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Updating Shanghai: Life from the ground up

Bart Kuijpers 1176420

P5 Presentation 2013-01-24

Main mentor: Dr. G. Bracken BT mentor; Ir Y. Cuperus 1


EXPLORE YOUR FASCINATION!

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SHANGHAI 上海 = ABOVE SEA

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SHANGHAI 1554-1842

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SHANGHAI 1842-1943

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SHANGHAI 2012

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POPULATION CHINA VS SHANGHAI CHINA

FLOATING

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1,400

26

1,300

24

1,200

22

1,100

20

1,000

18

900

16

800

14

700

12

600

10

500

8

400

6

300

4

200

2

100

1830

1840

1850

1860

1870

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

POPULATION CHINA IN MILLIONS

POPULATION SHANGHAI IN MILLIONS

SHANGHAI

2010

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24

6

22

5.5

20

5

18

4.5

16

4

14

3.5

12

3

10

2.5

8

2

6

1.5

4

1

2

0.5

FSI

PEOPLE IN MILLIONS

POPULATION VS BUILDING FSI & CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

1830

1840

1850

1860

1870

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

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SHIKUMEN CHARACTERISTICS ROOF TERRACE DORMER WINDOWS

COURTYARD SKYWELL

DECORATED STONE DOORFRAME. BLACK WOODEN DOOR

GREY & RED BRICKS

BALCONIES & BAY WINDOWS

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SHIKUMEN= COLLABORATION ENGLISH (TUDOR) FRENCH (CITE) SHANGHAI VERNACULAR FENG SHUI CHINESE SOCIETY

RENTAL HOUSING MARKETS PUBLIC FACILITIES SMALL INDUSTRY MAIN ALLEY

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RESEARCHING THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE - DISTANCE IN MAN, ON WHICH DISTANCES DO WE INTERACT?

- TERRITORIALITY, CAN WE CONTROL THE SPACES WE USE?

- PRIVACY, CAN WE CHOOSE THE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE WE WANT TO ENCOUNTER?

- ENVIRONMENTAL APPRAISAL & ASSESSMENT, ARE THE SPACE WE USE PLEASANT?

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DISTANCE IN MAN ON WHAT DISTANCE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKES PLACE

0-0.15 m INTIMATE CLOSE 0.15-0.45 m INTIMATE FAR

0.45-0.75 m PERSONAL CLOSE 0.75-1.2 m PERSONAL FAR

1.2-2.1 m SOCIAL CLOSE 2.1-3.6 m SOCIAL FAR

3.6-7.2 m PUBLIC CLOSE 7.2 m PUBLIC FAR

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IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

OUTSIDE

MAIN ALLEY

SIDE ALLEY

HOUSE

STAIRS

ROOM 13


IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

AMOUNT OF PEOPLE

PUBLIC

SOCIAL

PERSONAL 1 PERSON

OUTSIDE

MAIN ALLEY

DISTANCE OF INERACTION

10,000 PEOPLE

INTIMATE

SIDE ALLEY

HOUSE

STAIRS

ROOM 14


IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

OUTSIDE/ COMPOUND

LOBBY/ WAITING AREA

ELEVATOR

HALLWAY

APARTMENT/ ROOM

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IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

10,000 PEOPLE

SOCIAL

PERSONAL 1 PERSON INTIMATE

OUTSIDE/ COMPOUND

LOBBY/ WAITING AREA

ELEVATOR

HALLWAY

APARTMENT/ ROOM

DISTANCE OF INERACTION

AMOUNT OF PEOPLE

PUBLIC

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STREET- LÙ - 路 PUBLIC

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MAIN ALLEY - LI - 里 SEMI-PUBLIC

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SIDE ALLEY - LÒNGTÁNG - 弄堂 SEMI-PRIVATE

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HOUSE - SHÍKÙMÉN - 石库门 PRIVATE

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TRANSITION AREAS SOCIAL HOTSPOTS

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FUNCTIONS WITHIN THE COMPOUND/NEIGHBORHOOD RESIDENCES SMALL SHOPS FACILITIES FOR RESIDENTS

RESIDENCES SHOP HOUSES SMALL INDUSTRY COMMUNAL FUNCTIONS

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FUNCTIONS WITHIN THE COMPOUND/NEIGHBORHOOD

CLOSED OFF FROM THE URBAN FABRIC ONLY ACCESSIBLE FOR RESIDENTS

POROUS ENTITY ACCESIBLE FOR EVERYBODY

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拆那 CHINA 25


THE SHIKUMEN PARADOX THEY CAN’T BE SAVED, THEY CAN’T BE KEPT ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE & SOCIAL HERITAGE FOUR OPTIONS

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1. DESTROY THE SHIKUMEN LOSE THE BUILDINGS AS WELL AS THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE MOST COMMON OPTION, AS IT IS HIGHLY PROFITABLE

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2. DESTROY AND REBUILD KEEP THE FAKE BUILDINGS, LOSE THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE POPULAR HOTSPOT XINTIANDI USES THIS METHOD, AS WILL THE PROJECT LOCATION

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3. RENOVATE KEEP THE BUILDINGS, GENTRIFICATION WILL PUSH THE ORIGINAL RESIDENTS OUT JIANYE LI, PORTMAN HOUSE, TRIED AND FAILED

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4. DO NOTHING IT WILL KEEP THE ORIGINAL RESIDENTS AND BUILDINGS, BUT WILL EVENTUALLY FALL APART AND LOSE EVERYTHING

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SHANGHAI HIGH RISE, SHIKUMEN & GREEN

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PROJECT LOCATION SHENYU LI, CHENGJI LI, YANJI LI

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GOALS MAINTAIN & RENOVATE SHIKUMEN KEEP THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE & ORIGINAL RESIDENTS

Photo by Gropius Photography http://www.flickr.com/photos/gropius/7987982563/

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3 AREA’S SHIKUMEN, PUBLIC AREA (SHOPS & PARK), HIGH-RISE TOWER RENOVATED SHIKUMEN INTENDED FOR NEW UPPER CLASS HIGH-RISE TOWER FOR FORMER SHIKUMEN RESIDENTS PUBLIC AREA ACCESSIBLE TO ALL

ORDER: - CONSTRUCT HIGH-RISE TOWER - RELOCATED SHIKUMEN RESIDENTS TO TOWER - RENOVATE SHIKUMEN - SELL SHIKUMEN TO NEW CHINESE UPPER CLASS

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Client: OCT Goals; Create profit by redeveloping the cultural and historical valuable area on the bank of the Suzhou Creek Requirements; Redesign the project location within the context of the existing masterplan 500-600 Apartments 40-60 sqm per apartment 20% commercial functions

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End User; Current Shikumen Residents Description; Working class, low budget, aging population Value their social interaction, long time residents Average household size; 3 Needs; Small, affordable housing (40-60 sqm) Social space for various activities such as playing cards and exercising. Keeping the walking areas as level as possible

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FRIENDS

MONEY

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SHENYU LI TO SONGJIANG RESIDENTS RELOCATION

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KM

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MATERIAL PUBLIC AREA WOODEN FACADE PANELS AND PLANTS

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MATERIAL SHIKUMEN RENOVATE WITH THE EXISTING TRADITIONAL GREY AND ORANGE BRICK

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MATERIAL TOWER WHITE CONCRETE GLASS

42 RENDER BY LUXIGON


STANDARD HIGH RISE SLAB

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SEPARATE SLABS AROUND CENTRAL CORE

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DIVIDE HORIZONTALLY INTO 3 LAYERS

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MAKE THE RELATIONSHIP HORIZONTAL INSTEAD OF VERTICAL

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EARLY MODEL 3 SLABS OPPOSITE OF EACH OTHER CENTRAL CORE

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P3 MODEL 2 SLABS HEXAGON AROUND THE CORE EAST AND WEST FACADE OPEN

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FORM STUDIES TWO BUILDINGS BECOME ONE SLABS GROWN TOGETHER

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FORM STUDIES IT SEEMS THE SUPERFORM IS CREATED BY CUTTING AWAY PARTS OF THE HEXAGON IN THE PROCESS, IT WAS CREATED BY ADDITION TO THE SLABS

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DESIGN APPROACH CONSTRUCTED AROUND A SERIES OF SCALE MODELS BASED ON THE DISTANCES AND INTERACTION FOUND IN THE SHIKUMEN WORKING FROM OUTSIDE IN; THE ROUTE FROM PUBLIC TO PRIVATE

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DESIGN YÙJING GONGYÙ, 玉井 公寓 JADE WELL APARTMENTS

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ROUTING BASED ON ORIGINAL NEIGHBOURHOOD LAYOUT

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GROUND FLOOR 3 LEVELS; PATHS, GREEN, SOCIAL SPACE -1 SOCIAL SPACE 0 PATHS +1 GREEN AREAS

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GROUND FLOOR PATHS OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS CROSSING SOCIAL SPACES AND GREEN SPACES IN BETWEEN

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ELEVATORS SEPARATE ELEVATOR FOR THE DIFFERENT LAYERS OF THE BUILDING

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BRIDGES CONNECTING THE ELEVATORS TO THE GALLERIES ALSO FUNCTION AS SOCIAL SPACES

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GALLERIES GALLARIES CONNECT THE BRIDGES TO THE HOUSES EACH HOUSE HAS A PRIVATE OR SHARED COURTYARD

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APARTMENTS 625 APARTMENTS, MAJORITY BETWEEN 40 AND 60 SQUARE METERS

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IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

OUTSIDE

PUBLIC AREA

ELEVATOR

BRIDGE

GALLERY

COURTYARD

APARTMENT/ ROOM

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IN WHAT TYPE OF SPACE DOES THE SOCIAL INTERACTION TAKE PLACE?

10,000 PEOPLE

SOCIAL

PERSONAL 1 PERSON INTIMATE

OUTSIDE

PUBLIC AREA

ELEVATOR

BRIDGE

GALLERY

COURTYARD

DISTANCE OF INERACTION

AMOUNT OF PEOPLE

PUBLIC

APARTMENT/ ROOM 61


TRANSITION ZONES SOCIAL HOTSPOTS PUBLIC TO SEMI-PUBLIC: SOCIAL SPACES ON GROUND FLOOR SEMI-PUBLIC TO SEMI-PRIVATE: BRIDGES SEMI-PRIVATE TO PRIVATE: COURTYARDS

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APARTMENTS 625 APARTMENTS IN TOTAL BOTTOM ALLEY 261 APARTMENTS MIDDLE ALLEY 220 APARTMENTS BOTTOM ALLEY 144 APARTMENTS THE CONFIGURATION CHANGES AS THE SHAPE CHANGES BOTTOM ALLEY HAS MORE FAMILY APARTMENTS TOP LAYER HAS MORE SINGLE BEDROOM APARTMENTS

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PHYSICAL VERTICAL CONNECTION 3 VERTICAL ALLEYS CONNECTED BY STAIRS 2 PLATFORMS CONNECTING THE VERTICAL ALLEYS

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ELEVATOR SYSTEM EACH OF THE THREE LAYERS HAS A SEPARATE ELEVATOR CORE REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE YOU CAN ENCOUNTER DURING THE AWKWARD ELEVATOR MOMENT

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FLOW OF PEOPLE ROUTE TIME SPEND IN ZONE

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WHAT KIND OF ACTIVITIES TAKE PLACE? FROM THE STREET TO THE APARTMENT

文学

你好

OUTSIDE

LOBBY

ELEVATOR

BRIDGE

COURTYARD LIVING ROOM BED ROOM

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FUNCTIONS GROUND FLOOR HAS SHOPS THE DECKS ARE CONNECTING ELEMENTS BETWEEN THE VERTICAL ALLEYS EAST DECK IS FOR BREAKFAST AND EXERCISE WEST DECK IS EVENING SNACKS AND MAHJONG/CARDS FOOD STALLS ON THE DECKS ARE SAFE FROM CHENGGUAN

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DECKS SEMI-PUBLIC ELEVATED SPACE WITH SMALL COMMERCIAL FUNCTIONS CONNECTING ELEMENT BETWEEN TWO VERTICAL ALLEYS

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OPENNESS THE TOWER IS OPEN TOWARDS THE SHIKUMEN WHILE THE INSIDE IS MORE PROTECTED FROM THE OTHER, MORE PUBLIC SIDE

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BRIDGES THREE SETS OF BRIDGES CONSISTING OF 9 EACH MAKE THREE VERTICAL ALLEYS IN THE TOWER

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BRIDGES SOCIAL SPACE FOR EACH FLOOR VISUAL CONNECTION BRIDGES ON THE FRONT PHYSICAL CONNECTION IN THE BACK

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GALLERIES CONNECT THE BRIDGES TO THE APARTMENTS EACH APARTMENT HAS OWN OR SHARED COURTYARD

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伄≪ FENG SHUI

GEOMANCY, AN EARLY FORM OF ENVIROMENTALISM WORK WITH THE ENVIRONMENT, NOT AGAINST IT DUE TO FENG SHUI GUIDELINES, ALMOST EVERY BUILDING IN CHINA IS SOUTH FACING

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FENG SHUI, BA GUA

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PRIVACY ZONING OF THE APARTMENTS

SEMI PUBLIC

PRIVATE

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PRIVACY ROUTE THE FURTHER THE ROUTE GOES IN TO THE BUILDING, THE MORE PRIVATE IT GETS AT THE END, THE BEDROOMS, THE MOST PRIVATE MEETS THE MOST PUBLIC THE OUTER FACADE WILL BE STRAIGHT AND ANGULAR THE INSIDE FACADE IS MORE ORGANIC

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3RD FLOOR BOTTOM ALLEY

N

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13TH FLOOR MIDDLE ALLEY

N

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19TH FLOOR CONNECTING FLOOR FOR THE MIDDLE AND TOP ALLEY EAST DECK MORNING AREA; EXERCISE & BREAKFAST

N

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24TH FLOOR TOP ALLEY

N

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APARTMENTS

54 M2 TWO BEDROOM SOUTH FACING PRIVATE COURTYARD

38 M2 SINGLE BEDROOM NORTH FACING SHARED COURTYARD

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LOAD BEARING CONSTRUCTION WHILE A RIGID FRAME POSSIBLY COULD BE STABLE ENOUGH K-BRACING HAS BEEN ADDED TO COUNTER TORSION AND HORIZONTAL DEFORMATION

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LOAD BEARING CONSTRUCTION RIGID CONCRETE FRAME WITH STEEL K-BRACING

5000x9100 GRID

4000x9100 GRID

6400x9100 GRID

6000x9100 GRID

6000x9100 GRID 6000x9100 GRID 84


3D RIGID FRAME CROSS FLOORS GRID ADAPTS TO THE APARTMENTS

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CONSTRUCTION BRIDGES IF LENGTH INCREASES, THE RAILING GETS HIGHER SUPPORTED ON THE RIGID CONCRETE FRAME AND CENTRAL CORE

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INSTALLATIONS - SHAFTS EACH APARTMENT HAS 2 SHAFTS BETWEEN EACH OF THE 3 LAYERS A HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION SPACE

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DAYLIGHT SHANGHAI’S LATITUDE IS 31 DEGREES IN SUMMER, THE HIGHEST POINT OF THE SUN IS 82 DEGREES

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DAYLIGHT ... AND 32 DEGREES IN THE WINTER

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HEATING/COOLING SUMMER COOLING, USING THE SUZHOU CREEK 1.5M BELOW THE SURFACE CONSTANT ~14C WARMTH STORED IN AQUIFER

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HEATING/COOLING WINTER HEATING, USING THE HEAT FROM THE SUMMER IN THE AQUIFER HEATING IS NOT MANDATORY IN SHANGHAI, BUT IT IS NECESSARY

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INDOOR CLIMATE OUTSIDE SOLAR SHADING NATURAL CROSS VENTILATION FLOOR HEATING/COOLING POSSIBILITY FOR AIRCO UNIT IN FACADE

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AIRCONDITIONING AIRCO IS NOT NECESSARY DUE TO FLOOR HEATING/COOLING IN THE HIGHLY LIKELY EVENT PEOPLE WANT AIRCO, IT WILL NOT DISRUPT THE FACADE

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WEATHERING FACADE WHILE THE BUILDING STARTS AGE, THE PRISTINE WHITE FACADE WILL TURN TO “SHANGHAI GREY”

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WEATHERING FACADE RELIEF IN THE PREFAB CONCRETE PANELS ALLOW THE BUILDING TO GROW OLD AND DIRTY IN A CERTAIN PATTERN ALSO FURTHER DEFINING THE THREE VERTICAL ALLEYS TOWARDS THE OUTSIDE

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DETAIL PREFAB CONCRETE FACADE ELEMENTS PROVIDE SOLAR SHADING GLASS IN LINE WITH THE PREFAB ELEMENTS, HARD BORDER BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PREFAB ELEMENTS ARE ENGRAVED TO AGE MORE BEAUTIFUL

DETAIL 03

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DETAIL BAYWINDOWS SLIGHTLY FADE OUTSIDE-INSIDE BARRIER 8

RAILING CHANGES ACCORDING TO THE INNER FACADE, EXTRA SPACE WHEN THERE IS A COURTYAD

DETAIL 01

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THANK YOU QUESTIONS? 98

Updating Shanghai, Graduation Presentation  

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