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ykvJoG,fwpf{utwGuf ukefusp&dwf wpf{utwGufrsdK;pyg; 1 uDvdk*&rf (7) xkyf (7 uDvdk*&rf) xGef,ufc (ysdK;cif;tygt0if) ysdK;Ekwfp&dwfESifh aumufpdkufp&dwf "mwfajrMoZm (,l&D;,m;) 3tdwf(wpftdwf 22000) wDplyg"mwfajrMoZm (1)tdwf aygif;owfaq; ydk;owfaq; tvkyform;c

= = = = = = = =

25000 30000 60000 66000 25000 12000 10000 58000

=

15000

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olv,form;ESit Yf vkyo f rm; ygwDrS qif; oufvmjcif;r[kwyf g/ OD;AaqGBu;D \om; r[m0dZmÆ bGUJ twGuf jyKpak om jynfolY ta&;awmfyykH gwD (1939-1946) pmwrf; ESiYf OD;ausmNf ird ;f uG,v f eG t f Ny;D rSm wynfh awG0ikd ;f a&;MuwJY pmtkyu f OD;ausmNf ird ;f rSww f rf;? Adv k rf LS ;csKyaf rmifarmif\ pmtkyf Burmese

Nationalist

Movements

1940 – 1948 wGif ñTe;f xm;aom wdu Yk dk zwf½cI yYJ gvQif ydk jynfph rkH eS u f efEidk yf grnf/ tm;enf;csuaf emufwpfcrk mS vl awGUtifwmAsL;rsm;udk yif&if;twdik ;f wif jyjcif;jzpfonf/ trsm;tm;jzifh pma&;ol rsm;onf vlawGUtifwmAsL;rS qdik o f nfh tcsurf sm;udo k mxkw, f í l vk&d if;tcsuf udo k mwifjyMuNy;D pmtkyaf emufyidk ;f wGirf S rnfou l ajymygonfqNkd y;D aemufqufwJG tjzpfwifjyMuonf/ tu,fí uGv J cJG suf rsm;&Sv d Qiv f nf; uGv J cJG suu f kd wifjyavY &SMd uonf/ a'gufwmcifvufsmu tifwm AsL;rsm;udk yif&if;twdik ;f xnfo h iG ;f wifjy vm&m rvdo k nft h csurf sm; a&maxG;vm onft h jyif vlawG\txiftjrif earsay awGygvmojzifY wifjycsuw f csKUd aygYysu&f onf[k qdck siyf gonf/ a'gufwmcifvusmf wGif tm;om csuw f pfc&k o dS nfrmS Adv k v f ufsmwGif ud, k f wdik af &;rSww f rf;wcsKd U usecf yYJ &kH onf/ þrSww f rf;rS &mZ0iftjzpftysurf sm;udk csed u f u kd Ef idk pf rG ;f &Scd aYJ omf? tvGew f efz;kd &Sd Ekid yf gonf/ vGyv f yfa&;ordik ;f wGif Adv k f vusmf \ tcef;u@onf tvGet f a&; ygcJyY gonf/ Oyrm zqyvwnfaxmif aomtcg uGejf rLepfygwD? jynfot Yl a&; awmfyykH gwDEiS Yf ppfwyfwpYkd rD S ud, k pf m;vS,f (3) OD;pDjzifh pwifzUJG pnf;cJMY u&m Adv k cf sKyf atmifqef;tjyif Adv k v f usmf wpfO;D wnf; om þtzGt YJ pnf; (3) ckpvH;k wGif yg0ifchJ oljzpfonf/ uGejf rLepfqv J zf UJG Muawmh Adv k v f usmf ygcJo Y nf/ taMumif;rSm Adv k v f ufsmESiYf History of BRP

wmcifvusmf a&;wJY azaz Adv k f vusmf pmtkyf xGuw f ,fMum;& awmY tawmf0rf;omrdw,f/ taMumif;u Adv k v f usmf [m vGwv f yfa&;wdu k yf rJG mS xdyf qH;k uyg0ifcw YJ YJ yk*Kd¾ vjf zpfovdk Adv k cf sKyf atmifqef;,HMk unf&wJY a&mif;&if;wpfO;D jzpfayrJv Y Ykd Adv fk v f usmf &JU taMumif;udk vlawG odyrf odMu&zl;/ vlawGukd Adv k f vusmf taMumif; odapcsiw f ,f/ pma&; olvnf; odcsiyf gw,f/ 'gaMumifY &efuek af &mufa&mufcsi;f zwfrw d YJ pmtkyf xJrmS tOD;qH;k xJrmS ygygw,f/ a'gufwmcifvusmf [m vlBu;D om; orD; trsm;pkjzpfwt hJ wdik ;f Bu;D vmawmY ud, k t hf aztaMumif;udk odcsiaf wmh taz eJeY ;D pyfwo hJ al wG? tazh&UJ vkyaf zmfuikd zf uf awGuv kd u kd af r;&if;ud, k t hf aztaMumif;? ud, k t hf az&JUyH&k yd u f kd jyefazmfMu&wmud;k / a'gufwmcifvusmf &JU pmtkyu f kd zwf&awmh rodc&hJ wJh Adv k v f usmf t aMumif;awGo&d wmudk aus;Zl;wifryd g w,f/ Adv k v f usmf &JUtaMumif;udk azmfjy&if &mZ0iftcsut f vufawGukd a&SmifvrYkd & 'gaMumifh &mZ0iftcsut f vuf tjzpft ysuaf wGukd taotcsm okawoejyKNy;D rS &mZ0iftcsut f vuf tjzpftysuaf wG udak zmfjy&if; 'DjzpfpOfrmS Adv k v f usmf [m b,fvt kd cef;u b,fvykd g0ifco hJ vJqkd wmudk azmfjyoifw Y ,f/ xdrk w S pfqifh Adv k f vusmf [m b,fvv kd pl m;rsKd ;? b,fvkd (rl) tay:&yfcw hJ ,f? b,fae&mrSm bm aMumifY txifrmS ;cH&w,f? wu,ft h jzpf u 'Dvykd g? Adv k v f usmf &JU b,frw d af qGawG u b,fvkd ajymygw,f? 'Dvu l awmh 'Dvkd ajymygw,fqNkd y;D wifjyEkid cf &hJ if? tcsuf tvufawGvnf; ydck ikd rf mvmr,f/ zwf& onfh pmzwfy&dowftwGuv f nf; ydt k usKd ;&SEd idk rf ,fvYkd xifjrifryd g&JU/ a'gufwmcifvufsm&JU a&;om;csuf rSm tm;enf;csuf (2) ck awGU&ygonf/ yxrwpfcsurf mS ud;k um;onfh yif&if; enf;vGe;f onf/ okawoejyKru I kd em; vnfygvQif single source [kac:aom yif&if;wpfcw k nf;udk tm;ud;k ír&yg/ Oyrm Adv k v f usmf ESieYf ;D pyfol ocifxed 0f if; wpfO;D xJukd tm;ud;k ír&yg/ ocifxed 0f if; onf Adv k v f ufsmESit Yf wlaezl;ojzifY Adv k f

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Adv k v f usmf om u&ifawGEiS Uf raygi;f rdvQif &mZ0if wpfrsKd ;jzpfEidk o f vm;/ vuf0t J yk pf w k iG f Adv k v f usmf ESiUf Adv k af e0if;wdhk tm;NyKd icf MUJ uvQif &v'fajymif;Ekid o f vm;/ Adv k v f usmf onf u&ifawGEiS Uf eD;onfqNkd y;D vuf0pJ pfAv kd af vmuwGif MoZmESiUf ,HMk unfrI us qif;cJ&U onf ar;jref;aom yk*v d¾ Of ;D a&rSm tvGeef nf;yg onf/ Oyrm Bertil Litner ESihf Martin Yk pmtkyrf sm;udk avYvmvQif Smith wd\ tñTe;f pmtkyrf sm;ESiYf vlcsi;f awGUqHk tif wmAsL;vkyo f rl sm;rSm &m*Pef;&Syd gonf/ t"dutcsurf mS jzpfpOfrsm;eJY teD;uyfq;kH yHak zmfjyEkid &f efEiS Yf wifjyaomtcsuf tvufrsm; wdus&efjzpfonf/ odrYk [kwf u wifjycsurf sm;vGí J yif&if;ar;jref;cH& olrsm;\ bufvu kd rf rI sm;ESiYf trSm;rsm; rdrd wifjyrIwiG yf gvmwwfygonf/ Oyrm pmrsuEf mS 149 wGif jynfolY ta&;awmfyykH gwD taMumif;wifjy&mwGif ocifjrudOk ;D xdyx f m;Ny;D zGUJ MuwmrSeaf omf vnf; ygwDupkd zGUJ cJMh uaom OD;AaqG? OD;ausmNf ird ;f ? ocifcsp?f udAk [de;f wdu Yk kd razmfjybJ azmfjyxm;aom ocif½aI rmif? ocifausmpf ed ?f udak &TwrYdk mS rygcJMh uyg/ jynfot Yl a&;awmfyykH gwDonfvnf; awmif

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2012 atmufwkdbmvwGif uG,fvGefcJhaom uarÇm 'D;,m;bk&if Ekd½kd'GefoD[mEk\ aq;&nfpdrf ½kyftavmif;udk rD;oN*dK[fyGJtwGuf NrdKUawmfzEGrf;yif\ vrf;rsm;wGif vl aygif;rsm;pGm pDwef;vSnfUvnfcJUMuonf/ touf 89 ESpft&G,fwGif ESvkH;a&m*gjzifU uG,fvGefcJhonfh oD[mEk twGuf oef;ESicUf so D nfU jynforl sm; pDwef;vSnv hf nfcMhJ uNy;D ykHwGif vSnfUvnfyGJwGif yg0ifcJUonfU uarmÇ'D;,m; vli,f wpfOD;ukdawGY&pOf/ ("mwfykH - atyD)

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jyefavhvm&wmrsdK;awG &Sdygw,f/ SeaGame

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mizzima burmese journal  

mizzima burmese journal

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