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t r o p e r l a u n n A C ST 2011-2012

Sensible Things that Communicate


Sensible Things that Communicate Annual Report 2011-2012 Diarienummer: MIUN2013/1084 Cover picture photografer: Casper Hedberg Annual Report 2011-2012 Contact person: STC Research Centre leader Mattias O’Nils


Table of contets 1.years of transformation.................................................................................................................................................4 2. STC IN NUMBERS.....................................................................................................................................................................................5 3. Events................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 3.1 STC Expo 2011 – A digital reality............................................................................................................6 3.2 STC Expo 2012 - Sensor research as a growth engine.....................................7 4.Awards.............................................................................................................................................................................................................8 5. STC in the media...............................................................................................................................................................................11 6. PhD exams.................................................................................................................................................................................................12 7. New staff and promotions........................................................................................................................................16 8. New PhD students within the STC..................................................................................................................18 9. Summary of research results................................................................................................................................22 9.1 Visual Sensor Systems........................................................................................................................................22 9.2 wireless sensor systems ................................................................................................................................27 9.3 Printed Sensor Systems..................................................................................................................................30 9.4 Power electronics...............................................................................................................................................42 9.5 Radiation Sensor Systems..........................................................................................................................48 9.6 Detector and Photonics...........................................................................................................................50 9.7 Sensor Network and Security...........................................................................................................58 9.8 Realistic 3D.........................................................................................................................................................................63 9.9 Sensor-Based services.......................................................................................................................................68 10. publications...................................................................................................................................................................................72 10.1 STC Publications in 2011..............................................................................................................................72 10.2 STC Publications in 2012..............................................................................................................................78 11. Research projects within STC..............................................................................................................................84


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

1.years of transformation During 2011-2012 STC has been involved in several significant transformation processes and thus this annual report spans two years of research activities. These transformations have included the end of the long term profile funding, defining new profile+ funding, establish a KK-environment and developing a new STC and KK-environment strategy.

During 2012, the new KK-environment, including STC and FSCN at Mid Sweden University, was established and the first three projects that were initiated and evaluated within the KK-environment gained funding. In this process both STC and the KK-environment developed new strategy documents and these were scientifically evaluated. The overall strategy for the KK-environment called TIE (Transforming the Industrial Ecosystem) identifies the overall strategy of the STC and FSCN centres and the fields of cooperation. As a result of this process STC has now been established as a formal centre at Mid Sweden University. During 2012 the total research budget for STC was 50 million of which 32 million (63 %) came from external funding. Two of the larger projects are the Profile+ STC Industrial IT from the Knowledge Foundation and EnergyWise, which is funded from the EU-regional funds. During thise period, two STC conferences/exhibition (STC Expo) have been held and these were attended by approximately 120 people from both academia and industry.The theme for the 2011 STC Expo was “A Digital Reality” with its focus on the Internet for Things and its implications on business and research. In 2012, the focus was on innovation and growth with the theme “Sensor Research as a Growth Engine”. It was apparent that both these events were highly appreciated by the academic and industrial attendees. During thise period, STC has supervised the completion of the studies of 4 doctoral students and 18 licentiate students. STC researchers have generated 116 international reviewed publications, with an increase of 50 % in the publication rate from 2011 to 2012. Sida 4 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Four new Adjunct professors have been appointed during the period, namely, Jan Andersson (Acreo), Heinz Graafsma (DESY), Lars Norin (Acreo) and Mikael Gidlund (ABB). Additionally, two new Associate professors have been promoted (Kent Bertilsson and Mårten Sjöström). 10 new PhD students have started their studies during 2011 and 2012. Two national finalists (OnTop and OnParticle) in the Venture Cup has come from the STC environment and both were prize winners in the Venture Cup north final. The PhD students Stefan Forsström, Meng Xiaozhou and Hari Babu Kotte have been awarded the best paper award. Kent Bertilsson has been awarded the Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets scholarship for his work in combining research and its realization.

Sundsvall, May 2013 Mattias O’Nils STC Research Centre leader Professor in Embedded Systems

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

In February 2011 the STC profile financing from the KK-foundation ended after six years of funding (in total 72 million SEK). The complete results for both the research and the work involved in building a national/ international research profile were evaluated and the results proved to be extremely satisfactory.Thise excellent evaluation meant that STC was awarded an extra two years of profile (Profile+, funded with 20 million SEK) financing from the Knowledge Foundation to further develop thise strong profile.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

2. STC IN NUMBERS The establishment of the STC research environment started thirteen years ago and has developed from a small research environment with only two professors to a large and recognized research environment involving almost 80 personnel, as shown in figure 2.1. 90 80 70 60

Other

50

Professors

40

Senior staf

30

PhD students

20 10 0 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Figure 2.1 - Development of the number of staff within STC.

A key factor for this development was the funding of a profile from the KK-foundation in 2005. This boosted the identity of the research environment that has led to a large growth in funding from different sources, as shown in figure 2.2. At the present time, STC has arrived at the next important step in its development as it now forms part of the Mid Sweden University KK-environment and, in addition, the environment is now a formal research centre at the university. During thise period, the amount of finans form regional funds has increased to being one of the largest sources of financing.This poses one of the more significant challenges leading up to 2014 when a gap in between the funding periods in the regional funds. 60 000 000 50 000 000

Other EU

40 000 000

EU-regional

30 000 000

Vinnova Faculty

20 000 000

KKS 10 000 000

Ă…r

0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Figure 2.2 - Development of the financing within the STC environment.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 5


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

3. Events 3.1 STC Expo 2011 – A digital reality With more participants than ever, the STC Expo conference was once again a highly appreciated event. This year´s theme “A digital reality” showed how modern technology can aid development within the community in relation to having a presence over distance by means of, amongst others, sensors and the Internet. Exciting research from scientists at STC, Acreo, and Fiber Optic Valley were presented and different technology companies presented their business innovations and ideas and how modern technology has begun to be used around the world and the possibilities that have openend up for the further development of digital communities. Darja Isaksson at InUse, showed examples of the use of sensors in relation to car parking. She also talked about the present rapid emergence of gadgets and how easy it is to reach out with new ideas and information via the Internet.

Photo: Linda Andersson

Michael Åström at Ericsson Research, discussed in detail, the growth of megacities and the demands of managing communication with regards to such developments, the support communication involved and the storage, and exposure of data. His paper dealt with ”Smart Grid

Sida 6 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Communications”. Linda Åstrand, TeliaSonera discussed how M2M - services can be used more efficiently in relation to the efforts of companies with regards to reaching out to their customers. This also involved the use of the Internet of Things in order to reach out and find new audiences. The final lecturer was Anders Kjellström of Electrotest. He discussed the production of local energy, smart energy systems and how it should be possible to have the ability to control individual energy consumption and much more. The day ended with an exhibition by the researchers at STC and the various companies and general exchange of ideas among the delegates. STC Expo is a conference arranged by the Research Centre STC in collaboration with Sundsvall 42.The conference consists of both internal and external speakers and an exhibition where STC researchers demonstrate their latest research. Sundsvall 42 is an IT conference arranged annually during week 42.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

3.2 STC Expo 2012 - Sensor research as a growth engine The fifth STC Expo’s theme was sensor research as a growth engine – a subject that interested both researchers and entrepreneurs. As usual, the day consists of a mixture of interesting lectures and an exhibition. This year all the lectures were filmed and broadcast live on STC’s website. All the lecturers were also published on YouTube for those who did not have the opportunity to attend their sessions.

Vinnova is a major funder of research and Jonas Wallberg, chief strategist at Vinnova’s Department of Information and Communication Technology, was the next speaker. He presented Vinnova and its role in relation to strengthening Sweden’s innovation for growth and social benefit. Each year Vinnova invest about two billion SEK in various projects aimed at improving the conditions for innovation and needs-driven research.

Mattias O’Nils, the leader of the STC Research Centre, introduce by discussing the ”The involuntary innovator.” He dealt with the researcher’s role as a product developer and the obstacles and opportunities, which may be encountered when research is commercialized. Following on from this presentation, the popular Hans Martin from SenseAir gave a talk about his exciting journey from being an sole researcher with an idea to now being the leader of a global company.

The final speaker of the day was Bengt Oelmann from Mid Sweden University. He presented information concerning the Master by Research in which students participate in a research group within the STC, which has a close cooperation with external actors such as enterprises and research institutes. Entrepreneurs in the audience showed great interest in this particular degree structure during which they are given the opportunity to meet the employees of the future and are, simultaneously, able develop their products or services. The STC Expo 2012 ended with a panel discussion hosted by Miun Innovation and in which speakers discussed the research functions as a growth engine. The evening continued with a reception in the exhibition area, followed by a dinner.

Photo: Christine Grafström

“A business angel’s views on commercialization” was the next item given by Bengt-Olov Larsson, a newly appointed honorary doctor at Mid Sweden University. BengtOlov has a long experience in the electronics industry and has, since his retirement, supported many new researchers to take their research to the next step and to commercialize it.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 7


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

4. Awards The STC researchers have, on several occasions, been noted in different competitions and ceremonies during 2011 and 2012. Dr. Najeem has received awards at both “Jag har en idé” and at the Venture Cup. ontop an award-winning invention

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Three business ideas from Mid Sweden University won 5 000 SEK each during the idea competition Venture Cup Sundsvall in 2011. From the STC Research Centre, the researchers Jan Thim, Mattias O’Nils, Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Mohammad Anzar Alam contributed with their idea OnTop and it qualified for the regional finals in Luleå. OnTop is an optical meter that allows each square meter of paper produced can get a seal of approval. In the regional finals OnTop won the second prize, a cheque for 30 000 SEK and a ticket to the big Sweden finale. Mattias O’Nils and Jan Thim invented OnTop together with Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Mohammad Anzar Alam.

Grand slam for the STC Researcher Najeem Lawal

At the end of 2011 Najeem Lawal was once again a winner, when the ten best business ideas from total of 110, were chosen in the world's largest business plan competition,Venture Cup Nord. Najeem was rewarded with 5 000 SEK for his business idea OnParticle. In the regional final he received a third place and a ticket to the big Sweden Final. Venture Cup is an organization that assists the aspiring entrepreneur to develop and implement business ideas. This is achieved by mean’s of the world's largest business plan competition during which it is possible to recieve feedback, coaching, training, inspiration and to gain access to a significant network of contacts.

Sida 8 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Photo: Venture Cup Sverige

Najeem Lawal was the winner at the contest “Jag har en idé” in 2011 with his idea OnParticle. OnParticle is a method for detecting particles in a hydraulic fluid. It provides information in relation to an increased risk of engine failure and, thus it becomes possible to not only prevent costly failures in ships, offshore wind power and process industries, but also determine when it is necessary to change the oil in a car. Najeem received the first prize in three categories: Best Business idea, Best researcher idea and Best Entrepreneur and growth.

Najeem Lawal one of the researchers behind the idea OnParticle.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Kent awarded for his balance between research and application Each year the Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets rewards a young and well deserved researcher and in 2011 the award went to Acc. Prof. Kent Bertilsson at STC. They highlighted his balance between research and application, with his significant number of publications and, in addition, twelve approved patents with other researchers. They also mentioned that Kent recieved approved financing from The Knowledge Foundation, Vinnova and Energimyndigheten and he was viewed asa being exceptionally successful.

Stefan received the Best Student Paper

Environmental monitoring gave Sebastian a scholarship

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Not only was the senior researcher at STC rewarded in 2011 but, PhD student Stefan Forsström, received the award for the Best Student Paper for his contribution “Enabling Continuously Evolving Context Information in Mobile Environments by Utilizing Ubiquitous Sensors” at International Conference on Mobile Networks and Management, Aveiro, Portugal, during September 2011.

Kent Bertilsson awarded for his research.

Each year, the Sundsvall 42 association awards a scholarship to a person at Mid Sweden University. In 2012, the jury’s favourite was the PhD student Sebastian Bader from the STC Research Centre.

In 2013 he will receive his doctorate within this field, and, the scholarship money of 25 000 SEK might then possibly go towards to a well-deserved vacation.

Photo: Private

Sebastian Bader is from Wilhelmshaven in Germany, but, for the last four years he has been in Sweden, as a PhD student at Mid Sweden University. During that time, he has worked to develop easily accessible systems that monitor environmental values. This includes everything from the ability to measure how forests or glaciers are affected by environmental changes, to measuring improvements in operations such as the construction of a bridge for the E4 in Sundsvall. Sebastian awarded for his research on environmental monitoring.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 9


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Meng awarded for Best Student Paper The PhD student Xiaozhou Meng won the Best Student Paper Award at the AUTOTESTCON conference 2012 held in the United States. The work presented by Meng is related to obsolescence management of long lifetime embedded electronic systems.

• How is it possible to maintain an electronic system

Photo: Christine Grafström

with an expected lifetime many times longer than the lifetimes of the components it is built on? • How can we select design technologies such that system maintenance becomes easier and less costly? This research is supported by the STC partner company Cross Control AB.

Xiaozhou Meng awarded for his paper at the AUTOTESTCON conference 2012 held in United States.

Young Engineer Award to Hari Babu Kotte PhD Student Hari Babu Kotte won the Young Engineer Award at the 2012 PCIM Conference in Nuremberg, Germany, which is one of the most prestigious conferences in the field.

Hari is working on a research project within STC that develops the next generation of compact and efficient energy converters. Hopefully, the voltage converter can be built into electronic devices in the future thus removing the necessity to carry bulky charger for a PC or phone. At the present time, the first isolated voltage converter operating at more than 3MHz with sufficiently high efficiency is being developed in Sweden at Mid Sweden University.

Sida 10 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Photo: Private

Haris paper ”A ZVS Half Brigde DC-DC Converter in MHz Frequency Region using Novel Hybrid Power Transformers” was submitted as the winning contribution in the Young Engineer Award category.

Hari Babu Kotte at the prize ceremony at the 2012 PCIM Conference in Nuremberg, Germany.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

5. STC in the media In 2011 and 2012 STC has appeared frequently in the media.This have been, in the main, in the trade press but also in the local press and on the regional television. During the reported period, nine press releases were sent to the media and all have been given publicity. During the summer period, when there is generally a shortage of news, extra efforts were made to provide the editors with relevant information. In addition to press releases, STC sends out a digital newsletter four times a year. The newsletter is sent out to all employees of the STC Research Centre, to all partners and to the trade press. When STC Expo was organized in 2012 all lectures were recorded and broadcasted live online. Approximately 45 people saw this broadcast live and, subsequently, the lectures have been shown nearly 300 times on YouTube.

Press releases in 2011-2012 2012-05-25 ”Nya miljoner till forskare vid Mittuniversitetet” 2012-05-08

”Krympta laddare, lösning för datorer och mobiler”

2012-01-03

”Miunprojekt utvecklar ny laserteknik för regionens företag”

2011-11-11

”Nio miljoner till MIUN projekt”

2011-10-04

”Miljoner till MIUN för forskning om förnyelsebar energi”

2011-09-15

”Jan Andersson ny professor”

2011-06-08 ”Mittuniversitetets forskningscenter STC får höga betyg av KK-stiftelsens utvärderare” 2011-05-31

”Kent Bertilsson på ITM tilldelas Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets pris”

2011-01-13 ”Mittuniversitetet får 22 miljoner från KK-stiftelsen”

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 11


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

6. PhD exams In 2011 and 2012 four PhD students defended their dissertation these. Tomas, Unander, Peng Cheng, Rahim Rahmani and Winnie Wong.The following provides a summary of each doctoral thesis.

”system integration of electronic functionality in packaging application”

Sida 12 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

The main focus is thus on system integration to, by combining silicon based electronics with printed electronics, find the most low cost solution with regards to flexibility, sensor functions and still meet the communication standards.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Sensor applications are becoming increasingly important as products and, the requirement now is for them to be more and more intelligent and safe. As the costs involved in sensor technology decrease its usage will spread to new market segments including new areas with products that have never previously used such functionalities, including, wood fibre based products for packaging, hygiene or graphical use. Currently there is a significant interest in developing technology that will allow packages to become interactive and be integrated with digital services accessible on the Internet. In this thesis, the system integration of a hybrid RFID based sensor platform is presented.This proposed platform provides a trade-off between the communication performance and its compatibility with international standards and also includes flexibility in relation to package customization, including the type and number of sensors. In addition, it combines the use of traditional silicon based electronics with printed electronics directly onto wood fibre based materials so as to enable the possibility of creating smart packages. Together with the system integration of the sensor platform, five printed moisture sensor concepts that are designed to work with the sensor platform are presented and characterized. Firstly, there is a moisture sensor that shows a good correlation to the moisture content of wood fibre based substrates.The second one involves a sensor that detects high relative humidity levels in the air and the third is an action activated energy cell that provides power when activated by moisture. The fourth one deals with two types of moisture sensors that utilize silver nano-particles in order to measure the relative humidity in the air.The final one is a printable touch sensitive sensor that is sensitive to the moisture contained in the hand. A concept of remote moisture sensing that utilizes ordinary low cost RFID tags has also been presented and characterized.

Dr. Tomas unander Doctorial Thesis: “System integration of electronic functionality in packaging application”. Head supervisor: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Opponent: Prof. Shaofang Gong, Linköping University. Source of Funding: The Knowledge Foundation. Research Group: Printed Sensor Systems.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

“Applications of Embedded Sensors in Loader Crane Positioning and Rotor RPM Measurement”

In the case of the loader crane positioning, the origins of the project and the special requirements of the application are described in detail. In addition, a preliminary study is conducted in relation to the idea of a contactless joint angular sensor using MEMS inertial sensors in which four different methods, namely, the Common-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Integration (CMRGI), Common-Mode-Rejection (CMR), Common-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Differentiation (CMRGD) and Distributed Common-Mode-Rejection (DCMR), are conceived, modeled and tested on a custom-designed prototype experimental setup. The results gathered from these four methods are compared and analyzed in order to identify the differences in their performances. The methods, which proved to be suitable, are then further tested using the prototype sensor setup on a loader crane and the performance results are analyzed in order to make a decision in relation to the two most suitable methods for the application of the loader crane positioning. The results suggested that the two most suitable were the CMRGD and the DCMR. The practical design issues relating to this sensor system are highlighted and suggestions are made in the study. Additionally, possible future work for this project is also covered. In the first case for the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presents the modeling and simulation of the stator-free RPM sensor idea using the Monte Carlo method, which demonstrated the special features and performance of this sensor. The design aspects of the prototype sensor are described in detail and the prototype is tested on an experimental setup.The conclusions for the stator-free RPM sensor are then made from the

analysis of the experimental results and future work in relation to this sensor is also proposed. In the second case of the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presents another idea involving the laser mouse RPM sensor and the main focus of the study is on the performance characterization of the laser mouse sensor and the verification of the RPM sensor idea. Experiments are conducted using the test setup and results are gathered and analyzed and conclusions are drawn. Possibilities in relation to future work for this laser mouse RPM sensor are also provided. The summary and the conclusion form the final chapter of the thesis and several important aspects of the designs relating to both the loader crane positioning project and the rotor RPM measurement project are discussed.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

In this thesis, two novel applications involving embedded sensors are studied, one dealing with loader crane positioning and the other involving rotor Revolutions Per Minute (RPM) measurement. The thesis presents a general introduction to the embedded sensor, its architecture and its use in mechanical industry, and provides the reader with an overview of conventional sensor technologies within the fields of angle sensors and angular speed sensors, covering their working principles, features, advantages and disadvantages and typical applications. The particular problems associated with the use of conventional sensors in both loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement are described and these problems provided the motivation for the designs of the embedded sensor systems developed in this thesis.

Dr. peng cheng Doctorial Thesis: “Applications of Embedded Sensors in Loader Crane Positioning and Rotor RPM Measurement”. Head supervisor: Prof. Bengt Oelmann. Opponent: Prof. Dr. Arno Ruckelshausen, Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany. Source of Funding: The Knowledge Foundation. Research Group: Wireless Sensor Systems.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 13


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

The Internet architecture is a packet switching technology that allows dynamic sharing of bandwidth among different flows within an IP network. Packets are stored and forwarded from one node to the next until reaching their destination. One of the major issues in this integration is congestion control and how to meet different quality of service requirements associated with various services. In other words, streaming media quality degrades with increased packet delay, jitter and packet drops caused by network congestion. In order to mitigate the impact of network congestion various techniques have been used to improve multimedia quality. One of those techniques is Active Queue Management (AQM). AQM algorithms deployed in heterogeneous wireless access networks needs to adapt to a multitude of network characteristics. In order to improve an adaptive AQM performance in heterogeneous wireless access networks, this dissertation proposes, describes and validates a new AQM algorithm, named the Adaptive AQM (AAQM).This thesis mainly focuses on the design of the new Adaptive AQM for access points or access routers in order to eliminate buffer overflow by ensuring that the buffer size always covers the queue length adaptively with stability and precision.This method of adaptation is independent of traffic pattern changes because of its statistical nature and the large number of connections. This is contrary to the conventional control approaches that focus on constructing a controller by using a Fuzzy Logic controller, as the model of the rate-based system the algorithm is able to update the drop or mark the probability according to the packet arrival rate. Using the packet arrival rate for updating the drop or mark probability as a metric is beneficial and permits the maintenance of a low queue occupation. In order to achieve robustness the Fuzzy AAQM Controller (FAAQMC) maintains both resource provisioning and dimensioning performance under varying network conditions including variations in the number of flows, variation in round trip time, and link load. In order to achieve efficient queue utilization, the FAAQMC controls the buffer size load of both the time-varying packet arrival rate and packet departure rate. The FAAQMC algorithm performance congestion notification at a rate that maintains the aggregate transmission rates of the sources at or just below the queue clearance rate. The results obtained through the analysis and simulation show that the FAAQMC provides efficient queue utilization, ensures robustness, and regulates queuing delay.

Sida 14 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

“Active Queue Management for Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Networks - Design of Active Queue Management for Access Routers”

Dr. rahim rahmani Doctorial Thesis: “Active Queue Management for Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Networks - Design of Active Queue Management for Access Routers”. Head supervisor: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Opponent: Prof. Shaofang Gong, Linköping University. Source of Funding: Mid Sweden University. Research Group: Sensor-based Services.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

“A Hybrid Pixel Detector ASIC with Energy Binning for Real-Time, Spectroscopic Dose Measurements���. Hybrid pixel detectors have been demonstrated to provide excellent quality detection of ionising photon radiation, particularly in X-ray imaging. Recently, there has been interest in developing a hybrid pixel detector specifically for photon dosimetry. This thesis is on the design, implementation, and preliminary characterisation of the Dosepix readout chip. Dosepix has 256 square pixels of 220 mm side-length, constituting 12.4 mm2 of photo‑sensitive area per detector.The combination of multiple pixels provides many parallel processors with a limited input flux, resulting in a radiation dose monitor which can continuously record data and provide a real‑time report on personal dose equivalents. Energy measurements are obtained by measuring the time over threshold of each photon and a state machine in the pixel sorts the detected photon event into appropriate energy bins. Each pixel contains 16 digital thresholds with 16 registers to store the associated energy bins. Preliminary measurements of Dosepix chips bump bonded to silicon sensors show very promising results. The pixel has a frontend noise of 120 e-. In low power mode, each chip consumes 15 mW, permitting its use in a portable, battery-powered system. Direct time over threshold output from the hybrid pixel detector assembly reveals distinctive photo‑peaks correctly identifying the nature of incident photons, and verification measurements indicate that the pixel binning state machines accurately categorise charge spectra. Personal dose equivalent reconstruction using this data has a flat response for a large range of photon energies and personal dose equivalent rates.

Dr. winnie wong Doctorial Thesis: “A Hybrid Pixel Detector ASIC with Energy Binning for Real-Time, Spectroscopic Dose Measurements” Head supervisor: Prof. Christer Fröjdh. Opponent: Dr. Roberto Dinapoli, Switzerland. Source of Funding: Cern. Research Group: Detector and Photonics.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 15


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

7. New staff and promotions This is a presentation of all new staff within STC during 2011 and 2012.

Carolina Blomberg, administrator Carolina is a new administrator at the electronics design division and the research centre STC. She has been working as an administrator at the Electronics Design Division since December 2011. Carolina is mainly working with the finance and staff matters relating to the division. She also assist all the personnel with public and internal information, travel arrangements and other.

Mattias Dahlgren, Lab assistant Mattias is working as a laboratory assistant at Mid Sweden University, mainly in the area of computer science. His main focus is within the fields of web development, web design and content creation for desktop and mobile devices.

Heinz Graafsma, adjunct professor Heinz has been employed as an Adjunct professor since 2012. No picture available.

Sida 16 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Photo: Tina Stafren Photo: Victoria Engholm

Kent Bertilsson,Associate Professor Kent Bertilsson is a new Associate professor at STC. The title of his lecture was “High Frequency Power Converters – Applications, Devices and Design”. Kent recieved his MSc from Mid Sweden University in electronics in 1999 and his PhD in the area of semiconductor devices from KTH in 2004. In 2009 he started the spin-off company SEPS Technologies AB and he is also leading a research project in Power Electronics, developing high frequency Switching Mode Power Supplies at STC.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Acreo has a long experience in imaging sensors and systems that can create images for X-ray, infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, Jan Andersson, is involved in a first phase, focusing on strengthening the operations of X-ray and particle detectors and related imaging systems at the STC.

Photo: Acreo

Jan Andersson, Adjunct Professor Jan Andersson, manager of Acreo’s activities in Nanoelectronics has been appointed Adjunct professor in the Electronics at the Department of Information technology and Media. The appointment is the start of a closer cooperation for the development of electronic modules and systems at Mid Sweden University.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Mikael gidlund,Adjunct professor Mikael is an Adjunct professor in wireless communication at the STC Research Centre since February 2012. He has a PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from Mid Sweden University and his Lic.Eng degree in Radio Communication Systems from the Royal Institute of technology (KTH). Mikael is currently working as senior principal scientist and global research area coordinator for Wireless and Mobility at ABB Corporate Research. He is mainly working with wireless technologies for industrial automation networks and participating in different standardization bodies. Previously he has worked as a project manager and senior specialist at Nera Networks AS, Norway and as a research engineer and project manager at Acreo AB, Sweden. Mikael holds more than 10 patents (granted and pending applications) in the area of wireless communication and is the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific publications in refereed international journals.

Photo: Acreo Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Mårten Sjöström, Associate Professor Mårten Sjöström is scientific leader of the Realistic 3D research group. As of 2011, he is part of the STC research environment. Mårtens background is a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics from Linköping University, a Licentiate degree in Signal Processing from KTH and a PhD in Modelling of Nonlinear Systems from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Roger Olsson, DR Roger Olsson is co-founder of the research group Realistic 3D and as of 2011 is part of the STC research environment. Roger participates in research projects within the fields of medical 3D visualization and capture as well as 3D video compression and distribution. He also supervises to PhD students and a number of MSc students. In addition to his research, Roger is also involved in teaching courses within the disciplines of signal- and image processing, multimedia compression and distribution, and multimedia for the Web.

STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 17

Photo: Christine Grafström

Lars Norin, Adjunct Professor Lars Norin has been working at Acreo since 2001 and is one of the driving forces to establish Acreo Fiberlab in Hudiksvall and has been involved in Fiberlab’s development of the world’s leading glass materials for high effect laser. In an interview with Elektroniktidningen. The collaboration between STC and Acreo opens up a range of new applications that integrate electronics and photonics, new light sources, or solar cells in the fiber form.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Ulf Jennehag, senior lecturer Ulf Jennehag obtained a position as Senior Lecturer in 2011. He has previously been on a temporary contract. Ulf received his Lic eng. and PhD in 2005 and 2008. He was employed as a post doc. at Fraunhofer IIS in Erlangen during 2008-2009. He is currently employed as a researcher in the Sensor-based project Media-Sense and as a lecturer in computer science at Mid-Sweden University. His research interests include multimedia coding/distribution and software development on mobile platforms.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

8. New PhD students within the STC

Mitra Damghanian Mitra is a part of the Realistic 3D research group. She is currently working in the field of 3D image capturing and, in particular, integral imaging. Mitra gined her PhD in the field of micro electro mechanical systems in 2010 and completed her Masters degree in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology in 2004. She has been working as a post-doctorate researcher on micro sensors design and fabrication before joining the STC Research Centre in 2011.

Stefan Haller Stefan received his Dipl.-Ing. (FH) degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Applied Sciences Osnabr端ck in Germany in 2009. During his internship at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at the UiTM in Malaysia he worked on the integration of an automated offset calibration system for industrial robots. In 2010 he graduated from the Mid Sweden University with a M.Sc. degree in Electronics Design.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Filip Barac Filip has a background as a Dipl. Ing. degree in Telecommunciations from the University of Belgrade and an MSc in Communication Engineering from Chalmers University of Technology, in 2009 and 2011. He also spent six months of his MSc thesis work at ABB Corporate Research Centre, which marked the start of his tenure with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. His source of funding is the COINS project and his research area is the coexistence of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks with other 2.4-GHz wireless systems, in the research group Sensor Network Security.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Shakeel Ashraf Shakeel has been s a PhD student at STC since the end of 2012. His research focus is within the field of Infrared Sensors Systems and his research involves the fabrication and development of low cost infrared sensors. In 2011 he received his Master degree in electronics from Mid Sweden University and had previously completed, in 2008, his Master in physics from University of Punjab Pakistan.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

In 2011 and 2012 eleven new PhD students started within the STC Reseach Centre on various projects and a brief presentation with regards to each of them now follow.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

In 2012 he joined the research group as a PhD student. His research is focused on the improvement of efficiency of permanent magnet BLDC motors for variable speed operation.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Suryanarayana Murthy Muddala Suryanarayana received his MSc in Electrical Engineering with the emphasis on signal processing from the Blekinge Institute of Technology Sweden. In 2011 he joined the research group Realstic3D as a PhD student. His research project is to improve the 3D video quality, mainly focusing on the view rendering in order to produce content for 3D displays. His research also includes investigating the ideas of reducing the rendering problems within the rendered views using inpainting.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Muhammad Nazar Ul Islam Muhammad started as a PhD student at the STC Research Centre in 2011. He received his BSc in electronics engineering in 2009 and completed his MSc in Electronics Design in 2012. He is now perusing his doctoral research with the focus on developing torque sensors for industrial applications. The research is focused on the development, characterization and proof of performance for the torque sensor.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Mustafa Mohamed Sobh Mohamed Mustafa received his MSc in electronics design from Mid Sweden University in 2010. Since 2011 he has been a PhD student at the STC Research Centre and his research interests is embedded systems and industrial sensor applications.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

Yun Li Yun received his MSc in computer engineering from Mid Sweden University in 2008. He is currently pursuing his PhD studie on the topic of 3D video coding in the Realistic 3D research group at the STC Research Centre.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate

Reza Salim Reza has been employed by the STC Research Centre since 2011. His research is focused on the development and characterization of radiation detectors and their applications. Currently, he is working with the Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging (PCXI) technique for material analysis within the research group Radiation Sensor Systems. Reza is also teaching Machine Vision Systems to the MSc students in the Electronics Division and supervising several MSc projects and theses which are involved in detector characterization, sensor read-outs, image processing e.t.c.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

A research centre at Mid Sweden University

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Photo: Private

Kun Wang Kun Wang is an industrial PhD student in the Realistic 3D research group and is employed by Acreo, Kista. As of 2011, he has become part of the STC research environment. Kun Wang received the MSc in Electrical Engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden in March 2007. After graduation, he started as a research fellow, in Eindhoven University of Technology and later worked at Belden Europe and Alcatel-Lucent, in the Netherlands. In 2009 he started his PhD studies at Mid Sweden University and Acreo Swedish ICT AB as an industrial PhD student with a research focus on the 3D video quality of experience.

Photo: Private

Sebastian Schwarz Sebastian Schwarz is a PhD student within the Realistic 3D research group. As of 2011, he became part of the STC Research Centre. Sebastian received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in Media Technology from the Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany, in 2009, and the licentiate degree from Mid Sweden University, Sweden, in 2012. His current PhD degree studies are as part of the research group Realistic 3D. His main research interests are scene depth capture, Time-of-Flight cameras and texture guided depth map upscaling.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate

Photo: Sandra Pettersson

A research centre at Mid Sweden University

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9. Summary of research results 9.1 Visual Sensor Systems The research group, Visual Sensor Systems, studies the design of embedded electronics systems, with a focus on applications where computing electronics, imaging detectors and image analysis are combined.These embedded visual sensor systems are sometimes mechanically integrated with products that are often used in daily life.Vision based safety systems in modern cars is one good example. 3-dimensional inspection of logs in forest machinery or the detection of particles in hydraulic oil are other examples of industrial usage. Battery powered systems, which have an expectation of long operational lifetimes, or for high speed real-time systems, require careful optimization. Requirements in relation to design metrics such as cost, speed, latency, power, size and even long lifetime maintainability can prove to be challenging for the designer. The research group are seeking more in-depth knowledge with regards to how to optimize embedded systems for the above mentioned metrics. In addition, better knowledge is being sought regarding applications for visual sensor systems and their usage. Detection and localization of eagles Expansion of wind power in Sweden and the construction of new wind power turbines is required to be achieved with the minimum possible impact on the environment. Experience has shown that if turbines are badly located then it becomes possible for birdlife, such as eagles, to get killed by being hit by the turbine blades. This has provided the motivation for the wind power industry to support research in technology which has the ability for both the survey and surveillance of eagles. In terms of the planning regarding possible sites for the building of new turbines, knowledge is necessary regarding both the population of eagles and their geographical distribution. In addition, when a set of turbines has been ontroduced and are in action, it is necessary for there to be online surveillance in relation to the detection of eagles so that it is possible to stop the turbines if there appears to be a risk of eagles being killed. This project is aimed at developing a new novel technology for the surveillance of large volumes of sky. Networks of visual sensor nodes are suggested to be used for such systems. Results: An IEEE conference publication was presented on the topic of optimization of sensor placement. In addition, there have been two reports on sky segmentation from Master students.

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DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION OF EAGLES Project leader: Dr. Najeem Lawal. Senior researchers: Najeem Lawal and Mattias O’Nils. PhD student: Naeem Ahmad. Partner: Norwegian Statkraft.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Wireless visual nodes A wireless visual node is a combination of computational logic, microprocessors, imaging detector and a radio transceiver. Networks of wireless nodes can be installed regarding the surveillance of large areas. This involves an imaging smart sensor node which is connected within a radio based network. Interesting optimization problems occur when, for example, measured parameters from the observed area are sent from a visual node to a central server for further communication when receiving part of the information. How is it possible to map image processing tasks onto the visual node versus the central server in order to minimize the energy consumption at the battery powered node? Usually, the image processing is performed in the node, thus less energy is spent on energy hungry communication. However,this computation is not free, as energy is required for both processors and logic. Furthermore, the question is,how to map image processing tasks internally in the node between hardware logic versus the microcontroller so as to achieve the lowest possible energy

consumption. This PhD project, whose aim is in relation to core design methods, is run in close cooperation with magnetic particle detection as well as the detection of eagle projects. Results: One conference proceeding was published and another journal contribution was submitted during 2011. Wireless visual nodes

Project leader: Prof. Mattias O’Nils. Senior researchers: Najeem Lawal and Mattias O’Nils. PhD students: Khursheed Khursheed and Muhamad Imran. Partner: Hägglunds Drives.

Hardware architecture and design methods This project is devoted to research on methods for design automation and with regards to hardware architecture for machine vision systems. Scientific results regarding algorithms for machine vision cannot be exploited for high speed applications unless attention is also paid to implementation issues. System performance such as speed, power and latency can be important design metrics for application areas such as robotics, automotive industry or battery powered systems. These important design considerations are complex and it is not possible to merely ignorethem by having a pure research focus on the algorithms. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) have developed into a heterogeneous computational platform which have memory, computational blocks as well as embedded microprocessors. If efficient use is to be made regarding these emerging complex hardwares, it becomes necessary to invest in the development of better methods for design automation, otherwise, the NRE cost will be the dominant factor thus limiting their use. Results: Five conference papers and two Licentiate theses were published. Waheed Malik and Xin Cheng received their Licentiate degrees during 2012. Published work covers the optimization of real-time machine vision systems at both algorithmic and register trans-

fer level. Hardware architecture for component labeling, feature descriptors, minimum distance classification are generic and well suited for design automation. Published work describes a complete machine vision system capable of measuring distance and angle to a reference pattern and which is built as a system on an FPGA using a soft processor. The reading of speed signs for automotive use has been partially implemented on an FPGA and partially on a laptop pc. Two of the master students were involved in the prototyping work, thus providing examples of the high integration of undergraduate teaching and research. Hardware architecture and design methods Project leader: Assistant Prof. Benny Thörnberg. Senior researchers: Benny Thörnberg, Najeem Lawal and Mattias O’Nils. PhD students: Waheed Malik and Xin Cheng. Funders: The Knowledge Foundation, Pakistan Higher Education Commision. Partners: Combitech AB and VisualEyes AB.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Detection of magnetic particles in hydraulic oil This project is aimed at the detection and characterization of magnetic particles in hydraulic fluid. This is an industrial application of video processing at low sampling rates in the temporal domain. The achievement of low energy for a battery powered wireless solution is a clear research challenge. Early experimental work on modeling the behavior and energy consumption for this smart camera application was conducted during 2009. From the Master thesis, presented by Mohammad Anzar Alam , the conclusion that can be drawn is that battery lifetimes of approximately six years can be expected if the camera is powered by means of four AA batteries. These results were approximated for a micro controller based smart camera, also including an LED flash light and RF communication and using a sampling rate of about 45 minutes. An experimental optical measurement cell, having a hydraulic system of circulating oil which was polluted with particles, was built and delivered from our partner company Hägglunds. Results: The energy consumption of the particle detector was further investigated in a journal article, submitted during 2011. This work covers the implementation issues related to partitioning image processing tasks on hardware versus software as well as studying local versus central processing. This more extensive investigation showed that it was possible to achieve a lifetime close to 6 hours at a sampling time of 45 minutes. It is expected that this project will be be developed into an innovation and efforts were initiated during late 2011 to seek possible venture capital.

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Detection of magnetic particles in hydraulic oil Project leader: Prof. Mattias O’Nils. Senior researchers: Najeem Lawal and Mattias O’Nils. PhD students: Khursheed Khursheed and Muhammad Imran. Partners: Hägglunds Drives.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Maintenance Consideration for Long Life Cycle Embedded Systems When an embedded electronic system has a life cycle that is much longer than the life cycles of its components, it becomes important to give consideration to system maintenance at the design stage. We have been formalizing the maintenance problem by utilizing the definition of an optimization model. This model results in a schedule for the maintenance activities such that the overall maintenance cost will be minimized. We have reason to believe that a system on an FPGA, which has soft defined microprocessors, peripherals and memory controllers will be beneficial, in terms of cost, for maintenance. Soft defined hardware systems will allow the software to survive for longer without the necessity for updates.

Maintenance Consideration for Long Life Cycle Embedded Systems Project leader: Assistant Prof. Benny Thörnberg. Senior researchers: Benny Thörnberg and Mattias O’Nils. PhD students: Xiaozhou Meng. Funders: Mid Sweden University and The Knowledge Foundation. Partner: Cross Control AB.

Results: Three conference papers were published during 2011 and two during 2012. Xiaozhou Meng defended his Licentiate thesis in 2012. Meng was honoured for the Best Student Paper at the IEEE Autotestcon 2012. Online paper topography measurement Online topography measurements will enable our partners to improve both the quality and efficiency in relation to the use of raw material within paper mills. High quality glossy paper is covered with clay and, it is possible to improve this process by means of our innovative measurement system, which ensures that there can be a better control of the paper quality. It is usually the case that, the possibility of producing even and well controlled output quality with regards to the paper, will result in an increase in profitability for the industry regarding their products. An experimental topography measurement system for laboratory environments was set up in order to work with the very promising results which had been obtained, during 2008. During 2009, an online measurement system was set up to work at the Iggesund paper mill, running a prototype paper line at 800 m/minute. Experiments at Iggesund paper board were conducted for a 5 week period of real life production and , the project has now reached the innovation phase under the name OnTop. Results: The performance of the measurement system was thoroughly investigated and submitted as three journal contributions during 2011. An application for a Swedish patent was filed during 2011. A reward was received for this work at the regional final of the Venture Cup.

Online paper topography measurement Project leader: Prof. Mattias O’Nils. Senior researchers: Dr. Jan Thim, Dr. Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Prof. Mattias O’Nils. PhD students: Mohammad Anzar Alam. Funder: Vinnova. Partners: Iggesunds bruk and SCA.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Classification of road conditions Safe traffic conditions are essential in relation to those journeys, which provide the high logistic flow of goods for our industries. Service providers and authorities responsible for the maintenance of roads in Sweden are interested in better technology regarding the classification, surveillance and forecasting of road conditions. Forecasting also means that it is possible to provide better planning in relation to road maintenance activities. Our northern conditions, with combinations of snow, ice and water on the road surface has provided the motivation for research into sensor technology for the detection of water, ice and snow. When this sensor data is combined with other meteorological parameters such as humidity, temperature, wind, it will become possible, within the near future, to claasify and predict road conditions. Multiple band spectral imaging in the near infrared region has proved to be promising for the detection of water in all phases. Imaging will provide information about how snow, ice and water are distributed on the road surface, e.g. wheel tracks on ice filled with water. Results: Patrik Jonsson defended his Licentiate thesis titled Intelligent Networked Sensors for Increased Traffic Safety on the 12th of October 2011. The work is a summary of four publications. One additional conference paper was published 2011. A prototype for a smart NIR camera based on a low cost detector was developed as a Master’s thesis work. Classification of road conditions Project leader: Assistant Prof. Benny Thörnberg. Senior researchers: Benny Thörnberg, Åke Malmberg and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD student: Patrik Jonsson. Funders: Combitech AB and The Knowledge Foundation. Partners: Combitech AB, Klimator AB and Trafikverket.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.2 wireless sensor systems The research group Wireless Sensor Systems involves work within two directions.The first direction is towards understanding the potential of having a complete embedded sensor system on rotors for measuring quantities such as angular speed and acceleration, vibration, and torque. Application areas that could benefit from this research are process industry, energy production, and the automotive industry.The second direction is addressing the technical challenges in designing wireless sensor networks for long-term operation in environmental monitoring applications. The focus is on energy harvesting techniques. During 2011 the group consisted of one senior researcher and three PhD students. In November 2012, two more PhD students joined the group. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring In 2011 Sebastian Bader, who is conducting his PhD in wireless sensor networks, spent six months at CSIRO in Australia. CSIRO is a national science agency in Australia and is well-known for its work in using wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring. Sebastian’s stay resulted in the paper “Challenges for RF Two-Way Time-of-Flight Ranging in Wireless Sensor Networks”, which is to be presented at the 7th IEEE International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building

Sensor Network Applications 2012. Discussions with Sundsvall Municipality regarding air pollution monitoring have been initiated and a web-site has been setup for pollution monitoring purposes (wsn.itm.miun.se/saqnet). More accurate wireless gas-sensor nodes have been developed for coming deployments.

Web-site for pollution monitoring in Sundsvall (wsn.itm.miun.se/saqnet).

Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring Project leader: Prof. Bengt Oelmann. Senior researcher: Bengt Oelmann. PhD student: Sebastian Bader. Funders: Mid Sweden University and EU.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Industrial Sensors oress - On rotor embedded sensor systems Project leader: Prof. Bengt Oelmann. Senior researchers: Bengt Oelmann and Peng Cheng. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partners: Leine & Linde and H채gglund Drives AB.

Photo: Victoria Engholm

In 2011 the ORESS (On-Rotor Embedded Systems) project was initiated, a The Knowledge Foundation project together with Leine & Linde and H채gglund Drives AB. In this project we attempt to understand the potential by using ORESS for measuring low-RPM on large-diameter shafts. The problem definitions were determined together with the industrial partners at the beginning of 2011. A mechanical setup for characterizing the sensors has been designed together with Leine & Linde. The University of Applied Sciences, Osnabr체ck, Germany is now using our Sentio32 platform with a sensor board equipped with 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The Sentio nodes will be installed in a network configuration on an airplane to measure the dynamics of a spin situation in relation to the airplane.

Bengt Oelmann, to the left, and his research group are looking for ways to use micro mechanical sensors to enhance both the reliability and safety in the process industry.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Experimental Equipment in the wireless sensor lab Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring A new hardware platform for sensor nodes was de- temperature compensated real-time clock, which is imveloped during 2011. The main features, compared to portant in outdoor applications with highly synchroniprevious Sentio-platforms, are the more energy-efficient zed communication protocols. A docking station, used uC that in both active and power-down states consumes only in the development phase, has also been developed. less energy. Another important feature is the accurate

To the left: Sentio-em on the docking station. To the right: Sentio-em with casing.

Industrial Sensors In 2011 we experimented with a new principle for measuring angular speed on shafts. It is based on an optical mouse sensor and the method provides contactless sen-

sing.The results have been published in IEEE Transactions of Instrumentation and Measurements in March 2012.

Sentio32, the wireless sensor platform for industrial sensors.

Two LMSs (optical mouse sensors) and a shaft encoder coupled to a rotating shaft.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.3 Printed Sensor Systems The Printed Sensor Systems group focuses on creating electronic functionalities with the aid of standard printing technologies and inks containing metallic particles or inks that act as isolators. Smart systems integration is targeted for wireless sensor readout with existing commercial equipment. During 2011-2012 the group has mainly studied printed memory cells and humidity sensors, which are commuted through systems for electronic article surveillance and UHF RFID.The work has included thorough studies in relation to understanding the interaction between substrate coatings and printed conductors in the sintering process in order to promote inkjet printing quality of conductive nanoparticle inks and, in particular, to understand how humidity affects the sintering process. Demonstrators has been presented for printed one-time memory cards of SD-size and for passive wireless humidity sensors by means of the direct integration of printed sensor elements to printed UHF RFID antennas. In 2011 and 2012 three senior researchers and two PhD students worked within the research group on different research projects. Antenna-Based RFID Sensors RFID, as a low cost technology with a long lifetime , provides great potential for transmitting sensor data in combination with an ordinary ID number. However, enabling sensor functionality for RFID has previously been neither economically defensible nor practically possible as the very few available RFID sensor chips have been either too expensive, as compared to simple ID-chips, or require a battery in order to operate. We address a hybrid solution for a printed RFID sensor system, which has a single event logging functionality by integrating a printed resistive sensor into the antenna structure of an RFID tag, whose chip is originally intended to only provide an ID-number and not sensor data. Our printed sensors act as Write Once Read Many (WORM) memories since they record the sensing event.The reason why the sensor acts as a WORM is because its resistance value can only be leveled down and not up. In the specific sensor setup, the resistance is designed to have a start value of about 2 kΩ and the work is specifically targeting a single event logging functionality of excessive humidity. Thus, when a specific humidity value has been reached, the sensor resistance will decrease over time to a final value below 50 Ω. Even if the relative humidity decreases again, the sensor will maintain its lowest achieved sensor value, making it a 1-bit memory that is only able to be set once. Applications include smart packaging of goods and non-invasive methods for humidity surveillance within construction structures. Compared to other humidity sensors, the developed WORM sensor is simpler to produce and has much a lower cost. Important advantages include its memory functionality and its capability to be easily integrated into a passive UHF RFID tag.

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Figure 9.3.1 - Schematic pictures of the single event logging tag in two different setups where the tag in (a) is regarded as “Normally On” and the tag in (b) as “Normally Off ” as an activated sensor either short-circuits the RFID chip (a) or connects the chip to the antenna (b).

Results: One article published in IEEE Sensors Journal. One Master’s thesis in readout electronics. One Bachelor’s thesis from two students studying Industrial Economics, targeting commercial aspects. Printed Humidity Sensor with Memory Functionality for Passive RFID Tags Project leader: Assistant Prof. Johan Sidén. Senior researcher: Johan Sidén. PhD student: Jinlan Gao. Funders: The Knowledge Foundation, FORMAS and EU. Partners: Sensible Solutions, Sweprod and PEAB.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Figure 9.3.2 - The printed WORM structure with five parallel sensor lines to achieve a low resistance in the activated state. That is, a low resistance when exposed to humidity.

Sensor value obtained by comparing required minimum transmit power. Figure 9.3.3 - Measured difference in minimum transmit power between sensor tags and reference tag when located inside a laboratory wall with 80 % humidity at room temperature and with an RFID reader positioned perpendicularly at 1.0 m from the sensor labels. Two-layer printed antennas were used and the best On/Off ratios are achieved with the normally on tag labeled Antenna I and the normally off tag labeled Antenna II.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) tags are passive devices consisting of a capacitor and coil tuned to a resonance frequency readable by the detector equipment, in this case 8.2 MHz. This work presents modified designs for RF EAS tags that allows the EAS infrastructure to be used to trigger alarms for excessive sensor values. By dividing the resonance of the EAS tag’s capacitance in two and inserting a resistive sensor device in between, the LC circuit becomes an LCCR circuit and can be used as a sensor tag. A high sensor resistance means that one capacitor is decoupled, leading to one resonance frequency, while a low resistance will couple both capacitances into the circuit, resulting in a lower resonance frequency. Different types of resistive sensors exist that are able to detect properties such as pressure, moisture, light and

temperature. The tags are manufactured in Aluminum foil on a polyetylentereftalat (PET) substrate, resulting in a cost effective RF-platform for various resistive sensors. Two types of tags are designed and manufactured, one with parallel plate capacitors and the other with interdigital capacitors. To test the tags, a resistive tilt sensor is mounted and the tags are characterized using a network analyzer. It is shown that for high resistance, the tags have a resonance frequency of more than 10 MHz while for low values the frequency approaches 8.2 MHz. Results: One article published in the journal electronics. several Master’s theses and Master’s projects through 15 hp project courses

Figure 9.3.4 - (a) Electrical schematic of the LCCR tag. (b) Electrical layout used for simulating of the EAS tag reader and EAS tag design.

Figure 9.3.5 - Two different EAS sensor tag layouts. (a) Top layer layout of a parallel plate capacitor LCCR EAS tag and (b) an interdigital capacitor version. (c) A printed WORM structure with five parallel sensor lines is used in humidity sensor applications.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Fig.ure 9.3.6 - Simulated and measured transmission coefficients for parallel plate tag (a) and interdigital tag (b).

Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform Project leader: Dr. Henrik Andersson. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson and Johan SidĂŠn. PhD student: Krister Hammarling. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partners: Webshape and Sweprod.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

the syspack project description - Nanotechnology has revolutionized the area of printed electronics The scientific characterization and evaluation of hybridization solutions for electronics on paper is still limited and therefore, these issues are addressed within this proposal. In this project we aim to explore, develop, and evaluate new hybridization technologies for paper electronics. In addition, we intend to further develop existing hybridization techniques utilizing electrical sintering and nanoparticle self-organization. The target is to obtain lower contact resistances, better mechanical stability and faster attachment of components. The overall objective of the project is to develop technology for system integration of digital functions on paper substrates. Printed electronics has the potential to improve the core values of paper products.The communication properties of graphical paper can be enhanced by adding hypertext functionality that allows easy access to additional digital content.

Moreover, large area printed electronics on paper may open additional markets for paper. One interesting emerging market is within large area lighting. In this market segment roll to roll processed paper or plastic webs with conductive traces and integrated light emitting devices could provide a flexible design tool for furniture and styling articles. Together, with SCA R&D Centre, Oregon Scientific, Sweprod and Webshape we intend to demonstrate the potential of nanotechnology in paper based products. The proposal also includes a basic research part directed towards the area of self-assembly and sintering of nanoparticles (including thermal, electrical and chemical processes). The basic research effort includes both experimental and theoretical studies.

Contacting of printed electronics on paper substrates When manufacturing printed electronics, the overall resistance of the printed tracks as well as the contact resistance of the mounted components will add up to the total resistance of the system. Several conductive adhesives were used in order to contact graphite electrodes to conductive silver ink tracks, printed on paper. To produce reliable and low resistance contacts, conductive adhesives were examined. The conductive adhesives used were an anisotropic tape (3M, 9705) only conducting through the tape and not in the plane, an isotropic tape (3M, 9713), a double sided copper tape (Laird Technologies) and, additionally, a conducting silver epoxy (Chemtronics, CW2400). The resistance from the best contacts achieved in [6] will add about 0.3 Ω per contact compared to 5 Ω for

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the worst. The measured resistance is shown in the plot below.

Contacting of printed electronics on paper substrates Project leader: Prof. Håkan Olin. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson, Anatoliy Manuilskiy, Magnus Hummelgård, Joakim Bäckström, Renyun Zhang and Håkan Olin. PhD students: Britta Andres and Sven Forsberg. Funder: EU.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Modified EAS tag used as a resistive sensor platform A modified design of an RF-surveillance tag used as a sensor platform has been manufactured and characterized. The design of the EAS tag in this work is based on the standard EAS tag LC resonance circuit but modified to include a second capacitor connected in parallel through a resistive sensor resulting in an LCCR circuit. When the resistance of the sensor is high, the extra capacitor is disconnected from the circuit, giving one resonance frequency and when the sensor resistance is very low the extra capacitor is connected in parallel, resulting in a lower resonance frequency.

The tag is manufactured in Al foil on a PET substrate. This means that it is possible to use the described tag as a very low cost, RF-platform for various resistive sensors. It can be used in, for example, shipping in combination with different sensors, where each container or box may have its own sensor. It will then be possible to pick out the specific container/boxes, for which a “trigger event” has occurred. Different types of resistive sensors exist that have the ability to detect properties such as pressure, moisture, light (LDRs), temperature (thermistors).

Modified EAS tag used as a resistive sensor platform Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson, Johan Sidén, Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD students: Krister Hammarling and Thomas Öhlund. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Evaluation of coatings applied to plastic substrates for ink-jet printing of conductive lines One research direction has been to evaluate different coatings applied on polyethylene and Kapton substrates to promote inkjet printing quality of conductive nano particle inks. If no coating is used, the line definition makes it difficult to print detailed structures. During the investigation it was discovered that the best option, in terms of line quality, is achieved by using the thinnest coating of 5μm for all three types of coatings, which were tested. This was also the case with regards to re-

sistance. It was also shown that the type of coating is important for achieving a high conductance. The three different coatings resulted in a significant difference in resistivity, especially at low sintering temperatures, as can be seen in the figure below. The conclusion is that the conductivity of the printed lines is at its best at about 18 % of bulk silver, making the combination of surface treatment and the ANP silver ink usable for printed electronics applications.

Printing quality for a reference line printed on a plastic substrate without coating,(top left), printed 200µm wide test lines on 5, 10, 20 and 50µm thick Semi Gloss coating. (bottom left) and resistivity for lines printed on the different coating.

Evaluation of coatings applied to plastic substrates for ink-jet printing of conductive lines Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson, Cecilia Lidenmark, Jonas Örtegren, Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD students: Krister Hammarling, Thomas Öhlund and Sven Forsberg. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

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Printed Humidity Sensor An ink-jet printed humidity sensor ha been developed. After exposure to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when the humidity is reduced. It thus becomes possible to measure the humidity level through a knowledge of the resistance of the sensor. The main benefit is in relation to the sensor’s very low production cost and usability in printed applications and,

additionally, that it has a memory function. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required, which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. Thus, it could be used in the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings.

Photographs showing single line sensor (left) and multiple line sensor (right). The length of each is 125Âľm.

Printed Humidity Sensor

Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson, Anatoliy Manuilskiy, Cecilia Lidenmark and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD students: Tomas Unander and Sven Forsberg. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

Measurements showing resistance changes under different humidities for sensors printed on HP Advanced photo paper.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Inkjet Printed WORM Memory Card Reader Memory cards have been manufactured by means of the ink jet printing of silver nano ink on photo paper. In addition, a compact memory card reader for PC has been constructed.This enables there to be a complete system of printed memory cards and inexpensive readers that can be used for various applications. The memory cards each have 8 memory cells and have the same physical layout as Secure Digital cards. The memories can be programmed to specific values representing the data on the cards, so called Write Once Read Many (WORM) memories.The memory card reader measures the resistance values of the WORMS and reads it back to the PC by means of a USB connection. There are many applications for such a system involving low cost printable memory cards , for example, the information on the cards can be connected to personalized information on the internet, so that when the card is inserted in the reader, a personalized webpage is automatically displayed. The memory cards are manufactured by ink jet printing silver nano particle ink onto photo paper by means of a Dimatix materials printer. Inkjet Printed WORM Memory Card Reader Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson, Anatoliy Manuilskiy and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD students: Stefan Haller. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

System Integration of Electronic Functions in Smart Packaging Applications System integration technologies for smart packaging applications utilizing flexible materials such as cellulose- or plastic based materials have been evaluated and analyzed. Three system integration case studies were performed, targeting electronic intrusion alarms in a corrugated-board-based package. A number of electronic packaging solutions, relevant to the case studies, were experimentally characterized and compared with respect to the targeted application area. It was demonstrated that, even for a technology solution where the actual electronic functionality might be implemented by only printing, there still are applications where hybridization solutions are preferable. The intrusion alarm solutions developed included one completely chipless implementation, one implementation utilizing standard silicon RFID inlays and, finally, one implementation based on a semipassive silicon RFID sensor platform with data logging functionality. The current technology platforms available for both printed electronics and conductive adhesives enabled the development of advanced and well-functioning product demonstrators. These results were obtained by utilizing large-sized surface mounted IC packages, for which it was possible to ensure that there would be a sufficient contact area for the anisotropic conducting adhesive to work. System Integration of Electronic Functions in Smart Packaging Applications Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Hans-Erik Nilsson, Johan SidĂŠn, Henrik Andersson, Anatoliy Manuilskiy, Magnus HummelgĂĽrd and Mikael Gulliksson. PhD student: Tomas Unander. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Printed Write Once and Read Many Sensor Memories in Smart Packaging Applications A horizontal printed Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) resistive memory has been developed for use in wireless sensor tags targeting single-event detection in smart packaging applications. The WORM memory can be programmed using a 1.5-V printed battery. An alternative programming method is to use chemical sintering which allows for the development of exposure-time triggered single event tags that can be accessed wirelessly.The new WORM memory has very low losses in the ON-state which enables there to be direct integration into the antenna structures. A sensor tag that utilizes the WORM memory functionality and the well established Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) communication standard has been outlined. It is shown that real implementations of fully printed solutions for auto-detecting sensor tags demand a careful selection in relation to the materials and components used. Printed Write Once and Read Many Sensor Memories in Smart Packaging Applications Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson. Senior researchers: Hans-Erik Nilsson, Henrik Andersson, Anatoliy Manuilskiy, Johan SidĂŠn and Mikael Gulliksson. PhD students: Tomas Unander and Krister Hammarling. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

an interdisciplinary collaboration between two research centres The majority of the research within the research group Printed Electronics is included in two different research projects called Syspack and Energywise. These two research projects are an interdisciplinary collaboration between two research centres STC and FSCN at

Mid Sweden University. Some brief facts about each project can be found below and more information about the projects can be found on the STC website . www.miun.se/stc

SYSPACK

Energywise

Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson.

Project leader: Prof. Hans-Erik Nilsson.

Senior researchers: Henrik Andersson and Anatoliy Manuilskiy from STC and Håkan Olin, Sverker Edvardsson and Magnus Hummelgård from FSCN.

Project group STC: Hans- Erik Nilsson, Bengt Oelmann, Sebastian Bader, Peng Cheng, Henrik Anderson, Mattias O´Nils, Najeem Lawal, Kent Bertilsson, Göran Thungström and Anatoily Manoilskly.

Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partners: SCA R&D Centre, Oregon Scientific, Sweprod and Webshape.

Project group FSCN: Håkan Olin, Joakim Bäckström, Christina Hummelgård, Renyun Zhang, Sven Forsberg, Magnus Hummelgård, Kaarlo Niskanen, Wennan Zhang, Ulf Söderling and Olof Björkqvist.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Funders: European Regional Development Fund and The Knowledge Foundation.

The inkjet printer in the inkjet lab. STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 41


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.4 Power electronics The aim of the research group in Power Electronics was to position their research at the forefront of high frequency power supplies. The research has presented the only isolated converter above 3MHz with an efficiency exceeding the requirements set by commercial applications.This has resulted in a spin-off company called SEPS Technologies. In 2011 the research group finished an EU regional funding project “Research and development of high frequency Power Supplies” with VINNOVA and the Swedish Energy Agency as co-financiers. This project has been initiating research activities within the field of Power Electronics at Mid Sweden University and has also.,within just a few years, been very successful in achieving a front-

line position in research in relation to high frequency power supplies. The research has achieved the only presented isolated converter above 3MHz with an efficiency exceeding the requirements set by commercial applications. The project has also resulted in one spinoff company and many new collaborations from both industrial and academic sources.

Transformers/Inductors for high frequency power converters Due to the increased technical requirements of the Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) in applications such as palm top computers, LCD monitors, Laptop adapters and iPads, the requirement is for low profile, high compactness, high power density and highly energy efficient magnetics (inductors/transformers). Several challenges still exist within planar magnetics, as the operating frequencies are increased from a few hundred kHz to MHz including , increased core losses (hysteresis and eddy current), winding losses due to skin and proximity effects, unbalanced magnetic flux distribution, increased dielectric losses and stray capacitances. There is thus a requirement for these transformers/inductors to be carefully designed with regards to these higher operating frequencies.

cy planar transformers/inductors in 1 – 10MHz for the power transfer applications in the load power range of 10 – 70W, useful for the above mentioned consumer applications. In order to completely eliminate the core losses of the transformer, initially, several coreless PCB step-down transformers of different turn’s ratio and signal transformer/PCB inductors have been designed and evaluated in various converter topologies. One of the coreless PCB transformer modules of 4:1 turn’s ratio along with the signal transformer and PCB inductors is shown in figure 2.4.1 together with the power transformer energy efficiency and the thermal profile.The tested power density of the power transformer at a frequency of 2.6 MHz is 16 W/cm2, with a peak energy efficiency of 95 %.

Thus, the research at Mid Sweden University has been focused on the design and analysis of the high frequen-

Figure 9.4.1 - Power/Signal Transformer with PCB inductors, Energy efficiency and thermal profile of Power Transformer at 20W.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

In order to further increase the power density and energy efficiency of the transformers at higher operating frequencies, several core based transformers (POT, ER, EE and RM cores) for power transfer applications have been designed, using the available high frequency core materials such as NiZn and MnZn and these are shown in figure 2.4.2. One of the novel high frequency planar transformer’s energy efficiency as a function of load power at a frequency of 3MHz is illustrated in figure 2.4.3 and its corresponding thermal profile at the maximum tested power of 50W is illustrated in figure 2.4.4. The power density of the corresponding transformer is reported to be 47W/cm3.

Figure 9.4.2. - Core based POWER transformers.

Transformers/Inductors for high frequency power converters Project leader: Associate Prof. Kent Bertilsson. Senior researcher: Kent Bertilsson. PhD student: Radhika Ambatipudi. Funders: The Knowledge Foundation and Mid Sweden University.

Figure 9.4.3 - Efficiency of POT core transformer.

Figure 9.4. 4 - Thermal profile of POT core transformer at 50W.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

High frequency power converters There is continuous demand to design a low profile, high power density, highly energy efficient and fast dynamic response converters at a reasonable price for many portable appliances such as laptop or ultrabook adapters and iPads, for example. The tremendous efforts which have been input into the improvement of switching devices has led to increased switching speeds of power semiconductor devices. Higher switching frequencies of converter have resulted in a size reduction of the passive elements such as capacitors, inductors, filter components and transformers which, in turn, have led to the compact size, weight and increased power density of the converters. In this regard, the research has been focused on the design and analysis of a high frequency and highly energy efficient isolated AC-DC/DC-DC converter, suitable for

Figure 9.4.5 - HF converter with CLPCB transformers.

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the above mentioned consumer appliances by using the high frequency planar power transformers developed at Mid Sweden University. One of the isolated DC-DC converter prototypes using a coreless PCB (CLPCB) power/signal transformer and PCB inductors operating in the MHz region is illustrated in figure 9.4.5. Due to the lack of commercially available high sided gate drivers above 1 MHz frequency, high frequency passive gate drive circuitry suitable for the operating frequency range of 2-4 MHz using CLPCB signal transformer has been designed and evaluated. The corresponding gate drive signals with (CH3) and without (CH1) a signal transformer are shown in figure 9.4.6. The energy efficiency of the converter with the coreless PCB transformer technology in the switching frequency range of 2.4-2.75 MHz is as shown in figure 9.4.7 with the peak energy efficiency of 86.2 % and the maximum tested output power of 35 W.

Figure 9.4.6 - Gate signals using CL signal transformer.

Figure 9.4.7 - Energy efficiency of HF converter.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

By using the latest GaN HEMTs, the high frequency power converter capable of operating in the switching frequency range of 3-4 MHz has been designed and evaluated. The maximum tested output power of the converter is 45 W with a peak energy efficiency of 92 %. In this case, the converter is maintained to be operated in zero voltage switching (ZVS) condition in order to obtain the higher energy efficiencies in the MHz switching frequency. The corresponding switching waveforms, together with the energy efficiency of unregulated and regulated converters, are illustrated figure 9.4.8 and 9.4.9 and 9.4.10 respectively. Different modulation techniques suitable for line and load regulation of the HF converter were also investigated.

Figure 9.4.8 - Switching waveforms of HF converter.

High frequency power converters Project leader: Associate Prof. Kent Bertilsson. Senior researcher: Kent Bertilsson. PhD student: Hari Babu Kotte. Funders: The Knowledge Foundation and Mid Sweden University.

Figure 9.4.9 - Efficiency of unregulated converter.

Figure 9.4.10 - Efficiency of regulated converter.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

EMI suppression in high frequency power converter The research project has the following focus and activities:

• Measure and analyze the conducted EMI in emer-

ging power converters, switching in MHz frequency range.

• Design a line filter to suppress the conducted EMI. • Optimization of the filter for the suppression of conducted EMI at higher power levels.

• Design line filters for two wire universal input SMPS. • Comparison of the filters’ design for two wire and three wire input SMPS.

Frequency spectrum of conducted EMI of High frequency half bridge converter.

• Use of near field probes to find the source of EMI.

Measurement setup for EMI measurements.

EMI suppression in high frequency power converter Photo: Victoria Engholm

Project leader: Associate Prof. Kent Bertilsson. Senior researcher: Kent Bertilsson. PhD student: Abdul Majid. The new energy converter is so small that it is able to fit into a computer.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Modeling of resistance welding Resistance welding is a widely used process for joining metal sheets in automotive and other industries. The resistance welding process is comprised of electric, thermal and mechanical phenomena , which makes this process complex and highly non-linear. The versatility, rich mathematical formulations and robustness of finite element methods makes them attractive for simulations within a wide range of problems. In resistance spot welding process, the high magnitude current flow through the welding electrode causes a localized problem in the parts to be welded. A pressure is exerted during the process in order to hold the parts to be welded together during welding time cycle.

Weld Nugget Formation at different time instances.

Ongoing Activities:

• 3 Dimensional Model for Seam Welding Process. • Develop 2D Model for Sopt Welding Aluminium Sheets.

The developed model can be used for selecting the appropriate welding parameters to produce a good welding nugget for different sheet thickness.es

Modeling of resistance welding

Project leader: Associate Prof. Kent Bertilsson. Senior researcher: Kent Bertilsson. PhD student: Hari Babu Kotte and Jawad Saleem.

Temperature observed at the centre of the weld nugget.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.5 Radiation Sensor Systems The main activities of the Radiation Sensor Systems group concern pixellated detectors for ionizing radiation including both particles and photons. A significant part of the work is based on the MEDIPIX family of readout electronics and the collaboration within the MEDIPIX consortium. Understanding the performance of the sensor elements and the readout electronics is essential in order to predict the image quality for a certain imaging system. X-ray imaging requires high-Z sensor materials in order to achieve sufficient quantum efficiency. Unfortunately, these materials typically include high concentrations of defects, which affect the charge transport. Extensive work is being conducted in order to determine the effects of charge transport, trapping and fluorescence in pixellated CdTe sensors. Significant results have been obtained from the measurements with a monoenergetic mircobeam performed at DIAMOND. One of our PhD-students will also spend time at CERN working on the characterization of and investigations into stability issues in some of the MEDIPIX family chips. light Separates fibers and coating Imaging of light materials is of significant interest to the forest industry. One interesting application concerns the separation of fibers and coating in a sheet of paper. This could be conducted by either spectroscopic imaging, thus taking advantage of the absorption edge of Ca when CaCO3 is used as the coating material, or by using phase contrast imaging. The phase contrast effect is generally larger than the effects of attenuation for light materials. At the present time ,it has been possible to separate different layers using spectroscopic imaging. A setup for phase contrast imaging is currently being built. monitor efficient radon reduction Radon is a problem in many buildings. It has health effects since the decay chain of radon contains charged ions, which stick to the lungs and where further decays can cause lung cancer. A project to develop an electronic radon monitor is being conducted in collaboration with one of the spin-off companies.The unit is sufficiently fast to monitor weather induced variations in the radon levels in a building and is able to control radon reduction equipment. By using this type of sensor, the radon levels can be maintained at a level below the limits with a minimal use of energy.

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semiconductor detectors for neutron imaging Neutron imaging is a growing field. The construction of the European Spallation Source in Lund will further increase the demand for efficient neutron detectors. At the present time,the majority of neutron imaging has been performed using gas detectors (3He) and large scintillators. However, semiconductor detectors for neutron imaging are gaining an increasing interest. The main reasons associated with this are the lack of 3He and, additionally, that semiconductor detectors provide a higher spatial resolution and better timing than the current detectors. Options for developing high efficiency neutron detectors based on the MEDIPIX technology are being studied in collaboration with ESS and the Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics in Prague. The group is active in national and international collaborations to define roadmaps for further detector development and to launch collaborative projects within this field. The most important of these collaborations is the Detector Network of the European Synchrotrons. At the national level we are participating in a project funded by the Swedish Research Council and coordinated by Uppsala University in relation to forming a detector development network in Sweden

International collaborations The group has a strong and continuing collaboration with the partners in the MEDIPIX consortium. An agreement has been made to send one of our PhD-students to CERN to address stability issues in the TIMEPIX readout chip within the MEDIPIX family. A specific collaboration has been formed with the University of Glasgow and the synchrotron DIAMOND in England. The purpose is to investigate the behaviour of pixellated CdTe sensors under X-ray illumination. Experiments have been conducted at DIAMOND using a monoenergetic microbeam. Results show the effects of the depth of interaction, charge transport and fluorescence


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

New x-ray characterization lab The group has access to a class 1000 cleanroom, specifically equipped for sensor fabrication. During this year an X-ray characterization lab has been built. The room is about 4 meters long and is fully shielded with lead. A nanofocus X-ray tube together with slits and an extensive set of sample holders is mounted on an optical table. This setup is suitable for X-ray microscopy as well as phase contrast imaging.

Phase contrast Project leader: Assistant Prof. Börje Norlin. Researchers: Jan Thim, Christer Fröjdh and Göran Thungström. PhD students: Erik Fröjdh and Reza Salim. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.

Photo: Olle Melkerhed

Partners: Iggesund Holmen, Mantex AB, Scint-X AB and MidDec Scandinavian AB.

Börje Norlin performs test in the X-Ray lab.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.6 Detector and Photonics The research group Detectors and Photonics are developing detectors such as a thermal detector for CO2 based indoor climate control, electron detectors and detectors for Thermal Neutrons.Within photonics, the main focus is on the development of new optical fiber based laser sources and fiber optic sensors for industrial and medical applications. Electron Detectors While the requirement for the design of electron detectors with optimized responsivity for any given energy range is that attention is paid to a number of parameters (including the semiconductor and dopant type to be used, doping profile, passivating type and thickness etc), the detector’s responsivity is highly dependent on the recombination of produced electron-hole pairs in the detector. Research has shown that highly localized deep defects on semiconductor surfaces, especially at the Si-SiO2 interface, are extremely efficient recombination centres and that these recombination activities can be a dominant mechanism that controls the minority carrier lifetime in silicon. By changing the doping profile, the surface recombination velocity and the fixed charge in the silicon/silicon-dioxide interface, the responsivity can be monitored. From figure 9.6.1 it is clear that an p+n detector structure is more sensitive to an increased surface recombination velocity compared to an n+p detector structure. The internal electric field caused by a step dopant profile explains this difference. The fixed oxide charge present in the oxide can change and this is caused by radiation damage, processing condition etc. In the case of an n+p detector structure, an increased fixed charge increases the responsivity as can be seen in the simulated result in figure 9.6.2. The fixed positive charge provides a contribution to the internal electric field which reduces the time spent on the ge-

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nerated carrier, close to the silicon/ silicon-dioxide interface. The work has been experimentally verified by means of a comparison between p+n and n+p detectors. Moreover, the improved sensitivity and the spatial resolution for a low energetic electron have been verified for an n+p 2D lateral position sensitive detector, developed at Mid Sweden University.

Electron Detectors

Project leader: Associate Prof. Göran Thungström. Researchers: Göran Thungström, A. Lundgren and Hans-Erik Nilsson. PhD students: David Krapohl, Krister Hammarling and Omeime Esebamen. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partner: Sitec Electro Optics AB.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Figure 9.6.1 - Simulation of the effect of surface recombination velocity of minority carriers Sn,p where Qr = 5 x 1011 C/cm2 on the responsivity of the figures.

Figure 9.6.2 - The influence of fixed oxide charge, Qr or the responsivity from 0,5 keV to 20 keV.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Development of thermal detector for CO2 based indoor climate control In cooperation with SenseAir AB, the research group in Detector and Photonics has been investigating the possibilities to develop a thermal detector, which could be produced at a low cost and with a maintained functionality. In this process we have investigated the use of both bolometer and thermopiles (figure 9.6.3). Both types have been based on a closed polymer membrane. This membrane has a low thermal conductivity, which is an advantage for the sensitivity. Additionally, the membrane material is applied using rather simple processing methods. A key feature for the detector sensitivity is the infrared absorber, which is added to the detector in order to increase the membrane heating. The absorber should have a high absorption efficiency and should have a as minimal a contribution as possible to the thermal conductance.

rial which is directly sensitive would eliminate the need for both a membrane and infrared absorber. A pre-study on the deposition of Lead Selenide has been initiated and will be continued.

Figure 9.6.3 - Fabricated polymer membrane based thermopile (no absorber).

During this period, work has mainly been focused onan investigation of the absorber layer. By integrating the IR absorber as a part of the membrane, the contribution to the total thermal conductance would be minimal (upper part of figure 9.6.4). The use of an absorption layer based on destructive interference has been simulated and measured (lower part of figure 9.6.4).This structure uses the membrane itself as a part of the absorption structure. The work of integrating such a structure in the detector membrane has started and will continue during the continuation of the project. A second part of the project investigates the possibility of developing a bolometer using Lead Selenide (PbSe) as a resistance material. PbSe is a semiconductor material, which has sensitivity in the Mid IR region. Using a mate-

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Figure 9.6.4 - Integration and simulation of interferometric IR absorber

Prospekt Project leader: Dr. Claes Mattsson. Researcher: Claes Mattsson. PhD student: Shahkeel Ashraf. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partner: SenseAir.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Detectors for Thermal Neutrons The basis of this work is that solid state detectors will replace the 3He filled gas detector now in use, which has been caused by the low world production of 3He gas. The drawback of the 3He gas detector is caused by the limited access to 3He, which is produced by a radioactive decay of tritium. Tritium has not been in production since 1988 in the US and 8000 liter/year of 3He is produced from the stock of tritium. In contrast, the demand for 3He is 22000 liter/year, merely for security applications in the US, therefore an alternative detector solution is required. The structure of the neutron converter must be constructed in such a way that an efficiency of about 30 % is reached and without any serious stress being induced in the detector. The stress can result in a high leakage current and an increased density of recombination centres, which increases the noise and lowers the charge collection efficiency. TiB2 was deposited by electron evaporation on a planar silicon detector to investigate the possibility for its use as a neutron converter layer. Figure 9.6.5 shows a schematic sketch of the structure and in figure 9.6.6 the simulated response of the generated alpha particles is shown for two different thicknesses. From figure 9.6.6 it is clear that a thicker layer does not improve the sensitivity with respect to the count rate for a defined spectral peak. Instead, the peak is broadened which is caused by the alpha particles being stopped in the converter layer. For the detector response of the produced alpha particles and 7Li nuclei from a converter layer with thicknesses of 2000Å, fabricated in MIUN’s clean-room, see figure 9.6.7.

Figure 9.6.5 - Simulated structure of a detector with neutron converter.

Figure 9.6.6 - Comparison of two alpha spectra simulated with 2000 Å and 10 000 Å TiB2 layer thicknesses energy.

Detectors for Thermal Neutrons Project leader: Associate Prof. Göran Thungström. Researchers: G. Thungström, T. Slavicek, M. Kralik, D. Krapohl, S. Petersson, S. Pospisil and H-E. Nilsson. PhD student: David Krapohl. Funders: Czech Technical University in Prague IEAP and Mid Sweden University. Partner: Czech Technical University in Prague, IEAP.

Figure 9.6.7 - Energy calibrated P/H spectra measured on a detector with converter layer using the CMI’s neutron source.

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Measurement of the Sensitive Profile in a Solid State Silicon Detector, Irradiated by X-rays A newly constructed solid state silicon dose profile detector is characterized concerning its sensitive profile. The use of the MEDIPIX2 sensor system displays an excellent method for aligning an image of an X-ray slit to a sample under test. The scanning from the front to the reverse side of the detector, shows a decrease in sensitivity of 20%, which results in a minority charge carrier lifetime of 0.18 ms and a diffusion length of 460 µm. The influence of diced edges results in a volumetric efficiency of 59% and an active volume of 1.2 mm2 from a total of 2.1 mm2.

Figure 9.6.9 measured response, detector at edge position.

Figure 9.6.8 - Scanning direction of the detector.

Results: The detector is scanned by using a slit and a micro-focus x-ray beam. Figure 9.6.8 shows the relative scanning direction, fixed slit (grey) , and that the detector is moved. (a) Scanned detector at edge, thickness 360 µm, (b) Scanned detector flat, width 2400 µm. The medipix system is used to align the slit image on the detector. Figure 9.6.9 displays the measured relative response for a detector at the edge position. The minority carrier lifetime τp is estimated to be 0.18 ms, which can be calculated from the measured detector using the slit scan. Figure 9.6.10 shows the measured relative response for a detector at a flat position, with the projection of the slit on the detector being 10 µm for 28 and 70 kV. At 120 kV, the projection of the slit on the detector is 20

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Figure 9.6.10 - Measured response, detector at flat position.

µm. From the above two measurements, the volumetric efficiency is calculated to be about 59 %, which includes the effect of four diced edges, resulting in an active volume of 1.2 mm3 from a total of 2.1 mm3. The detector is used in a x-ray dosimeter for applications in medical surgery where the x-ray is actively used during the surgery. The dosimeter is used to protect the surgeon during surgery. Lars demonstrates the prototype in the figure 9.6.11.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Figure 9.6.11 - Lars Herrnsdorf from RTI Electronics and Lund University, shows the dosimeter for clinical use at the STC Expo 2012.

Measurement of the Sensitive Profile in a Solid State Silicon Detector, Irradiated by X-rays Project leader: Associate Prof. Gรถran Thungstrรถm. Researchers: Lars Herrnsdorf (RTI Electronics and Lund University), Bรถrje Norlin, Sรถren Mattsson (RTI Electronics), Mikael Gunnarsson (Lund University). PhD students: Reza Salim and David Krapohl. Partners: RTI Electronics AB and Lund University.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

photonics research at STC

The research within photonics at STC is mainly focused on the development of new optical fiber based laser sources and fiber optic sensors for industrial and medical applications. The development of optical fiber based laser sources is, in turn, divided in two application areas – improving the laser glass material of the optical fibers for higher efficiency and reliability and to develop new

fiber based laser sources in collaboration with industrial partners. Research within fiber optic sensors is focused on two application areas – the development of new pH sensitive materials that can be deposited on optical fibers for measurements in e.g. blood and fiber optic sensors based on deposition of nano-particles.

Development of optical fiber based laser sources for industrial applications The work during 2011 has been focused on further improvements in the relation to the reliability of active optical fibers used in fiber based laser sources. PhD student Sara Rydberg has investigated the mechanisms causing radiation (UV & X-ray) induced losses in optical fibers leading to a reduced operational lifetime for the lasers. The general route has been to investigate radiation induced losses in well-known laser materials, e.g.Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) crystals and compare this with induced losses in optical fiber glass material. The work has resulted in an increased understanding of the complex mechanisms causing increased losses in optical fibers. Work has also been conducted in relation to developing fiber based laser sources using the new and improved optical fibers. This activity was initiated during 2011 and has been conducted in cooperation with laser manufacturers (Cobolt and Optoskand) and several end users e.g. Laser Nova in Östersund and LaserCut in Hudiksvall. One example of an ongoing activity is a fiber based laser operating at 488nm in the blue-green spectral range.This is interesting from an industrial point of view as it can replace bulky and highly energy consuming Argon-ion gas lasers. Sara Rydberg has continued the research, during 2012, in identifying the main mechanisms responsible for the power degradation in ytterbium doped laser materials and, could also, experimentally verify that the valence stability of the active laser ions play a key role. The findings are important and could suggest new routes to improve the laser gain materials. New optical fibers with an improved material composition have also been manufactured at the Acreo FiberLab in Hudiksvall. The fibers will be evaluated in different laser configurations and several demonstrators will be developed during 2013 – 2014 in collaboration with industrial partners.

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Development of innovations within fiber optics for industrial applications Project leader: Dr. Magnus Engholm Reseracher: Magnus Engholm PhD Student: Sara Rydberg Funders: EU Fiber Optic Valley, The county administrative board in Västernorrland and the Regional development council of Gävleborg and Mid Sweden University. Partners: Acreo FiberLab, Cobolt AB, Raybium AB, Optoskand AB, LaserNova AB, LaserCut, Proximion Fiber Systems.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Fiber optic sensors for industrial and medical applications Fiber optical sensors are believed to be able to play a much larger role in industry and in the medical area.This is due to the insensitivity of light in relation to electromagnetic disturbance, and high sensitivity. During 2011 research activities were conducted in collaboration with Samba Sensor AB, Acreo and Uppsala University, to develop a new pH-sensitive material that is non-toxic, has high reproducibility and with good optical properties. Tests have been conducted to apply the pH-sensitive material onto optical fibers, both with regards to pH sensitivity and adhesion. There is on-going work being conducted to improve the material in relation to all aspects.

Work has also involved more simulations of nano particles evaporated on an optical fiber core.

Fiber optic sensors for industrial and medical applications Project leader: Prof. Hans Erik Nilsson. PhD student: Krister Hammarling. Partners: Acreo and Uppsala Universitet.

Photo: Casper Hedberg

Work has also been conducted in relation to investigating how light in optical fibers can be influenced by the deposition of nano-particles near the fiber core. Different methods have been used to deposit the nano-particles and the most promising method has proved to be the so called “Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly� (EISA) method. Preliminary optical measurements have been performed and these have been compared with the simulations.

Throughout 2012, research has been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the material properties of the polymer pH-sensitive material developed by Uppsala University in order further refine the adhesion and pH sensitivity properties.

PhD-student Sara Rydberg investigates the mechanisms causing radiation (UV & X-ray) induced losses in optical fibers leading to a reduced operational lifetime for the lasers.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.7 Sensor Network and Security The research group in Sensor Network and Security focuses on enabling intelligent service decisions in different user scenarios, such as commuting, healthcare, home automation and seamless multimedia. Key topics are presence and awareness, which entail mechanisms and protocols for efficient and scalable acquisition, dissemination, and the discovery of information together with modeling. In 2011 and 2012 the research concentrated on the research areas of 1) wireless sensor network for industrial environment and 2) wireless sensor application for home-based elderly persons and their individual assistants. The wireless sensor network for an industrial environment is mainly in cooperation with ABB and Shortlink. Our research has been focused on a study of the problem of radio interference and in the sharing of limited radio spectrum in 2.4 GHz ISM in an industrial environment. Research problems in the area of coexistence in harsh industrial environments, such as multi-network modeling, interference mitigation techniques, new interference avoidance methods and cross-layer optimization have been addressed.

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The academic research also aims to develop solutions for industrial problems, such as:

• Coexistence in 2.4 GHz for industrial settings. • Cross layer TDMA scheduling for real time reli-

able wireless sensor network in an industrial environment. • Prototype of platforms and emulators for industrial development.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Cross layer TDMA scheduling Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a prominent access method for shared channels in industrial wireless sensor networks, with their strict timing requirements. Each sensor receives a number of recurring timeslots for packet transmission with the advantage being that multiple nodes can transmit concurrently if the physical properties of the network preclude interference. Scheduling algorithms for the assignment of sensors to timeslots under quality of service (QoS) guarantees such as throughput, delay or fairness, are required. A Near Optimization algorithm for conflict management has been proposed to tackle schedule optimization on multi-hop sensor networks for data ingathering. We proposed a source aware scheduling algorithm (SAS-TDMA), which is a cross-layer solution and designed to adapt to the network dynamics in an industrial environment. The SAS-TDMA algorithm makes a trade between the scheduling length and the scheduling configuration overhead incurred by a rapid response to topology dynamics. We have implemented a TDMA stack instead of the default CSMA stack and have introduced a cross layer for a scheduling algorithm in the TinyOS simulator, TOSSIM. Numerical results show that SAS-TDMA performs well in improving the QoS of the whole network. Compared to existing scheduling algorithms, which aim to achieve the minimum possible latency for real-time communication, the SAS-TDMA has achieved significant improvements in realistic dynamic wireless networks. SAS-TDMA was simulated in TOSSIM, which used a log-normal radio model with real-world parameters and had the ability to capture the dynamics of wireless links, under these conditions: 1) 100 nodes to be scheduled in a single cluster; 2) all nodes apart from the sink transmit data at 2.1s-10.1s without exceeding the upper bound of latency; 3) high-noise environment that incurs high network dynamics. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that SAS-TDMA outperforms the level-based scheduling algorithm, which is one of the TDMA scheduling algorithms, which have not taken into consideration the adaptation to the network dynamics. The upper figure shows a 3D diagram of end-to-end average delay variations over a 30m by 30m terrain for the source aware algorithm at 3.1s rate. The root node is located in (15.68m, 17.59m). The maximum average delay is 2972.38ms from a node located in (22.73m, 6.94m),

The lower figure shows that our method is a significant improvement to the level based method used in industrial environments.

Coins Project manager: Prof. Tingting Zhang Researchers: Tingting Zhang, Mikael Gidlund and Youzhi Xu. PhD students: Shen Wei and Filip Barac. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation. Partners: ABB Corporate Research and Shortlink AB Project.

while the minimum average delay is 1103.66ms from a node located in (19.52m, 19.49m).

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Adaptive error correction scheme Noise and interference make a substantial impact on wireless transmissions in industrial environments, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) improve the reliability by introducing retransmission and redundant information in the original data, respectively. Together with researchers in Mälardalen University and ABB, we have proposed a MAC layer FEC scheme for improving the reliability of multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4-based IWSNs and have shown that it achieves a significant gain in performance, compared to uncoded transmission. The proposed scheme is backward-compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, into which it may be integrated smoothly. Furthermore, it allows the nodes, not running FEC coding, to also participate in the network. The error-correction is performed only in case of error-detection. Packet decoding and processing in intermediate nodes is avoided in the case for which an error-detection check is successfully passed. Since the data integrity is checked on-the-fly, the traffic resources are freed from the transport of corrupted packets, paving the way for more reliable data transmission with lower latency, both for single-hop and multihop networks. A experiment has been conducted for the assessment of the proposed approach on three mesh topologies. Each topology consists of a single sink and 26 randomly pla-

ced nodes and these report their measurements to the sink every 1 second over a Rayleigh fading channel. The obtained PDRs, the number of decoding function calls for three different network topologies, are presented in the figure above. Compared to the uncoded scheme, the proposed solution, in all three topologies, shows a significant improvement in PDR. Namely, the absolute improvements in PDR are between 11 % and 15 %, compared to the uncoded system. In terms of a relative improvement, the communication reliability is boosted by 19 %-38 %. Since the results from three different network topologies exhibit the same trend, it follows that a significant improvement of transmission reliability can be generally achieved by our proposed scheme. The variation in PDR between the topologies is the consequence of different nodesink separations. The average distance between the nodes and the sink in Topology 1 is the longest, whereas in Topology 3 it is the shortest. Accordingly, the overall PDR from Topology 1 is lower than in Topology 2 and 3. The transmission distance is highly correlated with the received SNR and, our solution becomes fruitful for SNRs above 4 dB.

Adaptive error correction scheme

Project leader: Adj. Prof. Mikael Gidlund. Researchers: Adj. Prof. Mikael Gidlund, Dr. Johan Åkerberg (ABB Corporate Research). PhD students: Filip Barac (Mid Sweden University) and Kan Yu (Mälardalens University). Funder: ABB Corporate Research. Partner: ABB Corporate Research.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Wireless sensor network for e-health WSN in health care system provides a large quantity of real-time vital signs to be processed and thus to make a decision with regards to peoples’ state of health . Since it is not sufficient for one computer to process the huge amount of raw data from many WSNs, the suggestion is to use Grid computing technology to analyze the vital signals. A SensorGrid gateway to connect the WSN with Grid networks has been designed. Unfortunately, the authors have not clearly described the protocol conversion process. Gateways enable interconnections between the WSN and IP network by means of multiple protocols translation in the application layer. Such a translation in the application layer makes gateways have inherent complexity and a lack of flexibility and scalability. We have proposed and implemented a prototype of a smart 6LoWPAN border router, aimed to locally make decisions with regards to health states using a Hidden Markov Model and to enable a wireless E-health care sensor network to seamlessly connect with an IP network. The system architecture of E-health care using 6LoWPAN based wireless sensor networks is shown in the figure below. Medical and environmental sensors are deployed in a user’s home. The smart 6LoWPAN border

router, which acts as a bridge, enables communications between the 6LoWPAN WSN and the remote health care centre, users’ relatives, and hospitals via an IP Internet. On the one hand, it can directly forward the entire payload of packets from the sensor node containing the raw medical sensor data or alarm information, when there is no necessity for collaborative work of multiple nodes , e.g., the heartbeat sensor node. On the other hand, the smart border router can collect and record sensor data in the application layer from multiple nodes and will make decisions according to these sensor data and transmit the corresponding health reports and an audio or text message warning signal to the remote health care centre, users’ relatives, or hospitals. A typical example is that a decision regarding a user’s health state can be made according to his/her activity, which is deduced based on sensor data from multiple nodes. A forward bit located in the first bit of 6LoWPAN packet payload is used to distinguish between the two different types. The border router also enables doctors and users’ relatives to directly access sensor data on each sensor node or obtain information from the border router.A series of tests were executed in order to evaluate the performance of the smart border router. The system was firstly tested under the situation in which there was no occurrenece of an emergency event. Sensor nodes were

Smart 6LoWPAN Border Router Users’ relatives

Internet WLAN AP

Hopspital

Remote HealthCare Center

 

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turned on and the co-researcher remained quiet. After one minute, the “remote server” (a PC in university) received the normal periodic report packet from the border router as was expected. Secondly, the system was restarted to test it for an emergency situation. When the sensor nodes were turned on, the co-researcher started to perform exercises and immediately the heart rate was above the normal range, the “remote server” received an emergency data packet. Following this, the time counting file was read and the Ethernet packet delay was checked. The same experiment was repeated 20 times as were similar experiments with the remote server connected through the wireless area network. When the remote server was connected with the smart border router through the LAN, it took, on average, 0.13 seconds from the border router sending an Ethernet package to the remote server and receiving the ACK from the remote server. In addition, it took approximately 0.17 seconds when the remote server was connected with a border router through a WLAN. The delay time from the GT64 sending a SMS to receiving a reply was 10.84 seconds.

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wireless sensor network for e-health Project leader: Prof. Tingting Zhang. Researchers: Tingting Zhang and Youzhi Xu. PhD student: Wei Shen. Funder: The Knowledge Foundation.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.8 Realistic 3D The research group Realistic 3D, founded in 2007 by Mårten Sjöström and Roger Olsson, has been organized within the STC since 2011. The research group and its activities are described in more detail in this annual report in order to provide information to interested parties. During the period 2011 and 2012, Realistic 3D consisted of eleven persons: one professor, one post-docs, one senior researcher, and two PhD students. The research of Realistic 3D is within Multiscopic 3D Capture, Coding and Visualization. More specifically, the main research foci of the research group are:

• • • • • •

Synthesis and capture of 3D images and video View rendering techniques Modelling of 3D devices Coding of 3D images and video 3D Quality metrics and evaluations Realistic 3D is the only research groups with a dedicated focus on this discipline in Sweden.

Tereoscopic and multiscopic three-dimensional (3D) visualization has become increasingly popular during the last decade. A truthful presentation of a scene provides the foundation in relation to offering a better understanding and assessment: the introduction of an experienced depth of the scene provides the viewer with an immediate comprehension of the scene. The experienced depth is enhanced by introducing more depth cues and by ensuring that they cooperate. Multiscopic 3D capture, coding and visualization is a natural extension to the process of producing an authentic presence – a Realistic 3D. Improved technology has allowed for correct reproducibility, and a better understanding of the Human Visual System (HVS) has been put into practice in both the equipment and content production. This has lead to a fundamental quality enhancement of the visualization of higher dimensional data. Examples of applications are medical diagnostics, product design and construction, marketing using digital signage, video conferencing, computer and console gaming, 3DTV, mobile phones, and more. Knowledge regarding the entire production chain, from capture/synthesis via representation and coding to presentation, is vital for creating the technology of the future. Multiscopic 3D capture, coding and visualization has thus become multidisciplinary knowledge in many aspects of Electrical Engineering (e.g. multidimen-

Photo: Tina Stafrén

Multiscopic 3D capture, coding and visualization – Realistic 3D

PhD Student Mitra Damghanian in the new 3D lab.

sional signal processing), Computer Science (e.g. computer graphics and multi-thread algorithms), and Optics (e.g. multiple light paths for plenoptics). There are also elements of Visual Psychology and Physiology, which offer the foundation in relation to an improved modeling of multiscopic systems and an evaluation of quality of experience.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Medi3D – A “Holographic” Display Test bed for Visualization of Digital 3D Data from Medical Applications This three-year project in the National Visualization program in collaboration with the Centre for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV) at Linköping University, and Setred AB was finalized in March 2011. A demonstrator visualization solution for clinical applications was created that constitutes a test bed for research; it consists of a 3D display system, software simulators based on theoretical models and algorithms for the rendering of life-like 3D data with high quality. The test bed resulted in an increased knowledge about the influence that 3D display has on the visual appearance of three-dimensional data due to boundaries in a presentational capacity. The project developed protocols for subjective tests and carried out clinical and 3D experience evaluations, which revealed a promising potential for the autostereoscopic technique in various clinical settings. The project has been an enhancement of multi-stereoscopic research and product development in Sweden and which has resulted in a 3D visualization system which is now available within the medical market. A day of seminars concerning medical 3D visualization was organized in the spring of 2011.

Phantom consisting of a game ball with traversing strings, and its CT scan, used in subjective tests of 3D perception.

medi 3d Project leader: Prof. Mårten Sjöström. Researchers: Mårten Sjöström, Roger Olsson, Sylvain Tourancheau. Funders: Swedish Knowledge Foundation,Vinnova, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, Invest in Sweden Foundation, the Vårdal Foundation, and Setred AB. Partners: Centre for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping, Setred AB, Stockholm.

Demonstrator visualization solution for clinical applications.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

3d-video – Capture and Compression for Distribution The overall technology addressed is that of qualitative 3D video production and compression for distribution. In particular, it considers 1) limitations and optimization of capture, including analysis and specification of requirements for a multiview motion picture camera, concretized in a selected number of technical solutions; and 2) coding algorithms enabling efficient transmission and a flexible presentation, including the development of new, smarter and optimized compression algorithms for natural 3D video content. Low level signal processing for multiscopic capture has been reviewed, a subset of which has been implemented in Matlab. Ikonoskop has designed and built a 2D motion picture camera with specific inter-camera synchronization that allows for stereoscopic capture with fast motion and for which, its light construction makes it particularly suitable for steadicams. Two new approaches to compressing depth maps have been developed by the project in collaboration with Ericsson Research. New scalability mechanisms with respect to views and image depth have been developed. Ericsson has worked out a standardization proposal for an MPEG 3D video call, partly based on project results. A valuable experience in relation to standardization work has been gained.

3d-video Project leader: Prof. Mårten Sjöström. Researchers: Mårten Sjöström, Roger Olsson, Sylvain Tourancheau, Ulf Jennehag. Funders: Swedish Knowledge foundation, Ericsson AB, and Ikonoskop AB. Partners: Ericsson Research and Ikonoskop AB.

Real3D – Realistic 3D in medical and media applications The project consists of several activities within the field of multiscopic 3D capture, coding and visualization. This includes; quality modeling and optimization of 3D displays, analysis of capture methods for accurate 3D rendering, compression algorithms of 3D media and a demonstration of project results under characteristic conditions. New signal models for 3D media have been investigated, especially the connection between 3D media frequency contents and visual artefacts on 3D displays. A new filtering method for improving the visual quality has been developed. A 3D-camera demonstrator has been assembled, for which new methods for combining video and range information have been developed. New methods for rendering virtual views from such data have also been investigated.The research on plenoptic capture has been focusing on a new descriptive model for the evaluation of plenoptic systems.

Real 3d

Project leader: Prof. Mårten Sjöström. Researchers: Mårten Sjöström, Roger Olsson, Sylvain Touranceau, Ulf Jennehag. PhD students: Mitra Damghanian, Suryanarayana Muddala, Sebastian Schwarz,Yun Li. Funders: County Hospital in Sundsvall-Härnö­sand, CMIV, Setred AB, Optro­nic AB, Fiber Optic Valley AB. Partners: Ericsson Research and Ikonoskop AB.

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QUALINET – European Network on Quality of Experience in Multimedia Systems and Services (EU COST ICT Action IC1003) The goal of this Action is to establish a strong network in relation to Quality of Experience (QoE) with participation from both academia and industry. Its main objective will be to develop and promote methodologies to, subjectively and objectively, measure the impact in terms of quality of future multimedia products and services. The Swedish participants (Acreo AB, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlstad University and Mid Sweden University) have exchanged knowledge and ideas during two meetings. All work on subjective and objective evaluations methods performed by the Realistic 3D is related to this Action. In particular, new methodologies for evaluating interactions with 3D presentations have been developed and investigated. The consequences on Quality of Experience due to erroneous transmission using different coding and error concealment strategies for 3D media have been investigated. The tests performed at Acreo, Kista, were compared to the same tests performed at the University of Nantes, France. Internationalization of research and development in Mid Sweden (Funded by EU Regional Development Fund, Länsstyrelsen i Västernorrlands län, and Mid Sweden University.) The Realistic 3D research group contributed to this

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project by establishing several new contacts and by participating in project proposals to the EU Framework programme. In 2011, Realistic 3D initiated a new collaboration with the University of Valencia, Spain, which resulted in a PhD student exchange application. Invitations to speak The senior researchers in the Realistic 3D research group have been invited to share their knowledge and findings on several occasions during 2011, among others at Optikdagarna,Visual Forum, the annual conference of Svenska stadsnätsföreningen.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Mårten Sjöström in the 3D-lab.

3D laboratory The Realistic 3D research group installed a new 3D laboratory in 2011 in order to pursue research on Multiscopic 3D capture, coding and visualization technology. The laboratory contains several 3D displays, for instance, stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic projector, but also, more advanced multiscopic and lightfield displays. The 3D-lab further includes a number 3D cameras; stereoscopic cameras and a specially designed combination of 2D and range cameras. The lab also contains measu-

rement equipment such as a luminance meter, colorimeter and oscilloscope to examine the performance of the different 3D equipment. The lab enable the control of the lighting and surroundings in order to adjust the environment of the lab for subjective user evaluations of 3D perception. The laboratory has been funded by the project Real3D – Realistic 3D in Medical and Media applications (see picture above).

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

9.9 Sensor-based services The research within the research group Sensor-Bases Services focuses on enabling intelligent service decisions in different user scenarios, such as commuting, healthcare, home automation and seamless multimedia. Key topics are presence and awareness, which entail mechanisms and protocols for efficient and scalable acquisition, dissemination, and discovery of information along with modeling. The Sensor-Based Services research group addresses techniques for the sharing of sensor and user information in relation to the enabling of intelligent services. The focus is on concepts such as presence, detection and awareness, which require new mechanisms and protocols. The results are integrated into the platform MediaSense. Research project using MediaSense During 2011 and 2012, the research was mainly conducted under the project ”Säker IKT för Hemmiljö - InSIKT”, financed by Vinnova, the public sector and business. The goal of InSIKT is secure services for the home, including monitoring, home health care and energy consumption control. The project Kontextinformationsutbyte för IoT-Tjänster - KITT was granted financing from the EU Structural Funds. KITT will start in 2012 and the aim is the further development of the MediaSense platform. The MediaSense platform currently offers all the basic functionality for the sharing of sensor and user information over heterogeneous infrastructure and the source code is now openly available on www.mediasense.se under the terms of the LGPL3 license. The work on MediaSense proceeds so as to enable features such as secure communication and real-time performance, etc. Research on Sensor-Based Services is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV) at Stockholm University. In the InSIKT project, Acreo is a strong and partner.

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Sensor-based services at a Master level PhD students within the research group have, for many years, provided theses topics on both bachelor and master level, linked to their own doctoral thesis. This provides positive synergies for both the PhD students, whose work proceeds at a more rapid pace and for the undergraduate students who gain a current, research-related work and very dedicated supervisors. During 2011, approximately ten theses projects at master level and five at bachelor level were closely linked to sensor-based services. In addition to this, there are also research-related student projects in a number of courses within the master’s program. Three licentiate degrees In 2011 and 2012 there have been several examinations within the research group Sensor-based Services. Rahim Rahmani defended his dissertation ”Active Queue Management for Quality of Service in Heterogenous Networks”. And four PhD students presented their licentiate thesis: Felix Dobslaw, Jamie Walters, Stefan Forsström and Victor Kardeby. Awards PhD student Stefan Forsström received the award for the Best Student Paper for his contribution “Enabling Continuously Evolving Context Information in Mobile Environments by Utilizing Ubiquitous Sensors” at the International Conference on Mobile Networks and Management, Aveiro, Portugal, September 2011


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

InSIKT - Secure ICT for indoor environments

Photo: Tina Stafrén

MediaSense is a distributed, peer-to-peer-based platform for information sharing. The core was developed in a previous research project at Mid Sweden University, and InSIKT aims at improving the platform with respect to reliability, security and integrity. There are many security and privacy questions associated with present day cloud services . Among other things, commercial cloud services such as Dropbox and Google are centralized from an ownership perspective, which means that it must be possible to trust that a private company will manage its service satisfactorily and safely, but it is unclear what the consequences would be if the company was either acquired or closed down. Several European authorities are therefore skeptical with regards to this type of cloud service. A distributed cloud service such as MediaSense is intrinsically more robust because it has distributed ownership and storage. Additionally, authentication against a cloud is presently very weak and it is a trade-off against usability. Authentication in MediaSense as a cloud services is also an important part of the technical work. 2011-2012 Foremost, it is the reliability of MediaSense that has so far been addressed: • A communication module for reliable UDP, an ACK-based version of the UDP, has been implemented. • The NAT problem has been addressed. If any node in the MediaSense network is behind a NAT it lacks a unique public IP address and therefore cannot be contacted directly via an IP. This has been solved by using proxy servers and tunnels. • Dual homing has been implemented on the gateway that will be running MediaSense. If the LAN connection fails the communication is moved to 3G. In addition, a number of demonstrators have been developed and preparation has been implemented in order to solve the authentication and increase the security in relation to MediaSense.

INSIKT Project leader: Assistant. Prof. Patrik Österberg. Researchers: Patrik Österberg and Ulf Jennehag. PhD students: Stefan Forsström and Victor Kardeby. Funder: Vinnova. Partners: Mid Sweden University, Acreo AB, ServaNet AB, SenseAir, DACC Systems, Dewire and ABB.

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STC - Sensible Things that Communicate

Photo: Tina Stafrén

A research centre at Mid Sweden University

KITT– Context-Information Sharing for IoT Applications The overall aim of the KITT project is to promote new jobs, products, ideas and businesses that are utilizing context information. Possible areas of innovation include home automation and surveillance. The project shares a great deal of common ground with the InSikt project. During 2012 the efforts within the project have been focused on improving and extending the code of the MediaSense platform. The project has developed the MediaSense platform code into an open source project under the licence LGPLv3. In addition, a steady code release pattern has been established and implemented.

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KITT Project leader: Dr. Ulf Jennehag. Researchers: Ulf Jennehag, Theo Kanter, Youshi Xu och Patrik Österberg. PhD students: Stefan Forsström and Victor Kardeby. Funder: EU.


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

10. publications 10.1 STC Publications in 2011 Articles in journals Fröjdh, E. , Norlin, B. ,Thungström, G. & Fröjdh, C. (2011). X-ray absorption and charge transport in a pixellated CdTe detector with single photon processing readout. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6: 2, ss. P02012 Nilsson, H. , Andersson, H. , Manuilskiy, A. , Unander,T. , Hammarling, K. , Sidén, J. & Gulliksson, M. (2011). Printed Write Once and Read Many Memories in Smart Packaging Applications. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11: 9, ss. 1759-1767. Thim, J. , Reza, S. , Nawaz, K. , Norlin, B. , O´Nils, M. & Oelmann, B. (2011). Suitable Post Processing Algorithms for XRay Imaging using Oversampled Displaced Multiple Images. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6: 2, ss. C02001 Li, J. , Unander,T. , Cabezas, A. L. , Shao, B. , Liu, Z. , Feng,Y. , Forsberg, E. B. , Zhang, Z. , Jõgi, I. , Gao, X. , Boman, M. , Zheng, L. , Östling, M. , Nilsson, H. & Zhang, S. (2011). Ink-Jet Printed Thin-Film Transistors with Carbon Nanotube Channels Shaped in Long Strips. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109: 8, ss. 084915 Unander, T. , Sidén, J. & Nilsson, H. (2011). Designing of RFID based Sensor Solution for Packaging Surveillance Applications. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11: 11, ss. 3009-3018. Thiagarajan, K. & Lindefelt, U. (2011). Electron-phonon scattering rates in semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes. Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, vol. 8: 9, ss. 1694-1702. Andersson, H. , Rusu, A. , Manuilskiy, A. , Haller, S. , Ayöz, S. & Nilsson, H. (2011). System of nano-silver inkjet printed memory cards and PC card reader and programmer. Microelectronics Journal, vol. 42: 1, ss. 21-27. Karlsson, L. S. & Sjöström, M. (2011). Layer assignment based on depth data distribution for multi-view-depth scalable video encoding. IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print), vol. 21: 6, ss. 742-754. Fröjdh, E. , Fröjdh, A. , Norlin, B. & Fröjdh, C. (2011). Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 mu m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, vol. 633: Supplement 1, ss. S125-S127. Hummelgård, M. , Zhang, R. , Nilsson, H. & Olin, H. (2011). Electrical Sintering of Silver Nanoparticle Ink Studied by In-Situ TEM Probing. PLoS ONE, vol. 6: 2, ss. e17209 Österberg, P. & Zhang, T. (2011). Multicast-Favourable Max-Min Fairness : The Definition and How to Comply. International Journal of Computers and Applications, vol. 33: 1, ss. 1-8. Gao, J. , Siden, J. & Nilsson, H. (2011). Printed electromagnetic coupler with an embedded moisture sensor for ordinary passive RFID tags. IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 32: 12, ss. 1767-1769. Esebamen, O. , Hammarling, K. , Thungström, G. & Nilsson, H. (2011). Surface State Effects on N+P Doped ElectronDetector. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6, ss. C12019 Bader, S. & Oelmann, B. (2011). Durable Solar Energy Harvesting from Limited Ambient Energy Income. International Journal on Advances in Networks and Services, vol. 4: 1&2, ss. 66-80. Cheng, P. , Oelmann, B. & Linnarsson, F. (2011). A Local Positioning System for Loader Cranes Based on Wireless Sensors-A Feasibility Study. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 60: 8, ss. 2881-2893. Hansson, K. , Larsson, A. , Danielson, M. & Ekenberg, L. (2011). Coping with Complex Environmental and Societal Flood Risk Management Decisions : An Integrated Multi-criteria Framework. Sustainability, vol. 3: 9, ss. 1357-1380. Cheng, P. , Yang, Y. & Oelmann, B. (2011). Stator-free RPM Sensor Using Accelerometers - A Statistical Performance Simulation by Monte Carlo Method. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11: 12, ss. 3368-3376.

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Esebamen, O. X. , Krapohl, D. , Thungström, G. & Nilsson, H. (2011). High resolution, low energy electron detector. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6: 1, ss. P01001 Wang, Q. , Zhang, T. & Balasingham, I. (2011). Characterizing the traffic load distribution in dense wireless sensor networks. Journal of Networks, vol. 6: 2, ss. 173-180. Rahmani, R. , Åhlund, C. & Kanter, T. (2011). Design of active queue management for robust control on access router for heterogeneous networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2011, ss. 946498 Thim, J. , Norlin, B. , O'Nils, M. , Abdalla, S. & Oelmann, B. (2011). Realizing increased sub-pixel spatial resolution in X-ray imaging using displaced multiple images. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, vol. 633: Suppl 1, ss. S247-S249. Fröjdh, A. , Fröjdh, E. ,Thungström, G. , Fröjdh, C. & Norlin, B. (2011). Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2compatible silicon sensor with 220 mu m pixel size. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, vol. 633: Suppl 1, ss. S78-S80. Fröjdh, A. , Thungstrom, G. , Frojdh, C. & Petersson, S. (2011). An optimized system for measurement of radon levels in buildings by spectroscopic measurement of radon progeny. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6, ss. C12018 Alam, M. A. , Thim, J. , Manuilskiy, A. , O'Nils, M. , Westerlind, C. , Lindgren, J. & Lidén, J. (2011). Investigation of the surface topographical differences between the Cross Direction and the Machine Direction for newspaper and paperboard. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, vol. 26: 4, ss. 468-475. Krapohl, D. , Esebamen, O. X. , Nilsson, H. & Thungström, G. (2011). Simulation and measurement of short infrared pulses on silicon position sensitive device. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6: C01036 D.Yang, M. Gidlund, and Y. Xu, ”Wireless Coexistence between IEEE802.11 and IEEE802.15.4-based networks: a Survey,” Hindawi International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2011. J. Åkerberg, M. Gidlund, T. Lennvall, J. Neander, and M. Björkman, ”Efficient Integration of Secure and Safety Critical Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2011:100. Doctoral Thesis Cheng, P. (2011). Applications of embedded sensors in loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement. Diss. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis : 114) Rahmani, R. (2011). Active queue management for quality of service in heterogeneous networks : design of active queue management for access routers. Diss. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis : 103) Unander, T. (2011). System integration of electronic functionality in packaging application. Diss. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis : 112) Licentiate thesis Walters, J. (2011). Ripples Across The Internet of Things : Context Metrics as Vehicles forRelational Self-Organization. Lic.-avh. Sundsvall : Mittuniversitetet, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 59) Thiagarajan, K. (2011).Tight-binding calculations of electron scattering rates in semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 55) Bader, S. (2011). Enabling autonomous envionmental measurement systems with low-power wireless sensor networks. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mittuniversitetet, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 54) Jonsson, P. (2011). Intelligent networked sensors for increased traffic safety. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 68)

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Khursheed, K. (2011). Investigation of intelligence partitioning in wireless visual sensor networks. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 65) Imran, M. (2011). Investigation of Architectures for Wireless Visual Sensor Nodes. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 66) Ambatipudi, R. (2011). Multilayered Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Step-down Transformers for High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS). Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall, Sweden : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 61) Kotte, H. B. (2011). High Speed (MHz) Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) using Coreless PCB Transformer Technology. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall, Sweden : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 62) Kardeby, V. (2011). Automatic sensor clustering : connectivity for the internet of things. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 60) Forsström, S. (2011). Enabling Adaptive Context Views for Mobile Applications : Negotiating Global and Dynamic Sensor Information. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mittuniversitetet, 2011 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 58) Conference papers Unander, T. & Nilsson, H. (2011). Evaluation of RFID based sensor platform for packaging surveillance applications. I 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, RFID-TA 2011.. S. 27--31. Meng, X. , Thörnberg, B. & Lawal, N. (2011). Soft-IP Interface Modification Methodology. I Proceedings of 2011 InternationalConference on Information and Electronics Engineering. Walters, J. & Kanter, T. (2011). Evolving Presentity-Based Context Schemas by Estimating Context Proximity. . Kardeby,V. , Forsström, S. , Walters, J. , Österberg, P. & Kanter, T. (2011). The MediaSense Framework: Ranking Sensors in a Distributed Architecture. . Kotte, H. B. , Ambatipudi, R. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). High Speed Cascode Flyback Converter Using Multilayered Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Step-Down Power Transformer. I Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Power Electronics-ECCE Asia.. S. 1856--1862. Ambatipudi, R. , Kotte, H. B. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). Radiated Emissions of Multilayered Coreless Printed Circuit Board Step-Down Power Transformers in Switch Mode Power Supplies. I 8th International Conference on Power Electronics - ECCE Asia: "Green World with Power Electronics", ICPE 2011-ECCE Asia 2011 .. S. 960--965. Walters, J. , Kanter, T. & Norling, R. (2011). Distributed Context Models in Support of Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness Services. I 2nd International ICST Conference on Sensor Systems and Software, S-Cube; Miami, FL; 13 December 2010 through 15 December 2010; Code 87376. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). S. 121--134. Malik, A. W. , Thörnberg, B. , Cheng, X. & Lawal, N. (2011). Real-time Component Labelling with Centre of Gravity Calculation on FPGA. I 2011 Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Systems. Lawal, N. , Thörnberg, B. & O´Nils, M. (2011). Architecture driven memory allocation for FPGA Based Real-Time Video Processing Systems. I Proceedings of the 2011 7th Southern Conference on Programmable Logic, SPL 2011 2011, Article number 5782639.. S. 143--148. Hansson, K. ,Verhagen, H. , Karlström, P. & Larsson,A. (2011). Formalizing informal social behavior - developing a visual tool to support collaborative discussions. I Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing.. S. 422--429. Ahmad, N. , Khursheed, K. , Imran, M. , Lawal, N. & O'Nils, M. (2011). Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network. . Belgium :

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Ahmad, N. (2011). Deployment of a Visual Sensor Network : . . Ahmad, N. , Lawal, N. , O'Nils, M. , Oelmann, B. , Imran, M. & Khursheed, K. (2011). Model and placement optimization of a sky surveillance visual sensor network. I 2011 International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, BWCCA 2011.. S. 357--362. Bader, S. (2011). SAQnet: Experiences from the Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring System Based on Off-the-Shelf Equipment. . Sidén, J. , Gao, J. , Unander, T. , Andersson, H. , Jonsson, P. , Nilsson, H. & Gulliksson, M. (2011). Electric and Electromagnetic Coupled Sensor Components for Passive RFID. I Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronics Systems (COMCAS), 2011 IEEE International Conference on.. S. 1--5. Sidén, J. , Skerved, V. , Forsström, S. , Gao, J. , Nilsson, H. , Kanter, T. & Gulliksson, M. (2011). Home Care with NFC Sensors and a Smart Phone. . Zeil, P. , Malmstrom, M. , Engholm, M. , Jelger, P. , Jacobsson, B. , Pasiskevicius, V. & Laurell, F. (2011). Extended tunability of narrow-linewidth Yb-fiber laser. I 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011. Nilsson, H. , Sidén, J. & Gulliksson, M. (2011). An incontinence alarm solution utilizing RFID based sensor technology. I 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, RFID-TA 2011. Sitges : . S. 359--363. Hansson, K. , Karlström, P. , Larsson, A. & Verhagen, H. (2011). Actory: A Tool for Visualizing Reputation as a Meansto Formalize Informal Social Behavior. I Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Reputation. Fröjdh, E. , Fröjdh, C. , Norlin, B. & Thungström, G. (2011). Mapping the x-ray response of a CdTe sensor with small pixels using an x-ray microbeam and a single photon processing readout chip. I Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XIII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8142 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 2011) 814208.. Sjöström, M. , Olsson, R. & Dalin, R. (2011). A digital 3D signage system and its effect on customer behavior. I The International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D). Hammarling, K. , Zhang, R. , Manuilskiy, A. & Nilsson, H. (2011). FBG based upon evaporated Silica nano particles. I 1st EOS Topical Meetingon On Micro- and Nano-Optoelectronic Systems, Bremen, December 7-9, 2011. Shen, W. , Zhang, T. , Xu, Y. , Xie, D. & Johansson, A. (2011). Smart Border Routers for eHealthCare Wireless Sensor Networks. I The 7th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM).. S. 1--4. Truex, D. , Olssson, L. , Lindblad-Gidlund, K. , Sefyrin, J. , Larsson, A. , Nilsson, O. , Anderson, K. , Borglund, E. & Asproth, V. (2011). Position Statement : Sustainable Information and Information Systems (SIIS). I Governance and Sustainability in Information Systems : Managing the Transfer and Diffusion of ITManaging the Transfer and Diffusion of IT, IFIP. Hamburg Germany : (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology). S. 306--309. Saleem, J. , Majid, A. , Ambatipudi, R. , Kotte, H. B. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). High Frequency Full Bridge Converter using Multilayer Coreless Printed Circuit Board Step-up Power Transformer. I 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), 2011.. S. 805--808. Saleem, J. , Majid, A. , Bertilsson, K. & Schüberg, L. (2011). Study the influence of the alignment and nearby metallic objects on the Hall sensor system for current measurement in Resistance Spot Welding Machine. I International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering 2011.. S. 5874717Saleem, J. , Majid, A. , Haller, S. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). A study of IGBT rupture phenomenon in medium frequency resistance welding machine. I Acemp - electromotion 2011, 8-10 September 2011 Istanbul - Turkey.. S. 237--240. Forsström, S. & Kanter, T. (2011). Enabling Continuously Evolving Context Information in Mobile Environments by Utilizing Ubiquitous Sensors. .

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Majid, A. , Saleem, J. , Kotte, H. B. , Ambatipudi, R. , Haller, S. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). Analysis of feedback in converter using coreless printed circuit board transformer. I ACEMP - Electromotion 2011, 8-10 September 2011 Istanbul Turkey.. S. 616--619. Meng, X. , Thörnberg, B. & Lawal, N. (2011). Portability analysis of an M-JPEG decoder IP from OpenCores. I Proceedings of 2011 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems.. S. 79--82. Meng, X. ,Thörnberg, B. & Lawal, N. (2011). Embedded System Design with Maintenance Consideration. I Proceedings of the 34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO.. S. 124--129. Majid,A. , Kotte, H. B. , Saleem, J. ,Ambatipudi, R. , Haller, S. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). High Frequency Half-Bridge Converter using Multilayered Coreless PrintedCircuit Board Step-Down Power Transformer. I 8th International Conference on Power Electronics - ECCE Asia: "Green World with Power Electronics", ICPE 2011-ECCE Asia.. S. 1177--1181. Jennehag, U. , Dohla, S. , Fuchs, H. & Thoma, H. (2011). Gradual tune-in pictures for fast channel change. I 2011 IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC'2011.. S. 766--770. Khursheed, K. , Imran, M. , Malik, A. W. , O'Nils, M. , Lawal, N. & Thörnberg, B. (2011). Exploration of tasks partitioning between hardware software and locality for a wireless camera based vision sensor node. I Proceedings - 6th international Symposium on Parallel Computing in Electrical Engineering, PARELEC 2011.. S. 127--132. Kardeby, V. & Kanter, T. (2011). Sensor sockets enabling reliable communication using a context based grouping mechanism. I 2011 Baltic Congress on Future Internet and Communications, BCFIC Riga 2011.. S. 161--167. Walters, J. , Kanter, T. & Savioli, E. (2011). A Distributed Framework for Organizing an Internet of Things. I The 3rd International ICST Conference on Mobile Lightweight Wireless Systems. Cheng, X. ,Thörnberg, B. & Abdul Waheed, M. (2011). Optimized Color Pair Selection for Label Design. I Proceedings Elmar - International Symposium Electronics in Marine 2011. Zadar, Croatia : . S. 115--118. Sjöström, M. , Härdling, P. , Karlsson, L. S. & Olsson, R. (2011). Improved Depth-Image-Based Rendering Algorithm. I 3DTV Conference:The True Vision - Capture,Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011.. S. 5877183Kotte, H. B. , Ambatipudi, R. & Bertilsson, K. (2011). High Speed Series Resonant Converter (SRC) Using Multilayered Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Step-Down Power Transformer. I Proceedings of 33rd International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC 2011). Amsterdam : Jonsson, P. (2011). Classification of Road Conditions : From Camera Images and Weather Data. I 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE FOR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (CIMSA).. S. 91--96. Jonsson, P. (2011). Road Condition Discrimination : using Weather Data and Camera Images. I 2011 14TH INTERNATIONAL IEEE CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC). (IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems-ITSC). S. 1616--1621. Jonsson, P. (2011). Remote sensor for winter road surface status detection. I IEEE Sensors 2011.. S. 1285--1288. Olsson, R. , Andersson, H. & Sjöström, M. (2011). A modular cross-platform GPU-based approach for flexible 3D video playback. I Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXII. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). S. 78631EO. Eriksson, E. Björnemo, A. Ahlén and M. Gidlund, ”On Hybrid ARQ Adaptive Forward Error Correction in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proc. 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’11), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2011. D. Yang, M. Gidlund, and Y. Xu, ”Performance analysis on a new medium access control (MAC) DT-CSMA,” in Proc. 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’11), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2011.

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K. Yu, M. Gidlund, J. Åkerberg, and M. Björkman, ”Reliable and low latency transmission in industrial wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. Wireless Networked Control and Systems (WNCS’11), Niagara Falls, Canada, Sept. 2011. J. Åkerberg, F. Reichenbach, M. Gidlund, and M. Björkman, ”Measurement on an industrial WirelessHART network supporting Profisafe: A case study,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA’11), Sept. 2011. J. Åkerberg, M. Gidlund, and M. Björkman, ”Future research challenges in wireless sensor and actuator networks targeting industrial automation,” in Proc. IEEE 9th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, (INDIN’11), Lisbon, Portugal, July 2011. J. Neander,T. Lennvall, and M. Gidlund, ”Prolonging WirelessHART networks by using data aggregation,” in Proc. 20th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE’11), Gdansk, Poland, June 2011. I. Konovalev, J. Neander, M. Gidlund, F. Österlind and T. Voigt, ”Evaluation of WirelessHART Enabled Devices in a Controlled Simulation Environment,” in Proc. 20th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE’11), Gdansk, Poland, June 2011. F.Wang, G.Weng, S. Culver and M. Gidlund, ”Collaborative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio System - Performance Analysis of Weighted Gain Combining,” in Proc. The 9th Annual Conference on Communications Networks and Services Research, (CNSR’11), Ottawa, Canada, May 2011. S. Raza, G. Dini, T. Voigt, and M. Gidlund, ”Secure Key renewal in WirelessHART,” in \emph{Proc. 1st Workshop on Real-time Wireless for Industrial Applications,} (REALW IN’11), Chicago, USA, April 2011. Patents Fuchs, H. , Doehla, S. , Jennehag, U. ,Thoma, H. & Faerber, N. (2011). ENCODER AND METHOD FOR GENERATING A STREAM OF DATA . Reports Imran, M. (2011). Analysis of Vision systems and Taxonomy Formulation : An abstract model for generalization. Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University (Research report in electronics 1)

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10.2 STC Publicat ions in 2012 Articles in journals Esebamen, O. X. ,Thungström, G. & Nilsson, H. (2012). A Different Approach of Determining the Responsivity of n+p Detectors Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Journal of semiconductors, vol. 33: 7, ss. 074002 Andres, B. , Forsberg, S. , Paola Vilches, A. , Zhang, R. , Andersson, H. , Hummelgård, M. , Bäckström, J. & Olin, H. (2012). Supercapacitors with graphene coated paper electrodes. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, vol. 27: 2, ss. 481-485. Andersson, H. , Andres, B. , Manuilskiy, A. , Forsberg, S. , Hummelgård, M. , Bäckström, J. , Zhang, R. & Olin, H. (2012). Contacting paper-based supercapacitors to printed electronics on paper substrates. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, vol. 27: 2, ss. 476-480. Fröjdh, E. , Fröjdh, C. , Gimenez, E. , Maneuski, D. , Marchal, J. , Norlin, B. , O'Shea, V. , Stewart, G. , Wilhelm, H. , Modh Zain, R. & Thungström, G. (2012). Depth of interaction and bias voltage dependence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 3, ss. Art. no. C03002 Slavicek, T. , Kralik, M. , Krapohl, D. , Petersson, S. , Pospisil, S. & Thungström, G. (2012). A thermal neutron detector based on planar silicon sensor with TiB 2 coating. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 1, ss. Art. no. C01053 Maneuski, D. , Astromskas,V. , Fröjdh, E. , Fröjdh, C. , Gimenez, E. , Marchal, J. , O'Shea,V. , Stewart, G. , Tartoni, N. , Wilhelm, H. , Wraight, K. & Zain, R. (2012). Imaging and spectroscopic performance studies of pixellated CdTe Timepix detector. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 1, ss. Art. no. C01038 Krapohl, D. , Nilsson, H. , Petersson, S. , Pospisil, S. , Slavicek,T. & Thungström, G. (2012). Simulation of a silicon neutron detector coated with TiB 2 absorber. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 1, ss. Art. no. C01096 Bertilsson, K. (2012). Nästa generations kompakta spänningsomvandlare. Thule, Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2012, vol. 1: 1, ss. 153-157. Thiagarajan, K. & Lindefelt, U. (2012). High-field electron transport in semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology, vol. 23: 26, ss. 265703-265709. Öhlund, T. , Örtegren, J. , Forsberg, S. & Nilsson, H. (2012). Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing. Applied Surface Science, vol. 259, ss. 731-739. Alam, A. ,Thim, J. , O'Nils, M. , Manuilskiy, A. , Lindgren, J. & Lidén, J. (2012). Online surface characterization of paper and paperboards in a wide-range of the spatial wavelength spectrum. Applied Surface Science, vol. 258: 20, ss. 7928-7935. Alam, A. , Manuilskiy, A. , Thim, J. , O'Nils, M. , Lindgren, J. & Lidén, J. (2012). Online surface roughness characterization of paper and paperboard using a line of light triangulation technique. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, vol. 27: 3, ss. 662-670. Reza, S. , Wong, W. S. , Fröjdh, E. , Norlin, B. , Fröjdh, C. , Thungstörm, G. & Thim, J. (2012). Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 1, ss. Art. no. C01027 Cheng, P. , Sobh, M. & Oelmann, B. (2012). Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61: 3, ss. 740-748. Cheng, P. , Yang, Y. & Oelmann, B. (2012). Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61: 3, ss. 775-785. Andersson, H. , Lidenmark, C. , Öhlund, T. , Örtegren, J. , Manuilskiy, A. , Forsberg, S. & Nilsson, H. (2012). Evaluation of coatings applied to flexible substrates to enhance quality of ink jet printed silver nano-particle structures. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part C, vol. 2: 2, ss. 342-348. Thiagarajan, K. & Lindefelt, U. (2012). Electron-Phonon and electron-defect Scattering Rates in Semiconducting ZigZag Carbon Nanotubes. Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, vol. 9: 1, ss. 22-25. STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 77


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Jonsson, P. & Riehm, M. (2012). Infrared Thermometry in winter road maintenance. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 29: 6, ss. 846-856. Andersson, H. , Manuilskiy, A. , Unander, T. , Lidenmark, C. , Forsberg, S. & Nilsson, H. (2012). Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper. IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 12: 6, ss. 1901-1905. Andersson, H. , Hammarling, K. , Sidén, J. , Manuilskiy, A. , Öhlund, T. & Nilsson, H. (2012). Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform. MDPI Electronics, vol. 1: 2, ss. 32-46. Nilsson, H. , Unander,T. , Andersson, H. , Manuilskiy, A. , Sidén, J. & Gulliksson, M. (2012). System integration of electronic functions in smart packaging applications. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 2: 10, ss. 1723-1734. Shen, W. , Zhang, T. , Gidlund, M. & Dobslaw, F. (2012). SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless networks, , ss. 1-16. Timpe, D. , Olsson, L. & Sidén, J. (2012). Cost analysis of introducing a log identification system using RFID in the wood supply chain : A case study at a Swedish forest company. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, vol. 2: 4, ss. 128-135. Imran, M. , Khursheed, K. , Lawal, N. , O'Nils, M. & Ahmad, N. (2012). Implementation of wireless Vision Sensor Node for Characterization of Particles in Fluids. IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print), vol. 22: 11, ss. 1634-1643. Becker, J. , Pennicard, D. & Graafsma, H. (2012). The detector simulation toolkit HORUS. Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7: 10, ss. Art. no. C10009 Wang, K. , Barkowsky, M. , Brunnström, K. , Sjöström, M. , Cousseau, R. & Le Callet, P. (2012). Perceived 3D TV transmission quality assessment : Multi-laboratory results using absolute category rating on quality of experience scale. IEEE transactions on broadcasting, vol. 58: 4, ss. 544-557. Esebamen, O. (2012). N+P photodetector characterization using the quasi-steady state photoconductance decay method. Journal of Semiconductors, vol. 33: 12, ss. Art. no. 123002 Conference papers Neubauer, B. , Sidén, J. , Gulliksson, M. , Olofsson, C. , Koptyug, A. , Nilsson, H. & Norgren, M. (2012). A new thermally activated battery cell-based forest fire detection and monitoring system. I WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Southampton : (Ecology and the Environment). S. 113--124. Brunnström, K. , Sedano, I. , Wang, K. , Barkowsky, M. , Kihl, M. , Andrén, B. , Le Callet, P. , Sjöström, M. & Aurelius, A. (2012). 2D no-reference video quality model development and 3D video transmission quality. I Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2012. Schwarz, S. , Sjöström, M. & Olsson, R. (2012). Incremental depth upscaling using an edge weighted optimization concept. . Malik, A. W. , Thörnberg, B. , Meng, X. & Imran, M. (2012). Real-Time machine vision system using FPGA and soft-core processor. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 84370ZKanter, T. , Forsström, S. , Kardeby, V. , Walters, J. , Jennehag, U. & Österberg, P. (2012). MediaSense – an Internet of Things Platformfor Scalable and Decentralized Context Sharing and Control. . Majid, A. , Saleem, J. , Kotte, H. B. , Ambatipudi, R. & Bertilsson, K. (2012). Design and implementation of EMI filter for high frequency (MHz) power converters. . Majid, A. , Saleem, J. & Bertilsson, K. (2012). EMI filter design for high frequency power converters. I 2012 11th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC 2012 : Conference Proceedings.. S. 586--589. Meng, X. , Haoming, Z. , Lawal, N. & Thörnberg, B. (2012). Portability Analysis of Soft Microprocessor for FPGA. I 2012 Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2012.. S. 5--8. Sida 78 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012


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Schwarz, S. , Olsson, R. , Sjöström, M. & Tourancheau, S. (2012). Adaptive depth filtering for HEVC 3D video coding. I 2012 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2012, Proceedings.. S. 49--52. Schwarz, S. , Sjöström, M. & Olsson, R. (2012). Improved edge detection for EWOC depth upscaling. I 2012 19th International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, IWSSIP 2012. (Systems, Signals and Image Processing (IWSSIP)). S. 1--4. Barac, F. , Yu, K. , Gidlund, M. , Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2012). Towards More Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. I IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN).. S. 1218--1224. Ambatipudi, R. , Kotte, H. B. & Bertilsson, K. (2012). Effect of Air Gap on the Performance of Hybrid Planar Power Transformer in High Frequency (MHz) Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS). I Proceedings of INDUCTICA 2012, Coil Winding, Insulation and Electrical Manufacturing International Conference and Exhibition (CWIEME), Berlin, Germany 26-28 June 2012. Ambatipudi, R. , Kotte, H. B. & Bertilsson, K. (2012). Effect of Dielectric Material on the Performance of Planar Power Transformers in MHz Frequency Region. I Proceedings of INDUCTICA 2012, Coil Winding, Insulation and Electrical Manufacturing International Conference and Exhibition (CWIEME), Berlin, Germany 26-28 June 2012. Imran, M. , Khursheed, K. , Ahmad, N. , Malik, W. , O’ Nils, M. & Lawal, N. (2012). Complexity Analysis of Vision Functions for implementation of Wireless Smart Cameras using System Taxonomy. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Belgium : (Proceedings of SPIE). S. Art. no. 84370C Yu,K. , Barac, F. , Gidlund, M. , Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2012). A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. I IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics.. S. 1172--1177. Tourancheau, S. , Wang, K. , Bułat, J. , Cousseau, R. , Janowski, L. , Brunnström, K. & Barkowsky, M. (2012). Reproducibility of crosstalk measurements on active glasses 3D LCD displays based on temporal characterization. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 82880Y Tourancheau, S. , Sjöström, M. , Olsson, R. , Persson, A. , Ericson,T. , Rudling, J. & Norén, B. (2012). Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D-visualization in a medical context. I Proceedings of the SPIE, vol 8318: Conference on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, San Diego, CA, USA, 4 - 9 February 2012.. S. Art. no. 831814Tourancheau, S. , Sjöström, M. , Olsson, R. , Persson, A. & Ericson, T. (2012). Evaluation of quality of experience in interactive 3D visualization: methodology and results. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 82880O Olsson,R. , Adhikarla,V. K. , Schwarz, S. & Sjöström, M. (2012). Converting conventional stereo pairs to multi-view sequences using morphing. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 828828Schwarz, S. , Sjöström, M. & Olsson, R. (2012). Depth Map Upscaling Through Edge Weighted Optimization. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 829008Sjöström, M. , Tourancheau, S. , Wang, X. & Olsson, R. (2012). A locally content-dependent filter for inter-perspective anti-aliasing. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.. S. Art. no. 829006Ahmad, N. , Khursheed, K. , Imran, M. , Lawal, N. & O'Nils, M. (2012). Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network. I Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Belgium : (Proceedings of SPIE). S. Art. no. 84370U Kotte, H. B. , Ambatipudi, R. , Haller, S. & Bertilsson, k. (2012). A ZVS Half Bridge DC-DC Converter in MHz Frequency Region using Novel Hybrid Power Transformer. I Proceedings of International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Power Quality (PCIM) 2012, 8-10 May 2012, Nuremberg, Germany.. Berlin : . S. 399- -406.

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Forsström, S. , Kanter, T. & Johansson, O. (2012). Real-Time Distributed Sensor-Assisted mHealth Applications on the Internet-of-Things. I Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012 : 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012.. S. 1844--1849. Forsström, S. , Kanter, T. & Österberg, P. (2012). Ubiquitous Secure Interactions with Intelligent Artifacts on the Internet-of-Things. I Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012 : 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012.. S. 1520--1524. Forsström, S. , Österberg, P. & Kanter, T. (2012). Evaluating Ubiquitous Sensor Information Sharing on the InternetofThings. I Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012 : 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012.. S. 1454-1460. Damghanian, M. , Olsson, R. & Sjöström, M. (2012).The Sampling Pattern Cube : A Representation and Evaluation Tool for Optical Capturing Systems. I Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems. Berlin / Heidelberg : (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). S. 120--131. Fröjdh, E. , Fröjdh, C. , Gimenez, E. , Krapohl, D. , Maneuski, D. , O'Shea,V. , Norlin, B. , Wilhelm, H. , Tartoni, N. , Thungström, G. & Zain, R. (2012). Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam. I Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE. Meng, X. ,Thörnberg, B. & Olsson, L. (2012). Component obsolescence management model for long life cycle embedded system. I AUTOTESTCON (Proceedings). Anheim, California : . S. 19--24. Forsström, S. & Kanter, T. (2012). Enabling Continuously Evolving Context Information in Mobile Environments by Utilizing Ubiquitous Sensors. I Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.. S. 289--303. Walters, J. & Kanter,T. (2012). Evolving Presentity-Based Context Schemas by Estimating Context Proximity. I Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.. S. 137--152. Walters, J. , Kanter, T. & Savioli, E. (2012). A Distributed Framework for Organizing an Internet of Things. I Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.. S. 231--247. Rydberg, S. C. & Engholm, M. (2012). Photodarkening mechanisms in ytterbium fiber lasers; a comparison of UVinduced losses in glass and crystalline materials. I 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2012.. S. Art. no. 6326558Imran, M. , Khursheed, K. , Ahmad, n. , O’ Nils, M. , Lawal, N. & Waheed, M. A. (2012). Architecture of Wireless Visual Sensor Node withRegion of Interest Coding. . Muddala, S. M. , Sjöström, M. & Olsson, R. (2012). Edge-preserving depth-image-based rendering method. . Damghanian, M. , Olsson, R. & Sjöström, M. (2012). Extraction of the lateral resolution in a plenoptic camera using the SPC model. . Hashemi, A. & Thörnberg, B. (2012). Hardware Centric Automatic Recognition of Road Signs. I Proc. of IEEE Symposium on Computer Applications & Industrial Electronics. Saleem, J. , Majid, A. , Bertilsson, K. , Carlberg,T. & Nazar ul islam, M. (2012). Nugget Formation During Resistance Spot Welding Using Finite Element Model. . (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology) Shen, W. , Zhang, T. & Gidlund, M. (2012). Distributed Data Gathering Scheduling Protocol for Wireless Sensor Actor and Actuator Networks. I Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on.. S. 7120--7125. Zhao, J. , Thörnberg, B. , Shi, Y. & Hashemi, A. (2012). Color Segmentation on FPGA Using Minimum Distance Classifier for Automatic Road Sign Detection. I IST 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques, Proceedings.. S. 516--521. Sida 80 I STC Annual Report 2011-2012


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Li, Y. , Sjöström, M. , Jennehag, U. & Olsson, R. (2012). A Scalable Coding Approach for High Quality Depth Image Compression. . Khursheed, K. , Imran, M. , Ahmad, N. & O'Nils, M. (2012). Selection of bi-level image compression method for reduction of communication energy in wireless visual sensor networks. I SPIE : Proc. SPIE 8437, 84370M (2012). Khursheed, K. , Ahmad, N. , Imran, M. & O'Nils, M. (2012). Detecting and Coding Region of Interests in Bi-Level Images for Data Reduction in Wireless Visual Sensor Network. I Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on.. S. 705--712. Örtegren, J. , Öhlund, T. , Niga, P. , Makeen, K. , Andersson, H. & Nilsson, H. (2012). Print quality issues concerning inkjet printing of colour and electronics on paper. I PTS Symposium: Paper and Imaging 2012. Munich, Germany : . S. 251--263. K.Yu, M. Gidlund, J. Åkerberg and M. Björkman, ”Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proc. 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’12), Montreal, Canada, Oct. 2012. J. Zhao, D. Yang, Y. Qin, T. Zheng, J. Duan, and M. Gidlund, ”Issues of Routing Protocol for Wireless Industrial Sensor Networks,” in Proc. 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON’12), Montreal, Canada, Oct. 2012. J. Taylor, J. Åkerberg, H. M. S. Ibrahim, and M. Gidlund, ”Safe and Secure Wireless Networked Control Systems,” In Proc. IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, (MSC’12), Dubrovnik, Croatia, Oct. 2012. Doctoral Thesis W.Wong, ”A Hybrid Pixel Detector ASIC with Energy Binning for Real-Time, Spectroscopic Dose Measurements”, Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, 2012. Licentiat thesis Esebamen, O. X. (2012). Simulation, Measurement and Analysis of the Response of Electron- and Position Sensitive Detector. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 91) Ahmad, N. (2012). Modelling and optimization of sky surveillance visual sensor network. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 86) Saleem, J. (2012). Power electronics for resistance spot welding equipment. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 79) Malik, A. W. (2012). Machine vision architecture on FPGA. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 82) Majid, A. (2012). Analysis and implementation of switch mode power supplies in MHz frequency region. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 80) Meng, X. (2012). Maintenance Consideration for Long Life Cycle Embedded System. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 81) Cheng, X. (2012). Hardware centric machine vision for high precision measurement of reference structures in optical navigation. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis : 77) Alam, M. A. (2012). Online Surface Topography Characterization Technique for Paper and Paperboard using Line of Light Triangulation. Lic.-avh. (Sammanläggning) Sundsvall : Mid Sweden University, 2012 (Mid Sweden Universitylicentiate thesis : 75)

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Patents Gidlund, M. , Yang, D. , Shen, W. , Youzhi, X. & Zhang, T. (2012). WIRELESS COMMUNICATION METHOD AND SYSTEM WITH COLLISION AVOIDANCE PROTOCOL.

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11. Posters of Research projects within STC In this section we present all research projects within STC in 2011-2012. Down below you will find a index of all projects and the researchers involved. Detector and Photonics - posters ”Measurement of the Sensitive Profile in a Solid-State Silicon Detector, I rradiated by X-rays” Doc. Göran Thungström, Lars Herrnsdorf, Börje Norlin, Salim Reza, David Krapohl, S. Mattsson and M. Gunnarsson. ”Construction and Realization of a Measurement system for solar cell in a radiation field of 10 standard suns” Tayyab Rasul, Mazhar Hussain and Göran Thungström. ”Investigation of charge collection in a CdTe-TIMEPIX detector” PhD student David Krapohl and Erik Fröjdh, D. Maneuski, and Doc. Göran Thungström. ”Evaluation of a PCB design in order to minimize the X-ray scatter for a solid state silicon detector.” Lars Herrnsdorf Radiation sensor systems Sensor Systems - posters ”Radiation Sensor Systems / Physical Electronics and Photonics” ”Spectroscopic X-ray Imaging to Resolve the Coreand the Coating on Paperboard using a Single Photon Processing Detector System” PhD student Salim Reza, PhD student Börje Norlin, Dr. JanThim and Prof. Christer Fröjdh. ”FBG/filter based upon evaporated Silica nano particles” PhD student Krister Hammarling. Power electronics - posters ”EMI Suppression in High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies” PhD student Abdul Majid. ”Modeling Resistance Welding Process” PhD Student Jawad Saleem. ”High Frequency (MHz) Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)” PhD student Hari Babu Kotte. ”High Frequency (MHz) Transformers for Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)” PhD student Radhika Ambatipudi. Printed Sensor Systems - posters ”Surface Treatment to Enhance Print Quality of Silver Nano-Particle Ink on Plastic Substrates” Dr. Henrik Andersson ”Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform” Dr. Henrik Andersson. STC Annual Report 2011-2012 I Sida 83


STC - Sensible Things that Communicate A research centre at Mid Sweden University

Visual Sensor Systems - posters ”Online surface characterization technique in the paper/paperboard industries” PhD student Anzar Alam. ”Intelligence Partitioning and Data Reduction in WVSN” PhD student Khursheed Khursheed. ”Architecture of Wireless Vision Sensor Node” Muhammad Imran, Mattias O’Nils, Najeem Lawal. ”Comparison among Smart Camera Architectures” PhD student Waheed Malik and Dr. Benny Thörnberg. ”Indoor Optical Navigation by recognition of reference labels using 3D calibration of camera model” PhD student Qaiser Anwar and Dr. Benny Thörnberg. ”Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network” PhD student Naeem Ahmad. ”Component Obsolescence Management Model” PhD student Xiaozhou Meng. ”VISINIR - Vision sensor for Near Infra-Red imaging” PhD student Haoming Zeng, PhD student Patrik Jonsson and Dr. Benny Thörnberg. ”Remote Ice Detection Utilizing IR” Industrial PhD student Patrik Jonsson. wireless sensor systems - posters ”Design of a Torque sensor based on MEMS technology” PhD student Muhammad Nazar Ul Islam. ”Stator-Free Low RPM Sensor” PhD student Mohamed Sobh Mustafa. ”A Testbed for SolarPowered Wireless Sensor Systems” MsC-Student Matthias Krämer. ”Design of an On-Rotor Drive System” PhD student Stefan Haller. ”Concealing the Complexity of Programming Wireless Sensor Networks” PhD student Sebastian Bader. ”SENTIOF: A high-performance and low-power wireless sensor platform” PhD student Khurram Shahzad.

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Realistic 3d - posters ”Disocclusion filling using Depth-aware Inpainting” PhD student Suryanarayana M. Muddala. ”The Sampling Pattern Cube (SPC) Modeling The Capturing Systems While Preserving The Focal Properties” Mitra Damghanian, Roger Olsson, Mårten Sjöström. Sensor-based services - posters ”The Internet-of-Things for Everyone! An Open Platform for Ubiquitous Information Sharing” PhD student Victor Kardeby. Sensor network and Security - posters ”Packet Delivery Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks” Lic. Felix Dobslaw ”P-MAC: A Priority-Enhanced MAC Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks” PhD student Wei Shen. ”Wireless Channel Quality and Coexistence in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks” PhD student Filip Barac, Prof. Tingting Zhang and Dr. Mikael Gidlund. ”Elektroder för elektrokemisk industri” Håkan Olin. ”GIFU -Gränslös miljö för Innovation, Forskning och Utbildning” Dr. Benny Thörnberg and Dr. Magnus Engholm. ”Paper-based supercapacitors” PhD student Britta Andres, Research Engineer Sven Forsberg, Nicklas Blomquist, PhD student Dr. Magnus Hummelgård, Dr. Renyun Zhang, Dr. Henrik Andersson, Associate Prof. Joakim Bäckström, Prof. Håkan Olin. ”EnergyWise – forskning inom effektiv energianvändning och förnyelsebar energiproduktion”

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Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

G.Thungstrรถm1, L. Herrnsdorf 2,3, B. Norlin1, S. Reza1, D. Krapohl1, S. Mattsson3 and M. Gunnarsson3 1Mid

Sweden University, Sundsvall, SE-85170, Sweden 2RTI ElectronicsAB, Mรถlndal, SE-43137, Sweden 3Lund University, Malmรถ, SE-20502, Sweden

Introduction

Results

Experimental setup

Conclusion

Contact Reference


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Construction and Realization of a Measurement system for solar cell in a radiation field of 10 standard suns Background This Research project supports in relation to the IV and PV characterization of solar cells used for the production of energy in concentrated solar receivers. When solar cells are connected in series and if one of the solar cells has reduced its sensitivity, sufficient power will not be produced. In that case the solar cell must be tested before and after mounting it.

Results Fig: Experimental IV characteristics result of load resistance at 0.8V and 10A, low series resistance of 7.9 mΩ and voltage drop of 200mV

Objectives A measurement system should have: • I-V, P-V characteristics • Temperatures during the irradiation • Easy replacement PV cell mechanism. • Efficient mechanism for on-spot crack detection in PV cells.

Fig: Experimental PV characteristics result of load resistance at 0.8V and 10A, low series resistance of 7.9 mΩ and voltage drop of 200mV .

Architectures

Conclusion The load circuit for testing a solar cell has been developed and tested with a power supply and suitable for testing a solar cell after further improvement.

Ongoing Activities • Development of a PV cell testing chamber • Improvement in reduction of voltage drop • Feasibility of crack detection technique

For further information contact: Tayyab Rasul tara1000@student.miun.se Mazhar Hussain mazhar.hussain@miun.se Göran Thungström goran.thungstrom@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Introduction

Methodology

Results Conclusion

References


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Evaluation of a PCB design in order to minimize the X-ray scatter for a solid state silicon detector.

L. Herrnsdorf 1, G.Thungström2, 1Malmö

University Hospital, Malmö, SE-20502, Sweden 2MidSweden University, Sundsvall, SE-85170, Sweden

Introduction

In a previous article a solid state detector with 1.2 mm3 active volume for radiation point dose and dose profile measurement have been characterized concerning its sensitive profile[1]. However the mounting to a flexible circuit board that is thin, electrical and mechanical robust have not been evaluated concerning x-ray absorption. The evaluation of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) layout is needed for the simulation model and further development of the detector system.

Results

The X-ray images was collected in Dicom format and evaluated using ImageJ image processing program. A ROI was selected that includes 7 rectangle area where the mean gray level and its standard deviation was calculated. From the table below we can see that lowest mean gray value was at point (3) mean = 64970 for the BPW 34 detector due to its high z-backplane attenuation.

Fig 1. PCB mounted with components on a eye glasses holder (left) PCB back side without components , green color indicates copper plane (right)

Experimental setup

A complete integrated counting electrometer was constructed on a DuPont™ Pyralux® LF Copper-Clad Laminate based on two 153 g/m2 copper layers and a 51 μm kapton® film that make the PCB less than 0.09 mm thick. This PCB is used in this study as a framework to evaluate several possible mountings and shielding methods for the radiation detectors in different energy ranges. In order to measure the X-ray transmission we used a digital image flat panel X-ray system (Siemens AXIOM Artis) at a beam quality of 70 kV and 0.9 mm Cu beam filtration and compared the different parts of the PCB transmission value to get a profile plot of the Xray attenuation. As electrical and light shield we used the 3M 1170 Tape Aluminum Foil with Conductive Adhesive . The tape consist of 0.05 mm Al ,(totally 0.081mm) and the PCB copper ground plane was folded around the bigger x-ray detector as shown in fig 3.

Fig 3. 3D surface plot of the ROI ((Region of Interest) ) (left) marked by rectangulare section on the right picture. Within this big ROI, 7 small rectangular ROI have been selected to compare the transmission value for the PCB (see table below)

That should be compared to point (7) mean=65429 where the PCB material consist of only 102 μm kapton® film and point (2) mean=65406 where the point dose detector RTI_1.2mm3 [1] is mounted.Therfore the PCB have a very low X-ray attenuation at that point (see also fig 3).

Conclusion

The point dose detector and PCB have almost identical attenuation of X-ray as without detector mounted indicating that the PCB layout around the point dose detector have low influence of X-ray scattering into the sensitive volume.

Contact

Lars Herrnsdorf Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund University, Skåne University Hospital 205 02 Malmö, Sweden E-mail: lars.herrnsdorf@med.lu.se Fig 2. PCB component side with x­ray detectors (left and bottom view). The right image is the X­ray image of the evaluation part of the PCB. The point dose detector has the size of 2.4x2.4 mm2.The big picture shows the set up for the X­ray transmission measurement of the PCB.

Reference

[1] Göran Thungström, et al., “Measurement of the Sensitive Profile in a Solid State Silicon Detector, Irradiated by X-rays.“, presented at IWORID 2012, Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, PORTUGAL and in a Poster at STC-expo 2012,


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Radiation Sensor Systems / Physical Electronics and Photonics

Dr. Göran Thungström Associate Professor

Dr. Christer Fröjdh Professor

Dr. Börje Norlin Assistant Professor

Dr. Jan Andersson Adjunct Professor ACREO AB

David Krapohl PhD Student

M

Dr. Sture Petersson Professor Emeritus Mittuniversitetet/KTH

Reza Salim PhD Student

Anna Fröjdh PhD Student

Dr. Magnus Engholm Assistant Professor

Krister Hammarling PhD Student Krister Aldén Clean Room Technician

Dr. Heinz Graafsma Adjunct Professor DESY, Germany

Erik Fröjdh PhD Student CERN

Lars Herrnsdorf PhD Student RTI Electronics AB

Dr. Claes Mattsson Assistant Professor

Sara Rydberg PhD Student

This group within STC at Mid Sweden University is focusing on the development and innovation of new sensor concepts that allow high performance solutions at low cost. The targeted sensors are not only of importance to the industrial partners of the projects but are also of general world wide interests.

Omeime Esebamen PhD Student


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Spectroscopic X-ray Imaging to Resolve the Core and the Coating on Paperboard Using a Single Photon Processing Detector System Salim Reza, Bรถrje Norlin, Jan Thim and Christer Frรถjdh ITM, Mittuniversitetet.

Introduction

Results

Method

Conclusions

Reference Contact


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

FBG/filter based upon evaporated Silica nano particles Introduction There are several ways to manufacture Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), these includes ultraviolet laser exposure, CO2 laser irradiation, electricarc discharge, femtosecond laser exposure, mechanical microbends, etched corrugations, ion beam implantation, tapering and twisting. This work presents a possibility to build cost effective fiber filter by evaporating silica nano particles directly upon a MM-fiber core. Simulations shows that it should be possible to build a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) that has a small bandwidth and high reflection.

Objectives The aim for this project is to get a better understanding of how nano particles can be used in fiber optical applications, this by building a FBG with evaporated Silica nano particles upon a fiber core. And to better understand different techniques for applying nano particles upon a fiber in a controlled way, so that one get a uniform and controllable layer of particles (Figure 1).

Figure 1. SEM picture of a part of the fiber, coated with nano particles (left) and an enlargement (right), where one can see that there are almost a perfect single layer of nano particles. Dark long stretched parts are shadows from the SEM.

Results Simulation of a fiber with particles upon, show that when particles are ordered in a structured and periodic way.

Figure 2. Simulation results. Left figure show the energy in the EM wave at particle RI = air (top half) and RI = 2 (bottom half). Right figure show the transmission spectra when RI = 2.

The fiber acts like a FBG/filter (Figure 2). For verification of the simulation a fiber was prepared with silica nano particles evaporated upon the core, using evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method, which gave us an almost perfect monolayer of nano particles (Figure. 1).

Figure 3. Normalized attenuation in the fiber at different length of nano particles evaporated upon the fiber.

The attenuation graph in Figure 3, shows that with increasing length of nano particles evaporated upon the fiber, the larger the attenuation becomes. The broader bandwidth in the experimental part is due to mainly three things, there are some distribution in the particle size, the particle packing is not equally all over the surface and there are multiple mode angles. For further information contact: Name: Krister Hammarling E-mail: krister.hammarling@miun.se Phone: 060-148717


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

EMI Suppression in High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies Background The higher switching frequency, di/dt loops and dv/dt nodes in power stages of Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) generate higher order harmonics that causes Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) which affects their Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC). Line filters are used to suppress the conducted EMI.

Research Focus

Fig. 2 Frequency spectrum of conducted EMI without using line filter

• Measure and analyze the conducted EMI in emerging power converters, switching in MHz frequency range. • Design line filter to suppress the conducted EMI.

Results The conducted EMI of resonant half bridge converter is measured under following conditions: • Switching frequency 2.9 MHz. • Output power level approximately 20 Watt.

Fig. 3 Frequency spectrum of conducted EMI by using line filter

Ongoing Activities

LISN Spectrum Analyzer Filter

Power Converter

• Optimization of filter for the suppression of conducted EMI at higher power levels. • Design line filters for two wire universal input SMPS. • Comparison of filters design for two wire and three wire input SMPS. • Use of near field probes to find the source of EMI. For Contact

Fig. 1 Setup for measurement of conducted EMI

Abdul Majid abdul.majid@miun.se Cell: +46-739601349


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Modeling Resistance Welding Process

Background Resistance welding is a widely used process of joining metal sheets in automotive and other industries. Resistance welding process comprises of electric, thermal and mechanical phenomenon, which makes this process complex and highly non-linear. The versatility, rich mathematical formulations and robustness of finite element methods make them attractive for simulations of a wide range of problems.

Time = 0.18 sec

Time = 0.22sec

Results The developed model can be used for selecting the appropriate welding parameters to produce good welding nugget for different sheet thickness.

Time = 0.36 sec Time = 0.30 sec Weld Nugget Formation Current 12kAmps Tip Area 50.26mm2

Ongoing Activities • 3 D Model for Seam Welding Process. • Develop 2D Model for Sopt Welding Aluminium Sheets.

For Contact Jawad Saleem jawad.saleem@miun.se Cell: +46-76-2453176


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

High Frequency (MHz) Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) Introduction

Results Achieved

There is a continuous demand to design a low profile, high power density, highly energy efficient and fast dynamic response converters at a resonable price for many portable appliances such as laptop adapters, iPads etc.,The tremendous efforts in the improvement of switching devices such as GaN/SiC MOSFETs, SiC diodes lead to the increased switching speeds of power semiconductor devices. Higher switching frequencies of converter results in reduction of size of the passive elements such as capacitors, inductors, filter components and transformers which leads to compact size, weight, and the increased power density of converters.

The energy efficiency of unregulated and regulated converters are illustrated in fig.2 and fig.3 respectively.

The objective of this project is to design the energy efficient isolated converter operating in MHz frequency region by using the high frequency planar power transformers developed in Mid Sweden University. Multiresonant half bridge converter topology has been selected for achieving ZVS condition of the switching device as shown in fig.1 leading to negligible switching losses.

Energy Efficiency, η [%]

94 92 90 88 RL=10Ω

86

RL=15Ω

84

RL=20Ω

82 80 30

RL=25Ω 40

50

60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Input Voltage,Vin [V] Fig.2 Energy efficiency of unregulated Multiresonant half bridge converter operated in 3 - 4MHz 3.4MHz

Energy Efficiency, η [%]

Objectives

Maximum tested power : 45W Energy efficiency @ 45W : 90% Increased switching frequency : 3 – 4MHz

90 4MHz

85 3.14MHz

80 75 70 81

Constant OFF time Frequency Modulation

84.6

88.2 91.8 95.4 99 Input Voltage,Vin [V] Fig.3 Energy Efficiency of regulated converter for ±10% input voltage variations

For Further information contact:

Fig.1 Switching waveforms of Multiresonant half bridge converter at 3.4MHz

Hari Babu Kotte Hari.Kotte@miun.se +46-723622781


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

High Frequency (MHz) Transformers for Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) Introduction

Results Achieved

Power Supply Unit (PSU) plays a vital role in all the Electronic equipments. As some of the applications demand multiple output and electrical isolation, transformer became one of the irreplaceable components in modern power supplies. The miniaturized SMPS is possible only with the increased switching frequency which in turn results in smaller passive elements, reduced cost and high speed voltage regulation.

Energy efficiency of transformer as a function of frequency and load power are depicted in fig.2 and fig.3 respectively.

The objective of this project is to design the high frequency (HF) planar transformers shown in Fig.1 for SMPS which are highly energy efficient and capable of operating in MHz frequency region for achieving high power density converters.  Coreless PCB power/signal transformers  Core based transformers  POT + I, ER + I core etc.,

Energy Efficiency, η [%]

Objectives

100 95 90 RL=10 Ω

85

RL=15 Ω

80

RL=20 Ω RL=25 Ω

75

RL=30 Ω 2

1

5

4 3 Frequency,f [MHz]

Fig.2 Energy efficiency as a function of frequency 100

Energy Efficiency, η [%]

At Mid Sweden University, various high frequency transformers, inductors for power transfer and gate drive applications were designed and evaluated.

Wide operating frequency : 3 – 5MHz Energy efficiency : 90 - 97% High Power density of about 47W/cm3

95

90

85

Frequency=3MHz 10

20 30 40 Load power,Pload [W]

50

Fig.3 Energy Efficiency as a function of load power

For Further information contact:

Fig.1 High frequency (MHz) planar transformers (coreless and core based)

power

Radhika Ambatipudi Radhika.Ambatipudi@miun.se +46-723622780


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Surface Treatment to Enhance Print Quality of Silver Nano-Particle Ink on Plastic Substrates

Introduction Inkjet printing of nano-particle silver ink with good print quality and low resistivity on plasticsubstrates can sometimes be problematic to achieve. The commercial surface treatment InkAid has been evaluated as surface treatment for plastic substrates for silver nano-particle ink. The main objective is to get acceptable print quality to be able to use polyethylene substrates for this type of ink, which gives a very poor line quality when uncoated.

The thinnest coating of 5μm produces the lowest resistivity. The difference between coating thicknesses is large at lower sintering temperatures. The lowest measured resistivity values are 2*10-7Ωm for Semi Gloss and 4*10-7Ωm for both Precoat type II and Iridescent Gold. It gives that the conductivity of the printed lines is as best about 16% of bulk silver making the combination of surface treatment and the ANP silver ink usable for printed electronics applications.

Experimental and Results The ink used was the ANP DGP 40LT-15C silver ink which contains a polar solvent and a solid silver content of 40-45%. On the coated substrates a pattern of four test lines with different widths were printed. The line quality was determined in terms of line width and raggedness, the result is displayed in the table. The ink will spread out and the lines will be wider on all coatings. Lines on the uncoated substrate degrade the most, with a dried line width of more than four times that of the original. Line Width

Raggedness

Uncoated

856 µm

10 µm

Iridescent Gold 5µm

326 µm

6 µm

Iridescent Gold 50um

345 µm

2 µm

Precoat Type II 5µm

339 µm

11 µm

Precoat Type II 50µm

315 µm

5 µm

Semi Gloss 5µm

296 µm

6 µm

Semi Gloss 50µm

340 µm

9 µm

Printing quality for reference line printed on plastic substrate without coating,(top), printed 200µm wide test lines on 5, 10, 20 and 50µm thick Semi Gloss coating (bottom).

Resistivity for lines printed on the different coatings.

For more information contact: Henrik.Andersson@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform Introduction

Results

A modified design of an RF-surveillance tag used as a sensor platform is manufactured and characterized. The tag is manufactured in Aluminum foil on PET substrate. This means it is possible to use the described tag as a very low cost, RF-platform for various resistive sensors. Such tags can be manufactured in a roll to roll process, and the sensors added with conductive tape or glue.

The design of the EAS tag in this work is based on the standard EAS tag LC resonance circuit but modified to include a second capacitor connected in parallel through a resistive sensor resulting in an LCCR circuit. When the resistance of the sensor is high, the extra capacitor is disconnected from the circuit, giving one resonance frequency and when the sensor resistance is very low the extra capacitor is connected in parallel, resulting in a lower resonance frequency. EAS tags with added sensors can be manufactured with good control of the resonance frequency. Tests with resistive tilts sensors show that the concept works.

Background A modified type of RF EAS tag meant to be used as a sensor platform for resistive sensors has been constructed. It can be used in for example shipping in combination with different sensors, where each container or box may have its own sensor. Then it will be possible to pick out the specific container/boxes, for which a “trigger event� has happened. Different types of resistive sensors exists that can detect properties such as pressure, moisture, light (LDRs), temperature (thermistors).

Simulation of resonance frequency shift for different resistance values of the sensor.

For more information contact: Henrik.Andersson@miun.se Photo of plate LCCR EAS tags manufactured in aluminum on PET with tilt sensor.


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Online surface characterization technique in the paper/paperboard industries Online Surface Topography Online surface measurement can play an important role to improve the quality & printability of the paper and paperboard during the manufacturing process. The results shown that the developed technique have successfully measured the surfaces of different quality including the coated paperboard in real time.

Measurement technique The method was designed on the Line of Light Triangulation Technique. It measures surface roughness for the whole tambour meter by meter in MD while covering 210 mm width of the tambour in CD. It displays, records and analyzes roughness data in real time.

Fig 2: Online measurement ’s basic technique.

Results Fig 3 shows the roughness measurement of 500 meter of tambour length. Fig 4 is the spectra of paper board surfaces.

Fig 3: Online measurement tambour length 5000 meters.

Topography amplitudes (Âľm)

10

R5, coatedside, edge (20gsm) R6, coatedside, middle (20gsm) R7, coatedside, edge (24gsm) R8, coatedside, middle (24gsm)

R5, uncoatedside, edge R6, uncoatedside, middle R7, uncoatedside, edge R8, uncoatedside, middle

1

0,1 0,1

Fig 1: The developed instrument based on line of light triangulation technique.

1

Wavelength (mm)

Fig 4: Online measurement spectral charecterization

10


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Intelligence Partitioning and Data Reduction in WVSN Results

Background Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSN) is composed of many Visual Sensor Nodes (VSN). The VSNs capture images and perform some processing on them, which require both higher processing power and communication bandwidth. The critical factors in WVSN are reliability, robustness, optimal network deployment and life time.

Fig. 3 shows that Gzip_pack, JBIG2 and JPEG-LS are suitable compression methods for data reduction in WVSN. Fig. 4 shows that the data after ROI coding is five times lower than that of image coding.

Fig. 3: Comparison of compression methods

Fig. 1: Components of the VSN

Achieved Milestones •

•

Balanced computational load between VSN and the Central Based Station (CBS) using Intelligence Partitioning (IP) strategies Proposed and evaluated the performance of the Information Reduction Technology (IRT) for data reduction in WVSN Fig. 4: Compression efficiency of IRT

Ongoing Activities The performance evaluation of image coding, change coding and Region of Interest (ROI) coding for data reduction in WVSN. Camera

Video

Change Frame

Fig. 2: The IRT

ROI Detection

CCITT Group 4

Conclusion The communication energy consumption is reduced from 86 mJ to 0.3 mJ based on the data reduction achieved using IRT. Contact information:

Khursheed 0707404985 khursheed.khursheed@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Architecture of Wireless Vision Sensor Node Background Wireless Vision Sensor Network (WVSN) consists of a number of wireless Vision Sensor Nodes (VSNs). WVSN applications include surveillance, industrial process monitoring and environmental monitoring. A VSN is expected to monitor its field of view for a long time on available limited energy supply. Therefore, low energy consumption is essential to extend the VSN lifetime. To cope with this challenge, our focus is on investigation of reconfigurable architecture for VSN with objective to minimize processing as well as communication energy consumption. To achieve this objective, we have adopted the approach given in Figure.1. Results The hardware (FPGA) based VSN has reduced energy consumption by over 400 times as compared to software VSN. Wireless Vision Sensor Node

Hardware Architecture

Information reduction

Taxonomy

ROI, Change coding, compression

Complexity model

Hardware Architecture

SENTIO32-F

Proof

On hardware platform, the overall energy consumption is reduced with Region Of Interest (ROI) coding together with CCITT group4 compression by over 43 percent as compare to VSN without ROI coding. The lifetime of the VSN, based on measured energy values, showed that approx. 5 years lifetime can be achieved with a sample of 5 minutes using 4 AA batteries (Figure.3). 7 6 5

Strategy1

4

Strategy2 Strategy3

3

Strategy4 Strategy5

2

Strategy6

1

Software Architecture

Strategy7

0

Strategy8

Period between frames [minutes]

Implementation/ verification

Generalization of solutions

G Figure 2. Setup. FPGA (A) , Wireless module (B), Camera (C), Machine (D), LEDs ring (E), Input Image (F), Output image (G) .

Life time [Years]

Objective

F

Figure 3. Lifetime of VSN for different sample periods with different implementation strategies. Strategy8 is lifetime with ROI coding. Processing energy management

On going activities • Hardware Implementation of Video Codec with Change coding, ROI and Compression. • Developing VSN hardware architecture. • Implementation to prove the concept.

Real Application

Figure 1. Work flow for realization of energy efficient generalized VSN

Contact Muhammad Imran, Mattias O’Nils, Najeem Lawal muhammad.imran@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Comparison among Smart Camera Architectures Introduction

Smart camera is a machine vision system that has processing and communication capabilities along with image capturing. Smart cameras are popular in industrial process monitoring and remote surveillance application. A typical smart camera system is shown in Fig.1. Objective In this work, we will compare the results e.g. power consumption and frame speed from three smart camera architectures. The application for all three architecture is distance and viewing angle calculation from the reference point. Architecture 1. CMOS image sensor MT9V032 is used to capture the images as shown in Fig.2. The data intensive modules e.g. image capturing, segmentation, labeling and features extraction are modeled in VHDL. The distance and angle of camera, based on extracted features, is calculated in soft-core processor. Architecture 2. CMOS image sensor MT9V032 is used to capture the images. All the modules till feature extraction are performed on FPGA. The distance and angle calculation are done on 32 bit AVR32 Microcontroller. Architecture 3. Smart camera “Matrox Iris GT 1900c� having 1.6GHz CPU is used to implement the image processing task . The system setup is shown in Fig.3.

Figure.1. Typical smart camera system

Results

Architecture 1

Power Consumption 560mW* Maximum Frequency 120MHz** Maximum Frame Speed 380

Figure.3. Matrox Iris GT smart camera system

Figure.2. FPGA and soft-core processor

Architecture 2

Architecture 3

350Mw 120MHz** 380

5.5W 1.6GHz 33

*Image sensor power-320mW, **Frame speed include synchronization overhead

Conclusions

Its evident from the results that architecture 1 and 2 are more power efficient and have higher frame speed than architecture 3. The improved performance is due to RT level design of data intensive image processing task, while control intensive task can be performed inside soft-core processor or micro-controller. The RT level system development need high design time. The smart camera e.g. Matrox Iris have high power consumption and low frame speed but its design time is usually vey fast. These smart cameras use high level programming language and have image processing library which make development time short.

Conctact Information Waheed.malik@miun.se Benny.thornberg@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Indoor Optical Navigation by recognition of reference labels using 3D calibration of camera model Introduction:

An indoor navigation system is a navigation inside buildings that is able to interactively guide the navigator to the destination. A prototype of machine vision system has been developed which is used to implement an indoor optical navigation system. The world space around the camera is calibrated with rotationally independent optimized color reference labels having information of one byte. These symbols are combined with geometrical camera calibration model that determines a set of camera parameters used in mapping between the 3-D worlds coordinates and the 2-D image coordinates.

Figure 1: Using at least six points to calibrate the camera in 3D world. In the experiment camera is focus on the one point which is made reference to Principal center.

Procedure:

An algorithm model in Matlab has been developed that a machine vision system for N number of reference labels can recognize these symbols at different distances and orientations. The reconstruction system uses the direct linear transform (DLT) method with a set of control reference labels in camera calibration model. Camera is required to observe at least 6 symbols to compute its pose (position and angle). A Matlab code is used to encode and decode each symbol value. A one channel color technique is used in segmentation to highlight and extract the optimized color symbols in complex background. The number of the segmented components in the binary image is reduced due to applied color technique.

Figure 2: Experimental setup used for indoor optical navigation. Where the reference labels are attached to ceiling in office corridor.

Figure 3: Expertimental results of the system.Showing the decoded values of color reference labels and position of the camera in 3D world coodinates in cm.

Conclusion:

The results show that we have investigated identity of 10 color reference labels in indoor office environment which gives 10 bytes information in one image. These symbols identity is used in implementation of highly accurate geometrical camera calibration for indoor navigation. The calculated absolute error for finding the position of the camera varies between 0.5 to 6 cm. While error in the calculated angle is between 5 to 18 degrees.

For further information contact:

Qaiser Anwar, Benny Thornberg qaan1000@student.miun.se Benny.Thornberg@miun.se .


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network Background Visual Sensor Network – Combination of a number of camera nodes, forming a distributed system. Application area – Detection, recognition and tracking of golden eagle in relation to wind mills.

Higher altitude Overlap

Coverage

Lower altitude

Research Focus • To reduce the cost to cover a given area by using optimization techniques. • Core idea: To divide a given altitudes space into a number of sub-spaces and covering them with individual sub VSNs (Heterogeneous VSN). • Model formulation to find feasibility of division of altitude space, the number of spaces and the optimum altitudes to divide a given altitudes space.

Camera node 3D Visualization of Coverage

Results 1-Cam Optim. 2000-5000 44 1500-5000 78 1000-5000 174 500-5000 694 Altitudes

2-4 Cam Optim. 36 48 63 88

Reduction (%) 18 38 63 87

A

B C

FPGA based processing: (A) original image, (B) Segmented image, (C) FPGA Board

Ongoing Activities • Taxonomy development and problem analysis • Design of guard ring scheme • PTZ camera tracking system Altitude vs Cost

1000

10Mp 14Mp 10Mp + 14 Mp

900 800 700

Heterogeneous VSN with Four sub VSNs

Cost

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 500

1000

1500

2000

3000 2500 Altitude

3500

4000

Optimized point with two VSNs

4500

5000

For Contact Naeem Ahmad naeem.ahmad@miun.se Cell: +46-76-2095594


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Component Obsolescence Management Model Obsolescence Management Model

Sales revenue

Introduction

Introduction

Growth

Maturity

Decline

Phaseout Obsolescence

Figure 1. Product life cycle curve

Time

Obsolescence or end of life (EOL) is the final state of a product’s life cycle when a vendor will no longer produce, sell and sustain it (technological, market or environmental) • Commercial markets - Updated rapidly • Automotive, avionics, military application – Desired life cycle ≫ Electronic components obsolescence cycle Problem: No publication yet offers an obsolescence management solution in relation to controlling the system maintenance costs Aim: Define a mathematic model for long life cycle embedded system maintenance

EOL Solution Lifetime buy Covers the entire system life – Risky

Last-time-Buy Cover short period of time – Short term strategy (preferred)

Redesign 1. Component(s) replacement 2. Part(s) redesign: 3. System(s) redesign:

Others: Aftermarket , Emulation etc

Figure 2. Obsolescence management model overview

R1R2 L1 or L2 P1,1P2,1 ① R1R2

R2

P1,1P2,0

R1R2

P1,1P2,0

L1 P1,1P2,0

P1,1P2,1

R1

P1,0P2,1

R1

L2

P1,1P2,1

R2

R2

L1 P1,1P2,0

R1

L1 P1,1P2,0

R1

P1,1P2,1

P1,1P2,1

P1,0P2,1

P1,1P2,1 P1,1P2,1

P1,1P2,0

P1,1: Component 1 obsolescence

P1,0: Component 1 non-obsolescence

P2,1: Component 2 obsolescence

P2,0: Component 2 non-obsolescence

Figure 3. State transfer diagram

Conclusion

An obsolescence management model is proposed which can offer maintenance strategy guidance to the designers who are faced with components obsolescence. At the present time, the model has a maximum components quantity limitation of 2. Future Work  Expand the model to be more generic  Performing experiments with industrial statistical data  Evaluate maintainability for different design technologies Contacts xiaozhou.meng@miun.se +46-60148592


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

VISINIR Vision sensor for Near Infra-Red imaging Haoming Zeng, Patrik Jonsson and Benny Thรถrnberg

Introduction

A low-cost InGaAs Near Infra-Red (NIR) imaging detector is combined with a powerful FPGA platform for image analysis in the range 0.95 to 1.7 um. The detector from Hamamatsu has an array of 64 by 64 pixels of 50 um size. This vision sensor prototype was developed as a masters thesis project in corporation with Combitech AB.

Figure 3: Experimental setup for SNR measurements.

Results

Figure 1: Experimental setup for NIR imaging of a candle

Experiments

The detector housing includes a Peltier cooler used to lower the detector-chip temperature such that the impact of thermal noise is reduced. Experimental evaluation of Signal-to-Noise Ratio versus detector temperature were performed. Statistics on signal and noise were evaluated from region A and B in figure 2 and for temperatures ranging from -5 to 23 C. Exposure time was fixed to 10 ms. Figure 3 shows experimental setup for SNR measurements.

Figure 2: Region A and B used for SNR measurements

Conclusion

For the selected exposure, Signal-to-Noise Ratio improved with 4 dB when detector temperature decreased from 23 to -5 degrees. This is an expected improvement due to the Peltier cooling. Ice detection, fire detection or quality inspection of vegetables are among the possible applications for this visual sensor node.

For further information contact

Benny Thรถrnberg Email: benny.thornberg@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Remote Ice Detection Utilizing IR Patrik Jonsson, ITM, Combitech AB patrik.jonsson@miun.se

Water detection

IR camera for snow and ice detection

Water can be identified by studying the infrared (IR) light absorption in the band 1-2 micron. Within the wavelength range 1-2 microns there are some known water absorption wavelengths. These occur at about 1300 nm, 1500 nm and 1900 nm. Laboratory experiments have shown that it is possible to distinguish between surfaces covered with a thin film of water, thin ice, thick ice, snow and covered with slush by looking at the absorption at these wavelengths.

By using appropriate filters in front of an IRcamera detector, water ice and snow can be distinguished over a larger area. Existing products are expensive and utilizes singlepoint detectors and thus can not provide overviews of such areas as a snowy and icy road surface or on a wind turbine blade. The University has developed a costeffective IR-camera prototype because commercially available IR-cameras have a very high price, SEK 150 000 to SEK 500 000. By constructing a cost effective IR-camera solution that gives the surface condition over an area, traffic safety can be improved and icing problems on wind turbines and power lines can be managed.

Spectrometer measurements From spectrometer measurements of water in the phases liquid, snow and ice, information about how water absorbs infrared light could be determined for different wavelengths, see Fig 1. This information was then used to determine suitable optical band pass filters to be used for detecting snow and ice using an IRcamera solution.

Ice detection

50

100

150

200

Water

Snow

Ice

250 50

100

150

200

250

300

Fig 2. IR Camera Image of a road surface where different wavelength filters were used to create the input values ​to a neural network model that found the ice to the right. The detected ice is marked as red­orange dots in the image. The human eye could not separate water from ice at this road surface.

Fig 1. Absorption spectra for a surface covered by water, ice and snow.

Contact Patrik Jonsson ITM and Combitech AB patrik.jonsson@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Design of a Torque sensor based on MEMS technology

Background Torque sensors have become one of the basic compoenents in the precision controlled industrial enviornments

Model of the torque sensor.

Industrial assembly robot using torque sensor in arm wrist

Conventional torque sensors utilize strain guages thus posing limitations such as maintenance cost, calibration and installation.

Stress analysis of the model

Ongoing research With the proposed model we aim to achieve Torque range of ±150 Nm. Noise free Dc resolution of 1:23000. Bandwidth of 2KHz

Conventional strain guage torque sensor

Introduction A COMSOL multiphysics model for the simulation of new MEMS based torque sensor is developed to simulate the phenomenon.

For Details contact Muhammad Nazar Ul Islam Muhammad.Nazar@miun.se 060-148549


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Stator-Free Low RPM Sensor Objective

Achievements

• The objective of this project is to design, implement, and test the performance of a Stator-Free RPM sensor based MEMS gyroscope.

• Realization of a functional Stator-Free RPM Sensor prototype.

• The targeted application of this project is low speed rotary machinery with large shaft diameters such as hydraulic motors and direct-drive wind-turbine generators.

• Building a custom designed test setup to accurately test the realized RPM Sensor.

Test setup of the Stator­Free RPM Sensor.

Results Hydraulic Motor (Courtesy of Hägglunds Drives).

The realized Stator-Free RPM Sensor has shown satisfactory performance with absolute accuracy of 0.06 °/s and standard deviation of 0.45 °/s at bandwidth of 300 Hz.

Ongoing activities Investigation of performance enhancement through proper calibration.

For details contact Mohamed Sobh Mustafa Mohamed.Mustafa@miun.se Magnetic Encoder (Stator­Dependant Angle Sensor)


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

A Testbed for Solar­Powered Wireless Sensor Systems Matthias Krämer (makr0900@student.miun.se)

Problem Statement

Testbed Motivation

Ambient Energy Harvesting can prolong the lifetime of a Wireless Sensor System, while re­ ducing its maintenance costs. However, the energy income depends on en­ vironmental conditions such as daily and sea­ sonal variations, as well as blocking objects. Thus, a generalized system design is infeas­ able, but should be location dependent. In order to simplify the design process a meth­ od that includes the following elements is re­ quired: • Support for selection of harvesting architectures • A mechanism to dimension system components

The testbed has been de­ signed with focus on the following aspects: • Direct comparison of multiple test­setups • In­situ system eval­ uation • Data collection for further use in model­ ling and simulation • Improvement and op­ timization of existing system designs

Reconfigurable Energy Harvesting System

Real­World Data

Modeling and Simulation

Optimized System Architechture

System Architechture Emulator­Node Graphical User­Interface • Configuration of the Network • Measurement­Data Presentation

Wireless Gateway with Database • In­network Storage and Distribution of Measurement­ and Config­Data

• Reconfigurable Energy Harvesting System • Measurement System for Energy Levels and Environmental Conditions


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Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

SENTIOF: A high-performance and low-power wireless sensor platform Background A typical wireless sensor node (WSn) optimized for low-power consumption often lacks high performance processing capabilities required for many applications such as visual sensing, vibration monitoring etc. to process acquired data locally in the node. Objective The aim of this project is to design a WSn that can be used to achieve high computational performance at low-power consumption. Architecture

Figure 2. SENTIOF (left) Top side (right) Bottom side

Characteristics  Dynamic configuration of radio transceiver and SD Card to micro-controller or FPGA  Ability to switch-off unused module  FPGA configuration time < 15ms  Low-power consumption Applications

Figure 1. Architecture of SENTIOF

Key Features  FPGA: 15k logic cells, 576kb BlockRAM, standby and hibernate mode, small foot-print  32-bit Micro-controller, 5 power modes  2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 low-power Radio Transceiver, data rate of 250kbps  64Mb configuration and data FLASH  32Mb low-power SRAM  Micro-SD card  External connector for sensor modules

 High frequency vibration analysis  Visual Sensor Networks  Wireless monitoring  Industrial process monitoring  Optical navigation For further information contact: Khurram Shahzad khurram.shahzad@miun.se +46 60 14 8755


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 Realistic 3D Research Group www.miun.se/sr/realstic3d

Disocclusion filling using Depth-aware Inpainting Suryanarayana M. Muddala

Mid Sweden University ITM/IKS, suryanarayana.muddala@miun.se

Background

Method and Results

 View synthesis is a key step in 3D TV and free viewpoint applications.  The fundamental method used for view generation is Depth-image-based-rendering (DIBR).  Even though the method is very simple and efficient in producing virtual views, it suffers mainly from disocclusions.  The aim of this on going work is to fill the disoccluded areas with relevant information.

Objectives

The rendered virtual view is shown in Figure 2. The conventional method and proposed method results are shown in the Figure 3 and 4.

Conclusions

 Compute virtual views by using video plus

depth (V+D) and multi view video plus depth (MVD) formats.  Inpaint the disoccluded areas with relevant information.

 The conventional method results in blur at filled areas and is not able to recover the structure data.  Proposed method avoids the blur and propagates the linear structures in the disocclusion areas.  Complexity issues and quality assessments are ongoing steps.

Figure 1. Overview of camera arrangement.

Figure 2. Synthesized virtual right view.

Figure 3. Conventional method.

Figure 4. Proposed method.


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Realistic 3D Research Group www.miun.se/sr/Realistic3D

The Sampling Pattern Cube (SPC)

Modeling The Capturing Systems While Preserving The Focal Properties Mitra Damghanian, Roger Olsson, Mårten Sjöström Department of Information Technology and Media Mid Sweden University

Introduction The sampling pattern cube (SPC) is a framework for modeling complex capturing systems like plenoptic cameras, and a tool for extracting capture system properties like spatial resolution, depth of field, and field of view. Scope: The SPC is a geometry-based model for Image capturing systems (excluding wave optics effects)

Feature Extraction

Features:

Visualization

- Easy formation - High descriptive

level compared to the ray-based model (by preserving the focal properties)

How the SPC model is generated?

+

Sampling Behavior

The SPC model

Results from the SPC model Feature extractors

Definitions and the formation process

Example: Lateral Resolution

Light samples in the SPC model are in the form of light containers (LCs) defined by a tip position and an angular span (Fig 2). The SPC contains information about from where in the captured 3D space the radiance captured by each image sensor pixel originates (see Fig 3 and 4).

The SPC generator

Fig 2 A 3D light container

Using the preserved focal properties in the model, the inverse of the lateral resolution value at a certain depth plane is defined as the largest of: 1) Maximum distance between center points of two immediate neighbor LCs, 2) Half of the LCs’ width at that depth plane. Field of View

Depth of Field The SPC model

Focal Plane Resolution (Spatial/angular/depth) Fig 3 How the LCs are backtracked from the sensor plane (Z0), passing optical elements at Z1 and Z3 and reaching into the space in front of the camera (Z4)

Main Applications

For each pixel in the image sensor Define the light container

Any optical element coincide with the light container? No

Fig 4 The SPC formation flowchart

yes

Apply the appropriate operator using geometrical optics relationships to generate the new light container(s) Any light container unprocessed? No

yes

End

 Capturing system study and design  Investigating inter camera trade-offs  Adaptation of post processing algorithms

Conclusion  The SPC model reflects the light field sampling behavior of the capturing system in its scope.  The SPC model is capable of extracting high level properties of value in a complex capturing system.


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

The Internet-of-Things for Everyone!

An Open Platform for Ubiquitous Information Sharing

The MediaSense Platform

Our Research

We have released a free and easy-to-use open source platform for creating Internet-ofThings applications. On this platform anyone can share their sensors and actuators with the whole world. We have developed the platform in collaboration with partners from both industry and academia, to enable partners to exploit the research results. Therefore, the platform is free to use and the source code is licensed under LGPLv3, which allow external commercialization of applications built on top of the platform.

We designed the MediaSense platform to support next generation applications working on a global scale. It must be lightweight enough to run on mobile devices with limited resources. Therefore, we utilize peer-to-peer based communication, which avoids any central points of failure and have logarithmic scaling of the signaling. Furthermore, we explore contextual reasoning, ranking of context information, intelligent grouping, and information prediction, as well as Quality-ofExperience evaluations.

Internet-of-Things Apps

Technical Details

The MediaSense platform has so far been applied in a wide range of scenarios. The figure below shows some of these proof-ofconcept applications. They represent: Object tracking for tracking sensor enabled objects, Intelligent home automation for interacting with the intelligent home, Health monitoring for medical status and alerts, Energy consumption for smart energy monitoring, and Energy profiling for energy awareness.

The platform is built using Java and runs on both PC and Android devices. It operates in a fully distributed manner, using Reliable UDP communication over a Distributed Hash Table. The DHT acts as a name resolution service for finding information sources, which can subsequently be retrieved using direct communication. The SDK, source code, and documentation can be downloaded from: www.mediasense.se

Try it out yourself (Android)

Object tracking

Intelligent home Health monitoring Energy consumption Examples of applications using the MediaSense platform..

Energy profiling


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Packet Delivery Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

Problem:

Results:

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a prominent access method for shared channels in industrial WSNs. Minimizing TDMA schedule size for routing trees of wireless sensor networks is a problem much discussed in the literature. Minimal size TDMA schedules induce maximal channel reuse. However, the actual objective is to find schedules that maximize throughput and minimize delay. This challenge requires the inclusion of link quality knowledge into the optimization model. To our knowledge, our investigations are the first work that includes packet loss information into TDMA schedule optimization. The problem is already in it's deterministic variant NP-hard.

optTDMA can even for optimal size TDMAs over networks with low packet loss, achieve notable improvements.

Approach:

End-to-end packet delivery rate improvement for 200 randomly created network topologies. The schedules are 5 slots, resp. 50% longer than those optimal size schedules for the given sensor networks.

Work in Progress: We propose optTDMA, a heuristic algorithm that repeats slots with weak links in order to increase the chance of packet delivery, and thereby maximize end-to-end throughput. We use a combination of probabilistic state machines and schedule quality estimation by a stochastic simulation-based quality function. Error margins, confidence intervals and execution time of the algorithm can be freely adjusted to the user's needs.

The routing topology is another deciding factor for packet delivery rates in WSNs. We investigate the use of evolutionary algorithms and other computational intelligence tools for an efficient optimization of packet delivery in a cross-layer fashion (Scheduling + Routing).

Contact information: Felix Dobslaw felix.dobslaw@miun.se Akademigatan 1, Ă&#x2013;stersund, Jämtland


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

P-MAC: A Priority-Enhanced MAC Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

Introduction

Results

A notable trend in industrial automation in recent years is the replacement of wired communication with WSAN. Such applications require the delivery of critical (e.g., emergency action for safety) traffic with the lowest possible latency, which, in turn, requires its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g., periodic monitoring packets).

The experimental results indicatethat P-MAC achieves a reduction in latency of 92.75% for highest priority traffic and 85.74% for secondary priority traffic, in average. The reduction is achieved at the expense of only 8.96% increase in lowest-priority traffic access delay, with respect to the periodic traffic of WirelessHART.

Traffic category of P足MAC

Design We propose P-MAC, a Priority-enhanced hybrid Medium Access Control protocol for time-critical WSAN It concurrently operates TDMA-based and CSMA-based access methods. It supports four distinct traffic categories (TC), and it consists of four different access methods (AM). Traffic categories (TC) are defined with respect to periodicity, recurrence rate and latency requirements of the traffic. In addition, we provide a theoretical analysis of average access delay for different traffic priorities, which shows a close match with the corresponding simulations.

Experimental end足to足end comparison

Conclusion We show by test-bed experiments that that PMAC efficiently handles different traffic categories with different latency requirements. It achieves a significant improvement of end-to-end delivery latency compared to WirelessHART MAC. For further information please contact: Wei Shen wei.shen@miun.se Other authors: Tingting Zhang Filip Barac Mikael Gidlund


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Wireless Channel Quality and Coexistence in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks Background Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSN) are often deployed in harsh environments, abundant with electromagnetic radiation, metallic surfaces, and physical obstacles. Due to the low-cost constraint of wireless sensor hardware, only a limited subset of known communication algorithms is applicable. Furthermore, there exists a burden of IEEE 802.15.4 legacy – the de facto standard for IWSN, originally intended for low power communications in environments substantially different from industrial.

Figure 2: Signal strength and quality measures for correct and corrupted packets, collected on 16 channels in L building Figure 1: The factory hall at Imerys Minerals, Tunnadalshamnen in Sundsvall

The channel state information (CSI) is relevant not only for the Physical layer, but also for higher layers, whose protocols often use CSI input for making decisions. Three channel state parameters that a sensor node can perceive are Received Signal Strength, CORR (symbol correlation coefficient) and Packet Delivery Ratio. Figure 2 illustrates the inaccuracy of the former two, where the values obtained for corrupted packets often exceed the values for the correctly received ones, providing misleading information about the channel. Furthermore, Packet Delivery Ratio gives an idea about the current channel state only if averaged over short time intervals. In order to determine whether packet loss is a consequence of the environment or interference, the three parameters should be blended into new channel quality metrics that quantify the channel state more faithfully.

Objectives Based on data collected in a number of production facilities, a number of goals are to be achieved: • characterization of wireless propagation in different types of industrial environments • derivation of more accurate link quality metrics • a coexistence channel hopping algorithm, based on the new link quality metrics.

Filip Barać Tingting Zhang Mikael Gidlund filip.barac@miun.se 076 243 83 43


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012 STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Elektroder för elektrokemisk industri

Inledning

Elektrodernas nanostruktur

Elektrokemisk processindustri är en mycket energiintensiv industrigren av stor vikt för näringslivet i regionen. En sådan industrigren med verksamhet i regionen är produktion av natriumklorat – en ingångskemikalie i massablekningsprocessen för. Energieffektiviteten i den elektrokemiska processen beror mycket på elektrodernas prestanda. I det här projektet tittar vi på möjligheter att förbättra dessa elektroder. Forskningen bedrivs i tätt samarbete med Permascand i Ljungaverk som tillverkar katalytiska elektroder för bland annat kloratoch klortillverkning. Nära samverkan finns också med gruppen för tillämpad elektrokemi på KTH.

Elektroder av den typ som används för bland annat kloratproduktion har en spontant bildad nanostruktur. Inom projektet studerar vi hur vi kan, genom att ändra tillverkningsbetingelserna, förändra nanostrukturen och därmed de elektrokemiska egenskaperna. Se figuren nedan.

Exempel på hur vi genom att variera processtemperaturen kan styra om vi vill ha stora (a, 550°C) eller små (b, 350°C) korn i nanostrukturen.

Förändringar i materialet under drift

Uppställning för in­situ ramanspektroskopi, en elektrokemisk cell för att mäta elektrokemiska parametrar och följa materialförändringar med hjälp av laserspektroskopi.

Vi har upptäckt att ruteniumoxidbaserade elektroder förändras under drift då de används som katoder. För att undersöka detta närmre har vi bland annat konstruerat en elektrokemisk cell speciellt för att kunna mäta med laserspektroskopi på elektrodmaterialet medan den är i drift i elektrolyten, se figuren till vänster.


STC Research Center www.miun.se/stc

Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

GIFU

Gränslös miljö för Innovation, Forskning och Utbildning

Introduktion

I södra och norra Tröndelag samt i JämtlandVästernorrland finns klusterbildningar på var sida om riksgränsen där akademi och näringsliv samverkar inom FoU och kompetensförsörjning. I detta projekt vill vi länka samman dessa kluster till en för Mittnorden gemensam klusterbildning. Inom detta kluster skall samarbete ske inom kompetensförsörjning av regionen, forskning och utveckling samt att inspirera och stödja innovationer och företagande. Med bredare kompetens, delade personella och laborativa resurser, samordnade satsningar på FoU, delad rekryteringsbas av studenter och samordnad studentrekrytering räknar vi med en gemensam klusterbildning starkare än de två var för sig.

Horisontella kriterier

• Miljö och hållbar utveckling • Genus • Mångfald och integration

Förväntade bestående effekter

• Masterutbildning med inriktning mot elektrisk och optisk mätteknik och med fokus på teknik för hållbar utveckling. • Gemensam satsning på FoU tillsammans med klusterbildning i tredje EU-land • Varaktig länkning av akademi och näringsliv till en för Mittnorden gemensam klusterbildning.

Jobben finns i Mittnorden

• Men hur rekryterar vi nya studenter till vår utbildning när intresset för att studera teknik minskar i hela västvärlden? • Hur kan vi göra kvinnor mer intresserade av tekniska utbildningar? • Hur ökar vi etnisk och kulturell mångfald bland dem som arbetar inom tekniska yrken?

För mer information, kontakta

Projektet delas in i följande aktiviteter • Kompetensförsörjning • Nätverkande FoU • Innovation

Benny Thörnberg Email:

Magnus Engholm

benny.thornberg@miun.se magnus.engholm@miun.se


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

Britta Andres, Sven Forsberg, Nicklas Blomquist, Magnus Hummelgård, Renyun Zhang, Henrik Andersson, Joakim Bäckström, Håkan Olin

Introduction:

Supercapacitor Assembly:

Layout of a paper­based supercapacitor Graphene: Single layer of sp2 bonded carbon atoms

Electrode Material:

Packaging and Material Testing:

KERS applications in vehicles:

Coating of graphene/graphite on paper

Kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) for vehicles


Poster STC Annual Report 2011-2012

FSCN - Fibre Science and Communication Network

EnergyWise – forskning inom effektiv energianvändning och förnyelsebar energiproduktion

Teknik för att möjliggöra och underlätta produktion av förnyelsebar el Delområdet innehåller forskningsinsatser inom - Biokraft med biomassaförgasning, studier av förgasning av biomassa för produktion av el via bränsleceller - Solenergi, övervakning, tillförlitlighet och produktionsverifiering av anläggning för solenergi - Videobaserad mätteknik för projektering och övervakning av vindkraftverk

Teknik för att effektivisera användning och produktion av energi Delområdet inriktas mot studier kring hur sensorteknik kan effektivisera och ge säkrare produktion av förnyelsebar energi samt att se hur bättre elektrodmaterial kan effektivisera energikrävande elektrokemiska processer. - Beröringsfri och trådlös mätning av varvtal - Mätteknik för felanalys av seriekopplade solceller - Effektivare elektroder i elektrokemiska processer

Effektiv omvandling av elektrisk energi Delområdet inriktas mot studier av system för mellanlagring av energi i så kallade superkapacitanser samt utveckling av energisnåla kraft- och laddningsaggregat för mobila enheter. - Utveckling av supercapacitanser baserade på Graphene på cellulosabaserade substrat - Utveckling av små och effektiva aggregat för spänningsomvandling och laddning av mobila enheter

Summering av resultat - Ökad kunskap om effektivare elektrokemiska elektroder i nära samarbete med bland annat Permascand i Ljungaverk - Grafen som ett grönt material för att tillverka superkapacitorer på papper - Anpassningen av förgasningsanläggningen i Härnösand för produktion av syngas - Omfattande fallstudie om driftsövervakning av solenergianläggningar, med Absolicon Härnösand - Utveckling av effektivare högfrekventa nätaggregat - Utvecklat mätmetod och utrustning för att karakterisera och testa solceller


Sensible Things that Communicate A research program at Mid Sweden University, sponsored by The Knowledge Foundation, in partnership with: Senseair, swedish Connection, ericsson, fibersson, h채gglunds, collectric, cc systems, sca, adal ab, sitek and rti.


STC Annual Report 2011-2012