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owif;rStquf . . .

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Statement

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ref;aq;ausmif;om;wkdh ausmif;jyefwufcGifU&a&; vlhtcGifUta&;aumfr&SifxH wifjyrnf ■

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EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;wdkh\ om;orD;wdkhtwGuf ■

aroZif

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■ Bangkokpost

xkid ;f ESihf jyifopfEikd if w H o Ykd nf umuG,af &;ESifh ynma&;e,f y,fro S nf okawoee,fy,ftxd e,fy,ftoD;oD;ESifh ywfouf Ny;D em;vnfrpI mcRev f mT 5 ckukd vufrw S af &;xd;k cJo h nf[k xkid ;f 0efBu;D csKyf ,ifvyfc&f iS ef m0yfu vGecf ahJ omtywfu ajymMum;vdu k o f nf/ jyifopf0efBu;D csKyf Jean-Marc Ayrault ESifh tpd;k &tdraf wmf wGif awGUqkNH y;D aemuf xkid ;f 0efBu;D csKyu f ,ckuo hJ aYdk jymMum;vdu k jf cif; H Ydk ESp&f ufMum tvnftywf jzpfonf/ Mr Ayrault onf xdik ;f Edik if o c&D;a&muf&adS ejcif;jzpfonf/ ,ck vufrw S af &;xd;k onhf em;vnfrpI mcRev f mT rsm;onf xkid ;f ESijfh yifopfEikd if t H Mum; trsKd ;om; umuG,af &;? ynma&;? qkq H eYkd m? ar;cdik Ef iS fh Muufnm§ acsmif;qk;d a&m*gumuG,af q;rsm; xkwv f yk af &; ESifh Edik if w H umokawoeuGe&f ufwiG f tjyeftvSef yl;aygif;aqmif &Gurf rI sm;jri§ w fh if&ef &nf&, G jf cif;jzpfonf/ yOörajrmufem;vnfrI pm Rajamangala enf; ynmwuúov kd Ef iS fh jyifopfEikd if rH S cRev f mT rSm Institut Universitaire de Tech-nologie (IUT) wuúov kd w f Ykd yl;aygif; aqmif&u G rf q I ikd &f m em;vnfrpI mcRev f mT jzpfonf/ jyifopfEikd if o H nf xkid ;f Edik if t H wGi;f ukeo f , G af &;wk;d csUJ &efEiS fh ¤if;\ tajccHtaqmufttkt H wGi;f tcGit fh vrf;rsm;ydrk &dk mS azG&ef t"dutm½kx H m;aMumif; rD;pf,ifvyfcu f ajymMum;onf/ Mr Ayrault xki d ;f Edik if o H Ykd ,ckvma&mufvnfywfjcif;onf 23 ESpt f wGi;f jyifopf0efBu;D csKyf tjzpfyxrqk;H vma&mufvnfywf jcif;jzpfonf/ xdik ;f Edik if o H nf Edik if EH iS fh a'owGi;f wk;d wufvmonhf pD;yGm; a&;udk trDv S u kd &f eftwGuf tajccHtaqmufttkrH sm; jyif qifrw I iG f a'oqkid &f mA[kcd suw f pfcjk zpfvm&ef tvm;tvm&Sd aMumif;? tvm;wlyif awmiftm&S&EdS ikd if rH sm;ESifh ta&SUtm&S&EdS ikd if rH sm; tm; qufo, G af y;onhf tcsw d t f qufwpfcjk zpfvmEdik af Mumif; ,if YT bmomjyefonf/ vyfc&f iS ef m0yfuajymMum;cJo h nf/

("mwfykH - bkb d )kd &efuek Nf rKd Y vomNrKd eY ,ftwGi;f pOft U ;kd wef;vrf;ay:wiG f e*g;tvS ujywifqufpOf/ ■ Ocolly

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rav;&Sm;EkdifiHokdh 2012 ckESpfu vma&mufonfU c&D;oGm; 25 oef;txd&Sd

■ Thestar

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ajrmufudk&D;,m;EkdifiH\ EsLuvD;,m; Ncdrf;ajcmufrIrsm;aMumifU w½kwfEdkifiH pkd;&drf ■ Reuters

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bd;k tif; 787 Dreamliner *suaf v,mOf prf;oyfyso H ef;pOf T33 Chase Plane av,mOfEiS t Uf wl awG&Y pOf/ ■ Reuters

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■ Slashgear

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puFmyl vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&; tpDtpOfay: EdkifiHom;rsm; qefhusifqE´jyrnf ■ Reuters

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■ Bangkokpost

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AutoAlliance (Thailand)

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■ Philstar

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Fin-ancial Supervisory Service

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jzpfayr,fh 'gu uRerf wdYk qufomG ;& r,fch &D;ygyJ/ uEÅm& c&D;onfwpfO;D [m olt Y ouf&iS o f efvw G af jrmufa&;ukd ñTef jyaewJY wpfv;kH wnf;aom Mu,fpiftay: olrY suv f ;kH awG pl;pku d x f m;&ovd?k uRerf wdYk rsuv f ;kH awGuv kd nf; Nird ;f csr;f a&;tay: rSmyJ pGpJ NJG rNJ rx J m;Mu&ygr,f/ urÇmajray: rSm jynf0h wJNh ird ;f csr;f a&;udk uRerf wdYk r&&Sd &ifawmifr?S Nird ;f csr;f a&;&zdYk pkaygif;tm; xkwrf aI wGuae vlwpfO;D csi;f Mum;? Edik if H awGMum;rSm pnf;vH;k nDñw G rf ?I ,HMk unfr?I rdwaf qGjzpfreI YJ uRerf wdYk vlom;todik ;f t0dik ;f twGuf vHNk cKH reI YJ MuifemrIawGjzpf vmatmif ulnED ikd yf gvdrrYf ,f}} ]]...uRerf wd&Yk UJ tqH;k pGeaf om&nf rSe;f csu[ f m vlawGae&majymif;a&TUcH&rI? tdraf jc,mrJjh zpfr?I arQmv f ifch surf rYJ w I u Ykd ae vGwu f if;wJh urÇmwpfck zefw;D zdo Yk m jzpfoifyY gw,f/ urÇmae&mwdik ;f axmifh wdik ;f [m aexdik af eolawGtwGuf vGwf vyfr&I NdS y;D Nird ;f csr;f pGmcdv k EHI ikd rf ,fh ab;rJh &dyNf rKH tppftrSef jzpfoifyh gw,f/ tawG; wdik ;f ? pum;vH;k wdik ;f ? tjyKtrlwikd ;f [m tjyKoabmaqmifreI YJ avsmu f efoifjh rwf rIujkd zpfapNy;D Nird ;f csr;f a&;udk jzpfxeG ;f ap& ygr,f/ uRerf wdYk wpfO;D csi;f pDwikd ;f rSm tJ'D Nird ;f csr;f a&;jzpfxeG ;f apzdYk vkyaf qmifEikd f pGr;f awG &Syd gw,f/ uRerf wdYk vHNk cKH pw d cf spmG tdy&f Ny;D aysm&f iT pf mG Ed;k xEdik rf ,fh Nird ;f csr;f wJY urÇmBu;D wpfczk efw;D zdYk BuKd ;pm;&mrSm uRerf wdv Yk ufawG cdik Nf rNJ rJ ,SOw f x JG m;Mu ygpdYk . . .}}

a':atmifqef;pkMunfu olNY ird ;f csr;f a&;tjrif[m jrefrmYNird ;f csr;f a&;tjrif jzpfovdk Ak't ¨ ,ltqtay:rSm tajccHH xm;w,fvYkd qdyk gw,f/ jrefrmhNird ;f csr;f a&; t,ltqeJY Nird ;f csr;f a&;vrf;aMumif;udk urÇmod &Si;f jyEdik w f mrdYk jrefrmawGtwGuf *kP, f pl &mygyJ/ a':pku wpfurÇmvH;k rSm tjynfh t0 Nird ;f csr;f a&;qdw k m rjzpfEikd b f ;l ? odYk aomf Nird ;f csr;f a&;udk rsujf cnfrjywf pk aygif;tm;xkwjf cif;tm;jzifY Ekid if w H ikd ;f vl rsK;d wdik ;f Mum;rSm pnf;vH;k nDñw G rf ?I ,HMk unf rIeYJ cspcf if&if;ES;D rIawG &&Sv d mEdik w f ,f/ vlom;obm0rSm taumif;tqd;k awG&dS aeayr,fh taumif;awG tm;aumif;vm atmifeYJ tqd;k awGavsmyh g;atmif vkyEf ikd f wm[m vlom;yJjzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh wpf OD;csi;f &JU tajymtqdk tjyKrw l ikd ;f [m Nird ;f csr;f a&;awGyjJ zpfaeoifw h ,f/ urÇmay: u vlwidk ;f &JU wpfO;D csi;f vGwv f yfreI YJ &ydik f cGiaYf wG tjynft h 0&&Sad tmif 0dik ;f 0ef;BuKd ; pm;jcif;eJY rdru d , kd w f ikd &f UJ tusiq Yf ;kd awGukd avsmyY g;atmifvyk jf cif;[m Nird ;f csr;f a&; vkyif ef;jzpfw,fvYkd qdyk gw,f/ vpfbmwD tusK;d jyKrrI sm; a':atmifqef;pkMunf &Si;f jywJY jrefrmYNird ;f csr;f a&;t,ltq[m uaeY acwf urÇmNY ird ;f csr;f a&;t,ltqawGeYJ vnf; wlnyD gw,f/ ,aeY Nird ;f csr;f a&; vIy&f mS ;rIwikd ;f [m wpfO;D csi;f vGwv f yfciG ?Yf tzdEydS cf aH wGeYJ vlrsK;d pki,fawG&UJ vGwv f yf cGit Yf ay:rSm tajcwnfMuwmjzpfygw,f/ Nird ;f csr;f a&;vkyif ef;pOfwikd ;f rSm vlwpfO;D csi;f wefz;kd awGukd tumuG,af y;r,fh ]]vpfbmwD}}awG zefw;D ,l&wmjzpfovd?k tpd;k &&JU tmPmyg0gudk uefo Y wfMu&wm jzpfygw,f/ ]]vpfb&,f 'Dru kd a&pD}} [m wpfO;D csi;f vGwv f yfciG eYf YJ 'Dru kd a&pDpepfEpS cf u k kd aygif;pyfusio Yf ;kH wm jzpfw,f/ vltrsm; a&G;cs,w f ifajrmS ufwYJ 'Dru dk a&pDtyk cf sKyf rIu Nird ;f csr;f a&;udk wd;k jri§ aYf y;Edik o f vd?k wpfO;D csi;f vGwv f yfciG hf vpfbmwD tm; aumif;vmygrS Nird ;f csr;f a&; trSet f uef ay:xGe;f vmrSm jzpfygw,f/ vpfbmwDrmS t"du oH;k ck&w dS ,f/ pD;yGm;a&; vpfbmwD? bmoma&;vpfbmwDeYJ Edik if aH &;vpf bmwDwyYkd g/ tJ'o D ;Hk cku tpd;k &tmPmudk uefo Y wfxm;zkeYd YJ xde;f ndE§ ikd zf Ykd ulnD ygw,f/ txl;ojzifY Edik if aH &;vpfbmwD&rdS I u jynfwiG ;f rSmjzpfjzpf Edik if w H ume,fy,f rSmjzpfjzpf Nird ;f csr;f wJY aqG;aEG;ndE§ iId ;f rIawG jzpfxeG ;f vmapw,f/ Nird ;f csr;f wJh Edik if jH cm; a&;rl0g'awGukd aqmifMuOf;ay;w,f/

Edik if aH &;vpfbmwDrmS jynfoaYl &;&mudpö awGtay: vGwv f yfpmG ajymqdck iG eYf YJ vGwf vyfpmG pnf;½H;k vIy&f mS ;cGiaYf wG yg0ifyg w,f/ 'Dru kd a&pDEikd if o H m;awGu tpd;k &udk qefu Y siv f w kd t hJ cg tJ't D cGit hf a&;awGukd wpfenf;r[kww f pfenf; toH;k jyKygw,f/ vpfbmwD&UJ usix hf ;kH awG tifpwDusL;&Si;f awGukd toH;k jyKNy;D Oya'wGi;f uae tpd;k & udk vlxu k qE´jyEdik w f ,f/ vpfbmwD[m obm0tm;jzifh 'Dru kd a&pDr[kww f t hJ pd;k & awG&UJ tMurf;zufzEd ydS rf aI wGukd wm;jrpf avh&ydS gw,f/ wpfzufrmS 'Dru kd a&pDtpd;k &awGu twdu k t f cHawGukd acsreI ;f zsuq f ;D vnf; rypfEikd ?f vH;k 0vspv f sL½Ixm;vdv Yk nf;r& wmaMumifh Nird ;f csr;f wJeh nf;eJY aqG;aEG;quf qHraI wGvyk &f w,f/ a&G;aumufy&JG v'frmS twdu k t f cH½;HI onfjzpfap Edik o f nfjzpfap tmPm&olu Nird ;f csr;f pGm qufq&H yg w,f/ vpfb&,f'rD u kd a&pDrmS NyKd ib f uf awGMum; tmPmvTaJ jymif;rIukd Nird ;f csr;f pGm vkyMf u&ygw,f/ 'Dru kd a&pDtpd;k &awGrmS ppfyw JG pfck

vpfbmwD[m tpd;k &&JU tmPmudk apmifh Munfu h efo Y wfraI wGvyk w f maMumifh vpf bmwDaemufrmS yGiv hf if;jrifomrI uyfyg vmygw,f/ 'Dru kd a&pDpepf tvkyv f yk yf kH awGeYJ tpk;d &&JU rl0g' a&G;cs,af qmif&u G f yHak wGukd trsm;jynfoal wG tuGi;f vdu k f jrifEikd af tmif vpfbmwDu ulnaD y;w,f/ csxm;wJY Oya'awGukd tpk;d & vdu k ef mrI&dS atmif vpfbmwDu xde;f ausmif;ygw,f/ tJ'v D kd vpfbmwD tm;aumif;aprI udk ]],HMk unfrI wnfaqmufa&;jzpfpOf}} (confidence-building measures) vdYk ac:Muygw,f/ 'Dru kd a&pDrmS Edik if aH &;vkyf enf;vky[ f efawG yGiv Yf if;jrifomrI &Sv d m wmeJt Y rQ jynfwiG ;f rSma&m tjcm;Edik if aH wG eJrY mS yg ,HMk unfraI wG wd;k yGm;vmygw,f/ yGiv Yf if;jrifomrIawGukd o,fvmay;wJY vpfbmwDaMumifY ,HMk unfraI wG wd;k yGm; vmNy;D vufeufuikd yf #dyu©awGukd &yfomG ; apygw,f/ vpfbmwD tavhtusiahf wG? vpfbmwD tifpwDusL;&Si;f awGukd ayGUzuf xm;wJh 'Dru kd a&pDEikd if [ H m wjcm;aom 'Drkd ua&pDEikd if aH wGeYJ qufqw H t hJ cg Nird ;f csr;f pGm jyKrq l ufqrH aI wG&v dS mw,f/ Edik if jH cm; a&; rl0g'awGrmS atmifjrifraI wG &vm ygw,f/ wpfO;D csi;f vs vlxk 'gaMumifh vpfbmwDu 'Dru kd a&pD udk tm;aumif;apw,f/ 'Dru kd a&pD wd;k yGm; vmjcif;[m Nird ;f csr;f a&;ysUH ESaYH pjcif;ygyJ/ Nird ;f csr;f a&;orm;qko d [ l mvnf; vpfbm wDukd ayGUzuf&iS o f efaexkid o f o l m jzpf&yg r,f/ wpfO;D csi;f tcGit hf a&;eJY vlenf;pk tcGit Yf a&;awGtwGuf us,u f s,af vmif avmif [pfa<u;vIy&f mS ;aeolom jzpf& ygr,f/ wpfO;D csi;f ydik cf iG hf (individualism) awGukd paw;ypfwhJ pum;vH;k awG? t,l 0g'awG&UJ tEÅ&m,fukd Nird ;f csr;f a&;orm; wdik ;f owdBu;D Bu;D xm;zdYk vdt k yfygw,f/ ]]uGejf rLepfpepf? qk&d , S v f pfpepf? jynf axmifprk NyKd uaJG &;? tcsKyt f jcmumuG,f

,aeh Nird ;f csr;f a&;vIy&f mS ;rIwikd ;f [m wpfO;D csi;f vGwf vyfciG Uf tzdEydS cf aH wGehJ vlrsK;d pki,fawG&YJ vGwv f yf cGit Uf ay:rmS tajcwnfMuwmjzpfygw,f/ Nird ;f csr;f a&;vkyif ef;pOfwikd ;f rSm vlwpfO;D csi;f wefz;kd awGukd tumuG,af y;r,fU ]vpfbmwD}awG zefw;D ,l&wm jzpfovd?k tpd;k &&JY tmPmyg0gukd uefo h wfMu&wm jzpfygw,f qifEzJT Ykd t[eft Y wm;awG trsm;Bu;D &Syd g w,f/ tmPm&Siaf wGuawmh b,forYl S aqG;aEG;wdik yf ifwmr&Sb d J ppfyw JG pfyJG pwif Edik w f ,f/ tD&wfu quf'rf[pl ed q f &kd if b,forYl S rwdik yf ifbJ 1980 rSm tD&ef? 1990 rSm ul0w d Ef ikd if w H u Ykd kd 0ifwu kd cf w YJ ,f/ [pfwvmuvnf; Oa&myrSm 'kw, d urÇmppfukd olpY w d af ygufovdk pwifcYJ w,f/ 'Dru kd a&pDacgif;aqmifawGrmS awmh tJ'v D v kd yk zf q Ykd &kd if twm;tqD;awGtrsm; Bu;D &Syd gw,f/ 'gaMumifh wpfO;D csi;f vpfbmwD[m tpk;d &awG bmvky&f r,f? b,fvv kd yk &f r,fqw kd t YJ ay: MoZmoufa&mufrI trsm;Bu;D &Syd gw,f/ aemufNy;D 'Dru kd a&pD tay: vpfbmwD&UJ tusK;d jyKrw I pfcu k ]]yGiv Yf if;jrifomrI}} (transparency) ygyJ/

a&;? cGrJ xGuaf &;? wpfjynfaxmifpf epf? vlxt k wGu?f trsm;twGu}f } pwJY tpk taygif;t,ltqawG (mass, collectiH wGatmufrmS wpfO;D vism)? a<u;aMumfoa csi;f ydik cf iG eYf YJ vlenf;pktcGit Yf a&;awG zsuf qD;oN*KØ [cf v H u kd &f wmudk umuG,zf u Ykd Nird ;f csr;f a&;orm;awG&UJ arG;&mygwm0ef Bu;D ygyJ/ 'DtwGuf 21 &mpk Nird ;f csr;f a&; orm;[m 'Dru kd &ufwpfa,muftjzpf vpfbmwDorm;tjzpfeYJ tNr&J iS o f efzswf vwf jrL;<uae&ygvdrrhf ,f/ J ud;k um;/ Nobel Lecture by Aung San Suu Kyi, Oslo, 16 June, 2012 Democracy’s Good Name by Michael Mandelbaum


■ 'J&ufwHkuif (Derek Tonkin)

jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 'kwd,urÇm ppf umv u toH;k jyKcahJ om topfpufpuf pypf zdik ;f ,m;av,mOfrsm; av,mOftyk f trsm;tjym;pm rMumrwif wu,hfudk wl;azmf Edik af wmhrnf [laom rMumao; cifujzpfay:cJhaom owif;rsm;aMumihf uRefawmf wdkY&TifjrL;0rf;omjzpfcJh&onf/ 1940 ckESpfNAdwdefppfyGJumvu toHk;jyK cJhaom xdk txifu&av,mOfrsm;udk rlv wifydkYvdkufpOfuyg&Sdvmonhf aowÅm rsm;twdkif; ajratmufay 40 teuf wGifjr§KyfESHxm;cJhonf[kqdkonf/ xdk aowÅmrsm;udk cdik cf ahH p&ef jrefrmhuRe;f rsm;jzihf jyKvkyfxm;cJhjcif;jzpfNyD; tpif; 140 rQtxd&SdEdkifonf[k qdkonf/ odkYaomf yxrtqihfwGif &efukefr*Fvm 'Hk tjynfjynfqdkif&mavqdyfteD; 36 pif;? ucsifjynfe,f jrpfBuD;em;wGif 18 pif;ESihf rEÅav;wdkif; rdwD¬vmwGif 6 pif; udk omwl;azmfrnf[k odcJh&onf/ xdkodkY wl;azmf&efoabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;udk vuf rSwaf &;xd;k cJMh uNy;D &efuek &f dS NAw d o d Qo½H ;kH u vnf; tm;ay;tm;ajr§muf jyKcJhonf/ Zefe0g&Dvv,fwGif ueOD;pwif wl;azmfjcif;rS &&Sv d mrnhf tusK;d &v'fukd toufyif r½SLEdkifbJ uRefawmfwdkYapmihf em;axmifcJhMuonf/ odkYaomf,cktxd awmh xdkav,mOfrsm;\ tpteudkrQ uRefawmfwdkYrawGY&ao;yg/ odkYaomf wl; azmfNyD; ESpf&ufrQtMumwGif yifaeum rsurf eS t f rnf;Bu;D rsm; wyfxm;aom vl wpfpk a&mufvmNy;D JCB ,EÅ&m;BuD;rsm; toHk;jyKwl;azmfaeonhf vkyfief;rsm;udk &yfqdkif;&ef vmajymcJhMuonf/ olwkdY taMumif;jycsuu f ,ckw;l azmfonhf ae &monf av,mOfajy;vrf;jzihf tvGef eD;uyfaeonf[kqdkonf/ odkYaomf av ,mOftwuftqif;rvkyfonhf tcsdefü vufjzihf wl;azmfcGihfay;rnfqdkvQifyif xdkav,mOfrsm; awGYEdkifrawGYEdkif rnfol rQtmr rcHEdkifyg/ uRefawmf þZmwfvrf;udk pwif Mum; zl;cJhonfrSm 1998 ckESpf ujzpf onf/ tqdkyg aumvm[v owif; tqdt k & 1945 ckEpS w f iG f pypf zdik ;f ,m; av,mOftopfpuf pufrsm; a&muf&Sd vmNyD; r*Fvm'HkavqdyfwGif ae&mvGwf r&Sdojzihf ajrwGif; cyfwdrfwdrfwGifom xm;&SdNyD; xdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf[k qdk onf/ odkYaomf rdk;onf;xefpGm&GmoGef; NyD;aemuf xdkav,mOfrsm; ajrxJwGif epfjrKyo f mG ;cJh Ny;D vtenf;i,ftMumwGif tpteaysmufomG ;um rMumcif xdak v ,mOfrsm;udkvlawGarhaysmufoGm; cJhMu onf[q k o kd nf/ þ aumvm[vonf awmf0ifavwyf (RAF) \cdkif;apcsuf t& tar&duef aqmufvyk f a&;wyfppf jyefrsm;qDrSxGufay:vmjcif; jzpfonf/ þowif;\&if;jrpfrSm tar&duefppf aqmufvyk af &;tif*sief , D mrsm;jzpfonf [kqdk tar&duef ppftif*sief , D mrsm;rSm *Ref0def; yg0ifo½kyfaqmifcJhonhf ‘The Fighting Seabees’ Zmwfum;aMumihf tar&duefa&wyf Seabees rsm;tjzpf rarhraysmuf EdkifatmifodoGm;Muonf/ od k Y a omf tqd k y g Seabees rsm;rS m ypdzdwf uRef;rsm;wGifom wpfuRef;NyD; wpfuRe;f ckeu f ;l um ppftajcpdu k pf cef; rsm; aqmufcMhJ uolrsm;jzpfNy;D jrefrmjynf odkY wpfcgrQ a&mufcJhzl;olrsm; r[kwf

Muyg/ odkYaomf xdkwyfzGJY0ifrsm;onf tdE´d,EdkifiH vD'dkvrf;azmufcJholrsm;ESihf jrefrmjynf ajrmufydkif;wGif ppfav,mOf uGif; azmufvkyfcJholrsm;[k ajymqdkMurI rsm;&Sdaomfvnf; jrpfBuD;em;awmifbuf odkY wpfcgrQra&mufcJhMuyg/ xdkYaMumihf þtar&duef tif*sifeD,mwyfzGJYonf 'kwd, urÇmppftNyD; pifumylodkYtoGm; &efuek f wGif wpfaxmuf0ifem;oGm;olrsm; jzpf zG,f&Sdygonf/ awmf0ifavwyfwGif xdk av,mOfrsm; o,f,yl aYkd qmif&mwGif vnf;aumif; vdktyfonhf ,EÅ&m;rsm; aomf vnf;aumif; r&Sdjcif;aMumihf xkd tar&duef tif*sifeD,mrsm;u olwdkY uRrf;usifrIjzihf tultnDay;&ef 0rf; ajrmuf0rf;om urf;vSr;f cJzh , G &f ydS gonf/ xdt k ar&duefwyfzo YJG nfrnfonhf wyfzYJG jzpfonfqo kd nfukd wpfcgrQxw k af zmfajym qdkjcif;rjyKcJhyg/ aemuf pOf;pm;p&m&Sd onfrSm xdkav,mOfrsm;udk rdw¬Dvm ESihfjrpfBuD;em; odkYrnfodkY,laqmifoGm;cJh oenf;qdo k nht f csujf zpfonf/ vQKUd 0Suf íjzpfap ajymifyJjzpfap bmyJvkyfvkyf xdak v,mOfrsm;udk r*Fvm'Hw k iG f qifNy;D rS xdak e&mrsm;odYk yso H ef;,laqmifomG ;onf

onf[q k o kd nf/ tqdyk grSww f rf;rsm;t& pypfzikd ;f ,m;rwf 14 trsK;d tpm;av,mOf 124 pif;udk jrefrmEdkifiHodkY 1945 Mo *kwv f twGi;f uay;ydcYk NhJ y;D rMumrD toH;k jyKjcif;rS&yfpJ (Struck Off Charge – h nf [kqo kd nf/ a';Apfuef'v J f SOC) cJo udk udk;um;NyD; ‘The Times’ u 2013 ckEpS Zf efe0g&Dv 7 &ufaeYu owif;a&; om;azmfjycJh&mü ]]armfuGef;wdkuf okaw oDwpfOD;\ tultnDjzihf olwtHhwMo odc&hJ onht f csurf mS 1945 ckEpS f Mo*kwf v 1 &ufwGif pypfzdkif;,m;rwf 14 trsKd ; tpm;av,mOf 124 pif ; ud k toHk;jyKjcif;rS&yfpJcJhonf/ olwkdY wdkufyGJ 0if ysHoef;cJhonhf rSwfwrf;rsm;vnf;r&Sd? rnfonhaf v,mOftyk o f Ykd ydaYk qmifco hJ nf [laomrSww f rf;rsm;vnf; r&Sb d J xkad v ,mOfrsm; vHk;0tpaysmufoGm;cJhonf}} wpfckckudkr&Sdygbl;[k oufaojy &onfrSm vG,fonhfudpöawmhr[kwfyg/ odkYaomf taxmuftuljzpfp&m wpf csufawmh &Sdonf/ xkwfvkyfcJhorQpypf zdik ;f ,m;av,mOf tpif;wdik ;f udk aoao csmcsm tao;pdwf rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJh jcif;yifjzpfonf/ ,ckajymaeonhf

,mOfrsm;udk xdkodkYa&aMumif;rS wifydkYcJh onfqo kd nhf rSww f rf;rsm;vnf; rawG&Y yg/ xdktcsdef u ACSEA wGifwm0ef xrf;aqmif&ef yHrk eS af y;ydcYk o hJ nhyf ifv,f qdyu f rf;NrKd Ursm;jzpfaom bHak bESifh u&m csdrSwpfqihf wifydkYcJhonfqdkapOD; 1945 ckESpftwGif;xdkodkY av,mOfrsm; SOC jyK vkyfcJhonfrSm tenf;tusOf;om&SdNyD; 1946 ckESpfwGif trsm;tjym;&SdcJhaomf vnf; xdo k t Ykd oH;k jyKjcif;rS &yfpcJ o hJ nfrsm; rSm ysHoef;rIqdkif&m taMumif;tcsuf t&aomf¤if; tjcm;taMumif;wpfckck aMumiho f mvQijf zpfNy;D xdo k Ykd jyKvyk cf o hJ rQ rSmvnf; aeYpGJtwdtus&SdMuonf/ 1947 ESihf 1948 ckESpfa&muf aomtcg rwf 14 trsKd;tpm;av,mOfrsm;udk ACSEA ppfe,f0Srf;wGif xdkodkYtoHk; jyKjcif;rS&yfpjJ cif;rsm; trsm;tjym; pwif jyKvkyfcJhNyD; jrefrmEdkifiHwGifrl av,mOf rawmfwq jzpf&yfrsm;aMumihf tenf; tusOf;omjyKvkyfcJh&onf/ tqdkyg ppf e,f0Srf;rSm xdktcsdefu *syefEdkifiHyif yg0ifaeNyjD zpfonf/ 1945 arv 2 &uf aeYrS 1946 'DZifbm 31 &uftMum; vaygif; 20 rQumvtwGif; av,mOf

1948 ckESpfwGif pypfzdkif;,m;av,mOf oHk;pif;udk ACSEA xHrS vTJajymif;&,lcJh onf/ xyfraH y;tyf&ef awmufavQmuf arwÅm&yfcHaerIrsm;aMumihf 1951 wGif topfjyefvnfjyKjyifxm;aom av,mOf tpif; 20 udk xyfrHay;tyfcJhonf/ tpöa&;xHrv S nf; av,mOfwif oabFm ay: qif;wufEdkif&ef jyKjyifxm;onhf trsKd;tpm;jzpfaom Seafires av,mOf tpif; 30 udk 1954 ckEpS w f iG &f &Scd o hJ nf/ þodYk av,mOftrsm;tjym; vdt k yfaeNy;D rSm,lae&csdefü topfpufpufjzpfNyD; taotcsmxde;f odr;f xm;onhf pypfzikd ;f ,m; av,mOfrsm;udk r*Fvm'Hkav,mOf uGif;wGif qufvufjr§KyfESHxm;onf qdk onfurl ,kwdårwefvSay/ xnho f iG ;f ajymqdak vmufonhf taxmuf txm;[lonfrSm 2004 ckESpfu Geonics EM3

tDvufx&Gef;epftm½HkcH ud&d,m jzihf prf;oyf&SmazGawGY&SdcJhonf[k qdk aom owfrSwfxm;onhf ae&mrsm;&Sd vQyful;ypönf;rsm; tawmftwef ajr atmufwGif &Sdaeonfqkdonhf tcsuf

jrefrmEdkifiHa&muf pypfzdkif;,m; ,Hkwrf;pum; þ'@m&D rnfodkhpcJUovJ rSm olwdkYtwGuf ydkrvG,faybl;vm;/ t"du oufaocHtaxmuf txm;rSm r*Fvm'HkwGif jr§KyfESHcJhonf[k qdkaom pypfzdkif;,m;av,mOfrsm; yg onhf aowåmBu;D rsm;udk jrifawGcY o hJ nf[k qdo k nhf oufaorsm;jzpfaom NAw d o d QEiS fh tar&duefvlrsKd; &SpfOD;xufrenf;&Sd aejcif;yif jzpfonf/ uHqdk;onfrSm tar&duefvlrsKd;oufao wpfOD;wav rQuReaf wmfwEYkd iS fh twl&rdS aeawmhjcif;yif jzpfonf/ tjcm;wpfOD;rSm aq;½HkwGif toufu,fcef;xJ vGecf ahJ omESpt f enf; i,fuyifa&mufaeNyD; ,ck avmufqdk vQift½dk;yifusaeavmufNyDjzpfonf/ NAdwdoQvlrsKd; rsufjrifoufaorsm;ESihf ywfoufívnf; olwkdY bmawGjrifcJh onfawGYcJhonfqdkonfudk uRefawmf r,HEk ikd pf &mtaMumif;r&Syd g/ tcsKUd vlrsm; u bmawGjrifcJhonf qdkonfudk olrsm; ajymwm jyefajymMuolrsm;om jzpfonf/ odkYaomf tqdkygaowÅmrsm; udk jr§KyfESH cJhonfqdkwmomodMuNyD; xdkaowåm rsm;xJwGif pypfzdkif;,m; av,mOfrsm; ygonfqdkonfudk udk,fwdkif rnfolrQ rjrifcJhMuyg/ odkYaomfr*Fvm'Hk avqdyf wGif 1945 rS 1947 twGif; tNrJ wrf;wm0efuscJhonhf NAdwdoQawmf0if avwyfrS avwyfom;rsm;ESihf tjcm; avwyfom; wpfpHkwpfOD;urQ xdkuJhokdY ,m,DjzwfoGm; jzwfvmwm0efxrf;zl; olrsm; acwåcP wm0efuszl;olrsm; ajymqdck o hJ nhf þZmwfvrf;udk axmufcH twnfjyKajymqdk cJholr&Sdyg/ trSefwu,fr&SdcJhonhf pm&Gufpmwrf; taxmuftxm; aemufqHk;awGY&onhf taxmuf txm;rSm vef'ef Kew trsKd;om; armf uGef;wdkuf&Sd rSwfwrf;wpfckudk okawoD wpfOD;uawGYcJhNyD; ,if;wGifrcsihfr&Jjzpfp &mrSwfpkrSwfwrf; tajrmuftjrm;yg&Sd

pypfzdkif;,m; rwf 14 trsKd;tpm;av ,mOfrsm;ESihfywfoufívnf; ta&SU awmiftm&S avwyfXmecsKyf (ACSEA) odkY ay;ydkYcJhorQrSwfwrf;tm;vHk; tao; pdwf&Sdonf/ olwdkYudk wnfaqmufxkwf vkyfcJhonhfae&mrsm; (trsm;tm;jzihf

tpD; 36 pif;rQudk toHk;jyKjcif;rS&yfpJcJh onf qdkonhftcsufrSm rjzpfEdkifyg/ xdkY xuf ydí k av,mOftpif; 124 pif;rQukd (SOC) vkyfcJhonfqdkonfrSmrl ,Hkwrf; pum;rQomjzpfygonf/

Aldermaston, Eastleigh, Keevil and

*syefvufeufcsNyD;aemuf avaMumif; vIyf&Sm;rIydkrdkrsm;jym;vmjcif; 1945 Mo*kwfvvdk umvwGif rwf 14 trsK;d tpm;av,mOf tpD; 140 rQ vdktyfaeao;onf qdkonhf tcsuf rSmrsm;jym;vGe;f Ny;D rvdt k yfqo kd nhaf jymqdk csufrSmvnf; 0da&m"dawG &Sdaeonf/ ta&SUawmiftm&S a'owpfcw k nf;wGif yif rwf 14 trsKd;tpm;rsm;tygt0if pypfzdkif;,m;av,mOfrsKd;pHkudk 1950 jynfhESpfrsm;twGif; qufvuf ay;ydkY a&mif;cscJh&onf/ awmf0iftdE´d, av wyfrawmf (aemifwGiftdE´d,avwyf rawmf) odkY vnf;aumif;? tif'dkcsKdif;em; a'owGif toH;k jyK&ef jyifopfavwyfoYkd 1953 ckEpS f txd vnf;aumif;? e,fom vef ta&SUtdE´d,uRef;pkrsm;wGif toHk; jyK&ef 'wfcsfavwyfodkY vnf;aumif;? 1950 jynfEh pS w f iG f awmf0ifxikd ;f avwyf odYk vnf;aumif; toD;oD;qufvufay; ydkYa&mif;cscJh&onf/ vGwfvyfa&;r&rD wpfESpftvdk 1947 Zefe0g&Dvu pwif zJGYpnf;cJhonhf jrefrmhavwyfuvnf;

Chattis Hill wdkYwGifomjzpfNyD; NAdwdoQ owif;pm trsm;tjym; ajymaeovdk Castle Bromwich wGif xkwfvkyfcJhjcif; r&Sdyg)? xkwfvkyfrI NyD;qHk;onhfaeYpGJ? ACSEA odkYrnfonhfoabFmjzihf ay;ydkYcJh onf? rnfonhfav,mOf tkyfodkYvTJ ajymif;ay;cJhonf? rnfonhfaeY&ufu wm0efxrf;aqmifapjcif;rS &yfpJcJhonf (SOC)? odkYr[kwftjcm;enf;jzihf rnfokdY pGefYypfcJhonf qdkonhf rSwfwrf;tao; pdwf&Sdonf/ þrSwfwrf;wGif vJGrSm;cRwfacsmf aeonhftcsuftvufrawGY&yg/ xkwf vkyfcJhonhf tokwf (batches) rsm; teuf aysmufu, G af eonhf tokwrf sm; vnf; rawGY&yg/ xdkYtwl ta&SUawmif tm&S r[mrdwfwyfzGJYrsm;\wyfrSL;csKyf avmh'farmihfbufwefu tqdkygav ,mOfrsm;udk pGeyYf pf&eftrdeaYf y;cJo h nf[k ajymqdkrIrsm;ESihf pyfvsOf;ívnf; taxmuftxm; wpfpw kH pf&mrawG&Y yg/ 1945 ESihf 1946 ckESpfrsm;twGif; av

yif jzpfonf/ odkYaomfwl;azmfjcif; rjyK& ao;bJESihf tqdkyg ypönf;rsm;rSm rnf onhyf pön;f rsm; jzpfonfqo kd nfukd ajym &efrjzpfEdkifyg/ wpfcsdefwGif prf;oyfwl; azmf&mü ajratmufwGifjr§KyfESHxm;onhf opfom;aowÅmBuD;rsm;txd a&muf&Sd cJhonf[kqdkonf/ odkYaomfþ aowåm BuD;rsm;twGif; bm&Sdonf qdkonfudk qufvuf avhvmMunh½f jI cif; rjyK&efukd rl EdkifiHa&;taMumif;t&aomfvnf; aumif;? oabmwlpmcsKyft&aomf vnf;aumif; tHhtm;oihfzG,fqHk;jzwfcJh onf[k qdo k nf/ xdt k csed rf pS í&SmazGa&; vkyif ef;wGiyf g0ifaeaom odyyHÜ nmuRr;f usifolrsm;url av,mOf rsm;udkawGY zdkYxuf þy#dyu©rsm;a&m>yef;aeonhf a&S;a[mif;okawoevkyif ef;Bu;D udk om ydrk pkd w d 0f ifpm;vmMuonf/ av,mOfrsm; wl;azmf&&SdonfqdkvQifvnf; ,if;rSm olwdkYtwGuf tydkqkrQomjzpfvdrhfrnf/ ('J&ufwHkuifonf tjrwftpGef; twGufr[kwfaomtzGJYtpnf;jzpfonhf Network Myanmar \Ouú | jzpf N yD ; Bagan Capital Ltd. \ tBuH a y; bkwftzGJY0ifwpfOD;jzpfonf/ ola&;om; xm;aom Myanmar’s Phantom Spitfires: How a Legend was Born

aqmif;yg;rS aumufEkwfwifjyygonf/) ■


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Source: AFP

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mizzima burmese journal  

mizzima burmese journal

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