Page 1

VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS MITCHELL SU | STUDENT ID No. 660192 | SEMESTER 2/2013 | GROUP 11


MODULE ONE I D E A T I ON INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT | MITCHELL SU 660192


IDEATION : WEEK ONE 1.1 MEASURED SPACE The object chosen for this module was a coffee filter which is based on the materials system of panel and fold. The panel and fold system has a very crisp and modular quality to it, much like origami. The simplicity offered by panel and fold makes it highly malleable and open in terms of create a volumed form. Based on the readings from 300 Years of Industrial Design, the methodology used to measure the space involved tracing and estimation, along with observational photos of the object’s occupied space and form. Initially, measurements were taken by tracing the coffee filter on each side then simplifying the geometry of the curves down with concentric circles and fixed angles. The simplification of the geometry made measuring angles and arcs much easier as it was noticed that the shape of the arc on one side of the coffee filter was not necessarily a consistent curve. To measure the filled volume when the coffee filter is being utilized, estimates based on physical observations were made to assume the volume. It was too difficult to measure the coffee filter accurately when the filter was being utilized. Fig. 1 - Observational Sketches

1

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK ONE

1.0

1.1 MEASURED SPACE : FRONT VIEW

M

0M

M

11

47

M

Scale is 1:1

47MM

Fig. 2 - Front View of Unused Coffee Filter

2


IDEATION : WEEK ONE 1.1 MEASURED SPACE : BACK VIEW Scale is 1:1

Fig. 3 - Back View of Unused Coffee Filter

3

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK ONE

1.0

1.1 MEASURED SPACE : SIDE AND TOP VIEW OF USED FILTER Scale is 1:1

128MM

90MM

165MM

Fig. 4 - Side and Top View of Used Filter

4


IDEATION : WEEK ONE

Fig. 5 - Observational Photos of Filter in Varying States.

5

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK ONE

1.0 1.2 HOW TO LAY OUT A CROISSANT Miralles’ How to Layout a Croissant describes the process, rather than the final product in the creation of a design. He takes a very methodological process to describe the process in which an idea or thought becomes a more tangible item. In practical terms, this aims to rationalize and quantify how something comes into physical being, somewhat akin to the scientific method. This creates a consistency in the process, something that is often desirable in the eyes of a designer. On a more abstract level, the emphasis on said process and methodology can be seen as lesson on the peculiarities of even the most mundane objects, i.e. that even simple objects of everyday use require complicated steps to take form. Initially, the reading was interpreted as how can one abstract an existing form. As a result, observations in a ordered manner were taken into how the form of a coffee filter can be manipulated based on its present material qualities. Fig. 6 & 7 - Initial Abstractions of Task 1.2.

6


IDEATION : WEEK ONE 1.2 HOW TO LAY OUT A CROISSANT Scale is 1:2 for topmost drawing. When the coffee filter was deconstructed, a net structure was revealed, with on edge a folded edge that connects the two faces together. On the opposite edge, a crimped binding depression was found. Using the reading as a guide, an assumption has been made into how the coffee filter is assembled. Initially, the coffee filter’s net is cut out from a singular piece of material and removed from the original sheet. It is then folded at the midpoint to create the two sides. Finally the edges are fused together in a crimping process that most likely either required a wet or heat process to do. Fig. 8 - Additional Abstractions of Task 1.2.

7

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK ONE

1.0

1.5 RHINO TUTORIALS

Fig. 9 - Curves.

Fig. 10 - Polygons.

Fig. 11 - Curve from Two Views.

Fig. 12 - Surface from Planar Curves.

Fig. 13 - Extruded Curves.

Fig. 14 - Rail Revolve.

Fig. 15 - One Rail Sweep.

Fig. 16 - Two Fail Sweep.

Fig. 17 - Lofting.

8


IDEATION : WEEK TWO

1.0

1.7 DIGITAL MODEL MAKING

9

Fig. 19 - Angle View of Rhino Model.

Fig. 19 - Angle View of Rhino Model.

Fig. 20 - Angle View of Rhino Model.

Fig. 21 - Top View of Rhino Model.

Fig. 22 - Front View of Rhino Model.

Fig. 23 - Side View of Rhino Model.


IDEATION : WEEK TWO

1.0 1.8 PHYSICAL MODEL MAKING For making a physical model, initially a reproduction using regular paper was made and attached using glue rather than a crimping process. The end result was not as successful as anticipated in that the integrity of the bond wasn’t as strong as the original. This was found to be because the use of crimping at the edge creates multiple planes of contact that are harder to break apart than a single plane of contact. After making that model, another alternative found was an origami folding technique that is quite common and is used to make cups. The advantage of this is that the filter is made now from a single piece of paper, is more resilient because of all the folds retains its shape far better than the other physical model. Fig. 24, 25, 26 & 27 - Physical Model Recreations and Drawings

10


IDEATION : WEEK TWO 1.9 PERSONAL SPACE

PUBLIC SPACE (7.6M)

Personal space can be viewed in both the literal and metaphorical sense. According to Edward T. Hall (1966), there are varying levels of space and each has its own particular reaction by multiple parties - the closer one individual is to the other within these spaces, the more intimate the reaction.

L SPACE (3.6M SOCIA )

But at its very essence, personal space is about interaction at a sensory and cognitive level - the perception of one’s own interactions with others and vice versa. We use all of our senses in the process of interacting with an individual and as a result, in some instances we take this for granted. As such, the way in which personal space will be explored in the design of a second skin is how limiting or completely removing one or more senses can have an effect with interactions within one’s own personal space. Fig. 28 - Edward T. Hall’s Reaction Bubble.

IN

L SPACE (1 SONA .2M PER )

SPACE (0 ATE .45 IT M

) M

This intimacy is a clear expression of social values and customs in society and as such there are varying conceptions of what is and isn’t personal space. In some cultures, physical contact is avoided quite often whereas in others it is considered perfectly normal. These varying differences in the definition of personal space has a perverse affect on society and can be seen in what is considered acceptable and what is not.

11

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK TWO

1.0 1.9 SECOND SKIN : OPTION A Option A explores the idea of limiting or nullifying all the senses associated around the head. The premise is that by limiting hearing, smell and in particular, sight; the boundaries of personal space become much smaller without the individual being aware of such. The skin would be constructed out of paper or cardboard, enveloping the whole head much like a helmet but with a tighter fit. The three options explore as to what degree this would be done. The loose net skin would be more akin to a spider’s net, but far more abstracted in pattern with varying densities depending on the location. This would still allow the majority of the senses to remain unobstructed, creating little or no effect. The flexible woven skin would take the same concept, but with wider, more concentrated bans in a more rigid structure. In this case, the majority of the senses would be blocked out. On the extreme end is the expand and compress skin which use various triangular panels joined together with each of the panels expressing a n expand or compress pattern. The skin would be thick enough to heavily suppress or completely block the senses, not only completely altering the individual’s concept of space but also potentially creating a heavy emotional response. Fig. 29 - Option A Concept Sketches.

12


IDEATION : WEEK TWO 1.9 SECOND SKIN : OPTION B Option B explores limiting solely sight using the phrase ‘don’t judge a book by its cover’. As human beings, we’re innately judgmental of first impressions and how one presents themselves to others. By limiting sight, it is hoped that this would limit its effect on personal space between to individuals. The mesh band creates a gauze like skin around the eyes, creating a distorted view of the world. This works much like a camera out of focus, blurring out all the sharper details and leaving only a soft mix of colors visible to the human eye. The pattern used for this would be small and intricate, making use of multiple layers of paper. The ‘holed’ band would have multiple opens in a random distribution along the band, leaving limited openings for sight. This would heavily manipulate field of vision for the wearer, leaving them without the ability to glance to the side. The solid band works much like the third idea for Option A wherein a series of interlocking plates block sight completely over a heavy skin. This would require a heavy dependence on other senses to compensate. Social interactions within personal space would be especially impeded upon as a result. Fig. 30 - Option C Concept Sketches.

13

1.0


IDEATION : WEEK TWO

1.0 1.9 SECOND SKIN OPTION C Option C explores the notions of personal space differently to Option A and B in that no senses are particularly limited, but rather the effect on personal space is more dependent on the person who is interacting with the individual. Much like in Option B, this relies on first impressions and appearances. Different patterns and colors convey different feelings and reactions. Using inspiration from a Japanese Noh mask, a particular pattern would be placed on the mask to convey a particular presence towards others. The first pattern is irregular and curved, flowing along the mask in concentric waves. This would be done using wet paper folding techniques. The pattern is intended to convey a sense of enigmaticness and confusion. The second one uses sharp angular lines to create a heavy and imposing feel. This idea is similar to ones seen in Options A and B but instead uses multiple layers of panelling to convey this, as well as to give weight to the mask’s appearance. The modular pattern would use a regular tessellating pattern to present a mundane and unassuming appearance with the intention to be deceiving to those approaching the individual. The pattern would be created in modular panels that would be joined together using an interlocking system. Fig. 31 - Option B Concept Sketches.

14


IDEATION : REFERENCES Hall, Edward T. 1966. The Hidden Dimension. 1st Ed. N.P. Doubleday.

15

1.0


MODULE TWO DESIGN GROUP COMPONENT | JACINDA ANTONIA 622256 | DANIEL FORRESTER 640358 | MITCHELL SU 660192


DESIGN : WEEK THREE

2.0

2.1 DIGITIZATION Fig. 32 - 123D Catch Digitized Human Form Model.

For our digital model developed through 123D Catch, we used Jacinda as our model. The final product delivered a somewhat quasi-accurate form that showed results best on the upper half of the body as a result of Jacinda’s checkered top. Small refinements were made to smoothen out parts of the model produced by 123D Catch but not it was not possible to remove all foreign protrusions from the model. 17


DESIGN : WEEK THREE

2.0

2.2 CONCEPTUALIZING IDEAS

Fig. 33 - Observation of Snail.

Fig. 34 - Wearable Geometry (Hrustic 2010).

Fig. 35 - Paper-based Fashion Accessory (Veasyble 2010).

At the beginning, our inspiration to define personal space came from the notion of a shell’s snail. The idea is that the shell is the personal space of the snail itself, a home in every sense for it. The snail carries it everywhere on its back and whenever it feels danger or is threatened, it will retreat back into it to remain hidden

In the fashion world, it was observed that the use of the material systems of panel and fold along with section and extrude have been applied before in a wearable form.

Another item of wearable geometry found somewhat addressed the ideas of personal space as explored before by limiting sensory perception under a shell.

As shown above, a simple and modular geometric form has been used in a pattern then abstracted with variables and changes to create a more complex and unusual appearance. The use of paper or cardboard as the principle material lends the design a rigid and somewhat solid material quality that isn’t normally seen in fabrics.

The accessory uses a section extrude kind of materials system that relies on a concertina mechanism to create a blind fold that covers the eyes like a shell. The use of a concertina is interesting in that this provides an otherwise static and rigid pattern with a mechanism to move and change with the body. However in saying such, this would be difficult to implement at a larger scale whilst still producing a stable design.

Drawing from that, we determined that our second skin should convey a sense of territory. We also thought about the idea of second skin that is portable and is responsive and dynamic to the situation at hand. This is because we feel that personal space is not something that remains static, but rather changes according to an individual’s mood. For example, sometimes we feel the need to socialize with others in some instances, require privacy.

18


DESIGN : WEEK THREE

2.0

2.2 EXPERIMENTATION Fig. 36 - Paper Filter Digitization and Patterning Experimentation.

Then initial prototype drew from one of our group member’s, Daniel’s idea and his abstraction of a paper filter. This involved digitizing the abstracted paper filter into Rhino and then multiplying it into an array or pattern. The digitized model of the object produced an item that was rather crude in appearance. The sides were too angular and lacked the subtle softness of paper. The object was then stacked and arranged on top and beside each other, creating a more voluminous form. Another option trialled was mixing the same object together with different sized versions of it. This produced a curvature that could be used to produce a curved plane for the concept of a second skin. This reflects on another idea to use tessellating origami to take advantage of the panel and fold system in our design for the second skin prototype. Unfortunately, Rhino lacks the finesse and malleability to make something that represents origami in a digitized form. 19


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.5 INITIAL PROTOTYPING Far Left: Fig. 37 - Stacked Module Arrangement Prototype. Center Left: Fig. 38 - Tiled Module Arrangement Prototype. Center Right: Fig. 39 - Reversed Stacked Module Arrangement Prototype. Far Right: Fig. 40 - Whole Context Clay Model Prototype.

In the tutorial this week, initial prototyping of the group concept involved manipulating the arrangement and use of a single simple module into a more complex and meaningful arrangement. This resulted in expanding the paper filters and their folded properties all while adapting it to the notions of section and profile. Initially, the modules were just stacked one on top of the others, resulting in a form that resembled the profile of a pine tree. This form proved to be not so flexible and offered little possibilities of expanding it to a larger context. In the next prototype, tiling the modules produced a spherical form that could be folded

2.0

quite easily into a more compact shape. The prototype showed much potential in being extended upon more as the current form factor of it is still much too close to being just a sphere. Potential extensions to this prototype could include more irregular patterning arrangements and introducing varyingly sized modules into the tiles.

the potential to become too overpowering and remove the intention of creating an item that focuses on the personal space of the individual, instead drawing all intention to the second skin.

In the third prototype, different sizes as well as reversed stacking were introduced into the arrangement. This ultimately produced a diamond-esque form that had more complex forms but it too also proved to be inflexible in creating more complex arrangements. For the clay model prototype, this was merely to give a sense of the context and the volume the second skin could potentially occupy. Based on observations, it seems that the concept our group is going after would create a very imposing and heavy appearance. While not undesirable, it has 20


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR 2.5 EXPANSION ON INITIAL PROTOTYPING Right: Fig. 41 - Prototype 1. Far Right: Fig. 42 - Prototype 2.

From the observations that were gathered with the initial prototypes, two ideas were formed. The first was to create a back shell composed of spike shaped protrusions created by stacking the paper modules. The intention is to create a protective back cover that shields the wearer from unwanted interactions since it is difficult to know what is happening from the behind - a compensation of the limits of our field of vision essentially. The second was to create a protective shell around the user that could be a mobile shelter. This was done by extending on the observation that the paper modules could be tessellated into a pattern that subtly develops a slight curvature as it is expanded. This would create a new zone of personal space that effectively isolates the wearer from the exterior environment.

21

2.0


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0 2.5 PRELIMINARY PROTOTYPE 1 Top Left: Fig. 43 - Top View. Top Middle: Fig. 44 - Side View. Bottom: Fig. 45 - Isometric View.

This design looks at the idea of tessellating 1 panel to create interesting shapes. This idea goes back to the original inspiration of a spiky shell that can fold in and out. Consisting of 115 panels, the centre spine connects the main shell shield to the body of the design. This spine has 4 large spikes along it extruding approximately 12 cm back. These spines are designed to protect the back, most vulnerable region of personal space, by scarring off potential threats like a porcupine. Â The back shield consists of 652 panels, half the size of the ones on the main spine. This shield acts as a protective shell to further protect the wearer/ user and give them piece of mind that the most vulnerable part of their personal space is protected.

22


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0 2.5 PRELIMINARY PROTOTYPE 2 Top: Fig. 46 - Front View. Bottom Left: Fig. 47 - Pattern Detail. Bottom Right: Fig. 48- Individual Module.

This design builds upon the idea of a snail shell by creating a foldable system that expands into a aspherical shape that covers the whole body with the exception of the legs. The prototype was constructed using newspaper cut into circles and folded into the same shape as in prototype one. However, the difference in the design is in which how the pieces are arranged. Three pieces are arranged initially in what looks like a rose and then joined together with other modules to create a spherical arrangement. This eventually produces a shell that can be folded and compacted into a smaller volume that occupies significantly less space than when it is expanded.

23


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0

2.6 DESIGN PRECEDENTS

This has been further extended by making the shell more practical wherein it is a collapsable structure. The shell addresses personal space by creating an individual space from everything else when the bag is unfolded. These design precedents both in fashion and in nature have led to the culmination of a concept under the materials system of panel and folded, along with section and profile.

The design precedents for this concept is not only represented in experimental fashion concepts but also within the way evolution has progressed in nature. This begins with how organisms have evolved to have shells that are not only a means of protection, but also a mobile ‘home’ for all intents and purposes. The snail has a generally very smooth and soft body that is exceedingly fragile. As a result of this, evolutionary adaptations have caused the snail to develop a shell that prevents them from drying out and also serves as an exoskeleton.

Fig. 50 - Geometric Paper Dress (Hrustic 2010)

In the photo above, a dress using a geometric pattern has been constructed from thick paper. By changing the geometry on an individual basis, it’s possible to create a curved form from rigid shapes. The paper in this instance takes form of a shell - a protective layer like with a shell.

The concept entails creating a second skin that encapsulates the user and separates them from the existing space by forming new boundaries that outline a more intimate and personal space. By adding a foldable or dynamic element, the second skin is then made more responsive to the needs of the wearer.

Fig. 49 Snail in Idle Position (No Name, N.D.)

When threatened or in hibernation, a snail will retreat back into its shell as a response to its personal space being invaded. This leads onto how this idea of a mobile shelter is applied in fashion. As talked about earlier, the use of paper in origami for its modular properties and sharp, crisp qualities have also been explored considerably. This ties in well with the material systems of panel and fold as well as section and profile - both of which are being explored in the concept.

Fig. 51 - Foldable Paper Shell (Veasyble 2010)

24


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0 2.8 SHANGHAI EXPO UK PAVILION Fig. 52 - UK Pavilion (Xia 2010).

The UK Pavilion at the Shanghai Expo in 2010 was designed by Thomas Heatherwick and used design to manipulate light and movement to create an organic and humanistic effect to how the building presents itself. The structure of the UK Pavilion appears to be a cuboid form with numerous stick protruding from the surface. Within it, the sticks protrude inside as well and play a key role in the overall design of the building. The human mind has an affinity to the effects put to play by light. The temperature, or color along with the patterns and intensity of light have an adverse affect on human behavior. These changes occur due to alterations of biochemical processes within the body. This can be the difference between an active and tired mind (Siemens, 2013). Heatherwick has played this to the UK Pavilion’s advantage by creating an interplay of light that integrates with the surrounding area of the pavilion. This creates dynamic lighting conditions that portray a continuous and seamless link to the environment outside while still maintaining a sense of territory. This is done by using acrylic rods that suspend seeds in the center that act as giant optical fiber lines that transmit light into the structure. The light portrayed inside is completely dependent on the weather conditions outside and the time of the day as well. Weather such as a cloudy day would be represented in a nuanced pattern inside by virtue of this lighting effect. 25


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0

The second key effect to the UK Pavilion’s design is the use of movement to create a sense of the organic traits of the structure. Each of the rods on the structure are not in a fixed position and can be influenced strongly by weather patterns. When the exterior conditions are windy, the rods will quiver ever so slightly, with the intensity of the movement depending largely on how strong the force of the wind is. This responsive method of designing the building lends itself an organic appearance to what is otherwise a very stark and artificial structure. It is important to note that a key aspect of Heatherwick’s designs are that there is a notion of how design is not developed in a vacuum, but rather needs to maintain a symbiosis with the environment surrounding it. Paying sympathetic attention to the context is and being true to the physical and intrinsic qualities of a material can enhance that effect. This will be further explored in relation to the readings and conclusions from both physical and digital prototypes developed so far. Top Middle: Fig. 53 - Interior Fixture Detail (Xia 2010). Top Right: Fig. 54 - Exterior Fixture Detail (Xia 2010). Bottom: Fig. 55 - Interior of UK Pavilion (Xia 2010).

26


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.8 LOST IN PARAMETER SPACE? Fig. 56 - Kilden Performing Arts Center Roof Model (Scheurer and Stehling 2011).

In this week’s reading, the concept of abstraction in digitizing physical objects was brought into question, leading to a term called abstraction. Abstraction is broken into two key types; normalization and reduction. Normalization is wherein redundancies in a set of data are removed to reduce the total entropy present whereas reduction concerns itself on creating the most optimal set of instructions whilst producing the same end result. Both rely on turning chaos and randomness into a set of rules and trends that can be easily represented with raw numerical figures. In the figure above, the roof of Kilden Performing Arts Center in Norway is modeled along a set of points that could be physically plotted onto a system of coordinates. The undulating curves of a roof have been simplified by extrapolating a formula from the set of coordinates, creating an easy to analyze digital visualization whilst retaining the desired precision for construction. As we can see, when creating such a design through CAD, abstraction is the most optimal way to bring order to what is perceived to be chaos and randomness, resulting in a more tangible form overall.

27


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0

For a design like Shigeru Ban’s Haesley Nine Bridges Golf Clubhouse, the use of abstraction works particularly well because there are a well defined and highly visible set of rules that can be derived from the building’s roof and column structure. This simplifies the process of creating a structurally sound support system for the building, resulting in a high level of efficiencies. However, the real problem lies with a design that relies on a more organic and physical approach. With the prototype two model, the pattern was derived by repeating a tessellation with origami and gluing these segments together. In a CAD program, this is arguably difficult to recreate as the conventional laws of physics do not apply here. Using abstraction to display each and every subtle fold in a digital model was found to be exceedingly difficult and tedious, hence no digital model could be recreated. Given the current level of technological advancements in CAD, this marks the limits of abstraction of a physical form into the digital world - wherein the methodical system of 3D modeling cannot realistically compete with the malleable ingenuity of the human hand. Fig. 57 - Roof Detail of Haesley Nine Bridges Golf Clubhouse. Fig. 58 - Pattern Detail of Prototype 2 Model.

28


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.8 PANEL & FOLD Fig. 59 - Paper Filter Abstraction.

Our materials system for our design is centered around panel and fold. This was interpreted as the malleability and modularity of a material which in this case was well represented by paper/cardboard. This initially began with measuring and observing the qualities of a paper coffee filter and then investigating what could be done with it. The key observation developed from that was how paper has a very crisp and rigid quality that when grouped together properly, can be extrapolated into a tessellating pattern that is structurally stable and highly scaleable. 29


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0 2.9 WHAT IS PERSONAL SPACE? Top: Fig. 60 - Instance Where Personal Space is at a Premium (Dat 2011).

Our group has defined personal space essentially as what we mark as our zone of interaction. This zone of interaction is where the majority of social interactions occur witch each of these having emotional and physical reactions. Personal space is not only about the physical space you feel comfortable having other people entering, but also possesses sight and aural components. For example, loud environments as well as the scrutiny perceived by people staring at you can also cause individuals to feel as if their personal space is being compromised. Within a crowded train, the reality is that you are clustered with over 200 other commuters in a small aluminium tube that limits physical space, causing discomfort. Despite this fact, people often find it hard to look somewhere where there isn’t another person, unless they are occupying a window seat. This leads to uncomfortable gazes that further add to the uncomfortable tension of within a train.

30


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE 2.10 DESIGN BRIEF Middle: Fig. 61 - Volumemetric Prototype. Top Right: Fig. 62 - Paper Prototyping. Bottom Right: Fig. 63 - Paper Prototyping.

- Materials System - Panel and Fold - Possibly Profile and Section - Physical Materials - Must be paper, cardboard or similar - Function - Creates a mobile shell - Creates an internal personal space isolated from the rest of the world - Is protective (in the figurative and emotional sense) - Dynamic (moving) form - Changes in response to the user’s context and needs - Aesthetics - Occupies the majority of the body when in full use - Clean lines and forms - Conveys a sense of purity and sanctitude - Appearance of safety

31

2.0


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.10 CONCEPTS AND PRECEDENTS A significant amount of inspiration came from the snail in terms of to defining personal space. The idea is that the shell of a snail is the personal space of the snail itself. The snail is a very fragile creature, possessing a very soft and weak body that can be easily harmed. However, to compensate for this, they have evolved to develop shells to protect themselves with. The snail carries the shell on its back and will retreat back into it given any sign of endangerment or of a threat. The snail conveys a sense of home with its use of personal space. Fig. 64 - Observation of Snail.

The use of paper in origami is highly effective due to its modular properties and sharp, crisp qualities. These aspects have been explored considerably and even applied in a more wearable form. The beautiful part of tessellating modular origami is how by introducing a range of variables into a pattern, it is possible to create a curved form from rigid shapes. This can result in a closed form suitable for creating form that possesses considerable occupied volume as shown in the fashion piece in Figure 67. Fig. 67 - Wearable Geometry (Hrustic 2010).

Another wearable fashion concept is the possibilities of a compact and mobile shelter. As shown in Figure 68, a compact and foldable has been reduced to the size of a medium sized bag but can then be expanded to a larger portable shelter on demand. A responsive design such as this is highly desirable as it creates a dynamic form that displays a sense of conscientiousness to the context at hand and the various form personal space can take. Fig. 68 - Foldable Paper Shell (Veasyble 2010),

32


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.11 PRELIMINARY IDEA Fig. 69 - Paper Filter Digitization and Patterning Experimentation.

Our preliminary idea derived from these precedents and concepts was the application of them into the materials system of panel and fold. The coffee filter abstraction developed by Daniel was digitized and a pattern came through from this. It was observed by introducing the concept of variables to a constant pattern that an aspherical shape began to take form. This resulted in four different objects that used the same base module. The next step was over how to develop this into a larger scale format that could be used in a second skin. 33


DESIGN : WEEK FOUR

2.0

2.11 PRELIMINARY PROTOTYPING

The first prototype with individual modules was created by stacking. This produced a long spike shaped form likened to that of a pine tree. Unfortunately, it had little flexibility in terms of tessellation beyond a vertical direction and was deemed ineffective. Fig. 70 - Stacked Module Arrangement Prototype.

The next one attempted was to tile the modules together from edge to edge. This produced a spherical shape much like in the preliminary idea. This proved to be a highly desirable idea as further experimentation showed plenty of promise when scaled and tessellated in multiple directions. Fig. 71 - Tiled Module Arrangement Prototype.

Another attempt to make the stacking pattern work by stacking in alternate directions did nothing to improve the potential of the concept compared to the spherical prototype (Figure 71). Fig. 72 - Reversed Stacked Module Arrangement Prototype.

A separate, fourth prototype was attempted to observe the impact of the form on a larger whole-body scale. The end result created a very imposing and heavy appearance form that has the potential to become too overpowering and remove the intention of creating a second skin that focuses on the personal space of the individual Fig. 73 - Whole Context Clay Model Prototype.

34


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.12 PRELIMINARY PROTOTYPE 1 Fig. 74 - Preliminary Prototype 1.

The idea of tessellating a single module is used here to create interesting forms. This idea goes back to the original inspiration of a spiky shell that can fold in and out. The centre spine connects the main shell shield to the body of the design with four large spikes along it. These spines are designed to protect the back, most vulnerable region of personal spaces. The back shield consists of multiple panels, half the size of the ones on the main spine. This shield acts as a protective shell to further protect the user and give them piece of mind that the most vulnerable part of their personal space is protected. 35


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.12 PRELIMINARY PROTOTYPE 2 Fig. 75 - Preliminary Prototype 2.

The prototype was constructed using newspaper cut into circles and folded into the same shape as in prototype one. Three pieces are arranged into triangular modules that somewhat resemble flowers and then arranged into more complex arrays inspired by buckyballs. The various polygons produced by tessellating the modules are what produce the necessary variations to create a slight curvature in the surface which would then eventually close into a spherical form like in Figure 71. 36


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE 2.12 FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS

Fig. 76 - Prototype 2 Further Development Sketch.

37

2.0


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

2.12 FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS

Fig. 77 - Prototype 2 Further Development Digital Prototype.

38


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE 2.13 FINAL DIGITAL PROTOTYPE

Fig. 78 - Final Digital Prototype.

39

2.0


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0 2.13 FINAL PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE Top: Fig. 79 - Top View. Bottom Left: Fig. 80 - Topside Pattern Detail. Bottom Right: Fig. 81- Front View.

The final physical prototype is a refinement of Preliminary Prototype 2. The material used is a higher GSM paper rather than newspaper as this proved to be too unstable at a large scale. The overall form as shown in Figures 76-78, is meant to be a large spherical shell that opens and closes. In a closed state, the shell is intended to be worn on the back like a backpack and carried around similar to how a snail carries its own shell on its back. When being used, the shell can be closed to create a safe, solid and enclosed space that effectively shuts the wearer from the outside world. Personal space is addressed in this design in that the shell is meant to be a sort of refuge, a mobile shelter where the wearer can mark their own territory and have clearly defined boundaries of what is their own personal space. This creates a sense of safety and security not found in public places as a result of the constant public scrutiny placed on individuals on a daily basis.

40


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

Fig. 82 - Underside Pattern Detailing.

41

2.0


DESIGN : WEEK FIVE

2.0

Fig. 83 - Topside Pattern Detailing.

42


DESIGN : REFERENCES

2.0

Dat. 2011. Crowded. Image. Accessed September 4 2013. http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2769/4438368580_22f5d82b7b_o.jpg Hrustic. Amile. 2010. Platonic Geometry. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.likecool.com/Style/Design/Wearable%20geometry/Wearablegeometry.jpg Hrustic. Amile. 2010. Platonic Geometry. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.likecool.com/Style/Design/Wearable%20geometry/Wearablegeometry_2.jpg Gizmodo. 2012. Untitled. Image. Accessed August 20 2013. http://img.gawkerassets.com/img/17g95iw82excsjpg/xlarge.jpg No Name. N.D. Untitled. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.vanderlee.com/plugins/filteroptix/speeding_snail_-_before.jpg Scheurer, Fabian and Stehling, Hanno. 2011. Lost in Parameter Space?. IAD: Architectural Design. Wiley. 81(4). July. Pages 70-79. Shigeru, Ban. 2010. Haesley Nine Bridges Golf Clubhouse. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WmCij8urTaU/UGmUaLN9ZtI/ AAAAAAAAJ1A/ybQAaob_M9c/s1600/Haesley+nine+bridges+golf+clubhouse+by+Shigeru+Ban09.jpg Siemens. 2013. Light Has an Impact on Human Well-Being. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.healthcare.siemens.com/accessories-oem-equipment/ lighting-solutions/lighting-psychology/light Veasyble. 2010. Untitled. Image. Accessed August 20 2013. http://www.veasyble.com/IMM/Imm20.gif Veasyble. 2010. Untitled. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/veasyble-vert.jpg Xia, Charlie. 2010. UK Pavilion. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/49747573@N05/4585150911/ Xia, Charlie. 2010. UK Pavilion. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/49747573@N05/4585974508/ Xia, Charlie. 2010. UK Pavilion. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/49747573@N05/4585240257/ Xia, Charlie. 2010. UK Pavilion. Image. Accessed August 27 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/49747573@N05/4585791050/

43


MODULE THREE DESIGN GROUP COMPONENT | JACINDA ANTONIA 622256 | DANIEL FORRESTER 640358 | MITCHELL SU 660192


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX 2.9 FEEDBACK FROM MODULE TWO Fig. 84 - Paper Prototype.

Feedback from Module Two suggested that a less rigid form should be approached to the final design of the second skin prosthetic. Rather than a shell, the outermost layer of the prosthetic would take form of a membrane that changes shape due to an underlying layer. The reasoning for this is that paper has a more flexible and free form nature that should be taken advantage of. With the current design this would not happen and the material would remain completely rigid. Underneath, the use of inflatables is to be investigated to create this dynamic layer that is desired.

45

3.0


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX

3.0

Fig. 85 - Front and Side View of Revised Design.

46


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX

Fig. 86 - Front and Side View of Revised Design in Rhino.

47

3.0


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX

3.0

3.1 FURTHER REFINING OF PAPER PROTOTYPES

The first refinement of the paper prototypes was to use 170 gsm paper which was double the thickness of the paper used in the previous prototype

The 170 gsm paper proved to work quite well, with the paper providing good flexibility whilst maintaining a sense of stability in terms of its structure.

The second refinement considered was 250gsm ivorycard. This is over triple the density of the prototype’s material and is cardboard instead of just the usual paper.

Although the 250gsm ivorycard was very stable and scaled quite well to larger sizes, the ivorycard was far too rigid and heavy to use as a potential refinement.

Fig. 87 - 170 GSM Prototype.

Fig. 88 - 170 GSM Prototype.

Fig. 89 - 250 GSM Ivorycard Prototype.

Fig. 90 - 250 GSM Ivorycard Prototype..

48


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX

3.0

3.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFLATABLES

49

Fig. 91 - Standard Aircraft Life Vest (No Name N.D.).

Fig. 92 - Paintball gun air tank (No Name N.D.).

Fig. 93 - Origami ball.

The first idea for incorporating an inflatable structure to support our panel system was to use the rapid fill principle, similar to that in an aircraft life jacket. These life jackets work by puncturing a canister filled with CO2. The gas expands to fill a bladder inside the jacket making it buoyant.

The second idea we had was to use a portable air tank, similar to one used to power a paintball gun. Storing more air at a higher pressure means not only will the user be able to get more uses per tank than a small pressurized CO2 tank but will inflate even quicker.

The third idea we had was to use a paper balloon, made using origami. This has several advantages over the previous two ideas.

We liked this idea as the bladder inflates almost instantly, this could work quite well in or shell/ shield idea to inflate very quickly during times when feeling threatened. CO2 cylinders are quite cheap, however they would have to be replaced after each use which would make the user less inclined to use the feature due to the setup requirements for them to use it.

The biggest problem with this idea is the added weight of carrying around a tank weighing a couple of kilos and the fact that paintball gun air tanks are very difficult to source in this country as private ownership of these weapons is illegal.

Firstly, this idea is much closely related to our main material system (panel and fold), this means the design will look more harmonized rather than having two completely different elements conflicting with each other. Secondly, these balloons do not require air pressure to keep them inflated due to the nature of the structure once unfolded. These balloons require a bit of effort to deflate however this gets easy as the paper wears.


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX

3.0

3.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFLATABLES

Fig. 94 - 190 GSM Paper Balloon.

Fig. 95 - Regular 80 GSM Paper, A3 Paper Balloon.

After having trouble with regular paper not being able to cope with either rain or humidity we looked at assembling a balloon out of thicker paper (190 GSM). The thicker paper ought to fair better against bad weather however there were also a few problems with this.

After a successful A4 prototype, we decided to up size to A3 to determine whether the structural integrity of the object would hold at larger scales, the A3 prototype is not quite yet big enough for the size we need for our design however the rigidity of this prototype makes an A2 and A1 prototypes look promising.

Firstly, the paper is incredibly hard to fold making it hard to neatly crease the paper when approaching the finished product. Secondly, the paper is rather weak along the crease lines (evident by the masking tape on the top of the balloon) and with repeated use the balloon would wear very quickly in comparison to regular paper.

After having trouble with the A4 190 GSM prototype, it would probably be beneficial to attempt an A3 version to see whether the structural weaknesses translate on a larger scale.

50


FABRICATION : WEEK SIX 3.2 ARCHITECTURE IN THE DIGITAL AGE Fig. 96 & 97 -Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (Arch Daily 2013).

Digital fabrication processes are very much about the translation of traditional handmade processes into a set of readable and simplified digital coordinates that can mean easier fabrication through automation. Two dimension fabrication can involve a laser cutter or card cutter for example and creates precise flat piece assemblies that create a volumed form after assembly. It is especially useful for creating the same piece repetitively on a mass scale. Subtractive fabrication involves tools like a CNC milling machine which progressively removes material from a single block, producing a more detailed object from it. This is ideal for creating multiple customized parts on a large scale. Additive fabrication, as the name suggests, involves adding progressively to an object to create a volumed form. An example for this is a 3D printer which works as an opposite alternative to a CNC milling machine.

51

2.0


FABRICATION : WEEK SEVEN

2.0 3.3 FURTHER PRECEDENTS Top: Fig. 98 - Scorpion Fish (Best Recipes Collection 2013). Bottom Left: Fig. 99 - Mimosa Pudica Idle State (Vincentz 2008). Bottom Right: Fig. 100- Mimosa Pudica Provoked State (Porse 2007).

Our design precedents for second skin were based on the idea of snail’s shell. However, based on the feedback we received from the previous module, we want to further develop our idea beyond the shape of sphere. So we started to take a look for other possibilities that might give us an idea on how we want to develop our second skin. Our first inspiration is from the Scorpion fish, it is really interesting how it protects itself from harm by its spines. We think that this might be an interesting idea as this also describes the idea of a second skin as protection. At this time this does not relate to the snail’s shall which does not only functions as a protector but also provides its own personal space. The next inspiration taken from the plant ‘Mimosa Pudica’ or also called the Sensitive Plant. This plant will close its leaves if it is touched or shaken. We came with an idea that instead of closing off whenever feeling threatened, the shell will pop out whenever the user feels in danger or whenever needed. We are thinking of a shell that will give a direct reaction when an event is occurring and when it is needed. But again, the group still thinking on how this idea could be applied.

52


FABRICATION : WEEK SEVEN

3.0

3.3 PAPER PROTOTYPES WITH RHINO Fig. 101 - Tessellation tile for Rhino model.

Prototyping the geometry of the pattern of the paper prototype proved to be rather difficult, especially in regards of finding a means of tessellating the pattern in rhino. The original pattern is a ring composed of six modules joined together to create a circular arrangement. This circular arrangement is then joined together at other points to produce a continuous membrane. In order to digitize the pattern, a sample of the membrane had to be created individually and then a tessellating tile extracted from it. The end result created a rectangular tile that could be used in conjunction with panelling tools in Rhino.

53


FABRICATION : WEEK SEVEN

3.0

3.4 PROTOTYPING INFLATABLES

Fig. 102 - Beach Ball Prototype.

Fig. 103 - Weld and Stitch Seam.

Fig. 104 - Clear Plastic Beach Ball Prototype.

The idea here was to create a spherical shape inflatable to support our paper tessellation skin. For this we looked at the idea behind the construction of a beach ball and tried to replicate it using plastic welding techniques.

The weld stitch was very effective however some of the stitches didn’t quite seal completely leaving little holes for air to escape. However as this is designed to be a constant inflate inflatable, small leaks in the odd weld stitch are acceptable.

The final prototype for this design was made from slightly thicker, clear plastic. This plastic did not melt very well and as result, even with weld stitching, the seams just fell apart.

Through the creation of this first prototype weaknesses started to appear. The problem was the final seam, due to the nature of the shape this made the seam lines a different shape to the template as the ends were under tension. This meant that the final seam had to be done by hand increasing the risk of stuffing up the seam and writing off the prototype.

Even if the seams were to stand up to construction as well as inflation, the total weight of the paper tessellated pattern is over 1 kg. This means that these inflatables would need around 3-5 psi of air in order to support the load. Not only is this a lot of strain on the seams but the amount of air required to fill all 12 inflatable would exceed the capacity of 17 fully charged air compressors.

54


FABRICATION : WEEK EIGHT

3.0

3.7 STEP ONE - CUTTING INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS Fig. 107 - Card Cutter Component File.

The individual components of the membrane consist of circular pieces of 170GSM paper that have been etched in the center to ease the folding process. The membrane requires 1458 pieces altogether for assembly.

55


FABRICATION : WEEK EIGHT

3.0

3.7 STEP TWO - FOLDING COMPONENTS INTO MODULES

Fig. 108 - Unfolded Paper Component.

Fig. 109 - Folded Paper Component.

Fig. 110 - Assembled Paper Module.

The paper components are folded on the lines of the etching created from the card cutter. Each of the etch lines are to be placed on the interior of the component.

The paper components are then pinched together to create the final form of the paper component. Each side is folded along the creases again to ensure each side is perpendicular to each other.

To p r o d u c e t h e p a p e r m o d u l e , t h r e e components are required. The sides of each component are glued together on side in a triangular arrangement. These modules are to be used in the final assembly to create various combinations of parts.

56


FABRICATION : WEEK EIGHT

3.0

3.7 STEP THREE - CREATING VARIOUS COMPONENTS

The first component required is the ring arrangement in the very first layer. This will serve as the starting point of the whole membrane. Fig. 111 - Initial Ring Component.

The one piece components are the same as the individual module and requires no further assembly. Fig. 112 - One Piece Component.

The two piece component requires two models and is assembled together at the edges in a rectangular arrangement. Fig. 113 - Two Piece Component.

The three piece component is composed of three pieces joined together in an arc arrangement and is joined at the edges. The two and three piece components are to be assembled as they are required. Fig. 114 - Three Piece Components.

57


FABRICATION : WEEK EIGHT

3.0

3.7 STEP FOUR - FINAL ASSEMBLY OF MEMBRANE Fig. 115 - Membrane Assembly

Beginning with the Initial Ring Component, the components are attached as concentric rings around it. The rings are progressively added onto the membrane, resulting in nine concentric rings. The components are attached to the Initial Ring Component using glue on the edges and clipped together using bulldog clips until set and dried.

58


FABRICATION : WEEK NINE 3.7 STEP FIVE - INFLATABLE LAYER Fig. 116 - Inflatable Layer.

The inflatable layer placed on the base of the second skin is composed of five separate panels that are attached together. They are to be assembled using the stitch and weld method as shown earlier in prototyping. In terms of inflating the layer, a leaf blower had to be used as a simple miniature air compressor did not produce enough pressure to maintain the panels as needed.

59

3.0


FABRICATION : WEEK NINE

3.0

Fig. 117- Paper Membrane Detail Photos.

60


FABRICATION : WEEK NINE

Fig. 118 - Paper Membrane Detail.

61

3.0


FABRICATION : WEEK NINE

3.0

Fig. 119 - Paper Membrane Detail.

62


FABRICATION : WEEK NINE

Fig. 120 - Paper Membrane Detail.

63

3.0


FABRICATION : REFERENCES

3.0

Arch Daily. 2013. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Image. Accessed October 9 2013. http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/08/521fa052e8e44eb94a000034_ad-classics-the-guggenheim-museum-bilbao-frank-gehry_flickr_user_rong8888-528x352.jpg Arch Daily. 2013. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Image. Accessed October 9 2013. http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/08/521fa097e8e44eb94a000038_ad-classics-the-guggenheim-museum-bilbao-frank-gehry_flickr_user_dbaron-528x353.jpg Porce. 2007. Mimosa Pudica. Image. Accessed October 9 2013. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Mimosa-pudica-post.jpg Tasty Dishes. N.D. Untitled. Image. Accessed October 9 2013. http://tasty-dishes.com/data_images/encyclopedia/scorpion-fish/scorpion-fish-02.jpg Vincentz. 2008. Mimosa Pudica. Image. Accessed October 9 2013. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Mimosa_pudica_02_ies.jpg

43

64


Virtual Environments M1-M3 Submission  
Virtual Environments M1-M3 Submission  
Advertisement