Page 1

Universidad Mariano Gálvez de Guatemala Facultad de Ciencias Humanidades Escuela de Idiomas Phonology II (2nd. Semester) Lic. Julio del Águila

PORTFOLIO

Mariajosé Escobar

ID: 076-19-25540


Contenido STRESS ............................................................................................................................................. 4 The Schwa ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Stress

unstressed ......................................................................................................................... 8

Word Stress and Sentence Stress ............................................................................................ 9 The Golden Key to English Pronunciation ...................................................................... 9 WORD STRESS ............................................................................................................................... 9 What is word stress? ................................................................................................................... 10 SENTENCE STRESS .................................................................................................................... 11 Placemente of Word stress ........................................................................................................ 13 COMPOUNDS............................................................................................................................. 15 SUFFIXES .................................................................................................................................. 16 What is intonation? ...................................................................................................................... 19 FINAL INTONATION ................................................................................................................ 19 RISING INTONATION ............................................................................................................. 20 NON-FINAL INTONATION ..................................................................................................... 21 CONTINUATION RISE .............................................................................................................. 21 TAG QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 21 The pronunciation.......................................................................................................................... 25 of function words .......................................................................................................................... 25 Strong and weaks forms .......................................................................................................... 25 WORDS AND PHRASES ......................................................................................................... 26 Linking .............................................................................................................................................. 31 LINKING CONSONANTS TO VOWELS: ........................................................................... 31 LINKING CONSONANT TO CONSONANT ...................................................................... 31 LINKING IDENTICAL CONSONANTS .............................................................................. 32 LINKING VOWEL TO VOWEL .............................................................................................. 32 LINKING VOWELS TO SEMIVOWELS ............................................................................. 33 DELETION OF CONSONANTS ................................................................................................ 35


ASSIMILATION .......................................................................................................................... 39 Patalization ........................................................................................................................................ 43 ENGLISH CONSONANTS: .................................................................................................... 46 PROBLEM ASPIRATION: /p/, /t/, and /k/ ....................................................................... 46 FRICATIVES.............................................................................................................................. 46 VOICING FINAL STOP CONSONANTS /p/, /d/, and /g/ ........................................... 47 INITIAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS ................................................................................... 47 STRESS, RYTHM AND INTONATION ♫♪........................................................................ 47 STRESS ....................................................................................................................................... 47 UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES................................................................................................................ 48 WORD STRESS: .............................................................................................................................. 48 RYTHM: .......................................................................................................................................... 48 INTONATION: ................................................................................................................................ 48 LINKING: ........................................................................................................................................ 49 CONTRACTIONS: ............................................................................................................................ 49 ENGLISH VOWELS: ......................................................................................................................... 49 TENSE VS. LAX VOWELS ................................................................................................................. 49 TEACHING LAX VOWELS: ............................................................................................................... 50 TENSE LAX DISTINCTION: .............................................................................................................. 51 General tips for teaching vowels....................................................................................................... 52 Top tips for teaching phonics .................................................................................................. 52 ENGLISH CONSONANT....................................................................................................................... 55 PROBLEM: VOICING OF FINAL STOP CONSONANTS /b/, /d/, and /g/ ........................................... 57 PROBLEM: INITIAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS .................................................................................. 57 PROBLEM: FINAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS .................................................................................... 58 PROBLEM /θ/ and /ο/ as in “think” and “this”. .............................................................. 58 PROBLEM: english /r/ ................................................................................................................. 58


STRESS Syllables in English words don't all have the same level of loudness. Some are loud, some are short and quiet, some are in between. English has three levels of stress: 

primary stress: the loudest syllable in the word. In one-syllable words, that one syllable has the primary stress (except for a handful of short function words like the, which might not have any stress at all). Primary stress is marked in IPA by putting a raised vertical line [ˈ] at the beginning of the syllable. secondary stress: syllables which aren't completely unstressed, but aren't as loud as the primary stress. Secondary stress is marked with a lowered vertical line [ˌ] at the beginning of the syllable. unstressed syllables: syllables that have no stress at all. In English, almost all of these have schwa [ə] for their vowel, though [i] will also often be unstressed, like the [i] in happy [ˈhæpi]. (Very rarely, another non-schwa vowel might be unstressed, like the [o] of potato [pəˈteto] for most speakers.)

Examples: [əˈnʌf]

enough

[ˌmænəˈtobə]

Manitoba

[ˈfotəˌɡɹæf]

photograph

A good example of the difference between secondary stress and the complete absence of stress is the final syllable of delegate, used as a verb and used as a noun. [ˈdɛləˌɡet]

verb: You have to delegate your responsibilities


[ˈdɛləɡət]

noun: We elected a delegate to the national committee.

https://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/phonetics/transcription/stress.html

VIDEO ABOUT STRESS: https://youtu.be/9-X5dsqOqeQ


The Schwa

VIDEO: IDENTIFYING THE CORRECT SHWA SOUND: https://youtu.be/jsCpgGBT-Ko


Worksheet description Four limericks in pairs - one marked for stresses and schwas, the other unmarked. Students try reading in pairs - one reads, the other checks There once was a lady from Niger, Who went for a ride on a tiger. They came back from the ride With the lady inside, And a smile on the face of the tiger. There was an old man from Darjeeling, Who got on a bus bound for Ealing. It said on the door, "Don’t spit on the floor" So he carefully spat on the ceiling.

Thə once wəs ə lady frəm Nigə , Who went fər ə ride on ə tigə . They came back frəm thə ride With thə lady inside, ən ə smile on thə face əf thə tigə . Thə was ə n old man frəm Darjeeling, Who got ən ə bus bound fər Ealing. It said on thə door, "Don’t spit on thə floor" So he carefəlly spat on thə ceiling.

There was a young lady from Tottenham, Who had no manners, or else she'd fogotten 'em. At tea at the vicar's, She tore off her knickers. Because, she explained, she felt hot in 'em.

Thə was ə young lady frəm Tottə nhəm, Who had no mannəs, ə r else she'd fə gottə n 'ə m. ət tea ət thə vicə 's, She took off ə knickəs. Because, she explained, she felt ‘ot in 'ə m.

There once was a fellow from Ryde, In a funeral procession was spied. Whan asked who was dead, He giggled and said: "I don't know. I just came for the ride."

Thə once wəs ə fellə frə m Ryde, In ə funərə l prə cessə n wəs spied. When asked who wəs dead, He giggəld ən said: "I də know. I jəs came fə thə ride."

Instructions: Elaborate on Stress Explain the difference between stressed and unstressed syllables. Explain the stressed syllables are louder and longer. Stressed syllables tend to occur in content words such


as nouns and verbs; structure words such as articles and prepositions are usually unstressed. Exercise: classify the words in the correct place. Pepper triptonic force Brown faster people bike noun woman onion clip fantastic evolution umbrella

Stress

unstressed

Pe PPER

Force

Trip TO nic

Brown

FAS – ter

bike

PEO – ple

noun

WO – man

clip

O – nion

fantastic

Evo – LU – tion

umbrela

MAJOR AND MINOR STRESS


Word Stress and Sentence Stress The Golden Key to English Pronunciation Josef Essberger Normally when we say "I feel stressed" it means "I feel anxious". Stress is a kind of worried feeling about life or work. But there is another kind of stress that actually helps us understand. This other kind of stress is an accent that we make on certain syllables and words when speaking English. In some languages, for example Japanese, people say each syllable with equal force. But in English, and some other languages, we put a big force (stress) on some syllables and no force on other syllables or words. This can make it difficult for speakers of other languages to understand English that is spoken quickly. Of course, for native speakers it is not difficult - in fact, stress actually helps native speakers understand each other. So it is very important. We shall talk here about WORD STRESS (stress on a syllable inside a word) and SENTENCE STRESS (stress on words inside a sentence).

WORD STRESS Word stress is like a golden key to speaking and understanding English. If you do not already know about word stress, you can try to learn about it. This is one of the best ways for you to understand spoken English - especially English spoken fast.


What is word stress? Take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because ONE syllable in each word is STRESSED (stronger than the others). 

PHOtograph

phoTOgrapher

photoGRAPHic

This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEAcher, JaPAN, CHIna, aBOVE, converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCEtera. The syllables that are not stressed are "weak" or "small" or "quiet". Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables, not the weak syllables. If you use word stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension. If you have an English teacher, you can ask her to help you understand word stress. Or you can try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio, or in films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it. Two important rules about word stress: 1. One word, one stress 2. The stress is always on a vowel


SENTENCE STRESS Sentence stress is another golden key for speaking and understanding English. With sentence stress, some words in a sentence are STRESSED (loud) and other words are weak (quiet). Look at the following sentence: We want to go. Do we say every word with the same stress or force? No. We make the important words BIG and the unimportant words small. What are the important words in this sentence? Yes, that's right: WANT and GO. 

We WANT to GO.

We WANT to GO to WORK.

We DON'T WANT to GO to WORK.

We DON'T WANT to GO to WORK at NIGHT.

Now that you know that word stress exists, you can try to learn more about it. You should KNOW that SENtence and WORD STRESS are VERy imPORtant !!! E-GRAPHY;

https://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm

5 IMPORTANT RULES TO KNOW WHICH IS THE CORRECT INTONATION IN STRESS SYLLABLES VIDEO: https://youtu.be/65AgbiwQ6ko


Let´s do an exercise to check our new knowledge


Placemente of Word stress

ďƒ˜ Compounds ďƒ˜ Suffixes Given the relationship between stress and the pronunciation of vowels in English, this is learned just by exercising and each exercises is different.

Two syllable words: This is more frequent in the first syllable if the words is a noun and on the second syllable if the Word is a verb. Highlight the following words in the correct state. NOUNS PROduce Pervert Record Present Conflict Perfect Conduct Project Contrast Contract

VERBS ProDUce Pervert Convert Present Conflict Perfect Conduct Project Contrast Contract

A good example for difference in stress on sounds and verbs involves related noun-verb pairs in English. These are words that function as nouns when stressed in the first syllable.


Three syllable sentences: With words with three syllables words, the major stress usually falls on the first or second syllable. As in the following examples: Finish the exercise by highlighting the correct syllable. FIRST SYLLABLE LIST A INstrument Calendar Curious Sentiment Document

SECOND SYLLABLE LIST B ComMERcial Valnilla Develop Astonish Opponent

To practice, do a list of 20 words: nouns and verbs and they have to classify them in two lists as this: FIRST SYLLABLE

SECOND SYLLABLE


COMPOUNDS In this kind of words stress placement is very regular. For example: when combine the words “drug” and “store” as “drugstore” notice that stress is major in the first syllable. The pattern is the same event he words are separeted. WRITE 10 compound words and draw a full circle where the stress is, write at least 4 separated compund words.


Let´s watch a video: https://youtu.be/U_6mfwXe3Bo

SUFFIXES With certain suffixes in English, the placement of major stress is


predictable. Sometimes this results in what is termed a stress shift. For example the related words as these: Instructions: write related words to fill the blanks as the examples. PHOtograph

PhoTOgraphy

PhotoGRAphic

-ity- Major stress is always on the syllable before the suffix –ityWrite 3 more examples: Possible

PossiBIlity

-ic- Major stress is always on the syllable before the suffix –icwrite 3 more examples: DEmocrat

DemoCRAtic

-ical- Major stress is always on the syllable before the suffix –icalwrite 3 more eampeles: ALphabet

AlphaBEtical


-tion- Major stress is always in the syllable before –tion-. Write 3 more examples: comMUnicate

communiCAtion


What is intonation? Is often called the melody of language since it refers to the pattern of pitch changes that we use when we speak. If you listen to someone speaking, you will notice that there are many changes in pitch. These pitch changes are called INTONATION PATTERNS and play an important role in conveying meaning. VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/tzh3Owutf5Y

FINAL INTONATION Rising-falling intonation: read the following sentence and listen to yourself´s intonation.  Susan bought a new sweater. Notice that the stress falls in the Word sweater. This stress pattern is usually used in declarative sentencess, commands and questions that begin with WH – Word, such as who, what, whem, where, why or how.


Repeat this with the correct stress:

♥  He wants to go home

♥  What do you want to do with it? Write 3 examples of the raising falling intonation: 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________

RISING INTONATION Pronounce the following sentence, and do the intonation as well.

♥ Does he want to go HOme?

♥ Should I wait for YOU? Write 3 examples of the rising intonation:


1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________

NON-FINAL INTONATION Rising-falling intonation Complex sentences often have two different separate intonation patterns.

♼

♼

When John left the house// it was raining.

CONTINUATION RISE Maria bought pencils, crayons, notebooks, scissors and glue. Write 3 examples of this kind of intonation sentence. 1.

______________________________________________

2.

______________________________________________

3.

______________________________________________

TAG QUESTIONS Can display final raising-falling intonation contours. Their meaning will differ depending on which of these contours is used. Pronounce the following tag questions.


♥ Daphne is traveling, isn´t she? Write 3 more examples of the Tag Questions with rising falling intonation. 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________

Daphne is traveling, isn´t she? Write 3 more examples of the Tag Questions with rising falling contour. 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________


The pronunciation of function words Strong and weaks forms Whe function words are spoken in isolation, they are stressed; that is, they are pronunced in their strong form. In connected speech, where function words are normally unstressed, they are pronunced in their weak form. In the following list of words, we can compare the pronunciation of the strong forms of the pronunciation of the weak form. VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/1PSUkiquKeM

STRONG FORM

In this type, we use the short vowel sound

WEAK FORM

In this type we use the schwa sound, so the pronunciation becomes weaker.

There are some types of pronunciation that we have to learn: 1. The vowel is reduced to schwa in function words such as “to”, “them”, “the”, “a”, “and”, “as” and “of”.

Examples: He went to the store.


Apples and oranges. A cup of coffee.

2. An initial consonant can be lost, as with pronouns “he”, “him”, “her” and “them”. Examples: Where did he go? Have you seen him today?

3. Some functions words lose their final consonants. This is particularly true of “of” and “and”. Examples: A cup of coffee. Cream an sugar.

WORDS AND PHRASES Due to the reduction of function words in phrases, some phrases can sound like single words. Consider the following sentences. All of her seems ripped. Oliver seems ripped. When spoken at a normal cpmversational rate, the phrase “all of her” and the name “Oliver” are pronunced in the same way.


In both cases the first syllable has major stress and the second and third have syllable are stressed. The function words “of” and “her” occure in their weak form. The vowels are reduce to schwa and the initial consonant of “her” is deleted.

ORAL EXERCISE: Say each Word and phrase at a normal conversational rate and notice that both are pronunced in as similar way.  Approximate  A box of it  Justifiable  Just as viable  Orthopedic  Alphabetize  Half of her size


LETS EXERCISE!!!


Linking These are words with the same phrase or sentence often blend together. Connecting group of words together is referred to as linking. When words are propperly linked, there is a smooth transition from one Word to the next.

VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/oA5hpC58G9M

LINKING CONSONANTS TO VOWELS: When a Word that ends with a consonant is followed by a Word that begins with a vowel, the consonant seems to become part of the following Word. Stop it

With it

washed it

bring it

LINKING CONSONANT TO CONSONANT When a Word ends with a stop consonant is followed by a Word that begins with a consonant, the stop consonant is usually not released as in the next list of words.

Stop trying

Bad judge

log cabin

big boy


LINKING IDENTICAL CONSONANTS Verby often, the consonant that ends one Word is identical to the consonant that begins the next Word. When this happens, the two consonants are usually pronounced as one long consonant. ORAL EXERCISE: Pronounce the following short phrases to see that this is the case. Ripe plum

with thanks

ice skating

far reaches

Write your own examples and do the match the same way. 1. _______________ 2. _______________ 3. _______________ 4. _______________ 5. _______________

LINKING VOWEL TO VOWEL When a Word that ends with a tense vowel such as /iy/, /ey/, /uw/ or /ow/ is followed by a word that begins with a vowel, the words are usually linked by the semi-vowel ending the tense vowel. Be on time

pay up

blue angel

row over

blow out


Write 5 examples by yourself. 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ____________________ 5. ____________________

LINKING VOWELS TO SEMIVOWELS When a Word ends with a tense vowel, such as /iy/, /ey/, /uw/ or /ow/, and the next Word begins with the same as the semi-vowel that ends the tense vowel, these will be linked like identical consonant. Be yourself

pey yourself

do we?

Search for more of this kind of linkings. 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ____________________ 5. ____________________

Blow wind blow


DELETION OF CONSONANTS VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/HuPUUcWb_gA

The simplification depends on the following sound and on the nature of the cluster. If the following Word begins with a vowel, then the final consonant of the cluster will be linked to that following vowel, and therefore, cannot be deleted as the examples.

CLUSTER Nd St St ft

EXAMPLE Hand out Last offer Next up Left out

If the following Word begins with a consonant, the final consonant is usually unreleased and can even be deleted as the examples below show. CLUSTER EXAMPLE Nd Band Shell St Left field St Past president ft Next month Consonants are also deleted in words that have suffixes or are compunds. CLUSTER Nd

EXAMPLE Kindness


St St ft

Softness Postman Textbook

Clauster created by the addition of grammatical endings, however are not usually simplified: CLUSTER Nd St St ft

EXAMPLE Canned peaches Laughed hard Missed chances Taxed me

Let´s exercise!!! In groups do the following exercises!


ASSIMILATION Is the linking of consonants. This linking of consonants to consonants often causes a change in the place of articulation of the first consonant. This is known as ASSIMILATION because the first consonant becomes more like the second one. SO TO UNDERSTAND BETTER I HAVE THIS VIDEO TO SHOW YOU HOW DOES IT WORKS IN PHONETICS. VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/Wiz1YeLMjyA

ASSIMILATION OF NASALS One very striking example of assimilation occurs with the final nasal consonants of function words. In the exampoles below the final /n/ sounds of a function Word assimilates in place of articulation to a following stop consonant. This is particularly true in casual speech. WRITTEN FORM I can believe it I can go There´s nothing in my plate

ASSIMILATION n m n n n

VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/IkzUgTT5byE

m


VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/m5tbf-r-aj4


Patalization


WANNA GONNA DUNNO Developing a fluent and a comprehensible speech in our ESL students is the primary goal of training in the spoken language. To understand it better we are going to watch video: https://youtu.be/HW327PH5Ns https://youtu.be/uOoYURjPB2k


ENGLISH CONSONANTS: Problems of particular articulations features. Learners usually have some difficulty with particular sounds.

PROBLEM ASPIRATION: /p/, /t/, and /k/ One of the main problem is that Ss fail to aspirate the voiceless stops /p/, /t/, and /k/ at the begenning of the Word. Tips that we can use are:

Make Ss. aware the aspiration, can be tried with a match or a piece of paper using the consonant /p/.

Ss. hold the piece of paper close to their mouth and say the Word after the teacher, making sure that the paper blows away from them. Can be tried with /t/.

With consonant /k/ the air has a very little force, it reaches the leaps. The Ss. have to be sure how to aspirate the words.

We can practice with Ss with th

FRICATIVES: when pronouncing them, Ss have to touch the head or the ears, if it is a vibration they will feel it, like in “beige�. Once Ss manage how to use fricatives, they can practice with minimal pairs:


/F/ fan, safer, leaf /v/ van, saber, leave /s/ Sue, season, face /z/ zoo, seizieng, phase

VOICING FINAL STOP CONSONANTS /p/, /d/, and /g/ Final voicing does affect the pronunciation of preceding vowels; they are longer before voiced consonants than before voiceless consonantes. This fact is helpful in teaching final voiced consonants. BEFORE VOICELESS CONSONANT (Shorter vowel) tap pat back

BEFORE VOICED CONSONANT (Longer vowel) tab pad bag

INITIAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS Ss have difficulty to pronouns thouse initial consonant clusters like: /p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, and /g/ are followed by /l/ or /r/ as in “brew”, “blue”, “drew” and “glue”.

STRESS, RYTHM AND INTONATION ♫♪ All students need to to practice in English Stress, rythm and intonation, these are keys elements for a better pronuncation.

STRESS


A stressed or accented syllable is one that is more prominent than the surrounding syllables. Stress may be marked with thre variables:

LENGH

PITCH

LOUDNESS

UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES Are very short and UNCLEAR and they are generally end with “schwa”. It is important that teachers emphasize the length and loudness aspects of English Stress. TIPS: Exageration

WORD STRESS: Stress in English can fall on almost one syllable of a Word. TIPS: Give Ss. related set of words that dispplay different patterns as: Photograph

Photography

Photographic

RYTHM: It has to be with the correct pronunciation of stressed and unstressed syllables. Those are longer and spoken with greater volumen.

INTONATION: They use it when do a yes/no question.


Sometimes the pitch level of the learner’s voice does not fall or rise far enough with final rising-falling or final rising intonation. Teachers must include practice intonation in the class.

LINKING: Ss often fail to linkwords properly in connected speech. Must help to do exercises with words ending in cosonant and are linked to words that begin with vowels like: Put the book on top of the shelf.

CONTRACTIONS: Students generally have difficulty with contractions. Very often this is because contractions create difficult sound combinations. IS NOT = ISN´T, I WILL = I´LL, I HAVE = I´VE

ENGLISH VOWELS: ESL students generally have difficulty producing English vowel distinctions. This is because there are more vowels in English than in most other languages. the small differences in tongue positioning between the five front vowels and the five back vowels of English may pose problems for second language learners who are accustomed to making only two distinctions in tongue height in the front and back of the mouth.

TENSE VS. LAX VOWELS /iy/ vs.

/I/

as in “beat” and “bit”

/ey/ vs.

/ε/

as in “bait” and “bet”


/uw/ vs. /U/

as in “boot” and “book”

Before working on the tense/lax distinction, it is important that you begin by concentrating on the four tense vowels of English, the vowels /iy/, /ey/, /uw/, and /ow/ as in ‘beat’, ‘bait’, ‘boot’, and ‘boat’. Students generally produce a pure form of the vowel without the following semi-vowel, Iy / or / w/. Thus, the vowel they produce is shorter than the equivalent in English and has no tongue movement during its production. Exaggerate your pronunciation of each vowel sound in ‘bee’, ‘bay’, boo’, and ‘bow’. In saying /iy / and ley/, be sure that you spread your lips. To emphasize that all these vowels are long, pretend you are stretching an imaginary elastic band.

Work on each vowel in isolation. Begin with ley /as this vowel involves more tongue movement than the other tense vowels. Have the students produce a very long /ey/: [eeeeyyyy]. Repeat the procedure for the other three vowels.

TEACHING LAX VOWELS:  Relax your body when pronouncing there.  Clapping motion  Pronunce words that contain these vowels. /I/ sit, lip, bid, window /ε/ said, mess, red, Fender /U/ book, push, Hood, wooden


TENSE LAX DISTINCTION:

Work on the tense/lax distinction should also be done with minimal pair sentences.

A five-vowel system, on the other hand, has only one low vowel. Some learners may also have difficulty making the distinction between h i and /a/ as in ‘bought’ and ‘pot’.

Because there are many speakers of North American English who themselves do not make this distinction, we advise teachers not to be overly concerned with it.


General tips for teaching vowels Top tips for teaching phonics Posted on 20th September 2018 in Learning to Read, Synthetic Phonics

1. Step-by-step You don’t need to teach the whole alphabet to get reading going. Start with a few letters and get children to build words with them. Our series starts with the sounds s, a, t, i, m. 2. Word-building rocks! Word-building is the best way to teach reading and spelling. Write the letters on cards and ask the children to build a CVC word, e.g. ‘mat’. This way children can clearly see how letters spell sounds and how those sounds can be blended into words. 3. Teach reading and spelling together Always include spelling as part of your reading lessons. Spelling is the reverse activity of reading and once children understand this, they will start to find plausible phonic spellings in their own writing. 4. Blending forever When reading with children use ‘blending’ as the strategy for reading a new word. If the child has not come across a spelling in a word – the teacher can tell them the sound and the pupil can add the letter/sounds they already know to blend the word. This can also work with high-frequency words. 5. Practice and more practice Most people need to practice a skill before they become proficient. This is essential in reading as we are aiming to develop automaticity and fluency. A great way to practice and consolidate what has been taught is to offer decodable books and a variety of phonic games.

E-graphy: https://www.phonicbooks.co.uk/2018/09/20/top-tips-teaching-phonics/


Video support: https://youtu.be/USKrBTvgY_s


ENGLISH CONSONANT Fort he most part, we have organized the common consonant problems according to particular articulatory features. This is because learners usually have difficulty with a set of sounds that share these articulatory features rather than with isolated sounds. VIDEO SUPPORT: https://youtu.be/exIcb2_PTVM

PROBLEM: ASPIRATION /p/, /t/ and /k/ Students fail to aspirate the voiceless stops /p/, /t/, and /k/ at the beginning of a word. Therefore “plot”, “tot” and “cot” may sound like “blot”, “dot” and “got”.

TIIPS: 1. a good way to begin teaching aspiration is to make the students aware that aspiration in the puff of air that accompanies the realease of te consonant. This is easily demonstrated with a match or a piece of paper using the consonant /p/, Exaggerate the pronnunciation of the Word “pot”. Have hold a pece of paper cloth to their mouth and say the Word after you. Repeat the procedure with the sound /t/. The consonant /k/ has a little air force. 2. Your students most understand and differenciate the “h” sound which is accompanied by a puff as in “hot”. Let the students read the following list of words with the correct aspiration: Hot

P(h)ot

T(h)aught

C(h)ot

Hi He

P(h)ie P(h)ea

T(h)ie T(h)ea

K(h)ind K(h)ey


PROBLEM: VOICING OF FRICATIVES /v/ as in “voice” or “love” /o/ as in “then” or “breath” /z/ as in “zoo” or “rose” /ζ/ as in “beige” or “measure” Students are unable to distinguish voice and voiceless fricatives. They will be able to produce voiceless fricatives but not voicing fricatives. For example: the /f/ sound is going to be substituted by /v/ and the /s/ may be substituted by /z/.

TIPS:

as vowels are always voiced, they can be useful in teaching

students to voice fricatives. Have students place their fingers lightly on their throat while making a prolonged /a/ sound. While pronunciating a list of those sounds, they will touch their throat and the top the the head to feel the vibrations. Once

students

are

able

to

voice

the

fricatives,

provide

comprehension and production practice of the voiced/voiceless distinction using minimal pairs.

/f/ Fan Safer leaf

/v/ Van Saver leave

/θ/ Thigh Ether Teeth

/s/ Sue Seasing face

/z/ Zoo Seizing phase

/ ζ/ allusion measure

/∫/ Aleuatian Measure


PROBLEM: VOICING OF FINAL STOP CONSONANTS /b/, /d/, and /g/ Many ESL students will not voice final stops, but will substitute a voiceless stop for a voiced one. Thus “cub” may sound like “cup”. It´s more difficult to demonstrate the voice/voiceless distinction with stops than with fricatives because stops cannot be prolonged.

TIPS use minimal pairs such as those below, pointing out that the vowels are longer before voiced stops than before voicelss ones. BEFORE VOICELESS CONSONANT (Shorter vowels) Tap Pat Back

BEFORE VOICED CONSONANT (Longer vowels) Tab Pad Bag

PROBLEM: INITIAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS Many students have difficulty producing some of the initial consonant clusters of English. This is especially true when stops /p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, and /g/ are followed by /l/ or /r/, as in words such as “brew”, “blue”, “drew”, and “glue”.

TIPS: If students cannot pronounce initial clusters, have them insert a short schwa-like vowel between the consonants, for example: “bэlue”, they should say the Word repeatedly, increasing their speed, until the inserted vowel disappears.


PROBLEM: FINAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS The addition of grammatical endings produces many Word-final clusters, and inability to produce such clusters in often misinterpreted as a grammatical problem.

TIPS: Difficult final consonant clusters can be practiced using two words. For example, to practice the final cluster /ld/ as in “field”, use the phrase “feel down” the students can gradually eliminate more and more of the second Word. Feel down

feel dow

feel d

field

Practice consonant clusters created through the addition of grammatical endings. This will help students understand the importance of such clusters in conveying meaning. For example: constrast the following two sentences: I watch a lot of T.V. I watched a lot of T.V.

PROBLEM /θ/ and /ο/ as in “think” and “this”. The particular native language of a student usually determines which sounds will be substituted: /t/, /s/, or /f/ for /θ/; and /d/,

ο/ in general, a voiceless sound will be substituted for the voiceless /θ/and a voiced sound for voiced /ο/. /z/ or /v/ for /

PROBLEM: english /r/


ESL students generally required work in learning to produce in English /r/. Most languages have an /r/ sound, but in a particular way in which /r/ sounds are pronounced varies greatly from language to language. TIPS: Have students pronounce a prolonged / a a a a a a a/ gradually curlying the tip of the tongue back. Make sure that they do not touch the tooth ridge with the tip of the tongue and that their lips become slightly rounded. FLAP Putting Leading Heating Skating

LET´S EXERCISE

/r/ Purring Leearing Hearing Scaring


Stress, rhythm, and intonation

CONDUCTING

DEVELOPING FLUENCY Refers to moving There are several the hands and the common arms in conert with characteristics of the rithm, with the non-native speech correct rithm, that fluency stress and exercises are design intonation of a word, to altere. For phrase or sentence. example: some Ss For example: you can are hesitant in their show which syllable speech. These Ss receives the major may pause stress by a rapid inappropriately in downward motion of the middle of the arm. sentences or stumble over certain combinations of sounds, resulting in incorrect rhythm.

SLOW SPEECH Pronunciation´s teacher should at times encourage Ss to say a sentence with a difficult combination of sounds slowly and accurately before working up to a more natural tempo. In the next sentence, for example: Class lasts three hours Probably Ss are going to have trouble with the sound combination. You, as teacher must say some sentences slowly without pauses.


ACELERATION

BACKWARD BUILDUP From the slow For developing speech technique fluency over longer described above, utterances and for then you can turn to improving linking and the aceleration or intonation is called “train technique”. Backward buildup. Sometime it helps to As the name mimic a trainsuggests, this acelerating a few technic involves slow to rapid: choo- starting with the choo´s. will help final word of a clarify the increase sentence and adding in speed you would to it the proceeding like to form in your words, one of a time. class. For example in For example: I can´t this sentence: D´ya remember what I think ´e ´ll´ve did with my keys. arrived? Do you Keys think they he will be My keys arrived? With my keys Did with my keys What I did with my keys Remember what I did with my keys Can´t remember what I did with my keys I can´t remember what I did with my keys.

LIMERIKCS Another helpful and entertaining way of developing fluency involves the use of limericks To begin preparing one or two of those on a hand out or write one on the board. There was an old lady from Crewe, who found a large mouse in her stew, Said the waiter “don´t shout”, and wave it about, or the resting will be waiting one, too!” Recite one or twice with Ss.


MY CONCLUSION: It has been very interesting to do this work because it not just traing me as a teacher, I have learned a lot of new technics that I didn´t know and that now, I can apply with my own students. This kind of Works inspire me and lead me to be a better teacher. I have been learning a lot since the very beginning of the first course and I am thankful of this because I have improve my work as a teacher by being a good student. I appreciate the experiences you have shared in clase with us so we can apply them in my everyday clases. Thank you for your teaching and for this great opportunity to deliver my work. Blessings!!!

Mariajosé Escobar Monzón

Profile for miumg6910

Phonology Project- II Semester  

Phonology Project- II Semester  

Profile for miumg6910
Advertisement