasticity within spinal circuits after incomplete SCI is a mechanism that has generally been underestimated for motor recovery. Indeed, many studies of partial spinal lesions using various types of regenerative therapies have largely ignored the possibility that a considerable portion of the recovery could be mediated within spinal circuits rather than by a functional takeover by descending pathways. Therefore, it is absolutely crucial to understand what happens to the spinal circuitry after a partial spinal lesion. We propose that the recovery of function by descending or afferent inputs after SCI essentially depends


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

on how the circuitry has adapted to the total or partial absence of descending inputs.

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMANS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY Although most of the initial work on spinal cord lesions aimed at understanding the intrinsic capabilities of the spinal cord and how neurotransmitters could induce different states (Grillner 1973, 1981; Forssberg & Grillner 1973; Forssberg et al. 1980a,b), the principles emerging from these studies were rapidly considered within a clinical context of SCI in humans. For instance, pharmacology was used to improve locomotor capabilities in humans with SCI. Using intrathecal clonidine (RemyNeris et al. 1999), locomotion improved in some SCI subjects but was adversely affected in others, presumably due to the suppression of spastic-like activity, which might be important to maintain posture during walking. Pharmacotherapy in humans is still hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding changes in receptors within the human spinal cord after SCI and which neurotransmitter systems are more important in initiating and maintaining locomotor activity. In cats, clonidine can trigger locomotion after complete SCI (Forssberg & Grillner 1973; Barbeau et al. 1987; Chau et al. 1998a,b), but the same drug can have different effects after an incomplete SCI (Brustein & Rossignol 1999) or in the intact cat (Giroux et al. 1998). Thus the problem is more complex than a simple species difference and depends on the state of the spinal circuitry after SCI, which involves a myriad of factors. Indeed, the effects of receptor agonists/antagonists after spinal lesions depend on the state of receptor sensitivity, which in turn depends on lesion extent. Recent work by Murray et al. (2010) exemplifies how a better understanding of pharmacological changes after SCI could lead to better therapeutic approaches to treat spasticity and improve locomotion. Targeting intrinsic changes in membrane properties and receptor activities within the spinal circuits

responsible for generating locomotion after SCI should be a prime focus for rehabilitation. Several of the reflex features described earlier have also been incorporated into the understanding of human locomotion and recovery of function after SCI (Yang & Stein 1990, Pang & Yang 2000, Dietz & Harkema 2004, Dobkin et al. 2006, Harkema 2008, Dy et al. 2010). Reflexes are modified after SCI, and these changes could also be targeted as part of combinatorial therapeutic approaches (Thuret et al. 2006). Gossard and colleagues (Cot´ ˆ e et al. 2003, Cot´ ˆ e & Gossard 2004) showed that treadmill training could normalize load and cutaneous pathways in the cat. This, in itself, could provide easily accessible indices of beneficial consequences of rehabilitation approaches in patients. In human SCI patients, the basis of locomotor training is to provide sensory cues consistent with normal walking (Harkema 2001), which is primarily derived from work on adult cat locomotion. Recent evidence using spinal electromagnetic stimulation suggests that lower thoracic spinal segments (T11-T12) might be important for rhythm generation in humans (Gerasimenko et al. 2010) and could potentially be used as an adjuvant to locomotor training. Perhaps one of the most important consequences of the experimental work in animals is the notion of a spinal locomotor CPG. The present review highlights the notion that the spinal locomotor CPG is indispensable in understanding locomotor recovery after complete and incomplete SCI. The issue of whether humans possess a spinal locomotor CPG has been debated, and although it can probably never be directly demonstrated, circumstantial evidence for the existence of such circuitry is quite compelling (Lhermitte 1919, Kuhn 1950, Calancie et al. 1994, Bussel et al. 1988, Dimitrijevic et al. 1998, Calancie 2006, Nadeau et al. 2010). Consequently, targeting intrinsic spinal circuits by stimulating or engaging remaining pathways and sensory afferents should be a focus for rehabilitative strategies in humans with SCI (Barbeau & Rossignol 1994, Wirz et al. 2005, Harkema 2008).

www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

431


NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The authors are not aware of any affiliations, memberships, funding, or financial holdings that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge the support of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) through individual or group grants as well as through the Team Grant to the Multidisciplinary Team on Locomotor Rehabilitation or through a Tier I Chair on the spinal cord. Alain Frigon is funded by a postdoctoral fellowship from the CIHR and by an individual grant from the Wings for Life Foundation. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

LITERATURE CITED Afelt Z. 1974. Functional significance of ventral descending tracts of the spinal cord in the cat. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 34:393–407 Anden NE, Jukes MGM, Lundberg A, Vyklicky L. 1966. The effect of DOPA on the spinal cord. 1. Influence on transmission from primary afferents. Acta Physiol. Scand. 67:373–86 Antri M, Mouffle C, Orsal D, Barthe JY. 2003. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in short- and long-term processes responsible for 5-HT-induced locomotor function recovery in chronic spinal rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 18(7):1963–72 Ballermann M, Fouad K. 2006. Spontaneous locomotor recovery in spinal cord injured rats is accompanied by anatomical plasticity of reticulospinal fibers. Eur. J. Neurosci. 23(8):1988–96 Barbeau H, Julien C, Rossignol S. 1987. The effects of clonidine and yohimbine on locomotion and cutaneous reflexes in the adult chronic spinal cat. Brain Res. 437:83–96 Barbeau H, Rossignol S. 1987. Recovery of locomotion after chronic spinalization in the adult cat. Brain Res. 412:84–95 Barbeau H, Rossignol S. 1994. Enhancement of locomotor recovery following spinal cord injury. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 7:517–24 Bareyre FM, Kerschensteiner M, Raineteau O, Mettenleiter TC, Weinmann O, Schwab ME. 2004. The injured spinal cord spontaneously forms a new intraspinal circuit in adult rats. Nat. Neurosci. 7(3):269–77 Barri`ere G, Frigon A, Leblond H, Provencher J, Rossignol S. 2010. Dual spinal lesion paradigm in the cat: evolution of the kinematic locomotor pattern. J. Neurophysiol. 104:1119–33 Barri`ere G, Leblond H, Provencher J, Rossignol S. 2008. Prominent role of the spinal central pattern generator in the recovery of locomotion after partial spinal cord injuries. J. Neurosci. 28:3976–87 Basso DM, Beattie MS, Bresnahan JC. 1996. Graded histological and locomotor outcomes after spinal cord contusion using the NYU weight-drop device versus transection. Exp. Neurol. 139(2):244–56 B´edard P, Barbeau H, Barbeau B, Filion M. 1979. Progressive increase of motor activity induced by 5-HTP in the rat below a complete section of the cord. Brain Res. 169:393–97 Belanger M, Drew T, Provencher J, Rossignol S. 1996. A comparison of treadmill locomotion in adult cats before and after spinal transection. J. Neurophysiol. 76(1):471–91 Bem T, Gorska T, Majczynski H, Zmyslowski W. 1995. Different patterns of fore-hindlimb coordination during overground locomotion in cats with ventral and lateral spinal lesions. Exp. Brain Res. 104:70–80 Bennett DJ, Li Y, Harvey PJ, Gorassini M. 2001. Evidence for plateau potentials in tail motoneurons of awake chronic spinal rats with spasticity. J. Neurophysiol. 86(4):1972–82 Bertrand S, Cazalets JR. 2002. The respective contribution of lumbar segments to the generation of locomotion in the isolated spinal cord of newborn rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 16(9):1741–50 Bolton DA, Misiaszek JE. 2009. The contribution of hindpaw cutaneous inputs to the control of lateral stability during walking in the cat. J Neurophysiol 102(3):1711–24 Boulenguez P, Liabeuf S, Bos R, Bras H, Jean-Xavier C, et al. 2010. Down-regulation of the potassiumchloride cotransporter KCC2 contributes to spasticity after spinal cord injury. Nat. Med. 16(3):302–7 432

Rossignol

·

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Boulenguez P, Vinay L. 2009. Strategies to restore motor functions after spinal cord injury. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 19(6):587–600 Bouyer LJG, Rossignol S. 2003a. Contribution of cutaneous inputs from the hindpaw to the control of locomotion: 1. Intact cats. J. Neurophysiol. 90:3625–39 Bouyer LJG, Rossignol S. 2003b. Contribution of cutaneous inputs from the hindpaw to the control of locomotion: 2. Spinal cats. J. Neurophysiol. 90:3640–53 Bradbury EJ, McMahon SB. 2006. Spinal cord repair strategies: Why do they work? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7(8):644–53 Bradbury EJ, Moon LD, Popat RJ, King VR, Bennett GS, et al. 2002. Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature 416:636–40 Brocard F, Tazerart S, Vinay L. 2010. Do pacemakers drive the central pattern generator for locomotion in mammals? Neuroscientist 16(2):139–55 Brownstone RM, Gossard J-P, Hultborn H. 1994. Voltage-dependent excitation of motoneurones from spinal locomotor centres in the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 102:34–44 Brustein E, Rossignol S. 1998. Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. I. Deficits and adaptive mechanisms. J. Neurophysiol. 80:1245–67 Brustein E, Rossignol S. 1999. Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. II. Effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs. J. Neurophysiol. 81:1513–30 Buchanan JT. 2001. Contributions of identifiable neurons and neuron classes to lamprey vertebrate neurobiology. Prog. Neurobiol. 63(4):441–66 Bussel BC, Roby-Brami A, Yakovleff A, Bennis N. 1988. Evidences for the presence of a spinal stepping generator in patients with a spinal cord section. In Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation, ed. B Amblard, A Berthoz, F Clarac, pp. 273–78. Amsterdam: Elsevier Cafferty WB, McGee AW, Strittmatter SM. 2008. Axonal growth therapeutics: regeneration or sprouting or plasticity? Trends Neurosci. 31(5):215–20 Calancie B. 2006. Spinal myoclonus after spinal cord injury. J. Spinal Cord. Med. 29(4):413–24 Calancie B, Broton JG, Klose KJ, Traad M, Difini J, Ayyar DR. 1993. Evidence that alterations in presynaptic inhibition contribute to segmental hypo- and hyperexcitability after spinal cord injury in man. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 89(3):177–86 Calancie B, Needham-Shropshire B, Jacobs P, Willer K, Zych G, Green BA. 1994. Involuntary stepping after chronic spinal cord injury: evidence for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man. Brain 117:1143–59 Carrier L, Brustein L, Rossignol S. 1997. Locomotion of the hindlimbs after neurectomy of ankle flexors in intact and spinal cats: model for the study of locomotor plasticity. J. Neurophysiol. 77:1979–93 Cazalets JR, Borde M, Clarac F. 1995. Localization and organization of the central pattern generator for hindlimb locomotion in newborn rat. J. Neurosci. 15:4943–51 Cazalets JR, Borde M, Clarac F. 1996. The synaptic drive from the spinal locomotor network to motoneurons in the newborn rat. J. Neurosci. 16(1):298–306 Chau C, Barbeau H, Rossignol S. 1998a. Early locomotor training with clonidine in spinal cats. J. Neurophysiol. 79:392–409 Chau C, Barbeau H, Rossignol S. 1998b. Effects of intrathecal α1 - and α2 -noradrenergic agonists and norepinephrine on locomotion in chronic spinal cats. J. Neurophysiol. 79:2941–63 Choo AM, Liu J, Lam CK, Dvorak M, Tetzlaff W, Oxland TR. 2007. Contusion, dislocation, and distraction: primary hemorrhage and membrane permeability in distinct mechanisms of spinal cord injury. J. Neurosurg. Spine 6(3):255–66 Contamin F. 1983. Sections m´edullaires incompl`etes et locomotion chez le chat. Bull. Acad. Nat. Med. 167:727– 30 Cot´ ˆ e M-P, Gossard J-P. 2004. Step training-dependent plasticity in spinal cutaneous pathways. J. Neurosci. 24:11317–27 Cot´ ˆ e M-P, Menard A, Gossard J-P. 2003. Spinal cats on the treadmill: changes in load pathways. J. Neurosci. 23(7):2789–96 Courtine G, Roy RR, Raven J, Hodgson J, McKay H, et al. 2005. Performance of locomotion and foot grasping following a unilateral thoracic corticospinal tract lesion in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Brain 128:2338–58 www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

433


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Courtine G, Song B, Roy RR, Zhong H, Herrmann JE, et al. 2008. Recovery of supraspinal control of stepping via indirect propriospinal relay connections after spinal cord injury. Nat. Med. 14:69–74 Cowley KC, Schmidt BJ. 1995. Effects of inhibitory amino acid antagonists on reciprocal inhibitory interactions during rhythmic motor activity in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord. J. Neurophysiol. 74(3):1109–17 Cowley KC, Zaporozhets E, Schmidt BJ. 2008. Propriospinal neurons are sufficient for bulbospinal transmission of the locomotor command signal in the neonatal rat spinal cord. J. Physiol. 586(6):1623–35 Crone C, Johnsen LL, Biering-Sorensen F, Nielsen JB. 2003. Appearance of reciprocal facilitation of ankle extensors from ankle flexors in patients with stroke or spinal cord injury. Brain 126(Pt. 2):495–507 Cuellar CA, Tapia JA, Juarez V, Quevedo J, Linares P, et al. 2009. Propagation of sinusoidal electrical waves along the spinal cord during a fictive motor task. J. Neurosci. 29(3):798–810 de Leon RD, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. 1998a. Full weight-bearing hindlimb standing following stand training in the adult spinal cat. J. Neurophysiol. 80(1):83–91 de Leon RD, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. 1998b. Locomotor capacity attributable to step training versus spontaneous recovery after spinalization in adult cats. J. Neurophysiol. 79(3):1329–40 de Leon RD, Tamaki H, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. 1999. Hindlimb locomotor and postural training modulates glycinergic inhibition in the spinal cord of the adult spinal cat. J. Neurophysiol. 82(1):359–69 Delivet-Mongrain H, Leblond H, Rossignol S. 2008. Effects of localized intraspinal injections of a noradrenergic blocker on locomotion of high decerebrate cats. J. Neurophysiol. 100:907–21 de Seze M, Falgairolle M, Viel S, Assaiante C, Cazalets JR. 2008. Sequential activation of axial muscles during different forms of rhythmic behavior in man. Exp. Brain Res. 185(2):237–47 Dietz V, Grillner S, Trepp A, Hubli M, Bolliger M. 2009. Changes in spinal reflex and locomotor activity after a complete spinal cord injury: a common mechanism? Brain 132(Pt. 8):2196–205 Dietz V, Harkema SJ. 2004. Locomotor activity in spinal cord-injured persons. J. Appl. Physiol. 96(5):1954–60 Dietz V, Michel J. 2009. Human bipeds use quadrupedal coordination during locomotion. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1164:97–103 Dimitrijevic MR, Gerasimenko Y, Pinter MM. 1998. Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator in humans. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 860:360–76 Dimitrijevic MR, Nathan PW. 1967. Studies of spasticity in man. 2. Analysis of stretch reflexes in spasticity. Brain 90(2):333–58 Dobkin B, Apple D, Barbeau H, Basso M, Behrman A, et al. 2006. Weight-supported treadmill versus overground training for walking after acute incomplete SCI. Neurology 484–93 Drew T, Prentice S, Schepens B. 2004. Cortical and brainstem control of locomotion. Prog. Brain Res. 143:251– 61 Duysens J, Pearson KG. 1976. The role of cutaneous afferents from the distal hindlimb in the regulation of the step cycle of thalamic cats. Exp. Brain Res. 24:245–55 Dy CJ, Gerasimenko YP, Edgerton VR, Dyhre-Poulsen P, Courtine G, Harkema SJ. 2010. Phase-dependent modulation of percutaneously elicited multisegmental muscle responses after spinal cord injury. J. Neurophysiol. 103(5):2808–20 Eidelberg E, Story JL, Walden JG, Meyer BL. 1981a. Anatomical correlates of return of locomotor function after partial spinal cord lesions in cats. Exp. Brain Res. 42:81–88 Eidelberg E, Walden JG, Nguyen LH. 1981b. Locomotor control in macaque monkeys. Brain 104:647–63 Eidelberg E, Yu J. 1981. Effects of corticospinal lesions upon treadmill locomotion by cats. Exp. Brain Res. 43:101–3 Eken T, Hultborn H, Kiehn O. 1989. Possible functions of transmitter-controlled plateau potentials in alpha motoneurones. Prog. Brain Res. 80:257–67 Eng JJ, Winter DA, Patla AE. 1994. Strategies for recovery from a trip in early and late swing during human walking. Exp. Brain Res. 102:339–49 English AW. 1980. Interlimb coordination during stepping in the cat: effects of dorsal column section. J. Neurophysiol. 44:270–79 Forssberg H. 1979. Stumbling corrective reaction: a phase-dependent compensatory reaction during locomotion. J. Neurophysiol. 42:936–53 Forssberg H, Grillner S. 1973. The locomotion of the acute spinal cat injected with clonidine i.v. Brain Res. 50:184–86

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

434

Rossignol

·

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Forssberg H, Grillner S, Halbertsma J. 1980a. The locomotion of the low spinal cat. I. Coordination within a hindlimb. Acta Physiol. Scand. 108:269–81 Forssberg H, Grillner S, Halbertsma J, Rossignol S. 1980b. The locomotion of the low spinal cat: II. Interlimb coordination. Acta Physiol. Scand. 108:283–95 Forssberg H, Grillner S, Rossignol S. 1975. Phase dependent reflex reversal during walking in chronic spinal cats. Brain Res. 85:103–7 Frigon A, Barriere G, Leblond H, Rossignol S. 2009. Asymmetric changes in cutaneous reflexes after a partial spinal lesion and retention following spinalization during locomotion in the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 102(5):2667–80 Frigon A, Rossignol S. 2006a. Experiments and models of sensorimotor interactions during locomotion. Biol. Cybern. 95:607–27 Frigon A, Rossignol S. 2006b. Functional plasticity following spinal cord lesions. Prog. Brain Res. 157(16):231– 60 Frigon A, Rossignol S. 2008. Adaptive changes of the locomotor pattern and cutaneous reflexes during locomotion studied in the same cats before and after spinalization. J. Physiol. 586:2927–45 Frigon A, Rossignol S. 2009. Partial denervation of ankle extensors prior to spinalization in cats impacts the expression of locomotion and the phasic modulation of reflexes. Neuroscience 158(4):1675–90 Frigon A, Sirois J, Gossard JP. 2010. The effects of ankle and hip muscle afferent inputs on rhythm generation during fictive locomotion. J. Neurophysiol. 103(3):1591–605 Gerasimenko Y, Gorodnichev R, Machueva E, Pivovarova E, Semyenov D, et al. 2010. Novel and direct access to the human locomotor spinal circuitry. J. Neurosci. 30(10):3700–8 Ghosh A, Sydekum E, Haiss F, Peduzzi S, Zorner B, et al. 2009. Functional and anatomical reorganization of the sensory-motor cortex after incomplete spinal cord injury in adult rats. J. Neurosci. 29(39):12210–19 Giroux N, Brustein E, Chau C, Barbeau H, Reader TA, Rossignol S. 1998. Differential effects of the noradrenergic agonist clonidine on the locomotion of intact, partially and completely spinalized adult cats. In Neuronal Mechanisms for Generating Locomotor Activity, ed. O Kiehn, RM Harris-Warrick, LM Jordan, H Hulborn, N Kudo, pp. 517–20. New York: NY Acad. Sci. Giroux N, Rossignol S, Reader TA. 1999. Autoradiographic study of α1 -, α2 -noradrenergic and serotonin 1A receptors in the spinal cord of normal and chronically transected cats. J. Comp. Neurol. 406:402–14 Giuliani CA, Smith JL. 1987. Stepping behaviors in chronic spinal cats with one hindlimb deafferented. J. Neurosci. 7(8):2537–46 Goldberger ME. 1977. Locomotor recovery after unilateral hindlimb deafferentation in cats. Brain Res. 123:59– 74 Gorassini MA, Knash ME, Harvey PJ, Bennett DJ, Yang JF. 2004. Role of motoneurons in the generation of muscle spasms after spinal cord injury. Brain 127:2247–58 Gorska T, Bem T, Majczynski H. 1990. Locomotion in cats with ventral spinal lesions: support patterns and duration of support phases during unrestrained walking. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 50:191–200 Gorska T, Bem T, Majczynski H, Zmyslowski W. 1993a. Unrestrained walking in cats with partial spinal lesions. Brain Res. Bull. 32:241–49 Gorska T, Chojnicka-Gittins B, Majczynski H, Zmyslowski W. 2007. Overground locomotion after incomplete spinal lesions in the rat: quantitative gait analysis. J. Neurotrauma 24(7):1198–218 Gorska T, Majczynski H, Bem T, Zmyslowski W. 1993b. Hindlimb swing, stance and step relationships during unrestrained walking in cats with lateral funicular lesion. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 53:133–42 Gossard J-P, Floeter MK, Degtyarenko AM, Simon ES, Burke RE. 1996. Disynaptic vestibulospinal and reticulospinal excitation in cat lumbosacral motoneurons: modulation during fictive locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 109(2):277–88 Goulding M. 2009. Circuits controlling vertebrate locomotion: moving in a new direction. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(7):507–18 Grill R, Murai K, Blesch A, Gage FH, Tuszynski MH. 1997. Cellular delivery of neurotrophin-3 promotes corticospinal axonal growth and partial functional recovery after spinal cord injury. J. Neurosci. 17(14):5560– 72 Grillner S. 1973. Locomotion in the spinal cat. In Control of Posture and Locomotion. Advances in Behavioral Biology, Vol. 7, ed. RB Stein, KG Pearson, RS Smith, JB Redford, pp. 515–35. New York: Plenum www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

435


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Grillner S. 1981. Control of locomotion in bipeds, tetrapods, and fish. In Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System II, ed. JM Brookhart, VB Mountcastle, pp. 1179–236. Bethesda, MD: Am. Physiol. Soc. Grillner S. 2003. The motor infrastructure: from ion channels to neuronal networks. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4:573–86 Grillner S, Georgopoulos AP, Jordan LM. 1997. Selection and initiation of motor behavior. In Neurons, Networks, and Motor Behavior, ed. PSG Stein, S Grillner, AI Selverston, DG Stuart, pp. 3–19. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Grillner S, Jessell TM. 2009. Measured motion: searching for simplicity in spinal locomotor networks. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 19(6):572–86 Grillner S, Wallen P. 2002. Cellular bases of a vertebrate locomotor system: steering, intersegmental and segmental co-ordination and sensory control. Prog. Brain Res. 40:92–106 Grillner S, Zangger P. 1979. On the central generation of locomotion in the low spinal cat. Exp. Brain Res. 34:241–61 Guertin P, Angel MJ, Perreault M-C, McCrea DA. 1995. Ankle extensor group I afferents excite extensors throughout the hindlimb during fictive locomotion in the cat. J. Physiol. 487:197–209 Gulino R, Dimartino M, Casabona A, Lombardo SA, Perciavalle V. 2007. Synaptic plasticity modulates the spontaneous recovery of locomotion after spinal cord hemisection. Neurosci. Res. 57(1):148–56 Harkema SJ. 2001. Neural plasticity after human spinal cord injury: application of locomotor training to the rehabilitation of walking. Neuroscientist 7(5):455–68 Harkema SJ. 2008. Plasticity of interneuronal networks of the functionally isolated human spinal cord. Brain Res. Rev. 57(1):255–64 Harvey PJ, Li X, Li Y, Bennett DJ. 2006. 5-HT2 receptor activation facilitates a persistent sodium current and repetitive firing in spinal motoneurons of rats with and without chronic spinal cord injury. J. Neurophysiol. 96(3):1158–709 Heckman CJ, Lee RH, Brownstone RM. 2003. Hyperexcitable dendrites in motoneurons and their neuromodulatory control during motor behavior. Trends Neurosci. 26(12):688–95 Helgren ME, Goldberger ME. 1993. The recovery of postural reflexes and locomotion following low thoracic hemisection in adult cats involves compensation by undamaged primary afferent pathways. Exp. Neurol. 123:17–34 Hinckley C, Seebach B, Ziskind-Conhaim L. 2005. Distinct roles of glycinergic and GABAergic inhibition in coordinating locomotor-like rhythms in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. Neuroscience 131:745–58 Holstege JC, Kuypers HGJM. 1987. Brainstem projections to spinal motoneurons: an update. Neuroscience 23:809–21 Hultborn H. 2003. Changes in neuronal properties and spinal reflexes during development of spasticity following spinal cord lesions and stroke: studies in animal models and patients. J. Rehabil. Med. 41(Suppl.):46–55 Hultborn H, Brownstone RB, Toth TI, Gossard J-P. 2004. Key mechanisms for setting the input-output gain across the motoneuron pool. Prog. Brain Res. 143:77–95 Hultborn H, Conway B, Gossard J-P, Brownstone R, Fedirchuk B, Schomburg ED. 1998. How do we approach the locomotor network in the mammalian spinal cord? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 860:70–82 Jankowska E, Jukes MGM, Lund S, Lundberg A. 1967. The effect of DOPA on the spinal cord. 5. Reciprocal organization of pathways transmitting excitatory action to alpha motoneurones of flexors and extensors. Acta Physiol. Scand. 70:369–88 Jiang W, Drew T. 1996. Effects of bilateral lesions of the dorsolateral funiculi and dorsal columns at the level of the low thoracic spinal cord on the control of locomotion in the adult cat: I. Treadmill walking. J. Neurophysiol. 76(2):849–66 Jordan LM. 1998. Initiation of locomotion in mammals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 860:83–93 Juvin L, Simmers J, Morin D. 2005. Propriospinal circuitry underlying interlimb coordination in mammalian quadrupedal locomotion. J. Neurosci. 25(25):6025–35 Kanagal SG, Muir GD. 2008. Effects of combined dorsolateral and dorsal funicular lesions on sensorimotor behaviour in rats. Exp. Neurol. 214:229–39 Kato M. 1989. Chronically isolated lumbar half spinal cord produced by hemisection and longitudinal myelotomy generates locomotor activities of the ipsilateral hindlimb of the cat. Neurosci. Lett. 98:149–53

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

436

Rossignol

·

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Kato M, Murakami S, Hirayama H, Hikino K. 1985. Recovery of postural control following chronic bilateral hemisections at different spinal cord levels in adult cats. Exp. Neurol. 90:350–64 Kato M, Murakami S, Yasuda K, Hirayama H. 1984. Disruption of fore- and hindlimb coordination during overground locomotion in cats with bilateral serial hemisection of the spinal cord. Neurosci. Res. 2:27–47 Kiehn O. 2006. Locomotor circuits in the mammalian spinal cord. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29:279–306 Kiehn O, Johnson BR, Raastad M. 1996. Plateau properties in mammalian spinal interneurons during transmitter-induced locomotor activity. Neuroscience 75:263–73 Kjaerulff O, Kiehn O. 1997. Crossed rhythmic synaptic input to motoneurons during selective activation of the contralateral spinal locomotor network. J. Neurosci. 17:9433–47 Kremer E, Lev-Tov A. 1997. Localization of the spinal network associated with generation of hindlimb locomotion in the neonatal rat and organization of its transverse coupling system. J. Neurophysiol. 77(3):1155– 70 Kuhn RA. 1950. Functional capacity of the isolated human spinal cord. Brain 73:1–51 Kuhtz-Buschbeck JP, Boczek-Funcke A, Mautes A, Nacimiento W, Weinhardt C. 1996. Recovery of locomotion after spinal cord hemisection: an X-ray study of the cat hindlimb. Exp. Neurol. 137:212–24 Lam T, Wolstenholme C, Van Der LM, Pang MY, Yang JF. 2003. Stumbling corrective responses during treadmill-elicited stepping in human infants. J. Physiol. 553(Pt. 1):319–31 Langlet C, Leblond H, Rossignol S. 2005. The mid-lumbar segments are needed for the expression of locomotion in chronic spinal cats. J. Neurophysiol. 93:2474–88 Lavrov I, Courtine G, Dy CJ, Van Den Brand R, Fong AJ, et al. 2008. Facilitation of stepping with epidural stimulation in spinal rats: role of sensory input. J. Neurosci. 28:7774–80 Lavrov I, Gerasimenko YP, Ichiyama RM, Courtine G, Zhong H, et al. 2006. Plasticity of spinal cord reflexes after a complete transection in adult rats: relationship to stepping ability. J. Neurophysiol. 96(4):1699–710 Leblond H, Menard A, Gossard J-P. 2001. Corticospinal control of locomotor pathways generating extensor activities in the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 138(2):173–84 Lhermitte J. 1919. La section totale de la Moelle Dorsale. Paris: Impr. Vve Tardy-Pigelet Fils Li X, Murray KC, Harvey PJ, Ballou EW, Bennett DJ. 2007. Serotonin facilitates a persistent calcium current in motoneurons of rats with and without chronic spinal cord injury. J. Neurophysiol. 97:1236–46 Li Y, Gorassini MA, Bennett DJ. 2004. Role of persistent sodium and calcium currents in motoneuron firing and spasticity in chronic spinal rats. J. Neurophysiol. 91(2):767–83 Li Y, Oskouian RJ, Day Y-J, Kern JA, Linden J. 2006. Optimization of a mouse locomotor rating system to evaluate compression-induced spinal cord injury: correlation of locomotor and morphological injury indices. J. Neurosurg. Spine 4:165–73 Liddell EGT, Phillips CG. 1944. Pyramidal section in the cat. Brain 67:1–9 Lloyd DPC. 1941. Activity in neurons of the bulbospinal correlation system. J. Neurophysiol. 4:115–34 Magnuson DS, Lovett R, Coffee C, Gray R, Han Y, et al. 2005. Functional consequences of lumbar spinal cord contusion injuries in the adult rat. J. Neurotrauma 22(5):529–43 Magnuson DS, Trinder TC. 1997. Locomotor rhythm evoked by ventrolateral funiculus stimulation in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 77(1):200–6 Maier IC, Schwab ME. 2006. Sprouting, regeneration and circuit formation in the injured spinal cord: factors and activity. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 361:1611–34 Majczynski H, Maleszak K, Gorska T, Slawinska U. 2007. Comparison of two methods for quantitative assessment of unrestrained locomotion in the rat. J. Neurosci. Methods 163:197–207 Marcoux J, Rossignol S. 2000. Initiating or blocking locomotion in spinal cats by applying noradrenergic drugs to restricted lumbar spinal segments. J. Neurosci. 20(22):8577–85 McCrea DA, Rybak IA. 2008. Organization of mammalian locomotor rhythm and pattern generation. Brain Res. Rev. 57(1):134–46 Metz GA, Curt A, Van de Meent H, Klusman I, Schwab ME, Dietz V. 2000a. Validation of the weight-drop contusion model in rats: a comparative study of human spinal cord injury. J. Neurotrauma 17(1):1–17 Metz GA, Merkler D, Dietz V, Schwab ME, Fouad K. 2000b. Efficient testing of motor function in spinal cord injured rats. Brain Res. 883(2):165–77 Muir GD, Steeves JD. 1995. Phasic cutaneous input facilitates locomotor recovery after incomplete spinal injury in the chick. J. Neurophysiol. 74:358–68 www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

437


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Muir GD, Webb AA, Kanagal S, Taylor L. 2007. Dorsolateral cervical spinal injury differentially affects forelimb and hindlimb action in rats. Eur. J. Neurosci. 25(5):1501–10 Murray KC, Nakae A, Stephens MJ, Rank M, D’Amico J, et al. 2010. Recovery of motoneuron and locomotor function after spinal cord injury depends on constitutive activity in 5-HT(2C) receptors. Nat. Med. 16(6):694–700 Nadeau S, Jacquemin G, Fournier C, Lamarre Y, Rossignol S. 2010. Spontaneous motor rhythms of the back and legs in a patient with a complete spinal cord transection. Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 24(4):377–83 Nathan PW. 1994. Effects on movement of surgical incisions into the human spinal cord. Brain 117:337–46 Nielsen JB, Crone C, Hultborn H. 2007. The spinal pathophysiology of spasticity: from a basic science point of view. Acta Physiol. 189:171–80 Norreel JC, Pflieger JF, Pearlstein E, Simeoni-Alias J, Clarac F, Vinay L. 2003. Reversible disorganization of the locomotor pattern after neonatal spinal cord transection in the rat. J. Neurosci. 23(5):1924–32 Okuma Y, Mizuno Y, Lee RG. 2002. Reciprocal Ia inhibition in patients with asymmetric spinal spasticity. Clin. Neurophysiol. 113(2):292–97 Orlovsky GN, Shik ML. 1976. Control of locomotion: a neurophysiological analysis of the cat locomotor system. In International Review of Physiology: Neurophysiology II, ed. R Portez, pp. 281–309. Baltimore: Univ. Park Press Pang MY, Yang JF. 2000. The initiation of the swing phase in human infant stepping: importance of hip position and leg loading. J. Physiol. 528(Pt. 2):389–404 Pearson KG. 2008. Role of sensory feedback in the control of stance duration in walking cats. Brain Res. Rev. 57(1):222–27 Pearson KG, Misiaszek JE, Fouad K. 1998. Enhancement and resetting of locomotor activity by muscle afferents. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 860:203–15 Pearson KG, Rossignol S. 1991. Fictive motor patterns in chronic spinal cats. J. Neurophysiol. 66:1874–87 Perez T, Tapia JA, Mirasso CR, Garcia-Ojalvo J, Quevedo J, et al. 2009. An intersegmental neuronal architecture for spinal wave propagation under deletions. J. Neurosci. 29(33):10254–63 Perreault M-C, Rossignol S, Drew T. 1994. Microstimulation of the medullary reticular formation during fictive locomotion. J. Neurophysiol. 71:229–45 Petras JM. 1967. Cortical, tectal and segmental fiber connections in the spinal cord of the cat. Brain Res. 6:275–324 Philippson M. 1905. L’autonomie et la centralisation dans le syst`eme nerveux des animaux. Trav. Lab. Physiol. Inst. Solvay (Bruxelles) 7:1–208 Poon PC, Gupta D, Shoichet MS, Tator CH. 2007. Clip compression model is useful for thoracic spinal cord injuries: histologic and functional correlates. Spine 32:2853–59 Rank MM, Li X, Bennett DJ, Gorassini MA. 2007. Role of endogenous release of norepinephrine in muscle spasms after chronic spinal cord injury. J. Neurophysiol. 97(5):3166–80 Remy-Neris O, Barbeau H, Daniel O, Boiteau F, Bussel B. 1999. Effects of intrathecal clonidine injection on spinal reflexes and human locomotion in incomplete paraplegic subjects. Exp. Brain Res. 129(3):433–40 Rho MJ, Lavoie S, Drew T. 1999. Effects of red nucleus microstimulation on the locomotor pattern and timing in the intact cat: a comparison with the motor cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 81(5):2297–315 Roberts A, Soffe SR, Wolf ES, Yoshida M, Zhao FY. 1998. Central circuits controlling locomotion in young frog tadpoles. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Conf. 860:19–34 Robinson GA, Goldberger ME. 1985. Interfering with inhibition may improve motor function. Brain Res. 346(2):400–3 Roby-Brami A, Bussel B. 1987. Long-latency spinal reflex in man after flexor reflex afferent stimulation. Brain 110:707–25 Rosenzweig ES, Courtine G, Jindrich DL, Brock JH, Ferguson AR, et al. 2010. Extensive spontaneous plasticity of corticospinal projections after primate spinal cord injury. Nat. Neurosci. 13(12):1505–10 Rossignol S. 1996. Neural control of stereotypic limb movements. In Handbook of Physiology, Section 12. Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems, ed. LB Rowell, JT Sheperd, pp. 173–216. New York: Oxford Univ. Press Rossignol S. 2006. Plasticity of connections underlying locomotor recovery after central and or peripheral lesions in the adult mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 361:1647–71

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

438

Rossignol

·

Frigon


Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Rossignol S, Barriere G, Alluin O, Frigon A. 2009. Re-expression of locomotor function after partial spinal cord injury. Physiology 24:127–39 Rossignol S, B´elanger M, Chau C, Giroux N, Brustein E, et al. 2000. The spinal cat. In Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury, ed. RG Kalb, SM Strittmatter, pp. 57–87. Totowa, NJ: Humana Rossignol S, Chau C, Brustein E, B´elanger M, Barbeau H, Drew T. 1996. Locomotor capacities after complete and partial lesions of the spinal cord. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 56(1):449–63 Rossignol S, Chau C, Giroux N, Brustein E, Bouyer L, et al. 2002. The cat model of spinal injury. Prog. Brain Res. 137:151–68 Rossignol S, Drew T, Brustein E, Jiang W. 1999. Locomotor performance and adaptation after partial or complete spinal cord lesions in the cat. Prog. Brain Res. 123(31):349–65 Rossignol S, Dubuc R, Gossard JP. 2006. Dynamic sensorimotor interactions in locomotion. Physiol Rev. 86(1):89–154 Rossignol S, Giroux N, Chau C, Marcoux J, Brustein E, Reader TA. 2001. Pharmacological aids to locomotor training after spinal injury in the cat. J. Physiol. 533:65–74 Russel DF, Zajac FE. 1979. Effects of stimulating Deiter’s nucleus and medial longitudinal fasciculus on the timing of the fictive locomotor rhythm induced in cats by DOPA. Brain Res. 177:588–92 Sakurai A, Katz PS. 2009. Functional recovery after lesion of a central pattern generator. J. Neurosci. 29(42):13115–25 Saruhashi Y, Young W, Perkins R. 1996. The recovery of 5-HT immunoreactivity in lumbosacral spinal cord and locomotor function after thoracic hemisection. Exp. Neurol. 139(2):203–13 Schillings AM, Van Wezel BM, Mulder T, Duysens J. 2000. Muscular responses and movement strategies during stumbling over obstacles. J. Neurophysiol. 83(4):2093–102 Schindler-Ivens S, Shields RK. 2000. Low frequency depression of H-reflexes in humans with acute and chronic spinal-cord injury. Exp. Brain Res. 133(2):233–41 Schmidt BJ, Jordan LM. 2000. The role of serotonin in reflex modulation and locomotor rhythm production in the mammalian spinal cord. Brain Res. Bull. 53(5):689–710 Shefchyk SJ, Jordan LM. 1985. Excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials in alpha-motoneurons produced during fictive locomotion by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. J. Neurophysiol. 53:1345–55 Sherrington CS, Laslett EE. 1903. Observations on some spinal reflexes and the interconnection of spinal segments. J. Physiol. 29:58–96 Shields CB, Zhang YP, Shields LB, Han Y, Burke DA, Mayer NW. 2005. The therapeutic window for spinal cord decompression in a rat spinal cord injury model. J. Neurosurg. Spine 3(4):302–7 Shik ML. 1983. Action of the brainstem locomotor region on spinal stepping generators via propriospinal pathways. In Spinal Cord Reconstruction, ed. CC Kao, RP Bunge, PJ Reier, pp. 421–34. New York: Raven Shik ML, Severin FV, Orlovsky GN. 1966. Control of walking and running by means of electrical stimulation of the mid-brain. Biophysics 11:756–65 Siegal T. 1995. Spinal cord compression: from laboratory to clinic. Eur. J. Cancer 31A(11):1748–53 Smith RR, Shum-Siu A, Baltzley R, Bunger M, Baldini A, et al. 2006. Effects of swimming on functional recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury in rats. J. Neurotrauma 23(6):908–19 Suresh BR, Muthusamy R, Namasivayam A. 2000. Behavioural assessment of functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). J. Neurol. Sci. 178(2):136–52 Tan AM, Petruska JC, Mendell LM, Levine JM. 2007. Sensory afferents regenerated into dorsal columns after spinal cord injury remain in a chronic pathophysiological state. Exp. Neurol. 206(2):257–68 Tazerart S, Vinay L, Brocard F. 2008. The persistent sodium current generates pacemaker activities in the central pattern generator for locomotion and regulates the locomotor rhythm. J. Neurosci. 28(34):8577–89 Thompson FJ, Reier PJ, Lucas CC, Parmer R. 1992. Altered patterns of reflex excitability subsequent to contusion injury of the rat spinal cord. J. Neurophysiol. 68(5):1473–86 Thuret S, Moon LD, Gage FH. 2006. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury. Nature 7:628–43 Tillakaratne NJ, de Leon RD, Hoang TX, Roy RR, Edgerton VR, Tobin AJ. 2002. Use-dependent modulation of inhibitory capacity in the feline lumbar spinal cord. J. Neurosci. 22(8):3130–43 www.annualreviews.org • Recovery of Locomotion After Spinal Injury

439


ARI

21 May 2011

15:27

Tillakaratne NJ, Mouria M, Ziv NB, Roy RR, Edgerton VR, Tobin AJ. 2000. Increased expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67 ) in feline lumbar spinal cord after complete thoracic spinal cord transection. J. Neurosci. Res. 60(2):219–30 Viala D, Valin A, Buser P. 1974. Relationship between the “late reflex discharge” and locomotor movements in acute spinal cats and rabbits treated with DOPA. Arch. Ital. Biol. 112:299–306 Viala D, Vidal C. 1978. Evidence for distinct spinal locomotion generators supplying respectively fore- and hindlimbs in the rabbit. Brain Res. 155:182–86 Vilensky JA, Moore AM, Eidelberg E, Walden JG. 1992. Recovery of locomotion in monkeys with spinal cord lesions. J. Motor Behav. 24:288–96 Wilson P, Kitchener PD. 1996. Plasticity of cutaneous primary afferent projections to the spinal dorsal horn. Prog. Neurobiol. 48(2):105–29 Wirz M, Zemon DH, Rupp R, Scheel A, Colombo G, et al. 2005. Effectiveness of automated locomotor training in patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a multicenter trial. Arch. Phys Med. Rehabil. 86(4):672–80 Xia R, Rymer WZ. 2005. Reflex reciprocal facilitation of antagonist muscles in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 43(1):14–21 Yakovenko S, Drew T. 2009. A motor cortical contribution to the anticipatory postural adjustments that precede reaching in the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 102:853–74 Yang JF, Stein RB. 1990. Phase-dependent reflex reversal in human leg muscles during walking. J. Neurophysiol. 63:1109–17 Young W. 2002. Spinal cord contusion models. Prog. Brain Res. 137:231–55 Zaporozhets E, Cowley KC, Schmidt BJ. 2006. Propriospinal neurons contribute to bulbospinal transmission of the locomotor command signal in the neonatal rat spinal cord. J. Physiol. 572(Pt. 2):443–58 Zehr EP, Hundza SR, Vasudevan EV. 2009. The quadrupedal nature of human bipedal locomotion. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 37(2):102–8 Zmyslowski W, Gorska T, Majczynski H, Bem T. 1993. Hindlimb muscle activity during unrestrained walking in cats with lesions of the lateral funiculi. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 53:143–53

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2011.34:413-440. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by University of Sevilla on 02/06/12. For personal use only.

NE34CH18-Rossignol

RELATED RESOURCES Grillner S, El Manira A, Kiehn O, Rossignol S, Stein PSG, eds. 2008. Special issue: Networks in motion. Brain Res. Rev. 57(1):1–269 Grillner S, Stein PSG, Stuart DG, Forssberg H, Herman RM, eds. 1986. Neurobiology of Vertebrate Locomotion, Wenner-Gren Int. Symp. Ser. New York: Macmillan. 735 pp. Herman RM, Grillner S, Stein PSG, Stuart DG, eds. 1976. Neural Control of Locomotion, Vol. 18. New York: Plenum. 822 pp. McKerracher L, Doucet G, Rossignol S, eds. 2002. Spinal Cord Trauma: Regeneration, Neural Repair and Functional Recovery. New York: Elsevier Stein PSG, Grillner S, Selverston AI, Stuart DG, eds. 1997. Neurons, Networks, and Motor Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

440

Rossignol

·

Frigon

NEURO MAYA  

1ER ARTICULO DEL SEMINARIO

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you