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: n a i d e M c i l o h c n The Mela e r i p m e r u o y l i a f t o n o How t By: - Ji Won Jung -Leonardo von Mutius -Valeria de la Maza Garcia -Giovanna Mancusi -Angelica Bercx

Table of Contents Element

I Element










Introduction My Eldest Son, My days as a ruler are coming to an end. I am old, my strength is failing , and my days are numbered. Before I pass on, I entrust the rule of my empire to you. You are a young man, though, and need much guidance in the ways of building and maintaining an empire. Along with the help of my scribes, I have decided to create a guide to ensure that my empire remains strong and prosperous for generations to come. May the Gods be with You, Leo

Public Works Projects

Building public works projects for your civilization is important because public works projects give service to the civilization so people will remain in comfort. Dams and canals protected the farmers from floods and also helped them grow their crops more efficiently. Canals could save the farmers from floods because without canals, the water would just be overflowing in the main river, but canals enabled the water from the rivers to spread out. Also, droughts made a problem with stable food supply. It gave a problem in growing crops for the civilization. Droughts meant no water, no water means no crops, and no crops equals no food. Another important public works project was warehouses. Warehouses were used to store food so they could either trade it or save for a drought and other natural disasters. Whenever there’s a drought, the first thing you can think of is worrying about water. Well, this is why civilizations need wells and dams in order to be an empire. Wells gave water to everybody in the civilization. Wells gave a huge service because wells allowed the people to save time by not having them walk out of the city walls to get water. The Assyrians invented aqueducts. Aqueducts are pipes or channels used to carry out drinking water around the city. This was a great service. Another example of a public works project are city walls. City walls were built to protect the civilization from invasions. It made them feel much more comfortable. Public works projects are important to maintain your empire because it gave people service so people could stay in comfort.

Ji Won Jung

Name: Angelica


Technology was important because it helped the Mesopotamian people do work more easily. In the past, the people from Mesopotamia used the first wheel for making pottery. They turned the wheel and shaped the clay into beautiful pottery. Later on, they would make beautiful decorations to put on the pottery. This, was much faster than making the pottery with just their hands. Also, the wheel was used for making the wheels of chariots. Before, the chariots were invented they used sledges to travel. Sledges couldn't carry much and were very often stuck in mud. The chariots were much faster, but usually used for the government , soldiers, priests or the ruler. . Another, type of technology is called the plow. The plow was used by farmers to poke holes in the soil. This, was a faster process to grow the crops because they did not have to take very long to poke holes in soil. The plow also helped for tilling the soil. Tilling the soil would help because it would make the soil softer and helped to grow the crops faster. After this process farming, growing crops, and any other type of food was faster and easier to do. Technology was important work more easily for example, using the wheel to make pottery, also to make chariots, and the plow helped poking holes. So this is why technology was important.

Public Works Projects Name: Gigi Mancusi

Public works project helped protect people from natural disasters. These natural disasters made damages the city-states. These natural disasters were, hurricanes, tornados, sand storms, earthquakes... etc. In the city there was always a hero. The hero wasn't the ruler, not the priest, not the general, nor the scribe, nor any person in the city. The public works project was their hero, because all of the projects they made they could equally be shared with everyone in the city. There were three very important public works projects. One of the projects that was one of the best inventions they created. It was the dikes and dams. The dikes and dams were used to store water, and distributed them onto the fields and also to share the water equally to the city-states. Dikes and dams were mostly used when there was a natural disaster. One example of a natural disaster was, sandstorms. Sand storms were sand blown by the wind and the sand destroyed their crops and also there weren't going to be any clean water. But, their hero at that time would be the dikes and dams, because they would store water, and that water would stay clean. Another project that was very important was, the warehouses. The warehouses were used to store food, and when they needed them the scribe would distribute food equally into the city. But the warehouses were normally used for when there were hurricanes. These hurricanes destroyed crops and also destroyed shelter. But hurricanes did more damage to their crops because, they get blown by the wind and then it would take days to get enough food for everyone in the city. So they used the warehouses for when there were hurricanes. The third and final public works project that made a huge difference in people's lives were city walls. City walls were used to protect the city from attacks from other cities or wild animals. The city walls were used for protection for everyone, but there were people who lived outside the city walls, so then the ruler send some armies to protect the people outside the city walls. In return for the rulers kindness the people who lived outside the city walls gave the ruler half of their crops. So, with all of these reasons I think that Public Works Projects helped protect people from natural disasters.

Name: Vale


Writing was important to create and maintain an empire because it prevented violence, order, and control inside the city-states. Written laws were created by Hammurabi. They were written down in cuneiform. Cuneiform was a very popular way to write laws. It protected people because if a certain law is written down, people would know the consequences if they didn't follow the rules. Therefore, they wouldn't break the rules, so they could be healthy and safe. For example, if you take someone’s eye out, you will lose your own eye as a punishment. The empires would be a lot more controlled because they also used writing to record the amount of grain and tax they had in their warehouses. It created control because it would be written down, so that the government could remember how much they had and what they needed to survive. Also, written laws created order in trade because the generals, rulers, and scribes would be able to trade correctly without giving away more than they should. For example, if the ruler needs 6 irons to survive and doesn't know for sure how much they have, and decides to trade 6 irons away to another city-state, the empire would start to fall apart because people would start to complain and starve to death. In conclusion, writing helped the empire be more organized and protected.

Gaining From Fallen Foes (1 of 4 Name: Leo

Conquering other city-states allows an empire to advance at a much quicker rate by learning and taking knowledge as well as wealth from their fallen foes. One way an empire could learn from conquering others would be by taking their ideas for public works projects, technology, and art. Surprisingly, this did indeed happen after the Akkadians conquered the Sumerians. As opposed to the Akkadians spending years inventing and developing a new way to irrigate their crops in the arid Mesopotamia, they simply studied the Sumerians' effective irrigation system and used it. There was hardly any time spent wondering how water would get to their crops. Previous civilizations had done that for them. Furthermore, technology could also be replicated. One example would be the Babylonians' wheel. Although the wheel revolutionized the Babylonians' daily lives by allowing things to be accomplished quicker, several thousand years flew by before man "invented" and used this round piece of technology (for transportation purposes). So, odds are that the 300-year-long Assyrian Empire would not have ever built and used the wheel unless they had conquered the Babylonian Empire. Copying technology is useful, and it was especially useful here because the Assyrians were an empire that thrived in the field of battle by using chariots, and these need wheels to function. Next, advances in arts could also occur faster by overthrowing an enemy king. Take the Assyrians' basreliefs, for example. Although they were one of the numerous things invented by the Assyrian people, the Neo-Babylonian palaces and temples were decorated with these 3-D sculptures. The people who saw these beautiful pieces of art would be inspired and proud, but the NeoBabylonian Empire itself didn't have to do anything regarding the invention of that type of art. They just plagiarised the Assyrians and were benefitted hugely by that*. All in all, borrowing your ex-enemies' ideas for public works projects, technology, and art is important because that way you will further make the lives of people easier, safer, and more comfortable without much effort required. *Don't take this as an encouragement to plagiarise in real life.

Gaining From Fallen Foes (2 of 4) Name: Leo

Next, tributes were another one of the factors that allowed for quick empire development. Tributes, or the money earned after conquering an independent empire or city-state (as a way for the defeated to show that the conquerors are superior), greatly assisted in maintaining and expanding an empire because they were sudden increases in economy. These tributes were something empires desired because not only would they allow for people to gain a vast quantity of money in a short period of time, but they didn't require taxes to be raised or anything similar. Empires wouldn't have to upset their people and risk having a rebellion by raising taxes and pushing their people to produce more and more things (such as food, weapons, tools) when they had access to tributes. Tributes not only paid off for an empire's losses at a battle or siege, but they were enough for governments to invest in a variety of other things. They could be as simple as public works projects, but sometimes tributes could result in the formation of cities. One example was the capital city of the Akkadian Empire, Agade. This magnificent and cultural stronghold was built solely out of tributes from city-states conquered by the powerful Sargon, only the first ruler of his empire. Overall, tributes are vital things that gained from your foes because they enable the construction of virtually anything and they are able to restore an empire's army to its former condition (prior to a conquering). Additionally, they do all of this without enraging the inhabitants of a conquering city-state.

Gaining From Fallen Foes (3 of 4) Name: Leo

Lastly, another way that your empire can advance is by learning from your ex-rivals culture or religion. Although you might have had a colossal and well-trained army when conquering your ex-nemeses, that doesn’t necessarily mean that your empire has had cultural advances. One example of something you could learn is writing. Instead of spending years and years inventing and perfecting a written system (if you didn't have one), you could simply conquer your enemies, copy theirs, and have a great cultural advance in a short period of time. As for the religious side of things, one example for how you could have a holy advance in your empire would be by replicating your defeated foes' gods. You would do this if your city-state lacked in gods, or if your population wasn't satisfied with their current ones. Moreover, it is much simpler to plainly take your enemies’ gods and change their names instead of “searching for the divines” (as in gods) and find new deities by yourself. That way, a lot of time would be saved and there would be little effort involved. As a matter of fact, this did happen in history several times. The Romans copied the Greek gods but modified their names. Likewise, the Akkadians also did that with the gods of the independent Sumerian city-states that they overtook. In conclusion, learning from your defeated enemies' culture or religion is useful because you can have a more organized empire (cultural advances like writing) and also one with happy and satisfied people (religious advances like "new" and better gods) without a great deal of effort. In conclusion, gaining from fallen foes is vital because you are able to quickly improve your empire's current condition by taking their ideas (public works projects, technology, art), further enhance the empire itself by building things out of money earned from conquering your enemies, and finally have cultural and religious advances by studying them that will result in a more organized and blissful empire.

Gaining From Fallen Foes (4 of 4) Name: Leo

A type of art called bas-relief, originating from the Assyrians, was also found in the ruins of the Neo-Babylonian Empire's cities. This is proof that the Neo-Babylonians "gained" from the Assyrians by copying their art.


Cover: -Cuneiform Tablet -Lion Page 1: Page 2: - Canal Page 3: - Wheel Page 4: Page 5 & 6 & 7: Bas-relief

Bl.4.8 Median Empire Guide  

Sixth grade humanities students created a manual for a future Mesopotamian emperor.