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John J. Matt, Ed.D.

Class 5


Unit 4


"What I need is an exact list of specific unknown problems we might encounter."  


Review Questions:

In a research experiment, ______ protects  information that is revealed by the  participants. a. informed consent b. debriefing c. anonymity d. confidentiality


Review Questions:

In a research experiment, ______ protects  information that is revealed by the  participants. a. informed consent b. debriefing c. anonymity

d. confidentiality


Review Questions: When there is no way in which to  connect any participant’s identity with  the data collected, then _____ has  occurred. a. informed consent b. debriefing c. anonymity d. confidentiality


Review Questions: When there is no way in which to  connect any participant’s identity with  the data collected, then _____ has  occurred. a. informed consent b. debriefing

c. anonymity d.

confidentiality


Review Questions: Informed consent of participants is often a  problem for researchers because a. informed consent takes up valuable  time. b. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias  the participants' behavior. c. participants are rarely interested. d. all of these


Review Questions: Informed consent of participants is often a  problem for researchers because a. informed consent takes up valuable  time. b. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias  the participants' behavior. c. participants are rarely interested. d. all of these


Review Questions: Kyle is a sophomore in high school and his  parents have signed written agreements  allowing him to participate in a research  study examining attitudes toward alcohol  use by high school students.  Kyle’s  agreement to participate is known as a. coercion b. disclosure c. assent d. deception


Review Questions: Kyle, a sophomore in high school, and his  parents have signed written agreements  allowing him to participate in a research  study examining attitudes toward alcohol  use by high school students.  Kyle’s  agreement to participate is known as a. coercion g n b. disclosure i d a e r   r u ) o 4 y   4 c. assent From , 2007, p y b z o d. deception (C


Review Questions:

True or False The dependent variable (Y) is  also referred to as the range.


Review Questions:

True or False The dependent variable (Y) is  also referred to as the range. Dependent – Y (Range) Independent – X (Domain)


Review Questions:

True or False A quantitative researcher must  reveal his/her biases in the  problem statement.


Review Questions:

True or

False -

A quantitative researcher must  reveal his/her biases in the  problem statement. The problem statement should be free of bias.


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es) •Definitions of Terms •Delimitations •Limitations •Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two Click here http://screencast.com/t/d8wz582Soui 


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study

•Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question

oHypothesis(es) •Definitions of Terms •Delimitations •Limitations •Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two


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•Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es)

•Definitions of Terms

•Delimitations •Limitations •Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two http://screencast.com/t/znYc1ugrg


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es)

•Definitions of Terms Ci

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•Delimitations •Limitations •Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two


Definitions of Terms


Definitions of Terms


Example: Monitor: An electronic device that amplifies  and translates signals from sources such as a  computer and displays the images on screen  (Association for Educational Communications  and Technology, 1977).


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es)

•Definitions of Terms Dirt •Delimitations

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•Limitations •Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two


Reader’s Digest  The 50 Cleanest (and Dirtiest) Cities in  America Cleanest

Dirtiest


Popular Science – America’s 50 Greenest Cities

1st

9th


Definitions Make the Difference Popular Science Green = Electricity from renewable Transportation # of green certified buildings Recycling and citizen attitude Reader’s Digest Clean = Ranking in Air Quality (w), Water quality (w), Toxins, Hazardous Waste, and Sanitation


Construct Validity –  The adequacy of the  operational definitions  of variables. Cozby, 2007 p.86


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es) •Definitions of Terms

•Delimitations •Limitations

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•Significance of the Study •Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two


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t a t i m i Threats to Internal Validity  L

The internal validity of an experiment is the  extent to which extraneous variables have  been controlled by the researcher, so that  any observed effect can be attributed  solely to the treatment variable.  A limitation would be anything beyond the ability of the researcher to control that may affect the internal validity of the study. 


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Threats to Internal Validity 

Threat 1. History - unanticipated events occurring while the study is in progress that affect the dependent variable(s).

Example

1. During a relatively short instructional experiment, one group of subjects misses some instruction because of a sudden power failure at the school. 2. Maturation - processes and changes 2. In a learning experiment, subject occurring within the subject(s) simply performance begins decreasing after as a function of the passing of time, about 50 minutes simply because of rather than anything "done" or "not fatigue. done" by the researcher.


Threats to Internal Validity  3. Testing - the effect of taking one 3. In a study in which performance test upon the scores of a subsequent on a logical reasoning test is the test. dependent variable, the content of the pretest 'cues' the subjects about what is likely to appear on the posttest. 4. Instrumentation - an effect due to 4. Two assistants in an instructional inconsistent use of the measuring study administered the posttest with instrument(s). slightly different instructions and procedures (e.g., maximum time allowed for the students to complete one section before proceeding to the following section).


Threats to Internal Validity 

5. Statistical regression - an effect caused by a tendency for subjects to 'regress' from extreme high or low initial scores back to a more 'moderate' or 'average' level of performance on subsequent tests.

6. Differential selection of subjects - an effect due to the groups of subjects not being randomly assigned or selected; but rather, a selection factor is operating such that the groups are not equivalent.

5. In a study involving reading instruction, subjects initially grouped on the factor of 'poor' pretest reading scores show considerably greater gains than the average readers. It is important to keep in mind that this is a quantitative artifact that is bound to happen anyway, regardless of the quality or impact of the 'treatment' (e.g., reading instruction), simply due to the 'poor' initial grouping. 6. The 'experimental' group in an instructional experiment happens to consist of a 'high-IQ' class, while the control group happens to be an 'average-IQ' class. The question arises: wouldn't the first group have been likely to do better anyway? regardless of the impact or quality of the 'treatment?'


Threats to Internal Validity  7. In a health experiment designed to 7. Experimental mortality or determine the effects of various differential loss of subjects - an effect exercises, those subjects who find due to subjects dropping out of the exercise to be most difficult also stop study on a non-random basis. participating. 8. Selection-maturation interaction - 8. In a problem-solving experiment, an effect of maturation not being intact groups of junior high school consistent across the groups due to students and senior high school some selection factor. students are involved. The junior high subjects happen to tire of the task sooner than the older, senior high subjects.


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Threats to External Validity 

External validity is the extent to which the findings of an  experiment can be applied to individuals and settings  beyond those that were studied (Gall et al., 1996, p. 473  - 478).

A delimitation is any factor within the researcher's control that may affect external validity.


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Threats to External Validity  Example

1. Interaction effect of testing pretesting interacts with the experimental treatment & causes some effect(s) such that the results may not necessarily generalize to an unpretested population.

1. In a physical performance experiment, the pretest clues the subjects to respond in a certain way to the experimental treatment that would not have been the case if there were no pretest.

2. Interaction effects of selection biases & the experimental treatment - an effect of some selection factor of intact groups that would not be the case if the groups had been randomly formed.

2. The results of an experiment in which teaching method is the experimental treatment, used with classes of 'low achievers,' may not necessarily generalize to classes consisting of more heterogeneous ability levels.


Threats to External Validity  3. Reactive effects of experimental 3. An experiment in remedial reading arrangements - an effect that is due instruction has an effect that does not simply to the fact that subjects know that occur when the remedial reading they are participating in a study & thus program (i.e., the experimental reacting primarily to the 'novelty' of it, treatment) is implemented in the regular rather than any 'treatment' per se. Also program. known as the Hawthorne effect. 4. Multiple-treatment interference when the same subjects receive two or more treatments (i.e., repeated measures) ... there may be a carry-over effect between treatments such that the results may not necessarily be generalizable to single treatments.

4.In a drug experiment, the same animals are administered four different drug doses in some predetermined sequence. The effects of the 2nd through 4th doses cannot be separated from possible (delayed, 'spillover', timelagged) effects of the preceding doses.


Chapter One •Introduction and Focus of the Study •Introduce the Study •Problem Statement •Purpose of the Study •Research Question oHypothesis(es) •Definitions of Terms •Delimitations •Limitations

•Significance of the Study

•Summary of Chapter One and transition to Chapter Two


Significance of the Study What contributions and benefits to  education are expected to come from the  study?  Chapter 5: Conclusions and  Recommendations should revisit the  significance of the study and discuss  whether or not the contributions and  benefits of the study were realized.


Write a brief statement  regarding significance of  your study.   Post it to your group forum.


Chapter 2 Assignment: Search in your area of study for three citations.   Summarize these and identify areas of  commonality and/or triangulation.  Explore the  strengths and weaknesses of each study and  discuss the relationship of the article with your  study. Create a reference list in APA format.   Search the reference lists for each article and  locate three additional articles to include in your  abridged Chapter 2.  Assimilate those articles  into your paper and add the citations to the  reference list.


Chapter 3 Contents •Research Design (brief description of the quantitative design being employed) •Research Question and Hypothesis(es) oVariables articulated and discussed •Population and Sample (description and justification of the selection process) oExternal Validity discussed (Generalizability) •Data Collection Procedures (described) oMeasurements/Instruments discussed •Reliability •Internal Validity •Data Analysis oType of Analysis Anticipated oA priori Assumptions •Summary of Chapter Three and transition to Chapter Four

Unit 4 PPT  

Please Review

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