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STC Annual report 2008


STC@MIUN - annual report 2008

Table of contents  1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1  2. The STC reference system ............................................................................................... 1  3. Research objectives ......................................................................................................... 2  4. Summary of research results............................................................................................ 4  4.1. STC Systems and applications ................................................................................. 4  4.2. STC Network solutions ............................................................................................ 5  4.3. STC Wireless solutions ............................................................................................ 5  4.4. STC Sensor solutions................................................................................................ 6  4.5. STC – MediaSense ................................................................................................... 6  4.6. Common demonstrator systems ................................................................................ 7  4.6.1 High Accuracy Wireless Instrument (SENTIO-HA) .......................................... 8  4.6.2 Wireless sensor platform for environmental monitoring (SENTIO-e2) ............. 8  4.6.3 Urban sensing (SENTIO-BT) ............................................................................. 9  4.6.4 High performance ZigBee platform (SENTIO32) ............................................ 10  5. PhD examinations during 2008 ..................................................................................... 11  6. New staff and promotions.............................................................................................. 16  6.1 New PhD students within STC and supporting projects ......................................... 16  7. Publications 2008 .......................................................................................................... 19  8. STC@MIUN research projects...................................................................................... 21 


The STC@MIUN research program Electronic systems for Sensible Things that Communicate

20 April 2009

1. Introduction The evolution of the 3G mobile telephone systems, from the first point-to-point communication used in the telephone prototype patented by Graham Bell in 1875, has been driven by man’s underlying dream of increasing the range of senses. The telephone extends the range of our voice and hearing. Wireless solutions provide additional flexibilities, which makes it possible to extend our senses in our daily activities. The same technology can be utilized in all kinds of service applications. We define the technology that allows this as technology for Sensible Things that Communicate (STC). Electronic systems for Sensible Things that Communicate include technology for data communication, data processing, and sensing. The research field covers a large area, which can be described by the access network presented in the Fig. 1.1.

2. The STC reference system Dispensable communication terminal Visualization node

Multimedia terminal

Communication access point Arbitrary STC Telemedicine node

Access network node

Surveillance node

Fig. 1.1 Distributed electronic system used as the reference system for the research in the profile.

The reference system in Fig. 1.1 contains areas of global interest and lies within the fields of research interest for both the academic and industrial partners. Within STC@MIUN we are developing five different technology platforms with technologies that can be combined together to form an STC system. The technology platforms are 1. Computational platform (STC System and application) Optimization of computational routines in measurement systems utilizing FPGA hardware platforms 2. Network platform (STC Network Solutions) Optimization and design of network algorithms for efficient data aggregation and system security 3. Wireless hardware platform (STC Wireless Solution) Low power wireless sensor node design and energy harvesting

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4. Sensor hardware platform (STC Sensor Solution) Development of innovative sensor structures for industrial surveillance From 2008, STC also includes a fifth technology platform targeting personal sensor based services. 5. Wireless services platform (STC MediaSense) Sensor based mobile services and urban measurements

3. Research objectives The objective of STC@MIUN is to develop knowledge and technology to supportdistributed sensing in industrial and personal applications. Distributed sensing technology will enable advanced digital services such as, for example, remote presence or high precision visibility in industrial supply chains, as illustrated in Fig 1.2 below. The distributed sensing demands stable intelligent sensor network solutions operating at low power levels, utilizing energy harvesting or other smart power solutions. The focus of STC@MIUN is on particular sensor network technologies of relevance for our industrial partners and utilizing advantages associated with both the research environment and competence at Mid Sweden University. The targeted research field is large and STC@MIUN will not be able to cover all aspects of the field.

Fig. 1.2 Illustration of the evolution of telecommunication towards true remote presence services.

Our main focus is on key technology areas such as: -

real-time video processing power efficient routing and networking low-power collaborative sensing energy harvesting low-cost radiation sensor solutions printed electronics mobile services based on sensor data

Initially, our resources were concentrated on the development of key technologies of relevance for different industrial partners. The next step in the project is to target the development of more system oriented demonstrators where the developed technologies will be utilized to show new functionalities and service solutions. Our ambition is to demonstrate both new technological solutions and new service concepts of general industrial interest. The evolution of the research objectives within STC@MIUN are presented in Fig. 1.3. 2

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Development of concept demonstrators Development of technology plattforms

Further development of technology plattforms Demonstration of service concepts

Start

End

Fig. 1.3 Time evolution of objectives for the STC@MIUN research program

Example of such concept and service demonstrators that have started during 2008: - Early warning system for surveillance of industrial machines, which includes research within: o Computational platforms for wireless visual sensor nodes o Platforms for wireless sensor nodes o Communication strategies and methods for visual sensor nodes o Building industrial services targeting to create new markets for traditional industry. - Urban measurement systems, which includes research within: o Wireless sensor nodes o Wireless sensor networks o Mobile services

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4. Summary of research results During 2008 there has been significant development in STC@MIUN’s technology platforms. In the following section we will summarize the progress made so far.

4.1. STC Systems and applications The mission statement for the STC Systems and Applications was initially defined as being to discover when, where and how system integration on FPGA is a good implementation alternative for industrial and automotive embedded systems. Points of investigation were with regards to developing applications for the technology, investigating cost issues and optimizing low power consumption in FPGA based systems. This year’s work includes a number of activities on embedded machine vision applications. Design experience from these performance demanding applications has contributed with knowledge into our FPGA technology development. The results for 2008 can be summarized as follows: Automatic design methods for optimized implementation of real-time video processing systems: We have developed a memory synthesis design flow for FPGA implementation of real-time video processing. This synthesis is based on methods to optimize the memory architecture for area and power and for a selected FPGA architecture. This year’s work includes power optimizations based on the constraining of the placement and routing process. In addition, the searched design space is now extended with both distributed memory as well as block-Rams. A doctoral thesis was presented in this area and cooperation with Mälardalens Högskola and Prof. Lars Asplund was initiated. Investigation of specific challenges in real-time video processing systems: An FPGA based multi-channel analogue video-display computer was demonstrated during previous years. During 2008, the extension with digital Ethernet-based video streams was partly added to the previous video graphics processor. This year’s work indicates that it will be possible to reach real-time performance for the demultiplexing of up to four input Ethernet video streams. Our work will be continued during 2009 with MJPEG decoding for all four video streams, downscaling and displaying. Up until now, we have all reasons to believe that the whole graphics processor can be implemented on a single FPGA and thus enable a low cost solution for the consumer market. Analysis and development of embedded machine vision applications: A project in cooperation with STC Sensor Solutions is aimed at the detection and characterization of magnetic particles in hydraulic fluid. This is an industrial application of video processing at low sampling rates in the temporal domain. Reaching low energy for a battery powered wireless solution is a clear research challenge. A work has been initiated during this year to study energy costs for such image processing operations on an FPGA platform in comparison with a general purpose processor. We have in addition two externally funded projects in embedded machine vision. These projects investigate real-time measurements of surface topology on paper and optical positioning. An experimental topology measurement system for laboratory environments was set up to work with good results during 2008. The front-end image processing of a position- and orientation measurement system was modelled and also partly implemented on an FPGA platform.

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4.2. STC Network solutions The overall goals for the network solution part of the profile are to discover efficient (lower power) and secure sensor data collection for applications such as environment monitoring, surveillance and network traffic monitoring. Our results for 2008 can be summarized as: Traffic Load Distribution in Large-Scale and Dense Wireless Sensor Networks: Traffic load is not evenly distributed over the nodes in a multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). Understanding the traffic load distribution can guide the network-wide energy allocation, direct the design of routing algorithms, and optimize the node deployment in WSNs. We have analysed the traffic load in wireless sensor network. We found the traffic load distribution over the deployed nodes as a function of their distances from the sink in the even-distributed large-scale and dense sensor networks. The results are useful for proposing efficient energy allocation scheme thus the energy allocation is balanced according to the traffic load. Policy-Based Security Management for Sensor Networks: we propose a sensor network security management framework called Sec-SNMP, which organizes and manages security related behaviors in sensor networks based on security policies. There are three main components in Sec-SNMP: Sec-SNMP manager, Sec-SNMP agent and a policy control and deployment protocol. Sec-SNMP manager provides the interface between human administrator and the managed mesh network. Sec-SNMP agent represents Sec-SNMP manager to enforce security policies within the managed mesh network. The policy control and deployment protocol allows the communication between Sec-SNMP manager and Sec-SNMP agents.

4.3. STC Wireless solutions The objective for the work in Wireless solutions is to develop distributed measurement systems based on wireless sensor technology. The focus has been on wireless sensor networks in industrial applications. The work has consisted of solving the implementation problems for an entirely contact-less positioning system for mobile heavy-duty cranes. Two new fields of applications for wireless sensor networks have been started up in 2008; WSN for environmental monitoring and urban sensing. Distributed angular sensor: We have presented a joint angular sensor consisting of four discrete wireless two-axis MEMS accelerometers spatially distributed on adjacent arm links. We have proved that the method is theoretically error-free and from the experimental results obtained we are able to demonstrate an accuracy level which is higher by a factor of 10. Moreover the distributed sensor enables a gradual degradation of the accuracy in the event of the failure of one of the sensor devices, which is an important property for robustness operation. The accumulated knowledge in joint-angular sensing has been summarized in a survey paper that has been accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements (“Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes - A Survey�). Analysis of the communication requirements for closed-loop control system: By analysing the proposed standard for wireless sensor networks (IEEE802.15.4) for applications having hard real-time requirements, we have concluded that only a very few applications are fulfilled by it. Our proposal is a MAC protocol which fulfils the requirements associated with low energy consumption for the communication rather better.

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4.4. STC Sensor solutions Low-cost sensor solutions in NIR radiation area, portable instrument for spectroscopic identification alpha emitters, X-ray imaging microscope for material resolving and development of X-ray imaging sensors are in development and have been investigated during 2008. Development of low-cost thermal detector for detection of CO2 using NDIR method: Spreading the thermopiles in a thermopile structure more evenly and running developed design optimization software. The sensitivity could be increased and the response time decreased. This optimisation method together with new thermopile materials gives a responsivety of 60 V/W at a wavelength of 1.56 um. Portable instrument for detection of Polonium and other alpha emitters: Due to the increased threat of terrorism and other incidents where radioactive materials are dispersed there is an increasing need to detect the presence of such materials. Alpha is much more difficult to detect than beta or gamma radiation because of the attenuation in air, However alpha particles is very dangerous to humans if inhaled or ingested due to the high kinetic energy of alpha particles. Therefore it is needed a portable instrument which can by an electrostatic field collect airborne dust particles with radioactive contaminations. The instrument should be able to determine which type of radioactive material it is and gives therefore more information than for example a Geiger-Muller counter. Material resolving X-ray imaging microscope: An X-ray microscopy setup for energy resolved imaging have been built. The microscopy consists of a micro focus source, a slit and a pixel detector. Small object can then be investigated and the possibility of energy resolution makes it possible to discriminate different materials Development of X-ray imaging sensors: Different types of X-ray imaging detectors have been developed at Mid Sweden University. A detector with 220x220 um pixel detectors have been developed where spectral performance is more important than spatial resolution. The size of the detector is 15x15 mm. Next project is to increase the size of the detector into a quad-detector. The detector needs now four readout electronic circuit, bump bonded to detector. The size increase therefore to 30x30 mm, which increase the number of applications

4.5. STC – MediaSense The MediaSense project has made good progress in initializing activities as well as producing early results, since the project kickoff in June 2008. The initial activities this fall have been focused on creating means for aggregating and distributing user information from sensor information. This is pivotal to the project since the new service behavior which the platform should enable requires access to such information. Our initial approach is to, via Bluetooth, connect Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) gateways to mobile phones or other devices and we have developed a low-power platform for communicating with a multitude of sensors. Demonstration of research: At the Ericsson Research Mobile Java Communication Framework (MJFC) Developers Day on December 15, 2008 in Kista we successfully demonstrated a mobile group service with real-time sensor information (GPS, humidity, and temperature). This service is based on Presence in 3GPP IP Multimedia System (IMS). The service visua6

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lizes groups of users along with sensor information in Google Maps for both mobile phones and PCs connected to the Internet. At the STC Expo co-located with the Sundsvall42 Conference in October 2008, we successfully demonstrated a Mobile Awareness service which visualizes groups of users along with sensor information in Google Maps. Equally importantly, we demonstrate how this enables a Mobile Awareness service to alert users to proximity of members with common interests. We have created a first version of scalable support which is required to share and provide sensor data in large communities on the Internet in real-time. This support has interworking with IMS. Therefore, during 2009 we will be in the position to leverage access to distributed sensor information in other application areas, in particular IPTV which also leverages progress made in supporting seamless services.

4.6. Common demonstrator systems An early effort of the STC program was to develop a prototyping platform for wireless sensor networks. The purpose is to work as an integrating vehicle for the different technology platforms. Hereafter follows a description of the SENTIO prototyping platform. The SENTIO platform for the rapid development of wireless sensor networks with shortrange communication has been developed and the first version has been available for all partners in STC since 2005. SENTIO has been used extensively in various applications involving very different characteristics. During 2007, for example, it was used to set up a fully working positioning system on HIAB’s cranes, in a pre-study of testing rims on armoured vehicles at BAE Systems, on horses for the detection of lameness, and for sensor-activated surveillance cameras. Course material and lab equipment for our students on our courses in wireless sensor networks have been developed and in addition, it has also been used in thesis projects, in which, for example, a wireless ECG and a wireless gamma detector have been developed. The sensor platforms developed within STC enable rapid prototyping and evaluation of fullscale wireless sensor networks based on different technologies. It makes it possible for new sensor technologies to go wireless, new embedded systems and applications to be transferred to wireless network solutions.

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4.6.1 High Accuracy Wireless Instrument (SENTIO-HA) The initial step in developing wireless sensors in systems or processes where no measurements have previously been made is to characterize the process. Therefore a high precision wireless instrument has been developed to tryout different solutions before going for an optimized custom/application-specific solution. This is a general-purpose unit that allows integration of various types of sensors. Key features:  9 ZigBee ready (2.4GHz, 250kbit/s)  9 24bit ADC, 128kS/s, 4 channels  9 32bit MCU with DSP instr. set  9 Low energy consumption 

This provides a platform for evaluating new sensors in different applications where the requirements on a specific wireless sensor solution for a specific application can be evaluated. 4.6.2 Wireless sensor platform for environmental monitoring (SENTIO-e2) This unit is designed based on the requirements from wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring. It is configurable and can be configured to handle all types of nodes (A-E) depicted in the figure below.

The local area WSN communication uses the 433MHz ISM band, and for global communication GSM/GPRS can be used. It can also be configured for bridges between wireless networks and Internet.

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Key Features  9 Dynamic  power  management  for  low  power  with  low  standby currents (down to 6 μA)   9 Sensor  interface  supporting  digital  (SPI)  and  analog  sen‐ sors   9 On‐board temperature sensor   9 Auto‐detection of USB power   9 Unregulated power input 2.2V to 5.6V DC  9 433MHz Local communication (up to 1km)  9 Operation temperature range ‐40 to +85˚C  9 Supports GSM/GPRS module with GPS   9 USB interface 1 Mb/s   9 Current monitoring on sub‐blocks enabled   9 Size: 98 × 70 mm  

A low-energy MAC protocol has been developed for local area WSN. Server support (Linuxbased) with sensor database and presentation of sensor data in graphs and on Google Maps has been developed. This platform enables rapid development of large area sensor networks for various applications. 4.6.3 Urban sensing (SENTIO-BT) A new concept, developed together with the MediaSense project, where the mobile phones acts like gateways to the global communication infrastructure is used to pass on data from sensors. The basic idea is that when a sensor, with (Bluetooth communication capability) has new data to post, it tries to connect to a mobile phone via Bluetooth and then send the sensor information to it. The mobile phone simply passes on the data to a globally accessible database that can be used for all kinds of services. The SENTIO-BT is a sensor platform to which different kinds of sensors can be attached.

Key features:  9 Range: up to 197m to a mobile phone  9 Battery lifetime: up to 5 years  9 Memory: 2GByte on microSD card  9 Low power: 32μA in sleep mode  9 Fast connect: Connects to mobile phone   located inside a car passing by at 70km/h. 

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4.6.4 High performance ZigBee platform (SENTIO32) This platform has been developed to meet the requirements on sensor nodes with high local processing capability, reliable wireless communication and large local storage capability.

Key features:  Communication  9 ZigBee ready (2.4GHz, 250kbit/s)  9 150m with on‐board printed antenna  Senor node processing capability  9 32bit RISC MCU (AVR32)  9 75DMIPS at 60MHz with DSP instruction set.  General  9 Low sleep current : 60µA with 32KHz clock running  9 Support microSD card with size up to 16GB  Small size: 50 × 31×8 [mm]  9 Flexible sensor add‐on interface 

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5. PhD examinations during 2008 Dr. Henrik Andersson, Position Sensitive Detectors - Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy Henrik’s thesis deals with the development, processing and characterization of position sensitive detectors and, in addition, to the development of compact and cost effective spectrometers. Position sensitive detectors are used to measure, with great accuracy and speed, the position of a light spot incident on the surface. Their main use is for triangulation, displacement and vibration measurements. A type of position sensitive detector based on the MOS principle and using optically transparent indium tin oxide as a gate contact has been developed. This type of detector utilizes the MOS principle where an induced channel forms beneath the gate oxide in the surface of the Silicon substrate. One and two dimensional detectors have both been fabricated and characterized. The first measurements showed that the linearity did not fulfill expectations and it was suspected that stress induced by the gate contact could be the reason for the seemingly high nonlinearity. Further investigations into both the p-n junction and the MOS type position sensitive detectors lead to the conclusion that the indium tin oxide gate is responsible for inducing a substantial stress in the surface of the detector, thus giving rise to increased position nonlinearity. The heat treatment step which was conducted was determined to be critical as either a too short or too long heat treatment resulted in stress in the gate and channel leading to position nonlinearity. If a correctly timed heat treatment is performed then the detector’s linearity is in parity with the best commercial position sensitive detectors. In addition, the development of very small, compact and cost effective spectrometers has been performed with the aim of constructing devices for use in the process industry. The development of a wedge shaped array of Fabry-Perot interferometers that can be mounted directly on top of a detector makes it possible to construct a very compact spectrometer using the minimum amount of optics. This wedge interferometer has been evaluated by means of array pixel detectors and position sensitive detectors for both the infrared and the visible wavelength ranges. When used with a position sensitive detector it is necessary to use a slit to record the intensity of the interferogram for many points over the detector, equivalent to pixels on an array detector. Usually the use of moving parts in a spectrometer will impose the use of high precision scanning mechanisms and calibration. By using a position sensitive detector for the interferogram readout both the position and the intensity are known for every measurement point and thus the demands placed on the scanning system are minimized. Dr. Magnus Engholm, Materials Optimization for Optical Fiber Amplifiers and Fiber Lasers Optical fibers doped with rare-earth ions such as erbium, ytterbium or thulium are frequently used as fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers. Erbium is a commonly used dopant in optical fibers for amplification of optical signals in e.g. point to point transmission links 3+ or metro networks. The Er ion has broad absorption and emission bands at the low loss transmission window in silica glass (near 1.5um) and are thus suitable as an active rare-earth ion for use in optical fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers. Mid Sweden University Department of Information Technology and Media

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The interest for fiber lasers has increased dramatically during the last decade. In particular, there is a large interest for high power fiber lasers for use in different industrial applications. Fiber lasers have a high efficiency and show several advantages compared with conventional lasers in terms of better beam quality, lower cost and a compact design. Materials processing such as cutting, welding and marking are the major application areas today. The ytterbium ion is the active ion of choice because it has a simple energy level structure and high optical conversion efficiency. There is, nevertheless, still room for improvements of both the erbium and ytterbium doped silica glass matrix for use as fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers. The objective of the work presented in Magnus’s thesis is to improve the performance of the erbium doped fiber amplifier and fiber laser by optimization of the silica glass material. The applied route is to prepare the glass material by doping with special precursor molecules to increase the separation 3+ 3+ between the Er ions and thereby reduce loss mechanisms related to the Er interatomic distance. Two different Er-precursors have been investigated. Induced optical losses, also known as photo darkening, is a loss mechanism in ytterbium doped high power fiber lasers. It is found that the Yb3+ valence state is unstable in the silica glass and a fraction of the Yb-ions can be transferred to Yb2+, depending on the preparation conditions. Furthermore, it is found that this change in valence state (Yb2+ → Yb3+) can also be induced by a so called charge-transfer process. A model based on this valence instability is used to explain the photo darkening phenomenon in ytterbium doped fiber lasers. By using this model different paths to reduce, or even prevent, the extent of photo darkening are presented in the thesis. Dr. Jon Alfredsson, Limitations of Subthreshold Digital Floating-Gate Circuits in Present and Future Nanoscale CMOS Technologies The people working within the electronic industry and who are involved in electronic design are aware that one of the most critical future issues in electronics involves power consumption. The ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors), a branch organization, has even named the reduction of power consumption as one of the five major “grand challenges” defined for the future in integrated electronics. In order to reduce power consumption, one approach has involved reduction in the power supply, but the drawback with this method is that there is also a reduction in speed performance and noise margins. Floating-gate circuit technique (FGMOS) has been suggested as a technique for improving performance when power supply is reduced. This is particularly desirable for those events when the supply voltage is reduced to subthreshold for the transistors. In Jon’s thesis, the focus has been to investigate the behavior of certain floating-gate circuits working under subthreshold conditions and to compare their performance to conventional static CMOS when they are designed for present nanoscale technologies. The performance parameters investigated in this case are based mainly on switching speed and power consumption. They can for example be used for trade-offs and combined into Power-Delay Product (PDP) and Energy-Delay Product (EDP). Another of the grand challenges for the future, as is defined by ITRS, is Design for Manufacturability (DFM). This is an important knowledge for electronic designers and also covered in his thesis. It involves the type of DFM that is required from the viewpoint of a FGMOS subthreshold designer in order to succeed. In addition to the investigations into the performance of the parameters stated above, the work also includes guidelines on how to select floating-gate capacitances, how a large fan-in 12

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the FGMOS circuit is able to handle in subthreshold and also how the performance will be limited by the use of different types of refresh circuits. According to the Monte Carlo simulations and estimations, problems will probably arise in the manufacture of the FGMOS circuits with 100% yield and these will mainly be due to charge leakages and reduced noise margins. The conclusion from this research will show that at present, FGMOS in subthreshold is not a good alternative to CMOS and this will continue to be the case until new types of low-leakage processes are been developed. Dr. Aron Larsson, Essays on Theories and Applications of Decision Analysis in Imprecise Domains Aron’s thesis consists of a collection of papers contributing to the field of decision analysis. The main concern is the development of a framework for computer based decision modeling and evaluation, supporting the use of imprecise assessments and input parameters for the decision model. The papers are categorized into four research categories, 1) extensions, 2) evaluation methods, 3) applications, and 4) interfaces. The focus with respect to the first category has been on extending a computational framework for decision analysis in imprecise domains, to support analysis of decisions with multiple objectives as well as under risk in a common model. This has been achieved by developing procedures for allowing the use and coexistence of well founded models such as criteria hierarchies and influence diagrams in the framework. Work falling within the second category is concerned with the investigation of decision evaluation procedures when allowing for probabilities of the second order to model epistemic uncertainty. The second order probability distribution on sets of probabilities and utilities is utilized in order to improve the power of expression in both input statements and evaluation results. The third category studies and describes applications of the proposed decision analysis methods, presented as case studies. These case studies investigate one specific decision problem at a time or classes of similar problems, and propose analytical models to assist in the formal analysis of these problems. Applications of the suggested methodology of this kind can partly be viewed upon as a validation of the suggested methods, and partly as a source of lessons to be learned for future development. The final category is concerned with the interface between the decision analysis model, supposed to improve the decision maker’s capabilities, and the decision maker. It is important  to mention that the interfaces are not limited to graphical user interfaces of software tools, but also with the means by which to elicit values and beliefs from stakeholders. The major concern associated with this category in Aron’s thesis has been the study of elicitation of risk attitudes.

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Dr. Roger Olsson, Synthesis, Coding, and Evaluation of 3D Images Based on Integral Imaging In recent years camera prototypes based on Integral Imaging (II) have emerged that are capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) images. When being viewed on a 3D display, these II-pictures convey depth and content that realistically change perspective as the viewer changes the viewing position. Roger’s dissertation concentrates on three restraining factors concerning II-picture progress. Firstly, there is a lack of digital II-pictures available for inter alia comparative research and coding scheme development. Secondly, there is an absence of objective quality metrics that explicitly measure distortion with respect to the II-picture properties: depth and view-angle dependency. Thirdly, low coding efficiencies are achieved when present image coding standards are applied to II-pictures. A computer synthesis method has been developed, which enables the production of different II-picture types. An II-camera model forms a basis and is combined with a scene description language that allows for the describing of arbitrary complex virtual scenes. The light transport within the scene and into the II-camera is simulated using ray-tracing and geometrical optics. A number of II-camera models, scene descriptions, and II-pictures are produced using the presented method. Two quality evaluation metrics have been constructed to objectively quantify the distortion contained in an II-picture with respect to its specific properties. The first metric models how the distortion is perceived by a viewer watching an II-display from different viewingangles. The second metric estimates the depth distribution of the distortion. New aspects of coding-induced artefacts within the II-picture are revealed using the proposed metrics. Finally, a coding scheme for II-pictures has been developed that inter alia utilizes the video coding standard H.264/AVC by firstly transforming the II-picture into a pseudo video sequence. The properties of the coding scheme have been studied in detail and compared with other coding schemes using the proposed evaluation metrics. The proposed coding scheme achieves the same quality as JPEG2000 at approximately 1/60th of the storage- or distribution requirements. Ulf Jennehag, Bandwidth Efficient IPTV Distribution- On Error Resilience and Fast Channel Change Television is now changing its traditional distribution forms to being distributed digitally over broadband networks. The recent development of broadband Internet connectivity has made the transition to Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) possible. When changing distribution technique of an existing service, it is important that the new technique does not make the service worse from the user's point of view. Although a broadband network offers high capacity and has excellent performance there will be occasional packet losses and delays which could negatively influence the user experience of the delivered broadband service. Since bandwidth is a key constraint for video distribution there is a strong incentive for finding schemes to increase bandwidth utilization, especially when distributing high bandwidth IPTV services. In digital video coding it is common to use predictive coding to remove temporal redundancy in video sequences. This technique greatly increases the coding efficiency but makes the sequence more sensitive to information loss or delay. In addition, the use of predictive coding also introduce a inter frame dependency which could make the channel change significantly slower. 14

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Ulf’s thesis addresses two important areas related to bandwidth efficient IPTV distribution, namely error resilience and fast channel change. A method to numerically estimate the decoded objective video quality of scalable coded video is presented and evaluated. The method can be used to estimate objective video quality for a scalable video transmission system subject to packet-loss. The quality gain of temporally scalable video in a priority packet dropping environment is also investigated and quantified. Synchronization Frames for Channel Switching (SFCS) is proposed as a method to code and distribute video with IP-multicast, which can be used to efficiently combat packet-loss, increase bandwidth utilization, and offer a channel change speed up. The performance of SFCS is analyzed and bandwidth estimation expressions are formulated, analytical results are complemented with computer simulations. The results show that SFCS deployed in an IPTV delivery system can significantly lower the bandwidth consumption and speed up the channel change

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6. New staff and promotions Christine Grafström, Communication and PR, Bachelor of information and PR from Mid Sweden University Christine is our most recent contribution of employees related to STC@MIUN. Working with communication and PR, Christine will be responsible for things like newsletters, the STC homepage, advertising and public materials.

Tingting Zhang, Professor, Computer Engineering Docent Tingting Zhang has been promoted to Professor in Computer Engineering from 1 October 2008. Her current research works are in the areas of increasing the reliability of communication systems, protecting system from malicious attacks and guarantee user’s privacy, especially in reliable multimedia communication, secure and efficient sensor network and privacy protection for network based applications.

Mårten Sjöström, Docent, Signal processing Dr. Mårten Sjöström has been promoted to Docent in Signal Processing. He presented an overview of the field on a docent lecture on March 16, 2008. His current research is focused on 3D-TV and has recently obtained research funding for two projects in this area. He is coordinating these projects under the name Realistic 3D.

6.1 New PhD students within STC and supporting projects Sebastian Bader, Dipl.Ing. (FH) from the University of Applied Sciences in Wilhelmshaven (Germany), Source of funding: STC@MIUN Sebastian is doing research in wireless sensor networks as a measurement system for environmental monitoring applications. He focuses mainly in communication protocols, system design and RF behavior of networked embedded systems.

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Xiaozhou Meng, MSc from Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Source of funding: STC@MIUN. Xiaozhou is doing his PhD on System On Chip (SoC) architectures for realtime processing of video on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). His current activities are focused on the decoding, processing and displaying of multiply video streams. Aspects such as product- maintenance and lifetimes related to the use of soft IP-based designs will also be part of his research.

Xin Huang, MSc from Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Source of funding: STC@MIUN Xin Huang received his MSc from Information and Communication Systems Security, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. He has been a PhD student at Mid Sweden University since September 2008. There are now more and more applications utilizing sensors in wearable computing and thus the influence of information diffusion to privacy issues has become more and more important. His tentative research field is in location based mobile sensor application and privacy protection for these applications. Omeime Esebamen, MSc from Mid Sweden University, Source of funding: STC@MIUN Omeime is doing his PhD on development of position sensitive silicon detector for UV and electron irradiation. Special attention is put on the long term stability of sensitivity as well as aspects on the nonlinearity.

Xin Cheng, MSc from Electronic and Communication Engineering, Southeast University in China, Source of funding: KKS – project OptiPos Xin Cheng is doing his PhD on optical real-time measurement systems for position and orientation in at most six dimensions of freedom. These are machine vision systems which are suitable for aggressive parallelization and implementation on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). He will work on the improvement of algorithms and measurement methods and he will develop suitable hardware architectures for mapping onto FPGAs.

Jinlan Gao, MSc from Beijing University of Technology, Source of funding: Vinnova NordIte. Jinlan works within the area of printed RFID sensor solutions. Current focus is on development and implementation of printed memory solutions of the type Write Once Read Many (WORM). The technology is used in conjunction with RFID technology to produce cost effective wireless sensors who for example can tell if a sensor label has been exposed to excessive temperature, humidity or wetness. Mid Sweden University Department of Information Technology and Media

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Krister Hammarling, MSc from Mid Sweden University, Source of funding: Acreo Fiber Optic Centre Krister works with fibre optic sensors, specifically research in fibre optic sensors for PH and temperature measurement. By developing and testing new types of hollow optic fibre, the project will investigate if it is possible make a sensor that can read the PH-level and temperature at the same time.

Hari Babu Kotte, MSc from Mid Sweden University, Source of funding: Vinnova and Energimyndigheten Hari Babu Kotte is doing his PhD in the area of high frequency switch mode power supplies. The research aims to develop the new generation high frequency switch mode power supplies (SMPS) by using silicon carbide transistors together with recently, at Mid-Sweden University developed transformers. An increased switching frequency enables more compact and cheaper design as expensive passive and bulky components can be replaced with smaller and cheaper counterparts Radhika Ambatipudi, MSc from Mid Sweden University, Source of funding: Vinnova and Energimyndigheten Radhika Ambatipudi is doing her PhD in the high frequency transformers for switch mode power supplies (SMPS). Power Supply Unit (PSU) plays a vital role in all the Electronic equipments. It is required to design a compact power supply to make it compatible with the most modern Electronic equipments. The transformer is one of the crucial parts in modern SMPS. As the switching frequency is increased, the size of the passive components such as transformers and capacitors gets reduced.

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7. Publications 2008 This is a list of publications produced during 2008 and connected to STC: 1. Fredrik Linnarsson, Cheng Peng, Bengt Oelmann, "A Power Aware MAC protocol for Wireless Closed Loop Control System in Loader Cranes," IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Cambridge, UK, 2008 2. S. Aunet, B. Oelmann, P.A. Norseng, Y. Berg, "Real-time Reconfigurable Subthreshold CMOS Perceptron," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 19, Issue 4, 2008. 3. Jon Alfredsson and Snorre Aunet, "Trade-offs for High Yield in 90 nm Subthreshold Floating-gate Circuits by Monte Carlo Simulations", Proceedings of VLSI-SOC, 2008. 4. Jon Alfredsson and Snorre Aunet, "Pseudo Floating-Gate Design Limitations in NanoCMOS with Low Power Supply", Proceedings of VLSI-SOC, 2008. 5. Mattias O’Nils, Jan Thim, Börje Norlin, Bengt Oelmann, “Threshold Modulation for Continuous Energy Resolution with Two Channels per Pixel in a Photon Counting Xray Image Detector”, Int. Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, 2008. 6. Jan Thim, Börje Norlin, “CMOS for Color X-Rays - Where do we go from here?” Invited paper at Emerging CMOS Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, August 2008. 7. Jan Thim, Mattias O’Nils, Anatoliy Manuilskiy, Benny Thörnberg “Simulating the Impact of Topographical Microstructures on Triangulation Measurement Setups using Matlab”, Nordic MATLAB User Conference, November 2008, Stockholm, 8. Lisa Nordin, Mattias O’Nils, Per Engstrand and Öjvind Sundvall, “Towards relevant dewatering measurement techniques - Characterisation and classification of dewatering measurement techniques for mechanical pulps”, FMPRS, May 2008. 9. Börje Norlin, Christer Fröjdh, “Characterisation of spectral performance of pixelated X-ray imaging detectors”, Int. Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, 2008. 10. J. Sidén, B. Lee, B. Ganjei, “On the Efficiency of RFID Tag Antennas Produced by Copper Plating Catalytic Ink Traces”, Proc. of ECWC 11, Electronic Circuits World Convention, 2008 11. J. Sidén, M. Fein, A. Koptioug, H-E. Nilsson, “Logos as RFID Tag Antennas”, International journal on wireless and optical communications, Vol 5, Issue, 1 pp.87-98 September 2008, Special Issue on Antennas for Emerging Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Applications", 2008 12. C. Mattsson, G. Thungström, K. Bertilsson, H. Nilsson, H. Martin, Design of a Micromachined Thermopile Infrared Sensor with a Self-Supported SiO2/SU-8 Membrane, IEEE Sensors Journal, v8, n12, 2008 13. L. Herrnsdorf, M. Björk, B. Cederquist. C.G. Mattsson, G. Thungström, C. Fröjdh, ”Aspect of point dose profile measurement using solid state detector in characteristics of computed tomography”, Int. Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, 2008. 14. Wang, Q.; Zhang, T., “Source traffic modelling in wireless sensor networks for target tracking”, The Fifth ACM International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks, 2008. 15. Wang, Q.; Zhang, T., “Sec-SNMP: policy-based security management for sensor networks”, The 2008 International Conference on Security and Cryptography, 2008. 16. Wang, Q.; Zhang, T., “Security in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Security in RFID and Sensor Networks, Auerbach Publications, Taylor&Francis Group – USA, 2008. 17. Wang, Q.; Zhang T.; Pettersson, S., “An Effort to Understand the Optimal Routing Performance in Wireless Sensor Network”, The IEEE 22nd International Conference

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on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Ginowan City, Okinawa, Japan. p. 279 – 286, 2008. 18. Patrik Österberg and Tingting Zhang, “Fair Allocation of Multicast Transmission Costs”, International Journal On Advances in Telecommunications, issn 1942-2601, vol. 1, no. 1, year 2008,1:13 19. Ulf Jennehag and Stefan Pettersson, “On synchronization frames for channel switching in a GOP-based IPTV environment,” in IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conf. (CCNC), Las Vegas, USA, 2008. 20. B. Marx, J. Kollecker, B. Lammen, J. Nordin, T. Zhang, M. Sjöström, Distributed Vehicle Simulation - A Student Project in Mechatronics and Distributed Systems, In the proceedings of 9th International Workshop on Research and Education in Mechatronics, Bergamo, Italy, 18-19 September 2008. 21. H. Andersson, K. Bertilsson, G. Thungström, H. Nilsson, Processing and Characterization of a MOS Type Tetra Lateral Position Sensitive Detector with Indium Tin Oxide Gate Contact, IEEE Sensors Journal, v 8, n 10, Oct. 2008, p 1704-9 22. T. Unander, H.-E. Nilsson, U. Lindefelt, “Characterization of a printed nano-particle based relative humidity sensor”, 2008 23. Andersson, H.A.; Bylund, N.; Thungstrom, G.; Nilsson, H.-E., “Analysis and improvement of the position nonlinearity caused by a residual stress in MOS-type position-sensitive detectors with indium tin oxide gate contact”, Semiconductor Science and Technology, v 23, n 7, Jul 1, 2008, p 075012 24. C. Mattsson, G. Thungström, K. Bertilsson, H. Nilsson, H. Martin, Fabrication and evaluation of a thermal sensor formed on a thin photosensitive epoxy membrane with low thermal conductivity, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v 100, pt.8, 1 March 2008, p 082048 (5 pp.) 25. H. Andersson, A. Manuilskiy, G. Thungström, A. Lundgren, H. Nilsson, Principle of FT Spectrometer based on a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector and Multi Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer, Measurement, 2008 26. Andersson, H.A.; Manuilskiy, A.; Thungstrom, G.; Nilsson, H.-E., “Evaluation of an integrated Fourier-transform spectrometer utilizing a lateral effect position sensitive detector with a multi-channel Fabry-Perot interferometer”, Measurement Science & Technology, v 19, n 4, April 2008, p 045306-1-10 27. Andersson, H.; Thungstrom, G.; Nilsson, H-E, “Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon”, Journal of Porous Materials, v 15, n 3, June, 2008, p 335-341 28. B. Norlin, C. Fröjdh, G. Thungström, D. Greiffenberg, Spectroscopic Imaging with an X-ray Microscopy Setup Using a Pixelated Detector with Single Photon Processing, IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record 2008 29. C. Nilsson, J. Pallon, G. Thungström, N. Marrero, M. Elfman, P. Kristiansson, C. Nilsson, M. Wegden, Characterisation of a pre-cell hit detector to be used in single cell irradiation experiments at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, v266, n21, 2008 30. H. Andersson, A. Manuilskiy, G. Thungström, H. Nilsson, Broadband Parameters of Compact FT Spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot Interferometer Integrated with detector, Presented at smart systems integration conference, Barcelona, 2008

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8. STC@MIUN research projects In the following section we present the ongoing STC@MIUN PhD student projects. In addition we also present some areas where new PhD students will be allocated during 2009.

Mid Sweden University Department of Information Technology and Media

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PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

CAD TOOL FOR REAL-TIME VIDEO PROCESSING SYSTEMS Background

Design Case Case 2-1

FPGAȱ basedȱ implementationsȱ ofȱ videoȱ processingȱ systemsȱ areȱ efficientȱ butȱ haveȱ aȱ complexȱprogrammingȱmodel.ȱTheȱsynthesisȱtoolȱ presentedȱ hereȱ reducesȱ theȱ designȱ complexityȱ andȱstillȱproducesȱeffectiveȱimplementations.ȱ ȱ

# 1 1 3

Rows

Width

Length

4 1 16

8 19 1

640 256 640

Size (kbit) 20.0 4.75 30.0

Objectives 8

in A)

p1

p2 p5

p3 p6

p4

# of RAM used

IMEMȱ (Interfaceȱ andȱ MEmoryȱ Model),ȱ anȱ extensionȱ ofȱ SystemCȱ modellingȱ library,ȱ capturesȱ videoȱ processingȱ systemsȱ asȱ coarseȬ grainedȱ synchronousȱ dataflowȱ graphsȱ (Figȱ 1),ȱ whereȱ eachȱ nodeȱ representsȱ anȱ abstractȱ videoȱ interface,ȱtheȱmemoryȱmodelȱandȱtheȱdescriptionȱ ofȱtheȱfunctionalȱ behaviourȱofȱ theȱ task,ȱ whereasȱ eachȱedgeȱinȱtheȱgraphȱrepresentsȱtheȱdataȱwidthȱ ofȱeachȱpixelȱinȱtheȱvideoȱframe.ȱȱ

6 4 2 0

10

800

9 512

8 256

Frame Width

6

8w

10w

9w

w - without optimisation

6w

Bits / Pixel

ȱ

Figureȱ2:ȱStorageȱrequirementȱandȱallocationȱofȱram.ȱ

Functionalȱ behaviourȱ isȱ implementedȱ usingȱ availableȱ highȱ levelȱ synthesisȱ toolsȱ orȱ manualȱ HDLȱcoding.ȱ ȱ

out

p7

IMEM model

Results Allocatingȱ smallȱ dataȱ dependenciesȱ toȱ distributedȱ RAMȱ canȱ saveȱ blockȬRAMsȱ whileȱ lowȱ powerȱ dissipationȱ isȱ maintained.ȱ Memoryȱ storageȱ inȱ blockȬRAMsȱ orȱ distributedȱ RAMȱ hasȱ differentȱ powerȱ costsȱ inȱ termsȱ ofȱ fixedȱ powerȱ andȱscalingȱwithȱstorageȱsize.ȱFigȱ2ȱshowsȱblockȬ RAMȱ savingsȱ forȱ aȱ neighbourhoodȱ orientedȱ videoȱsystemȱconfiguredȱforȱ6ȱtoȱ10ȱbitȱpixels.ȱȱ

B) Task C++ function

Figureȱ1:ȱIMEMȱmodelȱofȱaȱvideoȱprocessingȱsystem.ȱ

ȱ Memoryȱ requirementsȱ ofȱ aȱ videoȱ processingȱ systemȱ areȱ separatedȱ fromȱ itsȱ behaviouralȱ C++ȱ description.ȱ Aȱ memoryȱ model,ȱ whichȱ mayȱ beȱ neighbourhoodȱ orientedȱ isȱ implementedȱ asȱ FIFOsȱ inȱ blockȬRAMs,ȱ distributedȱ memoryȱ andȱ registers.ȱWeȱhaveȱ developedȱ ourȱownȱ methodsȱ andȱ toolȱ forȱ thisȱ memoryȱ synthesis.ȱ Heuristicȱ methodsȱ areȱ usedȱ toȱ minimizeȱ blockȬRAMȱ allocationȱ whileȱ powerȱ dissipationȱ isȱ reduced.ȱ Thisȱ powerȱ reductionȱ isȱ achievedȱ throughȱ constrainingȱofȱtheȱroutingȱprocessȱbasedȱonȱtheȱ highȱlevelȱmemoryȱmodel.ȱ

Forȱfurtherȱinformationȱcontact:ȱ

Dr.ȱB.ȱThörnbergȱȱȱȱDr.ȱN.ȱLawalȱȱȱȱȱȱProf.ȱM.ȱO’Nilsȱ benny.thornberg@miun.seȱȱnajeem.lawal@miun.seȱ

ȱ

ȱ ȱ Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

OPTIPOS - OPTICAL POSITION MEASUREMENT IN REAL-TIME FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Background Systemsȱ thatȱ canȱ measureȱ theirȱ ownȱ locationsȱ areȱ becomingȱ moreȱ frequentlyȱ usedȱ inȱ differentȱ applications.ȱ Aȱ helmetȱ forȱ Virtualȱ Realityȱ (VR)ȱ presentationȱ mustȱ measuresȱ itsȱ positionȱ andȱ orientationȱinȱorderȱtoȱtrackȱtheȱmovementȱofȱitsȱ user’sȱ head.ȱ Itȱ isȱ alsoȱ necessaryȱ toȱ measureȱ positionȱ andȱ orientationȱ forȱ aȱ handheldȱ printerȱ thatȱoperatesȱasȱaȱcomputerȱmouse,ȱprintingȱtextȱ andȱ graphicsȱ whileȱ itȱ isȱ movedȱ overȱ aȱ largeȱ surface.ȱȱ

A) B)

Objectives Opticalȱ positionȱ measurementȱ methodsȱ andȱ itsȱ relatedȱ algorithmsȱ andȱ implementationsȱ willȱ beȱ investigatedȱ inȱ thisȱ project.ȱ Methodsȱ basedȱ onȱ preparedȱ environmentsȱ alreadyȱ existȱ thatȱ canȱ measureȱ anȱ objectsȱ positionȱ andȱ orientationȱ withinȱ aȱ roomȱ forȱ 6ȱ Dimensionsȱ Ofȱ Freedomȱ (6DOF)ȱorȱinȱ3DOFȱoverȱaȱsurface.ȱWeȱintendȱtoȱ investigateȱ ifȱ theseȱ methodsȱ canȱbeȱenhancedȱ toȱ workȱ inȱ generalȱ unpreparedȱ environments,ȱ ifȱ itȱ isȱpossibleȱtoȱoptimizeȱtheseȱalgorithmsȱinȱorderȱ toȱ reduceȱ implementationȱ costsȱ andȱ alsoȱ ifȱ itȱ isȱ possibleȱ toȱ automateȱ theȱ estimationȱ ofȱ implementationȱcostsȱforȱsuchȱalgorithms.ȱ

ȱȱ Figureȱ1.ȱPrototypeȱforȱA)ȱ3DOFȱandȱB)ȱ6DOF ȱ wirelesslyȱ reportȱ numberȱ ofȱ detectedȱ referencesȱ toȱ aȱ hostȱ computer.ȱ Anȱ ongoingȱ studentȱ projectȱ aimsȱatȱincludingȱcalculationȱofȱspatialȱpositionsȱ ofȱ referenceȱ pointsȱ usingȱ Centreȱ Ofȱ Gravity.ȱ Currentȱ researchȱ isȱ aimedȱ onȱ howȱ toȱ improveȱ precisionȱofȱcalculatedȱpositions.ȱ ȱ

Results Figureȱ 1Aȱ showȱ aȱ prototypeȱ forȱ 3DOFȱ measurements.ȱ Thisȱ systemȱ exemplifiesȱ aȱ navigationȱ systemȱ withȱ aȱ controllableȱ xyȬtable.ȱ Thisȱ tableȱ wasȱ programmedȱ forȱ aȱ sineȱ waveȱ movement.ȱ Theȱ navigationȱ systemȱ wasȱ ableȱ toȱ determineȱ andȱ predictȱ futureȱ positionsȱ withȱ 1%ȱ accuracy.ȱȱȱ

Forȱfurtherȱinformationȱcontact:ȱ

Ongoing activities Currently,ȱ theȱ 6DOFȱ systemȱ inȱ Figureȱ 1Bȱ canȱ detectȱreferenceȱpointsȱinȱitsȱsurroundingȱandȱȱ

Dr.ȱB.ȱThörnbergȱȱȱȱȱȱDr.ȱN.ȱLawalȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱXinȱChengȱ benny.thornberg@miun.seȱȱnajeem.lawal@miun.seȱ

ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ

ȱ ȱ Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

OPTICAL ONLINE CHARACTERIZATION OF LARGE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY IN PAPER MACHINES Background

measurement setup is based on the targeted light  beam  triangulation  technique.  The  settings  that  can  be  elaborated  in  the  simulation  model  is  light beam and camera angels, light beam width,  level  of  noise  and  finally  how  occlusion  caused  by small structures can affect the accuracy of the  measurement.  The  resulting  wavelength  spectra  translated from the paper topography is used as  a parameter of quality in the evaluations. 

The paper  manufacturing  industry  is  currently  exploring  the  possibility  of  measuring  micro  structural  topography  online  in  a  paper  manufacturing  machine,  which  is  intended  to  lead  to  a  more  precise  measure  of  the  paper  quality,  reel  to  reel,  and  a  more  efficient  use  of  raw material. A need has also been expressed to  use topography measurements when controlling  the paper machine systems, in order to improve  the  quality  online.  In  order  to  realize  this,  an  online  characterisation  of  paper  topography  in  the production chain is required.   

Objectives In this  project,  the  goal  is  to  investigate  the  possibilities  and  limitations  of  online  topography measurement in a paper production  machine,  to  develop  an  optical  system  that  has  sufficient  performance  and  to  construct  a  prototype  for  installation  on  an  existing  paper  machine.  This  work  will  include  analysing  the  topography  measurement  setup  characteristics  to  clearly  define  limitations  and  possibilities  in  these  kinds  of  measurement  on  paper.  Experimental  tests  are  needed  in  the  development of lighting source, producing a line  on the paper surface that is used in triangulation  method that yields paper topography at specific  positions. The production of the actual prototype  will  incorporate  results  from  all  previous  experiments  and  model  analysis  from  the  project.   

−6

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

−2

−4 500

600

650

700

750

800

For further information contact: Ph. D. Jan Thim  Jan.Thim@miun.se 

A MATLAB  based  simulation  environment  has  been  developed  for  elaboration  of  physical  limitations  settings  of  the  paper  topography  measurement  setup.  The  simulated 

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

550

Sample 3D simulation and wavelength spectra.   

Results

 

x 10

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

FPGA BASED COMPUTER SYSTEMS two_cameras_480*360

Background Theȱeverȱ growingȱintegrationȱ ofȱ functionalityȱinȱ industrialȱ andȱ automotiveȱ embeddedȱ systemsȱ hasȱ introducedȱ theȱ requirementȱ forȱ realȬtimeȱ videoȱ processingȱ capabilitiesȱ inȱ manyȱ systems.ȱ Anȱ FPGAȬbasedȱ implementationȱ ofȱ embeddedȱ systemsȱprovidesȱmanyȱattractiveȱcharacteristicsȱ suchȱasȱhighȱflexibility,ȱlowȱcostȱandȱaȱhighȱlevelȱ ofȱintegration.ȱTheseȱcharacteristicsȱmakeȱFPGAsȱ especiallyȱsuitableȱforȱvideoȱrelatedȱapplications.ȱ FPGAsȱ provideȱ theȱ possibilityȱ forȱ SystemȬOnȬ Chipȱ (SoC)ȱ designsȱ whereȱ mostȱ ofȱ theȱ systemȱ components,ȱ suchȱ asȱ CPUs,ȱ videoȬȱ andȱ communicationȱ controllersȱ areȱ allȱ implementedȱ onȱ theȱ FPGA.ȱ Inȱ additionȱ toȱ theȱ variousȱ advantagesȱ ofȱ aȱ SoCȱ design,ȱ Intellectualȱ Propertyȱ(IP)ȱbasedȱFPGAȱdesignsȱalsoȱavoidȱtheȱ problemsȱ causedȱ byȱ theȱ endȬofȬlifeȱ forȱ standardȱ components.ȱ ȱ

90 80 70 60 50 CPU-load cpuload(%) (%) 40 30 20

0

10 Compression rate compression

10 20

Frame rate resolution (frames per second)

30

Figureȱ1:ȱCPUȬloadȱvsȱcompressionȱandȱframeȱrate.ȱ ȱ

implementedȱ onȱ anȱ FPGA.ȱ Thisȱ processorȱ isȱ programmedȱ toȱ handleȱ theȱ Ethernetȱ protocolȱ andȱtoȱsplitȱtheȱMJPEGȱvideoȱstreamsȱoriginatingȱ fromȱ twoȱ independentȱ Ethernetȱ basedȱ surveillanceȱcameras.ȱTheȱaimȱofȱthisȱexperimentȱ isȱtoȱfindȱoutȱtheȱmaximumȱcapacityȱandȱtheȱbestȱ processorȱconfigurationȱforȱsplittingȱcompressedȱ video.ȱ Fig1ȱ showsȱ theȱ CPUȬloadȱ forȱ variousȱ combinationsȱ ofȱ frameȬȱ andȱ compressionsȱ ratesȱ forȱtwoȱ480ȱbyȱ360ȱpixelȱvideoȱstreams.ȱFromȱthisȱ weȱ canȱ concludeȱ thatȱ theȱ MicroBlazeȱ hasȱ theȱ capacityȱ toȱ handleȱ fourȱ camerasȱ atȱ aȱ compressionȱrateȱofȱ30ȱtimesȱandȱaȱframeȱrateȱofȱ 10ȱframesȱperȱsecond.ȱ

Theȱ goalȱ ofȱ thisȱ projectȱ isȱ toȱ developȱ FPGAȬ basedȱarchitecturesȱthatȱallowȱtheȱdesignȱofȱcostȱ efficientȱ FPGAȬbasedȱ SoCȱ withȱ realȬtimeȱ videoȱ processingȱ capabilities.ȱ Aȱ frequentlyȱ occurringȱ requirementȱ forȱ embeddedȱ computerȱ systemsȱ isȱ theȱ capabilityȱ ofȱ displayingȱ multipleȱ realȬtimeȱ videoȱ sourcesȱ combinedȱ withȱ computerȱ generatedȱ graphics.ȱ ȱ RealȬtimeȱ videoȱ processingȱ isȱ aȱ veryȱ dataȱ intensiveȱ taskȱ whichȱ isȱ oftenȱ beyondȱ theȱ capabilitiesȱ ofȱ theȱ generalȱ purposeȱ CPUsȱ usedȱ inȱ typicalȱ industrialȱ andȱ automotiveȱ applications.ȱ Withȱ anȱ FPGAȱ basedȱ SoCȱ thatȱ providesȱ realȬtimeȱ videoȱ dataȱ directlyȱ toȱ theȱ displayȱ memory,ȱ anyȱ computerȱ systemȱ canȱ beȱ madeȱcapableȱofȱdisplayingȱrealȬtimeȱvideo.ȱ ȱ

Forȱfurtherȱinformationȱcontact:ȱ

LiuȱFangȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱXiaozhouȱMengȱ Supervisors:ȱȱ Dr.ȱNajeemȱLawal,ȱnajeem.lawal@miun.seȱȱ Dr.ȱBennyȱThörnbergȱandȱProf.ȱMattiasȱO’Nilsȱ

Results WeȱhaveȱdevelopedȱaȱSoCȱdesignȱforȱtheȱchannelȱ splittingȱ ofȱ multipleȱ Ethernetȱ basedȱ videoȱ streams.ȱAȱMicroBlazeȱsoftcoreȱprocessorȱisȱ

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

20

0

Objectives

ȱ ȱ

30

10

ȱ

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

PRIVACY PROTECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS Background

Results

With more  and  more  applications  utilizing  sensor  in  wearable  computing,  wide  diffusion  become  much  easier  than  before.  However,  traditional privacy protection always ignores the  existence  of  diffusion.  Even  with  all  other  privacy  protected  mechanisms  being  carefully  designed, if the system does not pay attention to  proper  diffusion  scaling,  there  is  a  chance  that  more exist messages and wider diffusion scale of  these messages increase the probability of under  attack. In this situation, it is hard to say whether  this system becomes more secure or not.  

We propose  using  diffusion  to  analyze  privacy  and divide system into different categories to get  optimized  diffusion  function.  Based  on  user’s  requirements  of  the  diffusion  scale,  we  categorize all systems into public, protected and  private system.         For further information contact: Xin Huang  xin.huang@miun.se  Supervisor: Prof. Tingting Zhang 

Objectives In this  project,  the  goal  is  to  analyze  the  system  privacy  in  consideration  of  information  diffusion.  

Ongoing activities There are numerous studies which prove that, a  real  world  network  has  both  the  small  world  phenomenon  and  scale  free  characteristics.  Social  networks,  the  connectivity  of  the  Internet  and  gene  networks  all  exhibit  small  world  network  characteristics.  Scale‐free  networks  are  noteworthy  because  many  empirically  observed  networks  appear  to  be  scale  free,  including  the  World  Wide  Web,  protein  networks,  citation  networks, and some social networks.    Currently we are analyze system privacy in  propose using information diffusion in both  scale‐free networks and small world networks.        

 

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

Traffic Load Distribution in Large-Scale and Dense Wireless Sensor Networks Background

compared to the diameter of the network. The  denseness assumption means the forwarding  node can always find the next relay node along  the line segment determined by the forwarding  node and the sink node, which is also the final  destination for all data messages.  A weak routing assumption is also imposed: the  number of relay times during the transmission of  a packet is linearly proportional to the distance  between the source and the destination.   

In large‐scale  wireless  sensor  networks  (WSNs),  the dominating communication pattern is a large  number  of  sensor  nodes  deliver  their  sensed  information  to  one  or  a  few  data  sinks  through  multi‐hop  transmission.  This  kind  of  communication pattern drastically imbalance the  traffic  load  distribution  across  the  network  where the nodes close to a sink experience heavy  traffic  loads.  The  understanding  of  the  traffic  load  distribution  in  WSNs  is  important.  For  example,  the  knowledge  of  the  traffic  load  distribution can guide the energy allocation over  the  nodes  to  extend  the  network  lifetime.  The  knowledge  of  the  traffic  load  distribution  can  also  be  used  to  direct  the  design  of  efficient  routing  algorithms,  and  optimize  the  node  distribution over the area.      

Results

Objectives

We find  that  an  analytic  traffic  load  function  is  proposed  based  on  a  planar  sensor  network.  Further, the effects of network scale and routing  strategy  on  traffic  load  are  also  researched.  The  traffic loads on individual nodes are found to be  in direct proportion to the radius of the network  and  in  inverse  proportion  to  the  routing  hop  distance, while independent of network density.    

In  this  project,  the  goal  is  to  understanding  of  the  traffic  load  distribution  in  large‐Scale  and  dense wireless sensor networks.  

 

For further information  contact:  Qinghua Wang  Qinghua.wang@miun.se Supervisor:   Prof. Tingting Zhang 

Ongoing activities Currently we  study  the  traffic  load  distribution  in large scale and dense planar WSNs.   We  consider  a  WSN  of  n  sensor  nodes  evenly  deployed  in  a  disk  area  of  radius  R.  There  is  a  sink  node  located  in  the  center  of  the  deployed  disk  area.  All  the  deployed  sensor  nodes  regularly  sense  the  physical  phenomenon  around and forward that information to the sink  directly or by multi‐hop transmission.   We assume the considered network is large‐scale  and dense. The large‐scale assumption means  that the distance of routing hop is negligible 

  Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

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PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

JOINT ANGULAR SENSORS FOR CONTACT-LESS MEASUREMENTS different sensor  configurations  based  on  accelerometers.    

Background Joint  angular  sensors  are  widely  used  in  the  industry, from highly effective robots in product  line  and  heavy  construction  machines  in  building  sites  to  small  knobs  on  home  appliances.  There  are  contact‐less  joint  angular  sensing  methods  available,  such  as  inertial  measurement  by  Micro‐Electro‐Mechanical  System (MEMS) gyroscopes and accelerometers.  The big advantage of these contacts‐less sensing  methods  over  their  conventional  counterparts  is  that  they  do  not  have  relative  mechanical  movements, which can make them more reliable,  cost less as well as last longer. 

Ongoing activities  Currently,  hardware  for  accurate  sensor  electronics  is  developed.  These  devices  will  be  used  for  several  purposes.  The  results  obtained  for the DCMR method that is theoretically error‐ free  contains  small  errors  that  we  so  far  cannot  explained.   Here  the  more  accurate  sensor  electronics  will  hopefully guide us to the sources of these errors.  It  will  also  be  used  for  field  tests  on  HIABs  cranes  to  explore  performances  of  the  distributed  wireless  sensor  network  as  well  as  redundancy schemes.   

Results On  the  basis  of  the  error  model  of  the  CMR  method,  we  give  an  analysis  outlining  the  advantage  of  the  theoretically  error‐free  DCMR  method. The sensor calibration and alignment is  described  and  both  methods  are  characterized  on  a  rigid  body  robot  arm  model.  The  experiment shows the angular error up to 0.4 rad  from  the  CMR  method  whereas  just  0.03  rad  from the DCMR method. 

For further information contact: MSc. Peng Cheng  Peng.Cheng@miun.se  Supervisor: Prof. Bengt Oelmann

Objectives The goal of this project is to develop methods for  contacts‐less  measurement  that  can  withstand  harsh  environments  often  found  in  industrial  and automotive applications. The initial problem  addressed  is  the  development  error‐models  for 

 

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicate 851 70 Sundsvall

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING avoid battery  replacement.  Initial  investigations  face  power  consumption  reduction  methods  in  data  gathering  network  communication  protocols.   

Background Wireless sensor network technology evolves into  a  novel  way  of  constructing  autonomous  measurement  systems.  Using  a  large  amount  of  small and  inexpensive smart sensors, capable of  communicating  with  each  other  or  a  central  network  intelligence,  allows  monitoring  large  and  remote  sites.  Environmental  monitoring  is  one, maybe the most typical application for these  large scale sensing networks. Measurements can  be obtained over large spatial deployment, high  density  and  without  direct  human  interaction,  making  these  solutions  superior  over  conventional  systems.  These  systems  however  require long lifetime in which the system powers  itself  by  for  example  using  battery  supply.  Mechanisms  and  solutions  need  to  be  investigated  to  enlarge  lifetime  and  reduce  power consumption.

Ongoing activities  Recent  activities  include  the  recently  finished  hardware  platform  for  the  before  mentioned  wireless  sensor  network  system,  which  allows  real‐world  deployment  and  measurement  tests.  Main  design  considerations  for  the  platform  cover  low  power  usage  and  flexibility  to  different application tasks.   Furthermore  we  investigate  possibilities  of  power savings in the communication protocol of  the  system.  A  synchronous  protocol  based  on  TDMA  has  been  developed  and  is  currently  under  test.  Using  these  methods  we  expect  to  decrease the average power consumption of our  system to reach quiescent current levels.   

Results First  obtained  results  include  the  verification  of  hardware  functionality.  The  designed  platform  works with very low power consumption, while  it stays scalable to different tasks and application  requirements.  Furthermore  modelling  and  tests  on  the  communication  protocol  show  that  average power consumption can be decreased in  the order of magnitude by keeping sensor nodes  synchronized,  allowing  devices  to  attend  a  communication schedule.

Objectives

For further information contact: Dipl.Ing.(FH) Sebastian Bader  Sebastian.Bader@miun.se  Supervisor: Prof. Bengt Oelmann 

The goal  of  this  project  is  to  develop  a  wireless  sensor network based monitoring system, which  can  obtain  measurement  data  autonomously  after  deployment  and  has  reasonable  lifetime  to 

 

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicate 851 70 Sundsvall

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

INNOVATIVE RFID SOLUTIONS AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS perform, focus  is  now  also  put  on  development  of a more suitable handheld reader together with  industrial partners.   

Dr. Johan  Sidén  and  Doctoral  Student  Jinlan  Gao  work within the area of RFID and printed electronics.  Research  is  currently  focused  on  the  combination  of  printed sensor technology and commercially available  low‐cost RFID chips. 

Background With a  long  academic  experience  on  innovative  antenna  solutions  for  RFID  tags  we  have  now  taken  tag  antenna  design  one  step  further  by  letting the antenna work also as sensor element.  This  allows  for  cost  effective  wireless  sensors  with  more  or  less  infinite  life  time  since  no  battery needs to be changed. 

(a) (b) (a) Close-up of printed moisture sensor with memory function (WORM) and (b) RFID Tag antenna with the sensor element in (a) “short-circuiting” the RFID chip upon sensor activation, making it harder to read.

Results The graph below show results for humidity level  measurements  with  an  embedded  tag.  The  tag    antenna  with  WORM  similarly  has  a  20  dB  power difference after being exposed to 75% RH  for  a  few  hours  and  remain  in  that  mode  if  the  humidity drops to dryer values.

Example of humidity measurement system for hidden locations, where a “sensitive tag” is embedded in moisture absorbing material.

Difference in minimum output power required from an RFID reader in order to read two passive tags in a label where one is covered or embedded in a moisture absorbing material.

Objectives and Ongoing activities Key concept  is  based  upon  pairs  of  RFID  tags  where one tag is “normal” and the other tag has  its  antenna  degraded  in  proportion  to  a  condition of interest to measure, for example the  level  of  relative  humidity  (%RH).  The  degradable  antenna  can  for  example  be  embedded  in  moisture  absorbing  material  for  retrieving  the  value  at  the  time  of  reading,  or  it  can  be  a  printed  sensor  that  remembers  the  highest  value  it’s  been  exposed  to.  As  measurements  take  more  than  10  seconds  to 

  Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

 

For further information contact: Dr. Johan Sidén   Johan.Siden@miun.se  Tel. +46 70 671 71 71 

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

Portable instrument for detection of polonium and other alpha emitters H. Andersson, G. Thungström and S. Petersson

Background Dueȱ toȱ theȱ increasedȱ threatȱ ofȱ terrorismȱ andȱ otherȱ incidentsȱ whereȱ radioactiveȱ materialsȱ areȱ dispersedȱ thereȱ isȱ anȱ increasingȱ needȱ toȱ beȱ ableȱ toȱ detectȱ theȱ presenceȱ ofȱ suchȱ materials.ȱ Alphaȱ isȱ muchȱ moreȱ difficultȱtoȱdetectȱthanȱbetaȱorȱgammaȱradiationȱbecauseȱitȱtravelsȱonlyȱaȱfewȱcmȱinȱair,ȱneverthelessȱalphaȱ radiatingȱmaterialȱisȱveryȱdangerousȱtoȱhumansȱifȱinhaledȱorȱingestedȱdueȱtoȱtheȱhighȱenergy.ȱ Introduction

In Fig.3 is shown the layout of the proposed instrument.

The goal of this project is to build a personal detector to detect alpha emitting radioactive materials. Such an instrument can be used at airports, subway stations or be carried by personnel in environments where they run the risk of being exposed to radiation. By analyzing the energies of the emitted particles, the radio active material can be identified such as 210Polonium, Radon, depleted Uranium and others. The instrument is meant to be used in air, and therefore the technique is based on collection of dust particles containing the radioactive material on the detector surface.

2000

6.33 keV/ch FWHM(8.785 MeV)= 31.6 keV 1500

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Fig. 2. Detector response of

1200

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Uranium sample.

Fig. 1. Photo of manufactured alpha detector showing the dimensions.

This is done by means of a high electric field. The emitted particles from the radioactive material that hit the detector surface are energy analyzed and from that the material can be determined. Fig.1 shows two of the manufactured detectors. In Fig.2 is shown a measurement done on 232U.

ȱ ȱ Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

Fig. 3. Layout of the instrument, where charged dust particles containing radioactive material is attracted to the detector surface by an electric field.

For further information contact: GöranȱThungströmȱ Goran.thungstrom@miun.seȱ +46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ88ȱ05ȱȱFaxȱ+46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ84ȱ56ȱ

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST THERMAL DETECTOR FOR DETECTION OF CO2 USING NDIR METHOD Background

fabricatedȱ Al/Biȱ thermopile.ȱ Theȱ responsivityȱ achievedȱusingȱaȱinfraredȱlaserȱwithȱwavelengthȱ ofȱ 1.56ȱ ΐm,ȱ aȱ sensitivityȱ ofȱ 60ȱ V/Wȱ andȱ aȱ timeȱ constantȱofȱ70ȱmsȱwasȱmeasured.ȱThisȱshouldȱbeȱ comparedȱtoȱ7.5ȱV/Wȱandȱ385ȱmsȱofȱtheȱpreviousȱ presentedȱNi/Tiȱthermopile,ȱseeȱfigureȱ2.ȱ ȱ

Thermalȱ sensorsȱ forȱ IRȱ detection,ȱ suchȱ asȱ bolometerȱandȱthermopilesȱareȱusedȱinȱaȱnumberȱ ofȱ applications.ȱ Theseȱ applicationsȱ includeȱ remoteȱtemperatureȱcontrolȱandȱgasȱdetection.ȱ Oneȱ stepȱ inȱ theȱ directionȱ towardsȱ aȱ lowȱ costȱ systemȱisȱtheȱuseȱofȱaȱlowȱcostȱinfraredȱdetector.ȱ ȱ

Objectives Theȱ goalȱ ofȱ thisȱ researchȱ projectȱ hasȱ beenȱ toȱ produceȱ aȱ lowȱ costȱ thermalȱ detectorȱ usingȱ standardȱ processingȱ techniquesȱ andȱ newȱ materials.ȱ ȱ Inȱ manyȱ existingȱ thermalȱ detectorsȱ theȱ thermalȱ linkȱisȱformedȱbyȱconstructingȱaȱthinȱmembraneȱ ofȱ eitherȱ Siȱ orȱ Si3N4.ȱ Inȱ aȱ lowȱ costȱ detector,ȱ aȱ polymerȱsuchȱasȱSUȬ8ȱcouldȱbeȱanȱalternativeȱtoȱ regularȱ Siȱ andȱ Si3N4ȱ membranes.ȱ SUȬ8ȱ hasȱ lowȱ thermalȱconductivityȱandȱrequiresȱonlyȱstandardȱ siliconȱlithographyȱprocessing.ȱ ȱ

ȱ Figureȱ1ȱȱFabricatedȱAl/Biȱthermopile.ȱCentreȱ partȱisȱmagnified.ȱ ȱ

Voltage (mV)

150

Ongoing activities Theȱworkȱhasȱbeenȱconcentratedȱonȱdevelopingȱaȱ newȱdesignȱlayoutȱforȱtheȱSUȬ8ȱmembraneȱbasedȱ thermopileȱ detectorȱ inȱ orderȱ toȱ increaseȱ sensitivity.ȱ Aȱ thermalȱ simulationȱ andȱ designȱ optimizationȱtoolȱimplementedȱinȱMATLABȱwasȱ developedȱ andȱ theȱ newȱ designedȱ thermopileȱ wasȱfabricatedȱandȱevaluated.ȱ ȱ

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ȱ

Figureȱ2ȱȱMeasuredȱvoltageȱresponseȱofȱ fabricatedȱdetectors.ȱ ȱ For Furtherȱinformation contact:ȱ Lic.ȱEng.ȱClaesȱMattssonȱ Claes.Mattsson@miun.seȱ Supervisor:ȱProf.ȱHansȬErikȱ Nilssonȱ

Inȱtheȱthermopileȱstructureȱpresentedȱearlier,ȱtheȱ seriesȱconnectedȱthermocouplesȱwereȱpositionedȱ alongȱ theȱ membraneȱ rim.ȱ Byȱ spreadingȱ theȱ thermocouplesȱ moreȱ evenlyȱ overȱ theȱ membraneȱ andȱ runningȱ theȱ developedȱ designȱ optimizationȱ tool,ȱ theȱ sensitivityȱ couldȱ beȱ increasedȱ andȱ theȱ responseȱ timeȱ decreased.ȱ Figureȱ 1ȱ showsȱ theȱ

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

100

50

Results

ȱ ȱ

Al/Bi prev. Ni/Ti

200

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

Development of X-ray imaging sensors Göran Thungström, Börje Norlin, Christer Fröjdh

Background Theȱ Medipixȱ systemȱ isȱ atȱ presentȱ theȱ mostȱ advancedȱ singleȱ photonȱ processingȱ XȬrayȱ readoutȱ available.ȱ Theȱ imagingȱ detectorȱ isȱ bumpȬbondedȱ toȱ theȱ readout.ȱ Differentȱ typesȱ ofȱ XȬrayȱ imagingȱ detectorsȱ toȱ beȱ bondedȱtoȱtheȱMedipixȱchipȱareȱbeingȱdevelopedȱatȱMidȱSwedenȱUniversity.ȱ depositionȱisȱdoneȱusingȱanȱelectronȱbeamȱ evaporator.ȱ

220x220 µm pixel detectors

55x55 µm pixel detectors with distributed contacts ForȱlargeȱobjectȱXȬrayȱimagingȱapplications,ȱitȱisȱ nessecaryȱtoȱtileȱseveralȱchipsȱtogether.ȱTheȱ presentȱtechniqueȱisȱtoȱuseȱdetectorsȱwithȱlargeȱ pixelsȱatȱtheȱboundaries.ȱTheȱnewȱtypeȱofȱ detectorsȱbeingȱdevelopedȱhaveȱpixelsȱequallyȱ distributedȱoverȱtheȱsensorȱarea,ȱinsteadȱtheȱ contacsȱforȱbumpȬbondingȱareȱshiftedȱtoȱfitȱtheȱ readoutȱchipȱasȱillustratedȱbelow.ȱȱ

Photo of a fabricated detector on a readout chip and circuit board from the Medipix collaboration. On the present chip a guard-ring is surrounding the detector perimeter.

Thisȱdetectorȱisȱdevelopedȱforȱapplicationsȱ whereȱspectralȱperformanceȱisȱmoreȱimportantȱ thanȱspatialȱresolution.ȱTheȱdetectorsȱareȱ fabricatedȱinȱtheȱcleanȱroomȱfacilitiesȱatȱMidȱ SwedenȱUniversity.ȱTheȱ300ȱΐmȱthickȱwaferȱisȱ dopedȱusingȱsolidȱphosphorusȱandȱboronȱ diffusionȱsources.ȱȱ 210 Pm 20 Pm

10 Pm

Illustration of mounting (left) to overcome the tiling problem in the border between the readout chips (right).

Si

SiO2 Ti

B P

For further information contact: GöranȱThungströmȱ Goran.Thungstrom@miun.seȱ +46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ88ȱ05ȱ +46ȱ730ȱ61ȱ26ȱ19ȱȱ Faxȱ+46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ84ȱ56ȱ

Al

Theȱbacksideȱdepositionȱisȱanȱaluminiumȱlayerȱ withȱthicknessȱ300ȱnm.ȱTheȱcontactsȱopeningȱinȱ theȱdetectorȱwindowsȱareȱdepositedȱwithȱ20ȱnmȱ titaniumȱfollowedȱbyȱ300ȱnmȱnickel.ȱTheȱ

ȱ ȱ Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

Material resolving X-ray imaging microscope Börje Norlin, Christer Fröjdh, Göran Thungström, Omieme Esebamen, Jan Thim, Mattias O’Nils, Suliman Abdalla

Background AnȱXȬrayȱmicroscopyȱsetupȱforȱenergyȱresolvedȱimagingȱisȱbuilt.ȱTheȱprincipleȱforȱXȬrayȱmicroscopyȱisȱ simpleȱgeometricalȱmagnificationȱasȱsketchedȱbelow.ȱ Henceȱeachȱpixelȱinȱtheȱimageȱcontainsȱ Led shield box spectroscopicȱXȬrayȱenergyȱinformation.ȱSinceȱ theȱabsorptionȱcoefficientȱforȱXȬraysȱisȱstronglyȱ dependentȱofȱtheȱatomȱnumberȱofȱtheȱmaterialȱinȱ theȱobject,ȱmaterialȱresolvingȱXȬrayȱimagingȱcanȱ Detector Object Slits Microfocus source beȱachieved.ȱ Sketch of the X-ray microscopy setup ȱ Transmission image of a test object containing Tin (top), Gadolinium (middle) and Iodine (bottom). RGB representation of the transmission energy variation where cyan represents 10 – 30 keV, magenta represents 30 – 43 keV and yellow represents 43 – 60 keV. Photo of the X-ray Microscopy setup

Example of geometrical magnification, a transistor with magnification 1.04 and 2.83 respectively.

Iodine

For further information contact: BörjeȱNorlinȱ Borje.Norlin@miun.seȱ +46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ85ȱ94ȱ +46ȱ70ȱ525ȱ63ȱ63ȱ Faxȱ+46ȱ60ȱ14ȱ84ȱ56 Börje Norlin, Suliman Abdalla och Jan Thim

Energy resolving X-ray imaging TheȱdetectorȱsystemȱisȱdevelopedȱinȱtheȱMedipixȱ collaborationȱdirectedȱfromȱCERNȱinȱGeneva.ȱ Theȱreadoutȱchipȱisȱpixelatedȱandȱeachȱpixelȱ containsȱsingleȱphotonȱprocessingȱreadout.ȱ

Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

Gadolinium

Examples of applications were material resolved X-ray imaging is interesting Wood-chip characterisation, online Paper characterisation, online Paper coating characterisation, online Welding quality surveillance General online manufacturing quality surveillance Contrast agents identification in medical imaging Dose reduction in medical imaging Security surveillance

,

ȱ ȱ

Tin

ȱ Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009

Mega Hertz coreless PCB transformers for high speed SMPS   Introduction 

The goal of the project is to design the compact,  highly  energy  efficient  and  cost‐effective  switch  mode  power  supply  (SMPS)  by  designing  the  efficient  transformers  operating  at  higher  frequencies (MHz) and also with the help of SiC  technology transistors.    Ongoing Activities   

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

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Frequency in Hz

Fig. 1. Frequency vs. maximum available Efficiency of the  above transformer   

The experimental results of the flyback converter  using the 4 layer transformer with the switching  frequency  range  of  3‐3.4MHz  shows  the  converter  efficiency  of  about  80‐90%  with  the  power levels of about 20W, input supply voltage  range of 30‐100V.    100

Input Voltage vs Efficiency RL=10 Ohms, Duty ratio=0.5 Converter Efficiency

90 80 70

Converter Efficiency

At Mid  Sweden  University,  high  frequency  coreless  PCB  transformers  for  power  transfer  applications  were  designed.  These  transformers  were  characterized  by  using  network  analyzer  and  also  placing  them  in  the  converter  circuit  and  tested  for  low  power  levels  of  about  30‐ 40watts.  The  research  has  been  focused  to  achieve  the  high  energy  efficiency  of  the  converter  at  high  power  levels  by  reducing  the  switching losses in the transistor and the copper  losses in the transformers.  

Frequency vs Maximum Available Efficiency of the Transformer

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M axim um Available Efficiency

Power Supply Unit (PSU) plays a vital role in all  the  Electronic  equipments.  It  is  required  to  design  a  compact  Switch  Mode  Power  Supplies  (SMPS)  to  make  it  compatible  with  the  most  modern  Electronic  equipments.  The  transformer  is one of the crucial parts in modern SMPS. The  miniaturized  SMPS  is  possible  only  with  the  increased  switching  frequency  which  in  turn  results  smaller  passive  elements,  reduced  cost  and high speed voltage regulation.    Introduction 

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Fig. 2. Input voltage vs. Efficiency of the flyback converter  

Results  The  maximum  available  efficiency  of  the  designed  transformers  obtained  using  network  analyzer is in the range of 90‐98%. 

Mid Sweden University Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 851 70 Sundsvall

For further information contact:  Hari Babu Kotte (Hari.Kotte@miun.se)  Ambatipudi Radhika (Radhika.Ambatipudi@miun.se)  Supervisor: Dr.Kent Bertilsson 

Internet:www.miun.se/itm/smps www.kks.se www.energimyndigheten.se www.vinnova.se


PROJECT INFORMATION – February, 2009 STC – Sensible Things that Communicate

STC MediaSense Background

The initial activities this fall have been focused  on creating means for aggregating and  distributing user information from sensor  information. Our initial approach is to connect  Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) gateways to  mobile phones or other devices via Bluetooth.  

Mobile telecommunications is changing rapidly.  People not only communicate regardless of time  and place, but also share information that is  important for the tasks they will perform.  Increased bandwidth in mobile networks,  packet‐oriented access and coding techniques  enable us to use multi‐modal communication  related to what we are engaged in each moment.  TV will be reshaped to include ad hoc self‐ published media, regardless of access form as  our communication increasingly takes place in  digital communities on the Internet.   

Results We developed a low‐power platform for  communicating with a multitude of sensors and  a first version of scalable support to share and  provide sensor data in large communities on the  Internet in real‐time. This support has  interworking with the IP Multimedia Subsystem  (IMS) in 3G networks.  We created a mobile  awareness service (demonstrated at STC  Expo’08) for sharing of sensor information from  wireless sensor networks attached to a 3G  mobile phones via a Bluetooth sensor network  gateway.  At the Ericsson Research Mobile Java  Communication Framework (MJFC) Developers  Day on December 15, 2008 in Kista we  successfully demonstrated a mobile group  service with real‐time sensor information (GPS,  humidity, and temperature). 

Objectives MediaSense aims to enable innovative digital  services by creating a technology platform that  brings together several technologies in new  ways: sensors, interactive media, and context‐ sensitive communication. Media Sense combines  these areas in order to create new technology  components and digital services are expected to  be commercialized in new and existing  businesses in the region. 

Ongoing activities For further information contact: Theo G. Kanter,  Prof. of Computer Science; Distributed Systems  Mail: theo.kanter@miun.se   

MediaSense is conducted  in cooperation with public  sector and industry, in  particular:  Ericsson  Research, Acreo, Fiber‐ Optic Valley, ITV Arena,  ServaNet, Kramfors  Mediateknik, Swedish  Connection, and Telia  Sonera.   

  Mid Sweden University STC – Sensible Things that Communicates 851 70 Sundsvall

Phone: 0771-975 000 Fax: 060-14 84 56 Internet: www.miun.se/stc www.kks.se


A research program at Mid Sweden University, sponsored by The Knowledge Foundation, in partnership with:

Adal AB

www.miun.se/stc

STC Annual Report 2008  

2008 års årsrapport för forskningsprojektet Sensible Things that Communicate vid Mittuniversitetet.

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