to go to MIT and learn everything there is to know about control systems and find a way to design and develop them that is much more synthesis and much less ad hoc than the current state of the art was in the late ’70s and early ’80s.
Q. Tell me about your unicycle robot work at MIT and how it applied to flight control. Vos: It was a robot that had a turntable on top packed with batteries, which simulated the torso motion of a human rider; and it had two DC electric motors, one for controlling the pitching motion and one for controlling the torso motion of a human rider. Because it had all the equivalent attributes of flying, it was a very nice way to demonstrate the control theory, adaptive and non-linear, and to develop it so that it fits to where I wanted it to go, which is to have these capabilities for synthesizing solutions, rather than the ad hoc element that prevailed back then. It turned out that the non-linear, adaptive approach worked very well and I could demonstrate the solution on the robot as part of my Ph.D. work. It all worked nicely. But it was not really ready for the airplane controldesign problem. So I had to do more work after MIT to get that level of the problem — and the answer — defined. By 1998 it was all ready to go. I’d done consulting work from my basement on all kinds of applications, and one of them was (MIT alumnus) John Langford’s company (Aurora Flight Sciences) — I did several control systems on several of his earlier UAVs and that’s how my relationship with John started. John and I co-founded Athena in 1998 and then, by the early 2000s, basically I was running Athena and we showed
significant growth. I wanted to take this to a much higher level. I see the future of integrated manned and unmanned air space as an example of what’s really possible with the degrees of automation and autonomy that we do today in a very run-of-the mill fashion. I want to get that into all of aerospace — military, civilian, commercial. There’s a real set of opportunities to come in aerospace.
Q. What were the early days like at Athena? Vos: In the very early days, we actually rented one office at John’s company. We started from nothing. I had a steady rate at which I was generating patents and we raised a small amount of venture-capital money, but the timing was right. The UAV market was beginning to show promise. MEMS sensor technology (micro-electrical mechanical systems sensor) was just becoming something real in the late ’90s and early 2000s and microprocessors were becoming quite powerful. Those three things together made it really possible to package these highly integrated sensors, computers, and the non-linear control algorithms together.
Q. So, basically, this technology is a box, correct? Vos: Yes. The other important thing that we did was we took functions that would be in five or six different boxes and rolled it into one box. That’s why it was so critically enabling to have microprocessors and the MEMS sensor technology come along because suddenly we could package. Gosh, one of our boxes weighs only four ounces, and that is a complete, integrated sensing suite, GPS, flight computer, mission computer. Everything is in that single box to be a complete flight-control and sensing system.
ALUMNI INTERVIEW: David Vos