AIR MITCHELL BRADY
STUDENT JOURNAL MITCHELL BRADY:587149 SEMESTER 1,2014 TUTORS: FINNIAN WARNOCK & VICTOR MILNES 2
Hi, my name is Mitchell Brady and I am a third year Bachelor of Environments student majoring in architecture at the University of Melbourne. I have had a strong affiliation with design in particular architecture since a young age. This is in part due to being apart of a property family, where since an early stage, I have had the opportunity to view many different properties. Having seen many properties, I gained a strong interest in the design principles and functionality of each property, which has ultimately driven my motivation and interest to be an architect. I was fortunate enough to have undertaken exchange for one semester at the University of Manchester. My time at Manchester University allowed me to do extensive travel around the United Kingdom and also visit many other European countries where i was able to gain an appreciation for the different styles of
Architecture on offer, ranging from Roman times to modernist architecture. In particular, one of my favourite places whilst aborad was Venice. I was particularly interested from an Architectural standpoint how the city operated, seeing as it is a city built on water. My design work to date has largely been based around hand drawings, Google sketchup, Auto CAD and the introduction to Rhino. I endeavour to establish a greater understanding of Rhino and Grasshopper throughout this subject, that will ultimately fulfil this subjects requirements and also to allow me to continue my studies of Architecture through completing my major.
CONTENTS: A1 Design Futuring A.1.1 Design Precedent A.1.2 Design Precedent A2 Design Computation A3 Composition/Generation A4 Conclusion A5 Learning outcomes A6 Algorithmic Sketches
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING:
It is evident that humanityâ€™s notions and attitudes with design have not be in the best interests of our earth. For too long, the attitudes towards our planet have been egocentric and ultimately destroying (1)It is evident that we have as a society have been destructing our environment through continuing to live beyond our means in terms of building sustainability to where we are at a point now we can no longer assume that we have a future (2). It has come to the point where these problems can no longer be ignored. Humanity has been in ecological overshoot where the annual demand on resources has been exceeding what the earth can regenerate each year(3). The problem has become so alarming that the planets renewable resources are being used at a rate of 25 percent faster than they can renewed (4) Therefore, it is critically important that we address these issues by getting people to change their actions and actually admit that change needs to occur. Changing public mentality must be at the forefront of our international agenda.
This is where , contrary to popular belief, that design holds the answer to a more sustainable and viable future. To go about this, change needs to happen in what and how we design. Currently there is a huge gap between urgently needed action and the current availability of the means to create (5) More significantly it is the challenge of creating appropriate technologies at the scale that is needed to make a real change. (6) The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) is an excellent example about how we can go about making a real change, starting off at a small scale. We intend on focusing on a particular sector of green energy through focusing on the generation of wind energy. Whilst our project will be on a small scale, it has the potential to generate awareness, and initiate much more radical thought and action. If we are able to achieve these goals, then hopefully the outlook for ourselves and for future generations will be more secure and prosperous.
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING:
Figure 1: Earth from Equatorial GSO
DESIGN PRECEDENT 1.1: IKAROS SOLAR HOUSE, ROSENHEIM, GERMANY
The Ikaros Solar House in Rosenheim, Germany, is a solar powered residence designed by the University of Applied sciences in Rosenheim (7)The house was an entry into the Solar Decathlon competition in Europe. The competition is an international competition that promotes research in the development of efficient houses (8) The criteria for the competition is to produce a house that is easy to live in, maintains comfortable and healthy indoor environmental conditions, supplies energy to household appliances, produces adequate hot water and lastly produces as much or more energy than it consumes (9) The Ikaros House is designed to accommodate four people and generate more than four times the amount of power needed to power the house. The House is characterised by a stunning shading system, supperb energy efficiency and a large solar system (10). The house has super tight insulation provided by vacuum insulated panels, energy efficient design and efficient mechnical systems ensuring that the home uses very little energy (11) The exterior is characterised by its zig-zag facade, which functions to shade the home
and optimises the use of sunlight as it changes through the day and throughout the seasons (12). Whilst, the Ikaros Solar House is not the first of its kind, its demonstrates the iniative of design that is being applied and explored in the architectural realm. Today, more than every before, sustainability in buildings has become the forefront of design. However, the Ikaros house has integrated sustainable living to another level, producing four times the amount of power needed to power the house. The Ikaros house is an excellent example of a built product that provides the demand of lighting, heating, cooling and refrigeration that are met with technologies in more efficient ways.This, not only provides for sustainable living, but also, provides as a tool for aspiring young architects to learn from and want to better. Whilst technologies for renewable energy are constantly growing, the Ikaros house provides a great precedent of testing new technologies and the ability to produce a aesthetically pleasing design, yet meeting the requirements of todays needs with sustainability.
Figure 2: IKAROS Solar House, Rosenheim, Germany
DESIGN PRECEDENT 1.2 ELECTROSTATIC WIND GENERATOR, NETHERLANDS
The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter designed bt faculty members at Delft University in the Netherlands, is a new way to generate electricity using wind energy (13) The result is a windmill with no moving parts. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter, known also as the EWICON,is a bladeless wind generator that produces energy using charged water droplets (14). The Ewicon utilizes a steel frame which holds a series of horizontal, insulated tubes. The system works by realising positively charged water droplets into the air (15). The water droplets get picked up by the wind and carried through the EWICON’S electric field, harvesting the potential energy (16) The benefits of this new wind energy generating technology is profound. The EWICON method has no large moving or rotating paths, causing for there to be less noise, no intermittent shadows and less vibrations. As a result, the EWICON structure has had many benefits to the site, not only prompting creativity from other university students, but also allowing university students to interact with the wind generator without compromising their safety.The safety of the
design has allowed them to absorb the EWICON technology and use it as an educational too. The EWICON has provided a solution for new ways of design in regards to generating wind technology. We believe, that this technology to be extremley efficient and provides a viable alternative to the other forms of wind generation such as the windmills. This technology has the same benefits of wind turbines, yet can be produced at any scale. ‘The design is simple enough that the frame can be any shape desired and allows for windmills of virtually any size’(17). This possibility means that the implementation of this technology is endless. Our brief for the Land Art Generator Initiave is to create a strucutre that can generate renewable energy. We see the EWICON mesh technology as an extremely viable way that we can achieve a balance between an architecturally striking design whilst also producing a structure that generates wind energy.
Figure 3: Electrostatic Wind Generator, Netherlands
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION: CRYSTALS AT CITYCENTRE, LAS VEGAS
The last decade has seen the appearance and evolution of the digital in architecture (18) The new digital technologies have begun to produce what is termed as the Vitruvian effect(19). The Vitruvian effect is the expanding relationship between computer and architecture, the phenomenon defining a digital continuum from design to production (20). Computers have become the standarised norm in architectural design for many architects. Architects use computers to digitalise existing procedures that are preconceived in the mind of the designer (21). Architects use the computer as a virtual drawing board, with the benefits providing that it is easier to edit, copy and increase the precision of drawings. This mode of working is called ‘computerisation’(22) However, ‘computation’ on the other hand, allows designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations (23) Sean Ahlquist has defined computation as ‘a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, with the capacity to generate complex order, form, and structure’ (24)
architectural practises as it provides the potential to go beyond the intellect of the designer, through the generation of unexpected results(25). An example of a new building designed using computational design is the ‘Crystals at CityCentre’ in Las Vegas. The building is located in the heart of the Las Vegas Boulevard. Designed by Daniel Libeskind Studio, it exemplifies computational design being used in a way to amplify the vision of the architect (26) In the instance of the ‘Crystals at CityCentre’, the architect would have taken his preliminary sketch and entered it into a computer system that ultimately allowed him refine, develop and modify his initial concept. The use of computerisation would have ultimately allowed the architect to improve the precision of the design. The exterior of the building has a series of complex roof lines, a complexity which would have been tested and perfected through the computerisation process.
Computation has become the norm of designing for some of the worlds leading
Figure 4: Crystals at CityCentre, Las Vegas
Figure 5: Roof line- Crystals at CityCentre, Las Vegas
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION:
Computational design generates and explores architectural spaces and concepts through the writing and modifying of algorithms (27) An algorithm is a particular set of instructions, that are written in a code for the computer to understand. Computational designers generate and explore architectural spaces and concepts through the writing and modifying of algorithms that relate to element placement, element configuration and the relationship between elements (28). The algorithm is a recipe for telling the computer what to do (29) Therefore, the relationship between Algorithms and Computation is quite tight (30) Architects are constantly experimenting with computation to stimulate building performance. Never before has such technology been available to architects, resulting in progression in design and pushing the limits in the design field, more than ever before. Some architectural firms are synonymous with the use of computational design. For example, Zaha Hadid, arguably one of the world’s most famous architects who runs also one of the worlds most successful architectural practises, is constantly praised for pushing the boundaries of architectural forms, materiality and of the human mind.
For example, the Burnham Pavillion on the right is an example of one of Zaha Hadid’s work. The Burnham is a temporary Pavillion erected in Chicago’s Millennium Park designed to represent Chicago’s long tradition for embracing cutting edge architecture (31)The result is a cutting edge intricate but fluid structure that incorporates hidden traces of Burnham and Bennett’s original 1909 plans to redevelop the city (32). The use of computation to design the Burnham Pavillion would have allowed the architect to stimulate its building performance to incorporate performance analysis and knowledge about materials and tectonics (33) The Computer, on a design level, lets architects predict, model and stimulate the encounter between architecture and the public using more accurate and sophisticated methods. Thus, Computation equips the architect with the ability to create structures that are far more complex than something the human brain can solely create (34 )
Figure 6: Burnham Pavillion, Chicago
A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION: K HOUSE, VAUCLUSE
The use of generation in the architectural design process is vitally important. Computer aided design has changed the practise of architecture. Computer aided design was introduced in the 1970’s and has become so indispensable that as William Mitchell observes in his foreword of ‘Architecture’s New Media’ that without architectural practise it is ‘as unimaginable as writing without a word processor’(35) Architecture’s new media has allowed architects and other designers the comprehensive exposition of the principles, methods and practises that underlie architectural computing (36) Computing has ultimately allowed architects to generate and explore their ideas more, due to the ease and technology available to them. Computation allows designers to explore variations in design in order to come out with the best possible outcome, by exploring a range of possibilities (generations), that allows them to best fulfil the clients brief or their own goals. For example, the ‘K’ house in the exclusive Sydney Harbour suburb of Vaucluse looks at how generation of ideas was best used to fulfil the clients brief. The client requested an extremely private house, due to the sites location
facing a busy public pedestrian walkway. However, the client request that it had to be open on three sides, to capture the views towards Sydney habour, maximise the sunny northern aspect and view of the rear garden. With a complex design brief, the architects ‘Chenchow little Architects’ went about generating various designs to achieve the desired outcome. Through generation and experimentation, the architects were able to achieve the clients brief. The house was constructed within a masonry shell, sculptured to provide the necessary privacy to the interior without sacrificing the solar access (37) Within the structure, there is a light filled interior that retains privacy through the louvred structure. The result of the building, means that from the front exterior of the house, it fulfils the clients brief of being very private, however under the ‘shell’ it encompasses the bright open home they had once envisaged. In order to achieve the best possible results of architectural design, the stages from the initial idea right through to the final product, known as the ‘generation’ phases are critically important to maximise a buildings success on all levels.
Figure 7: K House, Vaucluse, Sydney Front Facade
Figure 8: K House, Vaucluse, Sydney Exterior/garden view
Parametric design has changed the way we look at Architecture. What is parametric design? Parametric design cannot be compounded down to one single definition, however related terms suggest that it is a cumulation of generative, computational, digital and computer aided systems (38)
The Architects, Plasma Studio, were faced with the dual tasks of adding circulation space to an existing house. Parametric software was used to create the angular shape that folds around and on top of the original cuboid form, by thin strips of larch wood (42)
Parametric defines a complex system that it is far more sophisticated and complex to use a computer rather than a drawing board (39). Throughout the design process of drawing and modeling your concept, you follow certain operations which are monotone and repetitive, which are described as algorithms. Computers allow these algorithms to be completed at a much easier and faster pace than hand drawing.
The design team employed â€˜parametric modelling software to optimise the density of these timber strips and their metal substructure, balancing budget, aesthetics, privacy and views (43). The parametric design approach allowed flexibility throughout the design phase. As this project was designed around adding a renovation to an existing building, I believe that it has been successful in utilising the unused roof space of the original building.
Parametric design is best used in design for sculpturing, data mapping, visualisation, elevations, structures and elevations (40). As the art of Architecture has evolved and things have become more unique, the boundaries of design are always being pushed and furthered. An example of where parametric modeling has been predominant in the design of a building is in the design of the â€˜Paramount Residenceâ€™ in the South Tyrol village of Sesto, close to the Austrian border (41)
The Alma addition departs, however, from the Strata in its approach to volume (44) The practical constraints of the existing multi-room hotel called for a regular distribution of models along the spine. This volume was achieved through the horizontal sections around the freeflowing terrace spaces. Therefore, the architects took advantage of creating a unique spatial area in the under utilised roof area, through unique parametric modeling to create a state of the art ski lodge.
Figure 9: Paramount Residence Alma
Figure 10: Extension Diagram
Figure 11: Isometric Diagram
Parametric design has changed the traditional forms of Architecture. Parametric design has been revolutionary in the design realm as it has allowed the creation of new geometries and awe inspiring final products. Parametric design pushes the boundary of design as it uses new structural systems and construction technologies. On an theoretical level, it is not only an innovative approach to design as it incorporates the beauty of geometry,but also the efficiency and relative ease of designing through algorithmic design. Our intended design approach is to harness the never ending supply of wind and weather and channel it into a compatible landscape for human interaction, education and all renewable energy production. Ultimately, our ambition is to design a public art innovative sculpture that generates utility-scale clean energy for the city of Copenhagen. It is essential to design in a way that is in accordance with the Danish governments ambition of green transformation of the energy systems. Therefore, it is essential that we find new innovative solutions through parametric design to generate wind energy that will contribute to the green transition to the city, without compromising the standard of living and quality of life currently provided in Copenhagen.
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES:
My experiences with Architecture Design studio Air so far has been very enlightening. Before undertaking this subject, i was unable to distinguish the difference between computerization and computing methods. I now understand the roles of computerization and computation in architecture. Computerization is taking the initial sketch/idea of the architect and mapping it out onto a computer. Computerization is employed by programs such as sketchup, Auto Cad and Vray. Computerisation is essential in the design of a building as it maps out the initial concept and is a tool that formalises the precision in the design .Conversely, computation steers the design process in terms of materiality, geometries, form and construction processes. Also, I have come to understand parametric modeling,employed by programs such as Rhino and Grasshopper, that are used by some designers to extend their design abilities in dealing with highly complex situations. Theoretically, i have learnt that parametric design is an innovative approach to design as it incorporates the beauty of geometry as well as the relative ease of the computer .However, whilst I have not only learnt the benefits of parametric design, but also the
the drawbacks of it. Parametric design pushes the boundary of design, to which some architects believe that architecture should focus on designing buildings that can be built. There is a lot more intricacy involved in the build of a parametric design from what I have learned to understand. Zaha Hadid, an architect well know for her parametric designing, is constantly pushing the realm and envelope of design, pushing new building materials and ways to build. When I examine Zaha Hadid projects, I see that they design in a way that some people conceive and ambitious and unattainable from a building stand point. Having had the chance to learn about the theory and practise behind architectural design, I believe that I would have tried to been more daring and experimental in my past design projects, through the use of Rhino and Grasshopper. Whilst, i have come to understand that these programs are hard to grasp from a learners point of view, that in fact once you are able to grasp a good knowledge of them, that the design process can be simplified. I have enjoyed learning these programs and look forward to furthering my skill set, not only to apply in this subjects but for future design endeavours.
WEEK ONE ALGORITHMIC TASK
Week 1 Algorithmic task was to begin to use Rhino, for many of us for the first time, with myself having no prior experience. We were given the task of familiarising ourselves with Rhino in conjunction with Grasshopper. Our task was to create an object in Rhino and successfully use Grasshopper to repeat the object in a form of series. I went with a simple curve, to create the series of 3D curves. I Found this task to be a good introduction on how to use Grasshopper in conjunction with Rhino.
WEEK TWO ALGORITHMIC TASK
Week 2â€™s Algorithmic task was create a shelter/refuge. This task I found to be more challenging than week 1 due to the higher complexity in Grasshopper. Firstly, I created three curves in Rhino and lofted them into Grasshopper,connected them with the function BRep and then to the PFrames, which were connected to the individual curves. All the curves had number sliders. I played around with the number sliders until i was hence with the thickness of the curves and hence the final product.
WEEK THREE ALGORITHMIC TASK
Week 3â€™s Algorithmic task was to create a series of repeated structures along a curved line in ranging sizes. I found this the most difficult Grasshopper task to date. Whilst we were asked to have the same distance between each object, from which I was unable to do, I managed to create a series of repeated objects in ascending size from small to large from the outset. This task of parametric modeling highlighted that mastering these programs can be very beneficial in the design industry as it allows repetitive design steps to be repeated through algorithms in which working with Grasshopper in conjunction with Rhino allows to do.
REFERENCES: PART A 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Tony Fry, ‘Design Futuring’, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, 1.1, (2009), 1-10. 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Bridgette Meinhold, IKAROS Solar Decathlon House (2014) <http://inhabitat.com/germany-unveils-super-efficient-ikaros-solar-decathlon-house/> [accessed 19 March 2014]. 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Johan Smit, EWICON wind energy converter (2014) <http://www. google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CC4QFjAE&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.ewi.tudelft.nl%2Fen%2Fcurrent%2Fewicon-wind-energy-converter-unveiledwind-mill-without-moving-parts%2F&ei=i8eVU_DyMIa6kAXegYHgBQ&usg=AFQjCNE45qqEAyVhlxpg tit5rXnf-RB8hg&bvm=bv.68445247,d.dGI> [accessed 20 March 2014]. 18) 19) 20) Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 27) 28) 33) 34) Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 26) Daniel Libeskind, Crystals at CityCentre (2013) <http://daniel-libeskind.com/ projects/crystals-citycenter> [accessed 22 March 2014]. 29) Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 31) 32) Zaha Hadid, Burnham Pavillion (2014) <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/burnham-pavillion/> [accessed 24 March 2014]. 35) 36) 37) Chen Chow Little, K House (2014) <http://www.chenchowlittle.com/p-khouse.html> [accessed 27 March 2014]. 38) 39) 40) 41) Jaroslaw Ceborski, Introduction:Parametric Design (2010) <http:// www.rethinking-architecture.com/introduction-parametric-design,354/> [accessed 29 March 2014]. 42) 43) 44) Dezeen magazine, Paramount Residence Alma (2013) <http://www.dezeen. com/2013/08/02/paramount-residence-alma-italian-house-by-plasma-studio/> [accessed 28 March 2014].
IMAGES: PART A Figure 1: Earth from Equatorial GSO View David Portree, Earth from Equatorial GSO (2012) <http://www.wired.com/2012/03/destination-mankind-1972/sv003/> [accessed 29 March 2014]. Figure 2: IKAROS Solar House, Rosenheim, Germany Bridgette Meinhold, IKAROS Solar Decathlon House (2014) <http://inhabitat.com/germany-unveils-super-efficient-ikaros-solar-decathlon-house/> [accessed 29 March 2014]. Figure 3: Electrostatic Wind Generator, Netherlands Johan Smit, EWICON wind energy converter (2014) <http://www.google.com.au/url?sa =t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CC4QFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ewi. tudelft.nl%2Fen%2Fcurrent%2Fewicon-wind-energy-converter-unveiled-wind-mill-without-moving-parts%2F&ei=i8eVU_DyMIa6kAXegYHgBQ&usg=AFQjCNE45qqEAyVhlxpgtit5rXnfRB8hg&bvm=bv.68445247,d.dGI> [accessed 20 March 2014]. Figure 4: Crystals at CityCentre, Las Vegas Daniel Libeskind, Crystals at CityCentre (2013) <http://daniel-libeskind.com/projects/crystals-citycenter> [accessed 22 March 2014]. Figure 5: Roof line- Crystals at CityCentre, Las Vegas Daniel Libeskind, Crystals at CityCentre (2013) <http://daniel-libeskind.com/projects/crystals-citycenter> [accessed 22 March 2014]. Figure 6: Burnham Pavillion, Chicago Zaha Hadid, Burnham Pavillion (2014) <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/burnham-pavillion/> [accessed 24 March 2014]. Figure 7: Front Facade- K House, Vaucluse, Sydney Chen Chow Little, K House (2014) <http://www.chenchowlittle.com/p-k-house.html> [accessed 27 March 2014]. Figure 8: Exterior/garden view- K House, Vaucluse, Sydney Chen Chow Little, K House (2014) <http://www.chenchowlittle.com/p-k-house.html> [accessed 27 March 2014]. Figure 9: Paramount Residence Alma Dezeen magazine, Paramount Residence Alma (2013) <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/08/02/ paramount-residence-alma-italian-house-by-plasma-studio/> [accessed 28 March 2014]. Figure 10: Extension Diagram Dezeen magazine, Paramount Residence Alma (2013) <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/08/02/ paramount-residence-alma-italian-house-by-plasma-studio/> [accessed 28 March 2014]. Figure 11: Isometric Diagram Dezeen magazine, Paramount Residence Alma (2013) <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/08/02/ paramount-residence-alma-italian-house-by-plasma-studio/> [accessed 28 March 2014].
PART: B CRITERIA DESIGN
CONTENTS: B1 Research Field B2 Case Study 1.0 B3 Case Study 2.0 B4 Technique: Development B5 Technique: Prototypes B6 Technique: Proposal B7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes B8 Appendix: Algorithmic Sketches
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD
As a group we have decided on focusing on wind as the energy generating stream for the Land Art Generator competition. We have selected the â€˜Gridshellâ€™ for our research stream for a variety of reasons including the belief that it can help facilitate and aid in our process of design. Our main premise for our design is to not only create an aesthetically pleasing wind generating sculpture but also to use materials that minimise material waste. The Gridshell was result of a 4 day workshop that aimed at exploring how material properties can be embedded within parametric design and analysis environments (1) Conceptually, the designers wanted to create a construction of a wooden Gridshell using only straight wood members bent along geodesic lines on a relaxed surface (2) Along the journey the design team faced many engineering problems including working with the plywood and its tense relationship with bending stresses (3) The team worked hard on the design through the evolutionary design process involving the use of algorithms, iterative physical prototyping and testing to achieve the desired result. Ultimately, the goal behind the Gridshell project was to achieve escape velocity from the
iterative design cycle, whilst find viable solutions integrating the trade-offs among requirements. The Gridshell project will help us in the design process of our creating our wind energy generating sculpture. Like, the Gridshell project, we aim to use materials that are sympathetic to the environment and that minimise material waste. The Gridshell had strict material constraints with the material selection of plywood, providing many structural issues. We understand that using materials that minimise environmental waste is difficult enough, but also on the other extreme be able to tolerate the winter conditions faced in Copenhagen. It is essential that we take account of the climatic conditions that Copenhagen is faced with and design an energy generating sculpture that is appropriate to its surrounding environment and makes use of the weather conditions to achieve the best outcome. Like the Gridshell project, we are confined by a strict design scheme of designing an aesthetically pleasing energy generating sculpture by pushing the boundaries of design through parametric modelling. We believe that we can draw inspiration and learn from this project to achieve our desired outcome.
TESHIMA ART MUSEUM
TAKAMATSU PORT AREA, JAPAN
Figure 4: Teshima Art Museum, Japan The Teshima Art Museum is located on the Teshima Island in Seto Inland Sea in Japan (4). The structure was designed by Tokyo-based architect Ryue Nishizawa and Japanese artist Rei Naito, opening in 2010 for the Setouchi International Art Festival (5). The open gallery space features a 25cm thick concrete shell with two elliptical openings that are open to elements (6) Devoid of any pillars, the shell covers a space of 40 by 60 metres where the highest ceiling reaching 4.5 metres (7) The two oval openings allow air, sound and light of the outside world into the organic space, creating an seemingly interconnected feel between the nature and the architecture. Shaped like a drop of water, the architect Ryue Nishizawa, said that it was ‘important to create an architectural space to act in harmony with the island’s environment. Our idea was that the curved drop-like form would create a powerful space in harmony with the undulating landforms around it’ (8)
Figure 5: Teshima Art Museum, Japan The â€˜KREODâ€™pavilion was designed by Chun Qing Li of Pavilion Architecture and was on display at the Greenwich Peninsula in London during 2013. The pavilion is an innovative architectural sculpture, organic in form, environmentally-friendly and inspired by nature (9). The pavilion is representative of three seeds. Each pod is 20m2 and combined through a series of interlocking hexagons, creating an enclosed structure that is not only intricate in its design but also secure and waterproof. The waterproof tensile membrane seals the interior from the elements (10) The hexagonal composition was constructed with Kebony- an award-winning sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood that is a resistant and eco-friendly choice(11) The pavilion was fully portable with demountable joints allowing for efficient transportation demonstrating its forward thinking building method. The KREOD pavilion design challenged the new way of thinking,designing, engineering, fabricating and installing (12)
CASE STUDY 1.0 1
CASE STUDY 1.0 4
CASE STUDY 1.0 1
CASE STUDY 1.0 SELECTION CRITERIA
Our selection criteria that we have decided upon from exploring the grasshopper definition primarily comes from wanting an enveloping form to create wind tunnels. We have narrowed down the list of the thirty iterations to the four most successful based on what we collectively as a group have decided to be most in line with the design we have in mind. An important part of the selection criteria was choosing designs that have an organic form whilst maintaining an aesthetic appeal. Secondly, the importance of having similarity to a grid structure was highly important in our criteria as we feel that the chosen iterations are the ones that have further potential to be developed. The chosen four iterations each have elements in which we can develop further and incorporate with each other to create the mesh structure.
CASE STUDY 1.0
MOST SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS Species A6: This iteration was the most complex of the final iterations chosen. We identified this design as being aesthetically fulfilling and in line with our mode of thought, incorporating a mesh for the covering. However, whilst this iteration has potential, it has been realised that there may be difficulty in constructing this and hence may not be the best avenue to pursue.
Species C6: Of the forms we explored, we identified this one as having the most promise for the realised application. At first look, it looks like a flower. We identified this one as being aesthetically pleasing and in line with our vision. The curves shown here are nicely arranged and the panelling on top creates a grid like structure that could be used to trap the wind energy.
Species E3: This iteration was successful due to its grid shell structure, successfully meeting one of our criteria selections. Here, we were trying to create a dome like structure where the creation of space was important. The potential architectural application is the definition of space here, creating pathways through the given structure.
Species F2: This is another example of a dome like structure, however the shape and size of the curves were altered to be more bendy, thus resulting in the difference for the resulting form. The potential user interaction here is grater than the other iterations, allowing for a more walk able area.
CASE STUDY 2.0
Figure 6: SHELLSTAR PAVILION- 2012 The â€˜Shellstar Pavilionâ€™ by MATSYS design is a lightweight contemporary pavilion commissioned for Detour, at the Art and Design Festival in Hong Kong (13) The pavilion was designed as an iconic gathering place for the festival attendees. The pavilion was designed to create a desire whereby visitors would feel drawn into the pavilion centre and subsequently into the larger festival environment (14) The structure was designed entirely within the parametric modelling environment (15). The form emerged out of the digital form-finding process. The structure is composed out of 1500 individual cells that are all slightly non-planar (16) By using parametric tools for its design, it reduced the time, manpower and materials for the project, making it far more cost effect than traditional methods. The Shellstar Pavilion is an example that parametric tools can produce buildable and feasible designs, on top of being aesthetically enhancing and organic.
1) Creation of the base layer in Rhino.
2) After creating the base layer in Rhino and referencing the poly-line into Grasshopper, we used the kangaroo plugin to create the catenary like surfaces.
4) Here, we referenced the surface and used the Lunchbox plugin that provided us with the hexagonal grid achieved with a command called â€˜Hexagonal structureâ€™.
3) This step demonstrates that we patched it in Rhino, creating the organic arch.
5) Final product
Our final product is a simplified version of Shellstar Pavilion. The final outcome has a similar shell-like structure as to the chosen research project. We were able to achieve this by using Grasshoppper and the physics engine Kanagaroo to re create the catenary like surface. However, whilst being able to produce a similar outcome, we acknowledge that we wernt able to reproduce the texture and depth found in the material of the Pavilion. We believe that the Shellstar project would have further developed their program using custom scripts. We referenced each line into grasshopper and then applied kangaroo into each one. Through explorations of various plugins we were finally able to come up with a similar mesh patterning through paneling. We believe that with more experience, we may have been able to achieve similar depth found in the material of the Shellstar Pavilion.
CASE STUDY 1.0 REVISED
Our selection criteria has been revised from Case Study 1.0, based on the results we were able to achieve from the new set of iterations. The new selection criteria for these iterations has subsequently developed and become more specific due to narrowing down our iterations and having a clearer idea of what we wanted to design. Our new selection criteria revolves around wanting to achieve an aesthetic effect that is not only innovative in its design but also frames the nature that it is apart of. Therefore, our selection criteria will rely on the ability to walk through the area, indicating the successfulness of the intermixed relationship between the nature and the structure. Furthermore, identifying the iterations with interesting, innovative patterns will also fill our selection criteria bearing in mind their potential of being constructed and fulfilling our environmentally friendly materiality objectives.
SELECTION CRITERIA Species 1.9: We have identified this pattern as being the most successful and in line with what we are hoping to achieve for our final design. This pattern has been placed over a dome like structure. Whilst we really like the structure, our concerns lie with how we would direct the wind energy. However, this structure provides us opportunity to explore these concerns.
Species 2.1: This form has been designed in response for the need to channel and trap the wind. We have identified this design as successful as we believe that it would be able to trap large amounts of wind through the four wind tunnels. We also like the external pattern, as we would be able to incorporate the Photo-MCF moss grid to the external layer.
Species 3.9: Once again, we have identified this pattern as the most successful. We believe this pattern and structure composition was the most succesful out of iterations. This design has four wind channels, allowing for wind to be channeling from four different angles and trapped in the middle of the structure. The external pattern would allow us to use the Kebony wood and incorporate the Photo-MCF gird as well.
Species 5.9: This design has two components to it, with access for people to walk through the middle of it, fulfilling the brief of having human interaction. This composition has two larger wind tunnels which we believe would sufficiently trap wind the wind energy, This composition has been identified as successful as it fulfills the requirements of our selection criteria in terms of being innovative, aesthetically pleasing and allowing for human interaction
B.5 TECHNIQUE:PROTOTYPES SITE ANALYSIS Our design when built will be exposed to a plethora of forces. The climate in Copenhagen is subject to low pressure systems from the Atlantic, resulting in unstable conditions throughout the year. The winter months reach average temperatures around the freezing point, resulting in large amounts of snow.
from the LAGI website, refers to the site as being virtually flat, meaning that we do not have to alter the design of the structure to accommodate for any land variances.
To account for these factors, it is important that a site analysis is undertaken. Whilst unable to visit the site, we were able to do some research into the climatic conditions, topography, surrounding buildings and the access points. These attributes all directly impact upon and affect the realised outcome.
Finally, the site is located in a rather industrial area, making the adjoining buildings lack in character and design. Whilst there is no underlying design theme other than the bland nature of the industrial buildings, we intend our structure to draw people to the site. Our structure is designed to capture the attention of the public and direct it to sculpture created, rather than the physical setting in which it is located.
Constructing the structure will require for the materials to be transported to the site. Because of the climatic constraints of Copenhagen, Therefore, it is incredibly important on-site construction may be very difin our design that materiality plays a ficult. Therefore, we advise that most of key. Without appropriate materiality, the longevity of the structure could be the construction be made in a warehouse short lived and therefore not serve its and transported to site for assembly. intended purpose. Furthermore, there are The access points suggest that there is more considerations other than the cli- several access points from the water and partial access by road. matic conditions to be accounted for.
The topography of the site as sourced
Figure 9: Land Art Generative Initiative Site, Copenhagen
Figure 10: Prototype sketch To begin to think about materialisation, it is necessary that we looked at the proposed design in detail to explore the arrangement and structure of the external covering. Firstly, we drew up some sketches of joints for the external layer of our proposed joints. The sketch above, from which we highlighted as the most successful, illustrate how the joints would be connected. We proposed that each joint have a socket, in which each component could be connected to. We chose this sketch as the final one that we would pursue for prototyping, because we believed that this type of joinery would allow for some movement without the structure cracking or losing its formation. The purpose of our design is to generate wind, and due to the site being exposed to the elements, we understand that the external components need to have some flexibility in their joinery to allow for movement. As we intend to use a wooden product for the external members, we decided on
extrapolating the proposed sketch to a built prototype using Balsa wood. The prototype is an experimental exploration of joints using the Balsa wood material. The proposal for our design is to have a uniform shape which would be streamlined to allow easy fabrication off-site. The prototype demonstrates that each of the components are put together with joints in a way that allows for flexibility and creates this fluid connected to each other. The joints were connected through the sockets and also with additional pins for more structural support. We tested the tensile strength of the joints by applying some finger pressure and seeing if there was ability for the joints to bend under the pressure and withstand the force or whether they would break. Our results concluded that through the pressure we applied, that the joints had high success of being able to withstand the tension and allow for movement within the structure.
B.5 TECHNIQUE:PROTOTYPES As we have established that the composition of our design will be in most part wood.We believed that it would be most appropriate to prototype in a form that was closely representative to the actual materiality itself. Therefore, for our prototype, we used Balsa wood. Balsa wood allowed us to create components of the external layer and see how they best fit together and identifying the assembly sequence. Through this process, we were able to test the tensile strength to realise whether or not the components would be able to hold some tension, from which they succeeded. Furthermore, the prototype we produced allowed us identify the assembly sequence, highlighting that because of the socket joints, that assembly on site from prefabricated components is completely realistic. With these variables being tested, we were confident in sending the design to the fabrication lab for further prototyping.
Figure 11: Prototype two component connection
Figure 12: Prototype- Multiple component connections
The next stage of our prototype process was to get our proposed design to the fabrication lab. As a group with no previous experience with the fabrication lab, we had little knowledge and were unsure what to expect. After our consultation meeting, the lab technician there said our structure was likely to break without a base layer. Therefore, we took the advise and placed the proposed design on a base, which in real life would represent the land itself on the site. We decided the best method of fabrication and to achieve the highest indicative result was to go down the avenue of the 3D powder form. Having picked up this model after the interim presentation, we were happy with the result. Our fabrication model highlighted that all the components of our design successfully meshed together and were not subject to easily breaking. This provided us with confidence that our proposal could be built and eventuated into a real life structure.
Figure 13: Prototype- 3D Powder form
Figure 14: Prototype- 3D Powder form (internal view)
B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL Our proposal for the Land Art Generative Initiative (LAGI) is to create an innovative and aesthetically eye-catching wind generating structure. Due to the exposed location of the site, we have decided on wind as the energy generating form. Our proposal is in response to Copenhagen’s already carbon neutralising city and its need to continue on their green agenda. Our design is an innovative mesh structure that traps wind energy through the wind tunnels. The externality of the structure, from which covers the wind tunnels, serves as an aesthetic feature. The external layer has been designed in pentagon components that connect together, inspired from the design precedent of the ‘KREOD’ pavilion in London. The structure including the pentagon components, is proposed to be constructed out of Kebony timber. This materiality has been explored in detail and has been identified as fulfilling many of materiality requirements. We have identified that ‘Kebony’ timber as it is a non-toxic, maintenance free and a durable product (17). The timber is able to withstand the harsh environment imposed by the Copenhagen climate, making it ideal for the external layer. Further to this, it is resistant to decay, providing longevity and is ultimately cost effective (18). To achieve the aesthetic effect of the pentagon exterior, there are ‘holes’ within each pentagon component that lie empty. Instead of exposing these empty spaces, our proposal is to fill these spaces with Photo microbial power generation. The Photo microbial power generation is essentially potted plants that act as miniature power plants transforming sunlight into electricity (19). The Photo
Microbial Fuel Cell technology, is extremely new and will challenge people thoughts about what is really possible. The proposal is to have these photoMFC power grids on the external layer, which will not only provide a source for energy generation but also will also aesthetically improve the look of the structure, by making it look more sympathetic to the environment and its surroundings. To generate the wind energy, our design proposal has four wind tunnels, each placed at a different angle and position on the site, to maximise its ability to trap and generate wind energy. The wind will travel through these tunnels and be trapped by a mesh which will produce electrical power that can be transferred to the electricity grid. The drawbacks of producing a scale project of this size, is constructing it on site using large amounts of inefficient materials. Our proposal counteracts these problems through the proposal to use Eco-friendly materials such as Kebony timber, which will allow for the project to be largely prefabricated offsite and joined on site. The benefits of this too, is that the components of the structure can be easily dismantled. Our design is innovative as it seeks to generate wind as the energy generating source, but also aims to include PhotoMFC power grids on the external layer, acting not only as an aesthetic feature to tie in with the surroundings, but also as an energy generating source. Our proposal aims to achieve certain targets such as promoting the generation of wind energy, to challenge the notion that building green diminishes the aesthetic outcome and to ultimately inspire and educate the public about the scope of potential in sustainable design.
Figure 15: Proposed model in LAGI site
Figure 16: External pentagon components.
Figure 17: Ariel view of Proposed design on site.
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES Learning Objectives performance: 1) Interrogating the brief. The subject has provided us with two briefs to adhere to. Firstly, what is outlined by the course and secondly the outline of the LAGI competition. I have been able to maintain clear consideration to both of these briefs throughout the design process. 2) The ability to generate a variety of design possibilities through the introduction of visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling. This was demonstrated through the different iterations explored in B.2 and B.4. The introduction of programs such as Rhino, Grasshopper and Kangaroo have allowed us a group to produce a variety of minutely or vastly different outcomes explored in the different iterations. 3) Developing skills in various three dimensional media including computational geometry, parametric modelling and digital fabrication. My competency in three dimensional media has significantly improved from the start of the semester, having previously little knowledge. I now have a solid understanding of how to use Rhino and Grasshopper in relation to what tools are required to perform various functions, understand and produce algorithms and furthermore manipulate it to achieve a variety of outcomes. 4) Developed an understanding of the relationship between architecture and air, through the interrogation of design proposal. When built, our design proposal sits in a physical setting that is exposed to a variety of harsh climatic conditions. The process of putting foward a proposal requires proof that our design is stable and viable. The relationship between architecture and air was tested through constructing tangible prototype of design components. 5) Developed the ability to make a strong case for proposals through rigorous and persuasive arguments by the architectural discourse. The ability to argue our design proposal by highlighting similar projects that have eventuated and their success, in relation to what we are wanting to achieve ourselves. 6) Ability to analyse contemporary architectural projects through conceptual, technical and design analyses. Since beginning this subject, the way in which I view architectural landscape has significantly changed. Instead of just looking at the aesthetic components of a building, I now look and begin to think what programs the architect had employed to design and achieve the specific intent. 7)Developed foundational understandings of computational geometry. As previously stated, my understanding of computational geometry and visual programming has increased significantly. I believe that this progress has been articulated in parametric outcomes, highlighting our development and knowledge with these programs. 8) Development of personalised repertoire of computational techniques and beginning to understand their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application. I am beginning to understand why specific programs are used to complete various tasks and why they are used over other alternatives. 64
DESIGN DIRECTION The feedback we received from the interim proposal was very valuable in terms of where to take our design and how to enhance it further. The feedback we receieved from our proposal was that while the iterations were good, we needed to look more into the shape of the design. The assessors said that our proposal looked like another â€˜gigantic structure and that it needed to have a more local site response rather than simply putting it on the site. Furthermore, the other criticismâ€™s were that we failed to produce drawings of how wind would travel through the site, requiring that we do some further site analysis of how wind travels in response to other site buildings. The solutions that we were provided with to explore and extend the structure to meet the requirements of the brief were that we need to make the design more responsive to the local environment. We completely agree with this point and in retrospect, did not look at the site in enough detail before deciding on our final design. Therefore, we agree that our proposed design was unsympathetic to its local environment. We plan on rectifying this issue by doing further site analysis, to establish how we can best incorporate our design into its surrounding without making it look like it has simply been placed there.
Another suggestion provided was that we need to look at the design in a different scale. We intend to rectify the scale issues by testing different scales to establish what scale is the best for the site. We can also address this issue through consideration of the other surrounding buildings, which will not only help with scale issues but also aid us with looking at the wind direction. The suggestions and feedback that we received were invaluable and we believe will greater help us improve our design for the best possible outcome. As a group, we aim to really refine our composition in part C. Our aim is to modify our proposal so that it is sympathetic to the surrounding nature and the topography that it lies on, address the scale concerns and pin point exactly how we are going to trap the wind energy. In part C, we will cement our material choice for our final design. We intend to continue to search and pinpoint the best material for the external components of our design based on durability, environmentally friendly, and also being innovative and eye catching. We believe that addressing the concerns put forward as well as further exploring materiality will allow us to further improve our design to a desired outcome that satisfies the brief and ultimately compliments the site that it is apart of.
WEEK FOUR ALGORITHMIC TASK
WEEK FIVE ALGORITHMIC TASK
REFERENCES: PART B 1) Matsysdesign.com, (2014). SG2012 Gridshell « MATSYS. [online] Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ [Accessed 25 April. 2014]. 2) 3) Smartgeometry.org, (2014). gridshell digital tectonics. [online] Available at: http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134%3Agridshe ll-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131 [Accessed 27 April. 2014]. 4) 5) 6) Smartgeometry.org, (2014). gridshell digital tectonics. [online] Available at: http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134%3Agrid shell-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131 [Accessed 28 April. 2014]. 7) 8) Benesse-artsite.jp, (2014). Teshima Art Museum | Teshima | Benesse Art Site Naoshima. [online] Available at: http://www.benesse-artsite.jp/en/teshima-artmuseum/ [Accessed 1 May. 2014]. 9) 10) 11) 12) Furuto, A. (2012). KREOD / Chun Qing Li of Pavilion Architecture. [online] ArchDaily. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/275460/kroed-chun-qingli-of-pavilion-architecture/ [Accessed 2 May. 2014]. 13) 14) 15) 16) Dennis Lo, Shellstar Pavilion (2013) <http://www.contemporist. com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/> [accessed 5 May 2014]. 17) 18) Designbuild-network.com, (2014). Kebony - Sustainable Alternatives to Tropical Hardwood and Preservative-Treated Wood - Design Build Network. [online] Available at: http://www.designbuild-network.com/contractors/construct_materials/kebony/ [Accessed 5 May. 2014]. 19) WIRED, (2014). These Mad Scientists Want to Replace Solar Panels With Potted Plants | Design | WIRED. [online] Available at: http://www.wired.com/2014/03/mosssolar-panels-power-pocket-radio/#slide-id-425891>%3b [Accessed 5 May. 2014].
IMAGES: 1) 2) 3) Matsysdesign.com, (2014). SG2012 Gridshell « MATSYS. [online] Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ [Accessed 25 April. 2014]. 4) Smartgeometry.org, (2014). gridshell digital tectonics. [online] Available at: http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134%3Agridshe ll-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131 [Accessed 27 April. 2014]. 5) Lightpublic | The latest in Lighting and Interior Design, (2013). Kebony’s Sustainable Glowing Kreod Pavilion - Lightpublic | The latest in Lighting and Interior Design. [online] Available at: http://www.lightpublic.com/lighting-articles/kebonyssustainable-glowing-kreod-pavilion/ [Accessed 7 May. 2014]. 6) 7) 8) Dennis Lo, Shellstar Pavilion (2013) <http://www.contemporist. com/2013/03/04/shellstar-pavilion-by-matsys/> [accessed 5 May 2014].
PART: C DETAILED DESIGN
CONTENTS: C1 Design Concept C2 Tectonic Elements C3 Final Model C4 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements C5 Learning Objectives and Outcomes
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT
The feedback we received in the interim presentation was very helpful and provided us with a vast amount of opportunity to improve our proposal. One of the main qualms with our proposal for Part B was that it needed to have more of a local site response. We were told that our design needed to look at wind directions and be mindful of this in its design. Having taken the feedback on board, we realised that perhaps we have jumped into the design of the structure without having done a proper site analysis. Therefore, one of the first things we had to address was undertaking a proper site analysis. We did some extensive research into prevailing wind directions in Copenhagen and using this information in relation to our site, taking into consideration the wind direction to the surrounding buildings.
was to start our design over. Whilst our design proposal has remained the same, with our intent is to design with the same wind energy generator technique, using the same technology and materials, but significantly altering the design so that it best challenges the wind energy. The feedback also noted that we should get rid of the Photo-Microbial power grids as an additional form of generating energy and concentrate on the wind power generation. Moving forward our design proposal will be a lot more responsive to the site, taking in consideration the surrounding buildings and context, as well as the topography of the land. We believe that we will be able to improve from our last design and better satisfy the LAGI brief.
The site analysis undertaken, ultimately made us realise that our previous proposal was trying to channel too much energy through the four different wind tunnels, when in fact some would have proven inefficient received very little prevailing winds. Therefore, from the feedback we received and the site analysis undertaken, we realised that the best way moving forward
SITE RELEVANCE & ORIGINALITY
The LAGI site is in an industrial area in Copenhagen, surrounded by water and industrial buildings. Currently, there are some large wind turbines that occupy a large portion of space. With this in mind, it occurred to us that, because of its openness and exposure to the ocean, there would be strong prevailing winds, that would be perfect to capture wind energy. With keeping the idea of originality in mind, we didnâ€™t simply want to create another wind turbine with moving blades. Instead, we wanted to create something original and completely different. We wanted to create a structure that would evoke people to want to explore its function and find out more about it. Also, whilst picking up that there is a wind farm in the immediate vicinity, we knew that our ambition to generate wind energy was completely viable. Our structure, is a aesthetically eye catching and unique structure that combines architectural design merit with ingenuity. Our method of generating wind electricity has no moving or rotating paths causing less noise, no intermittent shadows and less vibrations. The benefits of having no moving parts, allows users to interact with the design at a much closer scale as there is no issues with safety. We believe that our design will stimulate the users coming to the site, by prompting them to design and evoke thought of creating an energy generating design yet achieving architectural merit. At first, we believe, users will think of our design as a simply a sculpture, yet upon closer inspection, we believe that they will be inspired by its deceiving use and ultimately be prompted to want to learn about the technology and function behind our sculpture.
Move Y 14.2
-1Clearing of the site of any loose debris and evening off the site ready for construction
-2Excavation of a storage hole in preperation for the set up transformer
-3Generating set up transformer built into the storage hole. This -4transformer will store Establishing a the electricity gener- connection from the ated internal set up transformer grid to the main grid through a series of large underground cables. -5Placing cables un- Excavation of underground tunnel to derground and estabmain grid. lishing the conntection between the transformer grid and the main grid. -6Concrete foundations poured for the anchor points. -7Hinge joints installed to concrete foundation points as connection points to the overall -8structure Pine wood goes through kebonization process offsite and individual triagle wooden components configured. -9Prefabricated kebony triangular components delivered onsite
-10Trinagular wooden components connected by overlapping the trian gles so that they fit toget er to form a lock that holds the arc of the sculpture
-16Wind energy generation components turned on and ready for energy generation.
-12Prefabricated steel frame brought onsite and placed on top of the timber strucuture and connected to the -11hinge joints on the Prefabricated steel frame constructed off- concrete foundations site to fit the dimensions of the timber structure.
-15Insulated tubes connected to the internal wiring for each grid
-13Internal wiring each of the triangular steel components. Internal wires all connnect to the set up transformer.
-14Insulated tubes for wind energy generation added to the triangle steel components.
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS:
The first prototype that we explored with was using the hinges as the connection method for the triangles. The materials used in the construction of this prototype was timber, which would be similar to the Kebony timber intended for the final design. Three pieces of timber were connected by nailing each timber component together to form the a triangle. Once we had constructed the desired amount of triangles,we began with connecting them together, testing the hinge point connection. From constructing this prototype with the hinges, we realised that whilst there was movement between the components that the method was fairly restrictive. In testing the prototype, our main objective was to test the fluidity between the components. Before undertaking the process of building this prototype, we had anticipated that the rigidity between the components would have been better.
Whilst, there is sufficient amount of fluidity for the prototype we made, we could feel the stiffness and the pressure put on the hinge joints was too much. In fact, after applying some significant pressure, a couple of the hinge components broke. From the issues identified with this hinge prototype, we realised that the issues would only be amplified if it was used as the connection method for our structure. Whilst, it is a good starting point, we realise that we need to continue our exploration of connection methods to ensure that we can find a solution that provides sufficient structure and rigidity.
The second connection method we explored in the prototype stage was inspired from stereotomy. The exploded diagram above (right) highlights how this connection method works. For this method, we got some triangular plywood components cut from the laser cutter. With this method we moulded the plywood under heat to mould the components in line with our shape. The connection of the triangular components was achieved by overlapping shapes that fit together to form a lock that hold the arcs of the sculpture together. The detail section on the left shows how the structure could be anchored off a point such as an elevated beam attached to support the structure. The method provided great rigidity and all components connected in a manner that was very strong and not susceptible to easily breaking, As a group, we were very pleased with this connection method and identified this to be an appropriate connection method for the triangular Kebony timber components for the final structure.
C.3 FINAL MODEL:
C.3 FINAL MODEL:
Pictured above is a 1: 50 scale of a component of the structure to prove that our method of connecting the triangular components can hold itself up.
The internal layer of our two layer structure is made up on the Kebony timber triangular components that are connected using the connection method inspired from stereotomy that was explored in Prototype two. The scale model demonstrates that this method is viable and will work on a much larger scale.
C.4 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS
The Land Art Generator Initiative in Copenhagen was a competition that provided myself and other students of Design studio Air, a platform for thinking about innovative ways of generating renewable energy. As aspiring architects of the 21st century, it is paramount to consider sustainability in our designs, as the world is moving towards becoming more conscious about their designs and minimising their impact on the environment. At the forefront of environmental sustainability is Copenhagen. Copenhagen will become the first carbon neutral capital by 2025. To achieve this goal, extensive retrofitting of buildings, reorganization of the energy supply and change in transportation habits are some of the many initiatives that the City of Copenhagen is currently implementing in order to become carbon neutral by 2025. As the green transition is high on the Danish governmentâ€™s agenda, there is still a great need for the development of new ideas, concepts and solutions in order to transform Copenhagen into a green future without sacrificing the standard of living or quality of life. The Land Art Generator Initiative challenges the conventional notions of the path to a green transition proposing that renewable energy can be beautiful
and that the public artwork can have an ecologically positive impact over its life-cycle. The main goal behind LAGI is the design and construction of public art installation that has the added benefit of largescale clean energy generation. The public artwork has to enhance the community, increase the livability of the city and stimulate local economic development. With having a solid understanding of the LAGI design brief, my group and I choose wind energy for the generation of renewable energy. We saw that there was an immense opportunity to produce wind energy due to the sites exposure to prevailing winds and taking into account the existing wind turbines on the other side of the industrial site, highlight that the generation of wind energy was very possible. Our project, named â€˜Wind Initiative Generatorâ€™ is a public art sculpture that generates wind energy. When we had established that we wanted to pursue wind energy generation, we looked at ways of how we could incorporate the renewable benefits of traditional forms such as wind turbines, yet also stimulate architectural merit.
Unlike, the current methods of wind generation, our method of generating wind has no moving parts or rotating paths causing less noise, no intermittent shadows and less vibrations. The benefits of having no moving parts, is that it allows users to interact with the design at a much closer scale as there is no issue with safety. The technology that has been used in the design is a forward thinking way of how to convert electricity without the use of moving parts. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter produces energy using charged water droplets. The technology utilizes a steel frame which holds a series of horizontal, insulated tubes. The system works by releasing positively charged water droplets into the air. The water droplets get picked up by the wind and carried through the electric field, harvesting the potential energy. Breaking the technology to a step by step method: 1) Wind moves positively charged particles towards the direction of the electrical field (our structure) 2) The electric force of the field moves the particle towards the negative electrode. When the wind pushes the particle
towards the postive electrode, the potential energy of the particle is increased. 3) Our system only requires one component. The charging system itself is insulated from Earth. Spraying positively charged particles from the charging system will leave negatively charged particles behind. The movement of the droplets produces electric power that will be transferred to the electricity grid. 4) The electricity produced will be sent to the electricity grid. Inside each grid component, the electricity generated is collected at a main point within each triangle component and sent along the steel frame through a series of wires. The wires are all directed and connected to one final point which is in the ground, where the generated electricity is then sent to the grid via one large cable. Materiality was a huge concern for our group, as we wanted to ensure that we using materials that were environmentally friendly, durable, longevity and cost efficient. After extensive research, we concluded on a number of materials that would be used for the construction of our Wind Initiative Generator.
C.4 LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS
MATERIALS The â€˜Wind Initiative Generatorâ€™ dimensions span 50 metres long, 25 metres wide and 8 metres high. The primary layer of the structure is constructed out of Kebony timber. Kebony timber has been chosen for a variety of reasons including its high resistance to wear, exceptionally good decay resistance long life span. Kebony products have no harmful effects on the environment and have good compressive strength. The dimensions for each triangular component range in size because of the different sizes over the structure. From the core of the structure, the triangular components are the smallest in size and increase at each row to the outer row. Because of this, it is very hard to identify each triangular component. The thickness of each component is consistent at 150mm. The width of the components range from 500mm to 1000 mm.
high efficiency of material use. The steel frame occupies the entire exterior of the structure at 50 metres long, 25 metres wide and 50mm thick. The steel structure will be fabricated off-site and delivered on site. Our method of wind generation has been tested to have an efficiency range of 25-30%, with conventional wind turbines operating an efficiency of 45% at their rated speeds. For the size of our structure, we have equated 2000kWh (kilowatthours) to be generated from our energy source for any given year. As this technology and method of generating wind energy is particularly new, extensive development of the product is still happening. There is strong belief that with time and further development, the efficiency range could surpass the efficiency of conventional wind turbines. If this can be realised, we believe that this method of generating wind energy will be the preferred method.
The exterior layer is constructed out of steel. Steel has been identified as the most appropriate material for the outer layer as it is 100% recyclable and provides excellent design flexibility. Furthermore, steel is lightweight but strong, engineered to provide a very
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT The â€˜Wind Initiative Generatorâ€™ has been designed to meet the needs of Copenhagen in its aim to become the first carbon neutral capital by 2025. Our Wind Initiative Generator has been designed in response to their ambition to create new solutions and innovative ideas that will help Copenhagen create a greener future. Analysis of Environmental impact of our proposed structure: Impacts to threatened or endangered species: The site is currently flat and void of any flora and fauna. Therefore, the structure will have no encumbrance to any threatened or endangered species. Air and water quality: We anticipate that all materials used in the construction of our structure will be delivered by road and hence have no burden on the water quality around the site. Where there may be some affect to the water quality is if there is increased water taxi traffic after the erection of the structure. We anticipate that visitors coming to the site will be mostly accessing from the local roads. Air quality will likely to have no effect as the construction of the vast majority of our materials is happening off-site. The structures method of energy generation has no burden on the local air quality. Noise impact: The technology used in the generation of our wind energy has moving parts and hence been designed so that there is no intermittent noise. Impact to Historic and cultural sites: Our intent with our design was to be sympathetic to the surrounding environment and to the surrounding buildings. We have made a conscious effort to enure that our structure is not imposing and instead is a welcome addition to the local environment and the surrounding buildings.
C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES
The critique that we recieved was on a whole positive. The critics believed that our proposal of the ‘Wind Initiative Generator’ was innovative and showed good promise of being able to generate sufficient energy. They liked the technology that we had chosen for the generation and believed that we had good justification for its choice.
This course has 8 learning objectives which cover the following:
Whilst the critics liked the design, they did believe that the structure could have had a stronger relationship to the site. They were also unsure about our decision to have two layers of the structure, something that we were able to justify as an aesthetic choice along with functional merit for its wind generation.
3) Developing ‘skills in various threedimensional media’
With none of our group members having previous experience with parametric modeling, and thus learning everything as we were going along, we were very pleased with our final result. Whilst we acknowledge that the proposal would require refinement and further development in some ways to achieve reality, we believe that our proposal is strong and would provide a very reliable solution.
6) Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects.
1)‘interrogating a brief’ 2) Developing ‘an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation’ through parametric modelling.
4) Developing ‘an understanding of relationships between architecture and air’ 5) Developing ‘the ability to make a case for proposals’
7) Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming. 8) Begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques.
C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES I believe that i was able to achieve all eight learning objectives throughout the duration of this subject in these ways: 1) Throughout this subject, we have maintained a clear consideration of the LAGI brief, ensuring that all facets of our design have adhered to the brief put forward to us. Examples of this is the brief specifying an ‘innovative design’ that we have made very clear consideration of. 2) This subject has allowed us to develop a variety of design possibilities throughout its duration. Case study 1.0 and b4 Development, demonstrate that we were able to produce a variety of possibilities. It is evident that as our knowledge increased with Rhino and Grasshopper, so did our iterations, which is evident with the development from our Case study 1.0 iterations and the further development iterations in b4. 3) We developed skills in various three-dimensional media particularly in the computer space of a combination of Rhino and Grasshopper, which allowed us to produce our iterations and our final design. This then led onto exploring 3D modelling as a process of fabrication for our 3D model. 4)I have always understood the relationship with architecture and air and the way in which architecture reacts with the space (environment) around it. We believe that we were able to create a strong link with our final proposal and the environment surrounding it, ensuring that our design did not look like an eye sore and the materials and design chosen were very sympathetic to its surroundings. 5) I believe that as a group, we were able to present a convincing case for our proposal (see C.4 LAGI brief requirements). I believe that we were able to identify the key factors that make our project innovative and viable source of generating energy, presenting the case in a way that would generate interest around the project. 6)This subject and in particular our journals has allowed us to develop capabilities for ‘conceptual, technical and design analyses’of contemporary architectural projects. I believe that i have been able to critically analyse work by seeking out precedents, evident in Part A. Not only have i been receptive in critically analysis design precedents, but have taken this approach in analysing our work and our overall design approach for this brief. 7)My understanding of computational geometry and visual programming has increased significantly since the start of the subject. The weekly ex-lab tutorials assisted in the development of my skills allowing us to design more efficiently. I gained an appreciation and understanding of these design parameters, and how they differ from the traditional approaches of design that we have previously been exposed to whilst studying at the university. 8) Having no previous experience with computational design, I have been able to develop a repertoire of computational techniques. I have reached the stage where I able to understand why specific programs are used to complete various tasks and why they are used over alternatives.