Page 1

MSA University

RECYCLING HUB WEKALET EL BALAH RESEARCH


MSA University

RECYCLING HUB WEKALET EL BALAH SENIOR I – FALL 2016

PRESENTED TO PROF. SAMEH EL-FEKI PROF. OMAR FAWZY PROF. TAREK ABDEL SALAM PROF. RANIA EL-MESSEIDY

PRESENTED BY AMR ABAZA 130607 GHASSAN KHZOUZ 112965 ISLAM AMR 131569 MIRNA KHALIFA 131085 MOHAMED EZZO 134219 OLVYA BAKRY 130581


MSA University


MSA University

Index Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6 Chapter I. ABOUT BOULAQ ABO EL-EILA --------------------------------- 7 Chapter II. URBAN STUDIES ---------------------------------------------------- 10 II.1 Social Analysis ------------------------------------------------------- 11 Survey Demographic Studies Conclusion

II.2 Urban Analysis ------------------------------------------------------- 14 Land Use Local Crafts Building Conditions Building Heights Solid & Void Urban Pattern Traffic Generation Significant Buildings Nearby Significant Buildings Topography & Contours Architectural Style Existing Vegetation

II.3 Environmental Analysis ------------------------------------------- 22 Wind Temperature Humidity Solar Path Proposed Solutions Applications

II.4 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------- 24 CHAPTER III. SITE ANALYSIS ----------------------------------------------------- 25 CHAPTER IV. THEORIES AND LITERATURE REVIEW ---------------------- 32


MSA University

CHAPTER V. DESIGN ISSUES ---------------------------------------------------- 39 V.1 Legibility V.2 Circulation V.3 Flexibility V.4 Image V.5 Interaction V.6 Atmosphere and Mood

CHAPTER VI. CASE STUDIES ---------------------------------------------------- 47 VI.1 International ----------------------------------------------------- 80 Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

VI.2 National ------------------------------------------------------------ 108 Cultural Park for children

CHAPTER VII. SUSTAINABILITY ------------------------------------------------- 61 CHAPTER VIII. DESIGN REQUIREMETS -------------------------------------- 66 CHAPTER IX. ACTION PLAN CONSIDERATIONS ------------------------- 74 CHAPTER X. INDIVIDUAL TASKS ---------------------------------------------- 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY -------------------------------------------------------------------- 122 APPENDIX --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 230


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah

Introduction

Slums have dependably been comprehended to be a ticking bomb,

especially in Egypt. At first, the development of informal settlements expanded exponentially, as a consequence of the leaving the countryside and moving to cities and the quick population growth. The issue got to be distinctly more extensive and more unmistakable. Slums in Cairo began to ascend in the 1960s with almost no consideration over its creep. Today, the city’s slum has developed to suit 3-5 million residents of Greater Cairo. The spread of these areas has taken an exceptionally disturbing sequence. Boulaq Abo El-Eila has always been popular with metal work, steel and more importantly, fabrics and textiles. What is remaining now is the famous fabric and material market of Wekalet El Balah, which is the subject area of this research, and will be analyzed on various aspects. This research aims to analyze a huge part of Boulaq Abo El-Eila district, in order to reach innovative solutions for which the whole area would undergo a full development, commercially, industrially and locally with its original residents. With the rapid population growth rate, people needs also increase. Putting the possibility of the drainage of natural resources into consideration, and considering the possibility that these resources finish, an action should be taken. Recycling of waste can be the solution. It is the first step to take to converse the natural resources. Recycling is essentially the way towards reusing stuff from which utility can even now be resolved. It is essential to recycle with the goal that you can in any event talk some of our natural resources for the coming generations. Recycling also helps saving energy. In other words, by recycling an item or reusing a thing in a new way, we could save all the energy that would have been wasted in the procedure of remaking it. All in all, recycling decreases the need for new raw materials, minimizing the consumption of the natural resources and also introducing new ways to improve the area with its local residents and material. 6


MSA University

CHAPTER I. ABOUT BOULAQ ABO EL-EILA

―If you are not buying recycled products , you are not really recycling.‖ ED Begley

7


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter I

I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

I. 1 Historical Background

Preface

Boulaq Abo el Ela district was a very

famous industrial area for textile, steel and metal work. What is remaining now is the famous market of textile and cloth of Wekalet El Balah, a destination of 60% of the Egyptians and of trade volume of 5 billion pounds. As people used to discover all that they needed in a place and with good prices. It obtained its name in the past, this place was an area for trading dates because of its unique location. In beginning of the 20th century, ships used to sail from the southern area of Egypt loaded with dates to be sold at the dates market.

Figure I.1 A, The port of Wekala, 1910

The secondly stage, Is history of the market was when boats began arriving to Wekalet El Balah carrying huge amounts of old clothes from all around the world and mainly from Europe. The market used to attracted huge amount of groups from all over Cairo or even from all over Egypt, especially poor and the medium level of the society. Currently, the Wekalet El Balah is believed to be one of the very famous markets in Egypt.

Figure I.1 B, Wekalet El Balah, 2010

Location Boulaq Abo El-Eila neighborhood is located within eight districts located in the western region of Cairo. Overlooking the river Nile and so close to Rod el Farag market of fruits and vegetables

Total Area = 5.590m2 Manned Area = 1.360m2 Population = 85726 Figure I.1 C, Boulaq Abo El-Eila District, Egypt, 2016 8


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter I

I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

I. 2 Historical Development

Figure I.2 A, Historical Overview for Cairo, 1800 – 2010, Courtesy of URHC Project

Caliphs, Byzantines, Fatimids, Omayyads, Tulunids and Ayyubids. Cairo has been a living mirror for the rich eras which has left an undeniable impact in each and every alley. Historical maps show the urban development since the 1800’s. Essentially, since the medieval city, the Fatimid Core was the city center. As years pass by, a new master plan evolved and the area began to be urbanized. Boulaq Abo El-Eila district was mainly agriculture lands. However, as the modernization started to arise and population rate inceased dramatically, agricultural lands had been taken over and buildings were constructed instead.

Figure I.2 B, 1826 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Geographical Atlas, Bibliotheca of Alexandria

Figure I.2 C, 1920 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Geographical Association of Egypt

Figure I.2 D, 1968 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Homilies and mind by mentioning plans and relics, Literature Press

Boulaq Abo El-Eila served as agricultural lands owned by peasants in the Khedivial era. As the revolution of 1952 took place, some of the agricultural lands had to be given up and so, construction took place at 1958. Governmental buildings were designed linear to the waterfront. Services of the governmental buildings started arising and taking over the rest of the agriculture lands, leaving almost not a single one. The 2016 map indicates that currently, no agricultural lands take place but in stead, there are buildings of different functions. Figure I.2 E, 1397 Map showing Boulaq Abo El Eila initially as agricultural land, Courtesy of Cairo 1001 Years of the City victorious, Janet L. Abu-Lughod 9


MSA University

CHAPTER II. URBAN STUDIES

―It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment‖ Ansell Adams

10


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.1 Social Analysis | Survey

Preface

C

ollecting some social information about locals in Bolaq and this information would not be accurate unless we make a questionnaire with locals on their working days to be sure that we are targeting the people we needed who are the Wekala's residences with all age group surveys were done on different levels to get the most accurate opinions and demands of the areas. The first level was done through observation and mapping the locals' behavior and activity to better grasp their needs and roles within the community. The second level was done through interviewing the locals directly to see their needs, visions and goals for their community through the locals' eyes. The residents were all stated in the area for many years inheriting their parents and grandparents' living spaces, while the minority dwelled in the area because of their work. Most of the residents are staying as of traditions to stay connected with their families, and the problem the surveys shows is that the number of outsiders within the area is minimal, which affects their ability to work negatively. This survey was made to solve the issue of locals in Wekala area. Residence The majority of people stated that they have been in that area for more than 15 years. Their great grandparents originally lived there which explains their clear, dominant loyalty and sense of belonging to the place.

less than 10 yrs 20% Less than 15 yrs 30%

Reasons behind staying here 60% of people stated that they are staying here because there family are here. The other are staying here because their work & business. This indicates that 40% the number of outsiders coming to the area is minimal.

15 yrs + 50%

15 yrs + Less than 15 yrs less than 10 yrs

60%

Family been here since a lot. I work here.

Working Conditions The majority of people are disappointed with their current situation due to in insufficient facilities and lack of governmental care.

Possibility of leaving Most of people stated that if they have enough money to go another place & start their business there they won’t question it, which means that there will be no problem asking locals to leave a certain area and go somewhere else, giving us a wider scope to choose the project site.

35 %

30 %

65 %

70 %

No

Yes

Yes

No

11


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.1 Social Analysis | Demographic Statistics

Population Providing equal job opportunities to female and Male would be very useful. Women nowadays can work almost equal to men.

49 %

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

51 %

Total Number of population equals 62470 persons

37% 63%

14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Unemployed

Educational Level Increasing educational 0% facilities are a must for all 11% levels of society. 33% Increasing awareness 24% among people is very 11% important for this area to 21% be successful. Illiterate Barley Educated Below Average Average Bachelor

Marital Status High percentage of non married people is a prove of the poverty in the Area which is a main reason behind the local residence need of help.

30643

Male

Female

Demographic charts data, Courtesy of CAPMAS, Annual data for population and statistics, 2006

Employment Owners of work should stay in the Area to supervise their project in a good way. Employed

31827

Work Owner

Work for his Fixed own Monthly interest income

Demographic charts data, Courtesy of CAPMAS, Annual data for population and statistics, 2006

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Illiterate

Barley Below Average Educated Average

Demographic charts data, Courtesy of CAPMAS, Annual data for population and statistics, 2006

14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Not Married

Married

Divorced

Widowed

Demographic charts data, Courtesy of CAPMAS, Annual data for population and statistics, 2006 12


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.1 Social Analysis

Conclusion Issues • The outer appearance does not show the inner buildings conditions. • Accessibility is more difficult when you walk deep through the Area. • More than half the People there are employed. However, there is a big percentage of unemployed people that need job opportunities. • The condition of the housing are terrible due to lack of maintenance. • The view to the Nile is completely blocked from the towers facing the river. • The Area is completely separated from the towers lying on the river side. • The wastes of the place are decreasing the land value. *Figure II.1(1), Eshash El-Nahl St, 2016

*Figure II.1 A

*Figure II.1 C *Figure II.1 B Different pictures on site in Boulaq Abo El-Eila, 2016

Resolutions • The lack of the maintenance and waste collection lead to the proposal of recycling project in the area. • Connecting all levels of society together with no segregation. • Decrease the waste output. • Giving the Area a taste of colorful joy to their life. • Increasing the educational facilities. • Increasing the awareness as there is so success without awareness knowledge.

*Figure II.1(2), Al-Mahkama St, 2016

*Figures of site, Courtesy of the researcher 13


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.2 Urban Analysis | Land Fill Maps

Land Use Map indicates poor health care facilities. The Commercial imprint is dominant; where the core mainly represents workshops and local market. The mixed use buildings are residential ones with retail ground floor. Residential buildings are distributed on the borders. The waterfront; the land with greatest asset contains high rise buildings which attract outsiders without needing to interact with the community itself. Lack of leisure facilities is so obvious.

Figure II.2 (1), Land Use Map , Courtesy of the researcher Hospital Governmental Residential Bank Religious Mixed Use Hotel Educational Commercial

Local Crafts The market place that once used to sell dates as per name, is now the biggest textile market in Egypt. The area if famous for selling the best fabrics. In addition, Boulaq El-gedida street holds huge market for second hand clothes. ElSabteia street contains one of the locals claimed to be best works, ferrefroge iron with its workshops in the core of the area. Last but not least, car repair business which is one of the main crafts the area is popular with. Figure II.2 (2), Local Crafts Map , Courtesy of the researcher Clothes Textiles

Smithing Car Spare Parts

Iron Ferrefroge Mixed Facilities 14


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.2 Urban Analysis | Building Conditions & Heights

Building Conditions Pointing to the fact that high rise buildings and buildings with higher floors are located on the boundaries, building conditions lessen as we head to the core. The majority of the commercial area and local market is of extremely poor conditions. In other words, some can be called catastrophic!

Figure II.2 (3), Building Conditions Map , Courtesy of the researcher Poor Average Good

Building Heights As clearly illustrated, the dominant side is at the Nile Corniche street, where all the high rise buildings are located. On the other hand, the heights in the core drop and relatively higher at the edges, forcing segregation to occur.

Figure II.2 (4), Building Heights Map , Courtesy of the researcher 3 Floors 5 Floors

9 Floors High-rise 15


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.2 Urban Analysis | Urban Fabric

Solid & Void Master plan solid and void ratio goes in favor of the solid apparently. Commercial facilities, local market and everyday living services took over almost all open spaces, shedding light on the lack of green areas, and open piazza’s where local residents can enjoy.

Figure II.2 (5), Solid & Void Map , Courtesy of the researcher Solid

Void

Urban Pattern The pattern illustrated on this map shows the informal planning that took place on subject area. It sheds light on the informality that is a result of building on former agriculture lands. The narrow streets represents the agriculture land boundaries which once took place on that specific area. High rise buildings were planned linear to waterfront, where as the local market and commercial areas came behind.

*

Figure II.2 (6), Urban Pattern Map , Courtesy of the researcher

* Grid representing the agricultural land that used to take place but was taken over by the informal urban planning growth

16


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.2 Urban Analysis | Traffic Generation

Pedestrian Traffic Local residents and shoppers flow into and out of the context of the subject area cause a pedestrian jam. Intersection between streets create small nodes, yet they are scattered randomly over the fabric with an undefined pattern.

Figure II.2 (7), Pedestrian Nodes Map , Courtesy of the researcher Pedestrian Nodes

Street Network Although the site’s conditions are poor relatively speaking to similar contexts, the area suffers extreme segregation. Street widths vary according to people’s needs. Wider streets surrounding the site from the exposed areas, and then decreases as it heads to the core where the local market is.

Figure II.2 (8), Street Network Map , Courtesy of the researcher Main Streets 9m

Secondary Streets 6m

Alleys 3m 17


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.2 Urban Analysis | Significant Buildings in Site

18


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.2 Urban Analysis | Nearby Landmarks & Contours

Nearby Significant Buildings Cairo University 9.8 KM The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities 3.0 KM El Qasr EL Eini Hospital 5.5.KM Cairo Tower 4.0 KM Ramsis Square 2.2 KM Figure II.2 (10), Nearby Significant Buildings Map , Courtesy of the researcher

Topography & Contours

Section 1-1

A

B

1

Scale 1:800

1

Section 2-2

Scale 1:800

2 A B

2

Section A-A

Scale 1:800

Section B-B

Scale 1:800

Minor contour lines, ranging from 4m to 15m across the site. The river Nile is the lowest point at 10m from the sea level and the highest is 25m. 19


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.2 Urban Analysis | Architectural Style

Historic Cairo As previously stated, Boulaq Abo El-Eila is classified as a world heritage area. The area is so rich with its architectural value and more importantly, considered as a mirror that reflects layers of the majestic eras that passed by Egypt. Boulaq is an important part of Historic Cairo (URHC, 2008). Its architectural style is framed by a list of historic buildings that are located in site. The majority is Islamic Ottoman, mixed with Mamluk features.

Significant Historical Buildings

Sinan Pasha Mosque Takiyat AlRefa’eiya

Al-Qady Yahya Mosque

Mostafa AlShorbagy Merza Mosque

Al-Sultan Abo AlEila Mosque

Figure II.2 (11),Map of Historic Cairo, Courtesy of URHC Project

Takiyat AL Refa’eiya

Historic Cairo Archaeological Site

Year:1774 Era: Ottomans Founder: Mohamed Agha Main Features: • It used to be a place for praying specially for Sufy and Refay people and due to lack of maintenance it’s now used as toilets with bad smell. See figures II.2 (12) A, B & C

Other monuments, before the 19thC Other monuments, before the 19thC & 20th C.

Nile Main monuments before the 19th C Main streets

Al Qady Yahya Mosque Year: 1470 Era: Memluks Founder: Amir and Judge Zayn Al-Din Yahya Main Features: • The blazon of El Qady Yahya appears on the walls of the mosque. • The top half on the minaret is gone. See figures II.2 (12) D, E & F * Courtesy of the researcher

*Figure II.2 (12) A

*Figure II.2 (12) B

Figure II.2 (12) C

*Figure II.2 (12) E

*Figure II.2 (12) F

Figure II.2 (12) G 20


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.2 Urban Analysis | Existing Vegetation

Main existing plants features 1.

Acacia Tree -Tropical plant -Fast growers -Live only 20-30 years -Long roots See figure II.2 (12)A

2.

Ficus Nitida -Tropical plant -Height over 12m -Well drained soil See figure II.2 (12)B 4.

3.

Ficus Benghalensis

Lantana Plant

-Tropical plant -watercolor on paper -200 meters in diameter and 30 meters in height. See figure II.2 (12)C

-Sun loving plant -Producing flowers -Tropical plant

5.

Figure II.2 (12), Existing Vegetation Key Map, Courtesy of the researcher

Poinciana Tree -Lacy green leaves -Spoon-shaped -Tropical tree See figure II.2 (12)D

* Courtesy of the researcher

*Figure II.2 (12)A, Wekala main entrance, 2016

*Figure II.2 (12)B, Back entrance of Conrad hotel, 2016

*Figure II.2 (12)C, Senan pasha mosque’s court yard, 2016

*Figure II.2 (12)D, Senan pasha main entrance, 2016 21


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Site Analysis

II.3 Environmental Analysis | Climate

Climatic Aspect Wind Frequency 

Maximum Wind Frequency Northwest

Minimum Wind Frequency Southeast

Average Winds Temperature  Maximum Average Temperature 41 degrees  Minimum Average Temperature 12 degrees

Average Relative Humidity  Maximum Relative Humidity 75%  Minimum Relative Humidity 50%

Simulation

Proposed Solutions Prevailing wind comes from the north west so it is preferred to orient the openings in this direction for good ventilation. -Warm wind that is not desirable come from southeast(sirocco) so it is preferable to have less opening in this direction to manage good ventilation.

Use shading devices in the south west to decrease direct sunlight. - Use double glazed windows to maintain the temperature all the year. -Passive solar design is made to reduce or eliminate heat in summer, to gather and store heat energy for winter.

Keep roof floor heat out by using a vented roof and an insulated ceiling. If air can flow up inside the roof and out vents above, the roof stays cooler. -Reflective foil draped across the rafters help, or insulation made of materials that don't soak up humidity.

22


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.3 Environmental Analysis | Solar Path

Proposed Applications

according to the environmental analysis • Use open plan interiors to promote natural cross ventilation, or use louvered doors, or instead use jump ducts if privacy is required.

• Great natural ventilation can decrease the use of cooling systems . Achieved by orienting the windows to the prevailing wind and by adding shading devices.

Figure II.X (a), Solar Path Chart showing solar angles on Wekalet El Balah’s layout, Courtesy of the researcher

• To achieve an optimum result of cross ventilation the location of windows and doors have to be on opposite sides of building.

Figure II.X (b), Solar Path Chart showing solar angles on Wekalet El Balah’s 3D, Courtesy of the researcher

• Traditional passive homes in hot windy dry climates used enclosed well shaded courtyards, with a small fountain to provide wind-protected microclimates.

23


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter II

II. Urban Studies

II.4 Conclusion

List of Problems 65% of the streets are very narrow. 42% of the buildings are deteriorated. Not enough facilities. The infrastructure system is too old and there is no maintenance.

The nearest hospital is el Qasr Aini which is 8.1km away, but the problem is that it was not meant to serve Boulaq. Vacant land used as garbage disposal. Clear segregation as a result of good condition – high rise buildings on the waterfront and poor buildings in the core of the area. Majority of Historical Buildings are abandoned. Huge gap between different society levels.

Conclusion Statement In Boulak Abo El-Eila, the main problem is that there is a huge gap between the basic needs of the locals and the services they get. The locals feels detached from their own land. The place needs an overall development through commercial, industrial and awareness aspects. - They suffer from the old deteriorated infrastructure network. - They don’t have the minimum requirements of a good life quality. Even if the locals love the place, by time they will not be able to handle it anymore so they would be obliged to leave in order to find another place that meets their quality of life’s aspirations. See figure II.2 (14).

Recycling is the solution. Boulaq Abo El-Eila suffers from waste coming from households and workshops. Treating that phenomena would help the development process by local residents aside to local material.

Figure II.2 (14), Garbage in the streets of Boulaq Abo El-Eila, Courtesy of the researcher 24


MSA University

CHAPTER III. PROJECT SITE SELECTION

―Earth was created for us, not some of us.‖ Anthony Douglas Williams

25


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 1 Site Selection

Selection Criteria • • • • • •

Location and accessibility Building conditions Nearby landmarks Waterfront Close to crafts Land value

Figure III.1, Selected Sites Map , Courtesy of the researcher Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

*Areas, requirements and design aspects were taken into consideration in the site selection process as well as building conditions.

26


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 1 Site Selection | Site 1

Main Streets 9 m Secondary Streets 6 m Alleys 3 m

Accessibility

Important Surroundings

Total Area = 16,500 m2

1

3 2

1- El Mahkma Mosque 4

2- St. Mary Church 3- Al Ahly Bank Towers 4- Merza Mosque

El Wagha St. ( 6m. Width ) Souq ElAser St. ( 6m. Width ) 26th of July corridor ( 24m. Width ) Aish Al-Nahl St. ( 3m. Width ) Haret Al-Hanout St. ( 3m. Width ) Gahwaseb Al-Kezb St. (6m. Width)

27


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 1 Site Selection | Site 2

Main Streets 9 m Secondary Streets 6 m Alleys 3 m

Accessibility

Important Surroundings

Total Area = 12,000 m2

1

2

1- El Mahkma Mosque 2- Merza Mosque 3- 15th of may bridge

3

Bolaaq El Gadeid St. ( 9m. Width ) El Ahmadein St. ( 6m. Width ) 26th of July corridor (24m. Width) El Wagha St. ( 6m. Width ) Nada St. ( 3m. Width ) Sayed Al-Khotayrei St. (3m. Width )

28


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 1 Site Selection | Site 3

Main Streets 9 m Secondary Streets 6 m Alleys 3 m

Total Area = 22,000 m2

Accessibility

Important Surroundings

1 4

1- El Mahkma Mosque 2

2- Merza Mosque 3- 15th of may bridge 4- Al Ahly Bank Towers 3

Hammam Gomma St. (3m. Width) Eshash Al-Nahl St (3m. Width) 26th of July corridor (24m. Width ) El Wagha St. ( 6m. Width ) El Khotery St. (6m. Width)

Sayed Al-Khotayrei St.(3m. Width)

29


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 1 Site Selection | Comparison between sites Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

16,500 m2

12,000 m2

22,000 m2

• No important surroundings

• El mahkma Mosque • Merza Mosque

• Surrounding landmarks • Directly on Wekala st.

• Accessibility on main street (Boulaq al gadida st.) • Close to the heart of crafts and commercial facilities • Waterfront view

• Located close to the heart of workshops and crafts • Nearby landmarks • Bad conditions of buildings

• Very high land value • Buildings of good conditions.

• No near landmarks • Street venders • High land value

• Main facades not on main streets • Harder accessibility for outsiders to reach

• Enough Labor • Improve the walking- through Wekala St. experience

• Commercial Reputation • Close to the heart of the crafts

• The presence of enough material and resources to work on from surrounding crafts

• Expected increase in land value • People might not want to leave their location

• It’s a vital area in the local market so we will face difficulties for convincing people to leave

• The presence of historical buildings near the boundaries, so significant setbacks should be taken into account.

Outline

Area Important surroundings

S W O T A n a l y s i s

Chosen Site

• NBE Towers • St. Mary church

✓ 30


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter III

III. Project Site Selection

III. 2 Site Analysis | Further Analysis on the Chosen Site

Building Heights

3 Floors 5 Floors

Street Network

Alleys

Main Streets Secondary streets

9 Floors High-rise

Land Use

Building Conditions

Residential Commercial

Religious Mixed Use

Poor Good

Average

Site Surroundings

*Figure III.3 A

*Figure III.3 B

*Figure III.3 C

*Figure III.3 D

Souq Al-Asr Street (3m wide) Eshash Al-Nahl Street (3m wide) Al-Mahkama St. (3m wide) *Figure III.3 E

*Figure III.3 F

*Figure III.3 G

*Figures showing site 3 surroundings , Courtesy of the researcher

Hammam Al-Gomaa St. (3m Wide) 31


MSA University

CHAPTER IV. THEORIES & LITERATURE REVIEW

‖The world owes you nothing it was here first.‖ Mark Twain

32


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Proposal Theme

―As an architect you design for the present, with an awareness of the past, for a future which is essentially unknown.‖ Norman Foster Vision

Sustainable solid waste management project, for the sake of improving

environmental, social and economic conditions of Boulak Abo El-Eila, and its surrounding areas, while putting into consideration the area’s uniqueness

Objectives - An organizational and institutional frame work which is legal and effective for waste management. - Raising the awareness of the community and getting them involved in the project. - Train new cadres, to be able to manage the project in a efficient and proper way. - Financially efficient and sustainable system for the solid waste management services and activities. - Dealing with solid waste according to an appropriate mechanisms and basics. - Develop the locals’ quality of life trough a) b) c)

Decrease waste of the site. Enhancing the commercial facilities. Guaranteed minimum monthly income

- Integrate the locals with the place visitors - Enhance the interaction between different society levels - Minimize the Segregation the site suffers 33


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Definition Recycling is a process in which taking something utilized by customer or post-industrial user and remanufacturing it

Recycling in Egypt Household waste generation has continued to grow over the previous decade with the growth in population. The per capita waste generation rates have obviously expanded from 0.55 kg/capita/day in 2000 to 0.75 kg/capita/day in 2008

Figure IV.1, Courtesy of URHC Projects Preliminary Study of Waste Disposal Management in Historic Cairo

Households waste generation rate The households are considered as the main source of waste. This graph shows their waste rate from 2000 to 2008. The rate of households waste increases as the populations increases.

Figure IV.2, Courtesy of URHC Projects Preliminary Study of Waste Disposal Management in Historic Cairo

Importance of Recycling • • • • • •

Saves natural assets as it prevents the excess mining of areas Saves money as it lowers trash collected, and so lowers the trash bill. Saves energy as it uses 360 gallons of water instead of 7000 to make paper. Saves landfill as it helps conserve space inside landfill. Provides job opportunities as it provides new business with labor. Provides alternate material such as plastic lumber, benches, road safety markers and asphalt. 34


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Key Authors “Solid wastes" are the discarded leftovers of our advanced consumer society. This growing mountain of garbage and trash represents not only an attitude of indifference toward valuable natural resources, but also a serious economic and public health problem.” (Carter) Jimmy Carter 39th US President, Humanitarian, 1978 National Conservation Achievement Award, 1994 National Freedom Award,1994 Audubon Medal 1994 Félix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize,1999 Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2002 Nobel Peace Prize Winner, Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, The Elders.

Figure IV.3, Jimmy Carter

“Pollution is nothing but the resources we are not harvesting. We allow them to disperse because we've been ignorant of their value.” (Fuller) R. Buckminster Fuller American architect, innovator and futurist. 1983, Presidential Medal of Freedom He likewise made the geodesic dome, planned and constructed any quantities of environmentally compatible buildings and homes. Figure IV.4, R. Buckminster Fuller

The Dymaxion House Project year: 1927 Area: 100m2

A hexagonal house built on a central support, resistant structure, non-bearing walls, removable inner walls to be shaped according to the user needs, wind turbines on the roof and tanks to collect and recycle water. This house constructed from aluminum due to its strength, low in weight and it’s reusable material.

Figure IV.5, R. Dymaxion House by Buckminister Fuler 35


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Phenomena Combining both social studies and analysis, it’s clear that Waste Production rate all over Cairo, especially in Boulaq Abo El-Eila is so distinctive. Consequently, serious action has to be taken. To find a solution which can solve at least a part from the problem we are facing here, all the development aspects must be taken into consideration. As a matter of fact, to combine between all the development aspects, following the sustainability principles was the best solution. The biggest challenge is to think how can a project develop and combine between these three dimensions On the other hand one of the biggest problems in the place there was the waste management, neither the workshops or the residential areas, reuse or recycle any of their waste. So choosing to build a Recycling Hub was the best solutions for all the aspects and to prove that one project can combine between the three sustainability dimensions.

Social

Environmental

Economic

Figure IV.6, The 3 main sustainability aspects

Social; Raise the awareness of the locals and their abilities. Environmental; Working towards the goal of zero waste area. Economic; Generating more income through the recycling for more families.

Legal Definition Government role towards waste treatment There was no role for the government in waste treatment they are paying 3.5 billion EGY to get rid of it. Now they are using some of the waste in the new power plant. But still there more waste that is not used. According to the EEAA consumption of solid waste statistics papers are 10% of the solid waste, metals & textiles each of them 2%.

Figure IV.7, Courtesy of EQI Solid Waste Management in the City of Ismailia, Egypt, 1994 36


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Locals’ Definition There is no single power entrusted with solid waste management in Egypt The responsibility of solid waste management on the national level is shared among a few Government elements In case of municipal solid waste, the responsibility is shared among the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Environmental Affairs Agency, the Ministry of Local Development, Ministry of Housing, utilities, and Urban development. Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs is in charge of origination and execution of national arrangements and methodologies. It assumes an administrative part through The Egyptian Environmental Affair.

Environmental Affairs Agency it works under the charge of the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, is to guarantee the execution of the ecological laws and directions. By virtue of its foundation. Ministry of Housing utilities assuming the part of local government. This applies to solid waste management services. According to the same declaration.

Urban Suffer Disposing of waste has enormous environmental effects and can bring about significant issues. In the UK much is covered in landfill sites – holes in the ground, sometimes old quarries, here and there exceptionally burrowed. Some waste will inevitably spoil, yet not all, and in the process it might smell or create methane gas, which is touchy and adds to the greenhouse effect.

Informal recycling activities in Egypt

Figure IV.11 A, Smithing Workshops’ waste in Wikalet El Balah, Courtesy of the researcher, 2016

There are different waste recycling activities in urban areas significant interest in gathering recyclables like: Plastic, cardboard, metal, aluminum, glass, old bread, old textiles and utilized recyclables to gather or purchase They perform door-to-door collection and street collection These activities are hard to evaluate yet they are various and take place in privileged and non-privileged areas.. A large portion of the recycling activities is performed by the Zabbaleen who gather waste door to door and take it back to their zones for sorting and recycling. Figure IV.11 C, E-waste Collectors in Egypt, Courtesy of URHC Project, 2016 37


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IV

IV. Theories & Literature Review

Mansheyyet Naser – Zabbalin District

It is impossible to talk about recycling without talking about one of the most important places in recycling in Egypt; Zabbalin district. Zabbaleen are the informal waste specialists of Cairo who handle no less than half of the city's waste and gladly ready to reuse almost 85% of it, a redirection rate that is said to be much higher than most urban areas in Europe and North America. Today, they are the biggest trash specialist group in Cairo, with roughly 60,000 occupants; developing from a populace of 8,000 in the mid 1980s. There are likewise four other Zabbaleen settlements encompassing the Greater Cairo zone.

Zabbalin District – Live Shot

Mansheyyet Nasser's living conditions are very poor and the living circumstance is obviously undesirable. Be that as it may, amid the most recent years, the lives of the Zabbaleen have become more terrible subsequently of two choices of the Cairo city government. In 2003 the administration procured privately owned businesses for the rubbish transfer, which today the Zabbaleen need to contend with. A.P.E. (Association for the protection of the environment) works with the informal city workers of Cairo known as the Zabbaleen. Their point is to help this customarily minimized gathering find advance approaches to bolster nature and help themselves. Their emphasis is on growing ecologically solid waste administration and reusing procedures, which fabricate the human limit of the Zabbaleen people group, to "reuse and re-us".

Fabrics and textiles Recycling Workshop 38


MSA University

CHAPTER V. DESIGN ISSUES

―As an architect, you design for the present with an awareness of the past for a future which is essentially unknown.‖ Norman Foster

39


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.1 Legibility

General Definition

Legibility is an expression used to define the ease of which local can understand the arrangement of a place. ("Articles on Current Affairs", 2017)

Architectural Definition

Architectural legibility is the level of which the planned features of the surroundings help people in producing a valuable mental image, or "cognitive map" of the spatial interactions within a building, and the subsequent simplicity of way finding throughout the environment.("Evaluation of a Conceptual Model of Architectural Legibility - Jul 26, 2016", 2017)

Layering It’s an arrangement used in accomplishing a success of the task to serve its function Each layer has its phase: • Paths, Districts, Edges, Nodes, Landmarks

Orientation Local Patterns

Land use Street directions Accessibility requirements

Choi Jeong building – well defined legibility

Sensory/Physiological Privacy Views Noise reduction Street activity

Plan recognition • It’s a way of proposing a building, having a pleasant typology & schemes. • As designing map according to task and arrangements, with an easy way of handling. • Some plans like Airports are occupied with sections that makes it hard walk within. • Some facilities have an uncommon structural system which can be puzzling and tough to figure out the plan.

Comic about buildings with poor legibility

40


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.1 Legibility

Weak defined spaces Caused by the disarranged solid and void related to indoor/outdoor.

Defined spaces Caused by zoning spaces function & the curve shape circulation.

Semi defined spaces Caused by different zones function & various nodes.

Extra Defined spaces Caused by zoning spaces function & the concentration around nodes.

41


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.2 Circulation

General Definition The action of the flowing of something from one individual to another or a place to another.

Architecture Definition

Pass by spaces

The way people move through vertical and horizontal spaces and how they interact with a building.

Circulation type

The linear, axial and the perceptual types best suits our project as the land is a rectangular shape and its best to get visitors easy access and exit to the recycling hub.

Pass through spaces

Terminate in a space • Linear

• Axial

• Radial

• Grid


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.3 Flexibility

General definition To be described by a prepared capacity to adjust to another, deferent or changing requirements. ("Definition Of FLEXIBLE")

Architectural Definition Which a framework supports possible or future changes to its requirements. a quality characteristic of business data frameworks that contributes to the prevention of aging. (Carbon and Naab 1)

Adaptability

Moveable

Structures features repositionable partitions or are alterable per client/inhabitant ("Flexibility In Architecture")

Structures contain re-locatable or repositionable structures or structures prepared for being torn down and reassembled in another zone.("Flexibility In Architecture")

Responsive

Universal

Structures can react to various outside including, however not restricted to energy/ environment, interaction, usage, or occupation ("Flexibility In Architecture")

Is its simplicity of adjustment per utilize. these structures are frequently portrayed by open floor arrangements and typology free plan ("Flexibility In Architecture")

43


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.4 Image

General Definition An image is the idea about a specific matter that is perceived in mind according to a certain behavior or appearance.

Architectural Definition The image in architecture is created on an early stage of the project and provides advanced, ambitious vision on the aims and objectives of the project.

Image of Project -

Strong significance that attracts locals. Introducing the recycling awareness and its effects on the long run.

Message -

Whole development to the subject area, using local material and local labor. Residents use simple recycled material they use every day in innovative ways that would help them improve their life style. Sustaining the awareness about recycling. Taking maximum advantage of the waste by Boulaq’s rich workshops (fabrics, steel, …etc) and households. Restoring Wekalet El Balah’s glory.

Residential House built with recycled material

House built by simple recycled materials by a local resident

Wall built by recycled tires 44


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.5 Interaction

General Definition Interaction is the action that happens between two or more elements indulge one another. The concept of a two-way effect is the key point of interaction.

Architectural Definition Interaction design is the design discipline devoted to creating relationships between the building and the environment, the building and the people, and the individuals with each others.

Interaction with the inner community through social activities and events

Methodologies • • • •

Goal-oriented design Personas Cognitive dimensions Affective interaction design

Benefits • Exchanging ideas among peers and individuals. • Helps defeating discrimination through interaction between different personas. • Helps children reach further heights of curiosity and understanding through exposure. • Provides a platform of knowledge transfer among students. • Helps individuals with their communication skills. • Gives residents the feeling of belonging and ownership

Interactive Wall which locals can alter

Interactive Fountain for children

45


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter V

V. Design Issues

V.6 Atmosphere and Mood

General Definition

Mood is an element that induces specific feelings or senses in readers within descriptions and words. Mood is created in a literary piece by many methods. It can be created through theme, settings, diction and tone. ("Mood | Literary Devices", 2017)

Architectural Definition

Atmosphere indicates sensorial qualities which a zone emits. Atmosphere is an direct form of physical observation, and is recognized by emotional sensibility(Revolvy, 2017).

Green

Design Considerations While designing the project, these aspects are the main aspects which must be taken into consideration: - Place - Form - Light - Materials - Colors - Sound - Temperature - Air

Red

Wealth Nature Freshness

Intense Energetic Strength Danger

White

Orange

Clean Positive

Hot Aggressive Success

yellow Optimistic Cheerful Energetic

Blue Trust Security Peaceful Wisdom

Purple Royalty Luxury Calming

Black Powerful Formal Sophisticated

Application: Novo Nordisk NN2 The charisma of the light and the way it functions and how it is controlled is essential for human comfort. Thinking of using the artificial lighting and daylighting can improve the quality of the surroundings. The secret is to balance and maintain the light in a rhythm and variation that makes us feel dynamic without disturbing us or uncomforting the body and mind. Lighting with a balanced change in light amounts and colors reminds us of being connected to nature in addition to motivating our senses, improving our mood and rising general wellbeing.

Interior shot of Novo Nordisk NN2 Atrium on different timing -2012

Interior shot of Novo Nordisk NN2 Atrium-2012 46


MSA University

CHAPTER VI. CASE STUDIES

―Cities have the capability of providing something for everyone. Only because, and only when they are created by everyone.‖ Jane Jacobs

47


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI.1 International | Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility

Exterior shot, 2014

Overview The Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility is an organization center for recyclable waste of curbside glass, metal & plastic for New York that is being managed by Sims Municipal Recycling and the City of New York. The site located on 44,515 sqm on waterfront pier in Sunset Park. It is divided in to parts recycling area & education area.

Architect

Selldorf Architects

Area

13000 Sqm

Project Year 2014

Location

Brooklyn, NY, USA Location Map, 2016 48


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility

Master plan

The master plan classifies buildings to be fully supportive to its function, that creates clear & safe circulation to the visitors from operations, and adds around 8000 sqm of native plantings. It also have its own urban context by the organization of the building.

Visitors &staff parking Bus drop off Education center & Administration building Bale storage building Truck loading/ unloading Processing building Tipping building Substation Covered walkway Rail loading Barge loading

Figure VI.xx, Master Plan Zoning

Level 1

These plans are for the education center and it’s the unique feature in this project. ground level is for the administration area . Secondary Entrance

Ground level

Figure VI.xx, Educational Center Plan located in the ground floor Main Entrance

Horizontal circulation(Main route) Lobby Cafeteria Open office Conference room Private office Locker room Restroom Mechanical Vertical circulation 49


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility

Level 2

The second floor is mainly for education area were the interaction occurs in the classrooms, theater or terrace.

Second Floor level

Horizontal circulation(Main route) Exhibition Classroom Terrace Theater Restroom Mechanical Vertical circulation

Terrace ,exterior shot, 2014

Section A

The geometry of buildings produced a satisfying suite of courtyards, a mini-cityscape. The broad pitched roof suspended over the main building creates a clerestory for light and air.

Barge Barge unloading Tipping building Pedestrian bridge Bale storage building Truck loading Education center & Administration building Rail loading Covered walkway

1. 2. 3. 4.

Covered Walkway Elevation of bale storage building Education center Sloped roof of tipping building for the solar panels 50


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility

Design issues 1-Interaction

The main feature of the education center is to raise awareness for recycling. This program is for school students and the public. • The main feature in the design of the project is the bridge connecting the education center and the recycling area allowing them to see the recycling process. •

Classroom from the education center, 2014

2- Circulation The masterplan organizes buildings to support functionality, The bridge the connects the education center with the platform creates safe circulation for the visitors by allowing them to see the process of recycling but separate them from the operation area Bridge connecting the platform & education center, 2014

3- Durability Recycled steel & glass is used in the building , to convince people by recycling must see the output and the advantages of recycling.

Barge un loading area, 2014

4- Safety Clear circulation for visitors to be separated from the operation place

Platform & education center, 2015 51


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility

4- Environmental impact: The facility makes a major environmental contribution by delivering recyclables by barge—a strategy which minimizes the distance collection trucks . Recycled materials are used throughout: site fill is made from a composite of recycled glass, asphalt & steel. 15% of the energy used is generated by the wind turbines.

Garbage before recycling, Interior shot, 2014

5-Sustainability Other sustainable measures include the largest application of photovoltaics in New York City, 15% of the energy used is generated by the wind turbines, the solar panels on the sloped roof of the tipping building, and bio-swales for storm water management. Graphics describes the main features

Conclusion By the good organization of the building they have created there own urban context , that helped them in the well defined circulation for staff and visitors. They also are encouraging people for recycling by raising there awareness & by using recycling building materials in the project. They are using clean energy in the project by solar energy & wind turbines . On the other hand, I think they have a problem when it comes to the form the education center its too simple it could be better. So this project could be useful as reference in many things such as:  Circulation between recycling area & education area.  The use of clean energy (solar panels & wind turbines)  Organization of buildings creating its own urban context.  The use of recycled materials in the project.  The education center for raising the awareness.

Bird’s eye shot, 2014 52


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI.1 International | Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

Overview

Sunset exterior shot, 2015

The U.S. Department Solar Energy -Research Center took part at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It was publically recalled Chu Hall. Interaction and collaboration were the aim behind the research of Berkeley Lab. The building include the administration offices of the Karli Energy Nanoscience Instroduce.

Architect

Smith Group JJR

Area

3620.00 Sqm

Project Year 2015

Location

Berkeley, CA, USA Took part in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratory.

Location Map, 2015 53


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

Level 1

The sub surface ―Plinth‖ which profits up extra than 50 % of the total square footage and created to be an ultra-low vibration place to keep laboratories sensitive to vibration and light.

Underground level

Vertical circulation exterior shot, 2015

Horizontal circulation(Main route) Open labs Open office Vertical circulation Building support

Level 2

Placed on the ground floor level, created to nurture interdisciplinary association, which contains the main door and entrance lobby.

Ground level

Level 2 - Interior shot, 2015

Secondary Entrance

Main Entrance

Horizontal circulation(Main route) Private offices Open office Vertical circulation Building support Interaction Parking

54


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

Level 3

The ―Corona,‖ a direct rectangular form that keeps wet lab zones just like research to adjust technology required to construct nanoscale constituents through active systems.

Second Floor level

Horizontal circulation Vertical circulation Building support Lab Tech desk Open Labs

Interior openings shot, 2015

Section A

55


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

Design issues 1-Interaction

• The project succeeded to make a very well interaction places inside the building as well as outside the building. • Inside the building by making public labs and offices and outside the building by designing a very well gathering green spaces. • Last but not least, using the function of solid and void in the facades to make people inside the building interact with the outer environment.

Manual sketch to show interaction between people inside the building and the outside environment.

2-Flexibility

Activity zones and an exposed, adaptable office background at the core of the facility provide opportunities for scientific gathering and communication either outside or in of the laboratory place.

VOID

Manual sketch to show the relationship between solid and void and the main Entrances.

3- Economy

Following Chu Hall’s reason to ―create sustainable, carbon-neutral sources of energy,‖ the creation and construction of the center willingly reacted to the Department of Energy’s mandate of 30 percent energy savings built on ASHRAE 90.1 LEED so Gold certification is aimed. Lab interior shot, 2015

4- Safety Safety precaution is taken very well into consideration in this project as they placed the labs in underground level and created to be an extra-low vibration zone to company laboratories sensitive to vibration and light. Public open offices shot, 2015 56


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.1 International | Chu Hall – Solar Energy Research Center

5-Durability

Renewable energy sources contains solar hot water panels for home, and hot water heating. on level 3 Photovoltaic panels were used in all offices. Mechanical energy-efficient characteristics and sustainable design components which made of runaround heat revival.

Gathering area, Interior shot, 2015

6-Sustainability

The green roof at the north and south directions of level 1 to offers thermal insulating advantages and minimize heat profit, along with an east-west axis with the smallest elevation fronting south. Energy efficient, low-E glazing is used on the outside. Onsite development was decreased by using nearby parking, allowing reduced paved zones and more plantings.

Open gathering Area- exterior shot, 2015

Conclusion They have managed to create some shared spaces to ensure more interaction between the clients. They also designed the building in many ways to be sustainable. And also succeeded to build an unground space that function their needs. Moreover, The openings played a good role in creating the form. On the other hand, I think they have a problem when it comes to the circulation or legibility in general. It needs to be more defined. So this project could be useful as reference in many things such as:  Making a green roof for an underground floor and using the ground floor as gathering green space.  Using the solid and void in the facades to produce a good form with a useful function.  The open spacing inside the building such as open labs and offices to increase the collaboration between the works and the visitors.

Bird’s eye shot, 2015

57


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI.3 National | Cultural Park For Children

Exterior shot, 1992

Due to the lack of local recycling case studies, we decided to use this case study which does not relate to the project by function, but is a great example on how to integrate a communal project with the corresponding context especially when it is so rich like Boulaq Abo El-Eila. How the architect dealt with every detail and aimed to create a homogeneous environment using local materials and labor sets a strong example on constructing a successful project in Egypt. “The significance of this project lies in the evolution of the design process and the interaction with the local community as well as the architecture of the structures.� (1992,Akbar)

Overview The Cultural Park for children, located in an ancient extravagant community, which is Sayyeda Zeinab in Cairo. The park implicates various of functions such as libraries, settings for theoretical and performing arts studios, computer and video games, fountains and playgrounds, combined with a long interactive strip of cultural facilities which is open onto the corresponding surrounding context. These strip facilities include a community room and library, seats, street fountain and vendors, a huge festival plaza, a prayer area and other communal services. 58


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.3 National | Cultural Park For Children

Architect

Abdelhalim Ibrahim Abdelhalim

Client

The Ministry of Culture

Completion 1985

Location Al Sayyeda Zainab, Cairo, Egypt

Context and Immediate Surroundings

Site Location within Context, 1985

The Corresponding fabric consists of very different yet rich urban arrays. In addition to residential buildings representing almost every architectural development Cairo had experienced. Due North Abo El-dahab street – historic Due East Qadry Street – relatively modern Offering a strong visual axe towards Ibn Tulun’s minaret It also leads to the Citadel square and Al Azhar. Exterior shot, 1985

Conditions

- The need for children’s cultural facilities - Deterioration of the urban environment of the surrounding context - Loss of green space and the abuse of the surrounding parks. As we can see, Abdelhalim’s surrounding conditions are similar to the ones that need to be put into consideration as the project proceeds. Abdelhalim managed to add to the urban identity of the space, as well as to its cultural value.

Neighborhood Plan, Courtesy of Park for Children, 1992 59


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VI

VI. Case Studies

VI.3 National | Cultural Park For Children

Structural System

- Reinforced Concrete continuous foundation - Loadbearing Wall construction

Materials

- Reinforced Concrete - Limestone - Wood work - Sandstone - Marble and Mosaic

Workshops , 1985

Origin of Technology

All materials, professionals, lobour and technologies are from Egypt. - Limestone – Helwan, Ismaileya and Aswan - Marble and Granite – Sinai and Aswan - Glazed tiles – Cairo - Cement and Steel Reinforcement – Helwan

Response to the project

Target users, officials and neighbors are completely satisfied and happy with it, which means that Abdelhalim proudly succeeded in achieving his goals and objectives. The project won the Agha Khan Award for Architecture for year 1991

Design Issues 1.

Interaction

The park’s main aim was to enhance the children’s interaction with the project. The spaces interact thoroughly with the surrounding context. The park is laid out in geometric shapes, some of which are painted in bright colors to attract local children. In fact, nearby schools use these patterns to teach the children geometry.

Minaret and Woodwork , 1985

2. Integration

The project is fully integrated within the site. It has successfully managed to fulfill its targets with taking into consideration the context’s physical and historical constrains.

Children enjoying the cultural park 60


MSA University

CHAPTER VII. SUSTAINABILITY

―The future is green energy, sustainability, and renewable energy.‖ Arnold Schwarzenegger

61


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VII

VII. Sustainability

Sustainability Definition

T

here is no settled definition across the world on what sustainability means. There are a wide range of perspectives on what it is and how it can be accomplished. The thought of sustainability comes from the idea of sustainable development which got to be distinctly basic language at the World's first Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. The basic and the original definition of sustainable development is typically thought to be: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Bruntl and Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development (1992)

Relation with Architecture Sustainable architecture is a vital part of the sustainable development topic , a main worry in present day design and planning. Sustainable development struggles to meet the wants and the circumstances of life while not cooperating the wants and the sources of life in the future. Sustainable architecture is a very significant element in this form of considering, which attempts to meet a similar general objective of smarter construction and improvement.

Application in Architecture In fact sustainable architecture could be characterized as the making of structures for which just renewable assets are used all through the procedure of design, implementation and perform. So the application in sustainable architecture position should as well contain the construct and transportation of resources and materials, components, building tools and performance.

Sustainability Aspects The three dimensions of sustainability are intense pillars for characterizing the total sustainability issue. This comprises of at least the social, economic and environmental aspects. If any one of those pillars isn’t strong, then the entire system is unsustainable.

Environment

Social

Economic

Figure VII.1, Sustainability Aspects

62


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VII

VII. Sustainability

Social Sustainability The broad meaning of social sustainability is the capability of a social system, for example, a nation, to work at a characterized level of social welfare for ever. That level ought to be characterized in connection to the objective of Homo sapiens, which is (or ought to be) to advance and optimize the excellence of life and the personal satisfaction for those living people and their descendents. Human Rights

Diversity

Application in Architecture Architecture improves social sustainability by Standard of Living giving constructed chances for stability and connectivity. Socially sustainable architecture promotes 1) equilibrium between the persons and the group and also between the present and the prospect; and 2) associations between people inside Identity the building and amongst inhabitants the surrounding community.

Equal Opportunity

Health Meaning Figure VII.2, Social Sustainability Aspects

Economic Sustainability

The economic sustainability is defined as the economic ability to sustain and support a defined level of economic production and the humans economic needs,

Application in Architecture Sustainable buildings has many applications and benefits when it comes to the economic aspect, but first the rules and regulations of economic sustainability must be implemented; Use Sustainable Materials, Reduce the consumption of the energy and Improve the efficiency of the water. • Helping in the ―Green Market‖ expansion • Reduce the cost of operations • Optimizes the building’s live cycle • Increase the value of the property • Improve the productivity of the occupants

Consumption Patterns

Research and Development

Distribution of Wealth

Efficient Production

Figure VII.3, Economic Sustainability Aspects 63


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VII

VII. Sustainability

Environmental Sustainability Environmental sustainability is the charge of renewable source collect, pollution formation, and non-renewable source reduction that can be sustained for ever. In the event that they can't be proceeded with inconclusively then they are not sustainable.

Application in Architecture

The most important reason behind the sustainable approaches in architecture is to preserve the environment and conserve the natural resources. So there are many applications for the sustainable environmental approaches: • Ecosystem protection • Emissions reduction • Air and water quality improvement • Water conservation • Waste stream reduction • Natural resources restoration and conservation • Reduction of the waste • Control of the temperature

Natural Resource Protection

Pollution Prevention

Biodiversity

Waste Management Figure VII.4, Environmental Sustainability Aspects

Buildings Types Green buildings

Green buildings or green constructions depends on two aspects: first the green structure (obeying all green construction methods, materials and green buildings aspects), and secondly the process of usage while being responsible environmentally and resource-efficient during all the building life cycle, and through all these phases; design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.

Sustainable Buildings

Green building materials and products usage doesn’t surely mean that this building became sustainable or energy efficient. Even if the building is energy efficient that also doesn’t mean that it is a sustainable building. Sustainable building must be sensitive environmentally and working towards the energy reduction through all the life cycle, also must meet all the aspects and objectives of sustainability like environment and social aspects.

Smart Buildings

Smart buildings could be new built or old buildings where smart devices are applied. It is not necessary that smart devices work on energy efficiency only, a smart device can also works towards more human comfort and healthy environment for the occupants of the place 64


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VII

VII. Sustainability

Sustainability Impact On Project Social Aspect

The social aspect is very important pillar in pursuing the sustainability in our project as it is the most important aspect that works on the peoples themselves directly, their health, and wellbeing. • Solve the segregation problems (Clear segregation between Nile front area and the rest of the site) • Improve locals comfort and occupants health • Pleasing environment creation for interaction • Occupants moral increasing

• Workers productivity enhancement

Economic Aspect

Economic aspects always take a big value specially in projects with the same type of recycling and related ones. The project needs to work on the economic aspect through two dimensions, the first is the project itself and how to use efficient systems and stay efficient economically through all the phases beginning from the design till the implementation and function phases. The second is the locals themselves, and how this project can be an income generating facility for them. Also the economical aspect works on: • Enhance the productivity of the project • Reduction of operating costs • Building life cycle optimizing • Increasing the project’s value

Environmental Aspect

Our project’s theme and goal already serve the environmental aspect the most, which is the ―Recycle Hub‖, so the environmental aspect will surely affect the project on a wide range and help to draw the right way for it while: • Conserving and restoring natural resources • Protecting the ecosystem • Reducing the emissions • Conserving water • Reducing waste • Controlling temperature

65


MSA University

CHAPTER VIII. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

―As architecture and as landscape design, the project is intended to be used, rather than to be simply appreciated as pure, geometrical form.‖ J. Akbar

66


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.1 Design Guidelines

Building Materials:

Design a building with a sustainable purpose whish is waste management, require an overall sustainable theme in every component, so the building materials should not contain any toxic materials, socially equitable, affordable, and ecologically responsible.

Circulation Type:

In the circulation guidelines, functional circulation instead of formative ones are preferably to be used in such project, so direct and linear circulations will be the best solution.

Zoning:

Zoning depends on several aspects and considerations, varies between environment, circulation, function, surroundings, spaces, users, culture, social, context, and systems. These aspects must be studied well in parallel in order to design a suitable zoning. Ex: As a cultural and social aspect, women’s workshops are not preferable to be placed in the same area of the men’s ones for the privacy issues.

Building Heights:

Building codes are the first constrain and regulations which come into minds when the issue of building heights raise, but also it is very important to deal with the context and the functional aspects. Ex: At the workshops area, specific machines and equipments will be placed, so these machines need specific height. (As shown in the picture, this is the garbage plastic bags machine with height of 3.5m)

Spaces:

Spaces varies in many aspects; size, shape, openings, finishing, roofs, flooring use, etc… Ex: Waste sorting space, must be outdoor space with huge size to accommodate the needs of the process and with specific durable flooring materials.

Setbacks:

By the Egyptian code, the setbacks are already specified, but in our case of a site that is near from one side to a historical mosque. 10 meters setbacks from the side of the mosque at least will be considered. For the rest of the sides 5 meters of setbacks will be enough.

67


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.2 Project Program | Table of Areas

Spaces

Area Required

Number of units

min. number of people using the space *space required/person

1-Research Center Computer Labs

750 m2

Experimental Labs

700m2

Library Printing Room Total

300 80

m2

m2

28 person*3.3m2 = 92 m2 24 person*4.5

m2

50person*2.8

m2

5 person*2.8

m2

10

= 100

m2

6

= 140

m2

1

= 14

m2

2

1730m2

2-Recycling Center Workshops

1200 m2

8 person*4.2 m2 = 50 m2

15

Storage

450 m2

-

1

Loading Area

200m2

4 cars *21 m2 = 96 m2

1

Sorting Area

300 m2

10 person*2.8 m2 = 280 m2

2

Total

2200m2

30 person*2 m2 = 60 m2

10

3-Awareness Classrooms Lecture Halls Total

800 m2 550

m2

1350

60 person*1.5

m2

= 90

m2

3

m2

4-Administration Admission office

350 m2 m2

12 person*5.6 m2 = 67.2 m2 m2

10 person*3

= 30

1

m2

Meeting room

120

2

Bank

500 m2

10person*4.2 m2 = 42 m2

1

Offices

400 m2

11 person*2.8 m2 = 30 m2

8

Total

1370m2

18 person*2.8 m2 = 50 m2

4

5-Reception & Lobby Main Cores

300 m2 250

m2

Lobby

150

m2

Total

700 m2

Waiting Area

20 person*2.8 50 person*2.8

m2

= 56 m2

3

m2

= 140 m2

1

6-Services Health Clinic

150 m2

toilets

200m2

Total

350 m2

Net Footprint

4 person*3.5 m2 = 14 m2 5 person*4.2

m2

= 21 m2

2 8

8200 m2

68


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.3 Standards

Main Components of the Recycling and Research Hub 1 RESEARCH CENTER

8.00 m

Computer Labs

1.00 m

6.00 m

0.60 m

Normal measurements for standard workbench is 120cm width. Rooms should have frequent air exchange, double-door safety lobby and self-closing doors.

1.20 m

Computer Lab with 28 Computers

Experimental labs

Library Lighting should be appropriate to use to which the area is put. Bookshelves should be protected from daylight. Reading rooms without individual lights need 250 lx

Main spaces: 1.Multi-purpose room 2.Audio books 3.Office 4.Central catalogue 5.Newspapers, 6.magazines 7.Group area 8.Individual places

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Typing booths Information, lending desk Lecture room Audio/visual studio Racks Photocopier Cloakroom, lockers 69


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.3 Standards

Main Components of the Recycling and Research Hub 2 RECYCLING CENTER Different Workshops depending on the material

Relation between rod store and materials flow

1- Workshop regulations (Unrestricted view), low sill height 2- Ventilation (High level tilting windows) 3- Sufficient daylight into the middle of the shop (High Windows) 4- Safety regulations (Safe handling of glass sheets) 5- Sun can be shaded out on the southern side using roof overhead

70


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.3 Standards

Main Components of the Recycling and Research Hub 3 AWARENESS Classrooms Classrooms for teaching 2.00m2/pupil Teaching in sets 3.00m2/pupil Open plan teaching 4.50m2/pupil Maximum room depth 7.20m Horizontal and Vertical circulation usually doubles as an emergency route, must have a clear width of minimum 1m/150ppl minimum width of corridors in classrooms is 2.00m or 1.25m for less than 180ppl Stairs in classrooms must be 1.25m, escape routs 25m measured in straight line. Maximum number of students is 32ppl in 65 – 70m2 Preferred daylight from 2 sides

Lecture Hall Entrances and exits in lecture halls: Rooms having a capacity of fewer than 50 normally should have entrances/exits at the rear of the room. Rooms of 50-75 capacity should have two entrances/exits preferably at the rear of the room.

71


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.3 Standards

Main Components of the Recycling and Research Hub 4 ADMINISTRATION Offices The administrative requirements to run the recycling hub will have two scales. The large scale is for large meetings and awareness, the small scale is for the normal work on daily basis.

Open plan office: The space is not divided by walls nor partition giving a large floor space. Closed plan office: The space is divided by partitions in single offices or group offices. Meeting room: A meeting room provided for particular events , Open plan office

Closed plan office

72


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter VIII

VIII. Design Requirements

VIII.3 Standards

Main Components of the Recycling and Research Hub 5 RECEPTION Health Care Space Main spaces: 1. Reception Desk

2. Waiting Room 3. Public Washrooms 4. Examination Rooms 5. Interview/Counselling Room 6. Clean Utility Room 7. Patient Washroom

Minimum area for doctor’s consultation

6 SERVICES

Minimum area for examination of patient

Barrier free living Design for those with physical or other disabilities, involving the provision of alternative means of access to steps (e.g. ramps and elevators for those with movement problems).

Cores for Circulation

Type B

Type C

3.50 m

4.80 m

8.00 m 2.20 m

Type A

4.00 m

3.50 m

Vertical Connection: three preferable blocks of different dimensions are provided. Each one is equipped with a staircase, an elevator and a service space. The selection of every block is related to the dimension of the space it serves. different blocks could be merged to satisfy specific needs.

73


MSA University

CHAPTER IX. ACTION PLAN CONSIDERATIONS

―The main emphasis of the design is to encourage exploration and empirical learning through architectural form.‖ J. Akbar

74


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IX

IX. Action Plan Considerations

Preface

An action plan is a record that rundowns what steps must be taken so as to

accomplish a particular objective. The reason for an action plan is to elucidate what assets are required to achieve the objective, detail a timetable for when particular errands should be finished and figure out what assets are required. So as to exchange every one of the reviews, overviews, and investigation into a genuine venture, an arranged plan must be created. This action plan is consists of 3 main phases; Planning – Implementation – Follow Up This section will not cover the action plan but will just cover some of the most important points to be considered in every phase.

Planning

Implementation

Follow Up

Figure IX.1, Action Plan Phases

Things you need to put into consideration to make any project work properly using precautions to keep the project maintained using the SCHEMES method: • Space: Should be well designed to provide comfort to the users and allows the maximum usage of each and every space through flexible design. • Cash: The economical aspect of the project should be covered through a detailed business plan allowing the sale of recycled products within the facility. • Humans/People: The project shall aim to incorporate individuals of the community to self-promote them and develop their skills and understandings of the recycling standards to provide them with expertise. • Equipment: All equipment should help maintain a low energy-cost while providing enough human intervention to benefit individuals and their development. • Materials: The project should strictly use materials that provide the lowest carbon emissions and environmental impact as well as providing a solution to the climatic conditions. • Expertise: The project will be based on the expertise of pioneers as well as aspirant individuals seeking to provide a real change in the country’s direction towards recycling and taking advantage of the amount of recycling waste and materials available to tackle the issue. • Systems: The design will incorporate automated systems that helps with environmental control as well as cost and energy efficient technological solutions to minimize human error while maximizing the message given by a Recycling Hub.

75


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IX

IX. Action Plan Considerations

1. Planning and Development Considerations In order to make the objectives stated before operational, development of implementation and action plans should be done. A first plan be developed, along with the annual detailed plans development, to identify the program and the priorities of the activities, the detailed responsibilities of each stakeholder and executive body. Also to identify the necessary time period for implementation and the financial resources needed, according to appropriate institutional, legislative, and financial mechanisms. It is important to also develop criteria and determine the responsible entity for implementing the strategic objectives in order to make sure of using the right systematic and organized ways for assessing, upgrading and amending the strategy and the action plans as required, taking into consideration social and economical developments and changes taking place in the country specially in this period.

2. Implementation Considerations

Space

Cash

Humans

Equipment

Materials

Expertise

Systems

Figure IX.2, SCHEMES method

Technical and Geographical Considerations For the implementation of the proposed objectives and strategy, and to develop systems for solid waste collection and transportation, the following technical aspects should be considered. Use of equipment that are suitable according to street nature. These equipments include both, mechanical and manual equipments, such as mini trucks as mechanical and handcarts as manual. Mini-trucks and handcarts then can be emptied in larger trucks in marked stations in wider areas. About 60 to 80% of open spaces have a width in the range of 2 to 5 meters. Then minitrucks can be used there in these streets (Figure IX.3). These mini-trucks also have a low price and characterized by low maintenance costs. In narrower streets that are less than 2 meters, handcarts can be used easily, these handcars have a very low cost. (Figure IX.4).

Figure IX.3: Mini-Trucks proposed for waste collection in middle narrow streets

Figure IX.4: Handcars proposed for waste collection in streets narrower than 2 meters. 76


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter IX

IX. Action Plan Considerations

3. Follow-up and Performance Indicators Performance indicators will help in the assessment of the performance. These may include monitoring: - The percentage of business facilities (Workshops - Commercial facilities) and residential units benefiting from the project. - The monthly income of the family members working in the project. - The number of people in the area who response to the awareness campaign. - The general area appearance. - The satisfaction levels among locals and service beneficiaries. - The Level of recycling activities in the project. - The level of pollution in the area. - The number of products manufactured in the project. - The numbers of out comers visiting the project. - To take the project as a prototype for the problem of waste management.

Figure IX.4, Street Network Map of Boulaq Abo ElEila, Courtesy of the researcher

Main Streets

Where mini trucks and handcars can be emptied in larger trucks. Middle-Width Streets

Middle-width streets which can be managed by mini trucks.

Streets narrower than 3 meters

Narrower streets can be managed by handcars. 77


MSA University

CHAPTER X. INDIVIDUAL TASKS

78


MSA University

AMR ABAZA

A

― society is defined not only by what it creates, but by what it refuse to destroy.‖

Mission To encourage & promote to recycling by raising the awareness of the local people towards the importance of recycling. From the small children to the owners of the workshops to work together towards recycling. By introducing recycling to their work that will economically develop their life styles.

Objectives

 To decrease the segregation in social level.  Introduce the knowledge of recycling.  To achieve sustainability in the project.  To reduce the solid waste of workshops.  Introduce new technologies & techniques for workshops to be more productive.

79


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.1 Amr Abaza | Concept I

Stem concept Photosynthesis is a process in which green plants use energy from the sun to transform water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and organic compounds. It is one example of how people and plants are dependent on each other in sustaining life.

Labor

Water

Light

Co2

Photosynthesis

O2

WS

Recycling

Product

Waste

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, air pollution & water pollution.

Conceptual circulation

After integrating photosynthesis and recycling the result is. Petal will symbolize the workshops, water will symbolize labor, Carbon dioxide will symbolize the waste in the wekala and after the recycling process the oxygen will symbolize the recyclable product.

80


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.1 Amr Abaza | Concept II

Recycling & infinity loop The recycling is one of the greatest ways to achieve sustainability so it will symbolize it. The 3 sides of recycling are connected to each others all the way and that creates the infinity loop.

For achieving sustainability in our project by using the three sides of the recycling. First side for the social aspect can be translate to the inter action in the project, Second side for economic & the workshops will represent it the last side will be the environmental aspect will be represented by raising awareness for recycling.

81


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.1 Amr Abaza | Concept III

How to integrate the informal areas in architecture aspect & social aspect with the formal. The informal represent the chaos while the formal represent the order not only in geometric wise.

82


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.1 Amr Abaza | Sustainability

Recycled Steel in Construction

Sustainable architecture focuses on the on-site use of waste management, incorporating things such as grey water systems for use on garden beds, and composting toilets to reduce sewage. These methods, when combined with on-site food waste composting and off-site recycling, can reduce a house's waste to a small amount of packaging waste.This is the new techniques of sustainable architecture .

83


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.1 Amr Abaza | Technical Studies

84


MSA University

GHASSAN KHZOUZ

T

― o design a community which simplifies lives by sharing resources, recycling unusable objects and minimizing impact upon the environment. ―

Mission Getting residents and outsiders from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds and social classes to come together to learn, work and help the community to overcome lots of environmental and economical issues. The Design will promote sense of place and community by providing many opportunities to learn more about recycling and the way to deal with it. ―

Objectives    

To provide better knowledge about recycling products. To help the environment by reusing and recycling social solid waste. To minimize the gap between the locals and the outsiders. To expand the researches and the studies about the materials and the recyclable waste.

85


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.2 Ghassan Khzouz | Concept I

Urban Fabric

After studying the site, the rhythm of buildings and the economical aspects, the idea came from the random urban fabric and the way buildings are overlapping. so I came up with buildings and lines to simulate the surrounding tissue. Starting with a single pathway through Wikalat al Balah and connecting it with the adjacent paths surrounding it, a modern yet well known pattern appeared. After offsetting the lines and rearranging the masses, a well oriented, well ventilated form was created to serve the community and help it sustain its historical value without damaging the environment.

86


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.2 Ghassan Khzouz | Concept II

Tree Roots

The idea came from tree roots that emanate out from the ground, and how when we think about environment and sustainability the first thing that comes into mind is trees and how essential they are for us to live. Each tree root is representative of absorption of water and inorganic nutrients it needs to complete it’s life cycle and keeping it in the ground. The research center with the recycling center can be as important to the community as the tree roots to the tree. As people recycle their objects they feed the center with new materials to give the community and help in the economical aspect as well as the environmental one.

87


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.2 Ghassan Khzouz | Concept III

Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the universe properties and how materials can be connected to each other. however by rotating relative to absolute space the effect can be ignored. Two spheres revolving around an axis. The spheres has distance x and its enough for their effects on each other to be neglected, and they are held together by a lead. The Lead is under pressure if the spheres are rotating relative to absolute space No time, Space and gravityaccording to Newton. connecting the two and showing both to be dependent from each other however in fact they have the same features and exactly the same properties

Research Center

Such as all the parallel universes are connected together, have the same places and living things every human in our universe has clones in other universes working different jobs and having different lifestyles, the recycling cener and research center connected together to spread awareness and environmental aspects but perform two different functions.

88


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.2 Ghassan Khzouz | Technical Studies

A faรงade using kinetic architecture to block the sun radiation, 2013 Screen Location Aluminum Bar E12 Insulated Metal

Linear Actuator

Covel Light

Kinetic block detail

2 edge supported insulating glass units with low-E coating

Openings Mechanism

Palazzo Italia building in Milan Using the biodynamic panels, 2015

Interior shot

Section

89


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.2 Ghassan Khzouz | Sustainability

Smart Tiles The idea it to convert kinetic energy into electricity, the tiles are 45 – 60 cm and are designed to be placed in heavy pedestrian traffic. The footsteps can generate enough energy to be used in many uses, such as digital displays, street lights or emergency lighting.

90


MSA University

ISLAM AMR

―Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space.‖

Mission

The Main aim of this project is to reduce the waste coming out of the workshops that exist in the site, and to raise the awareness of the people living there.

Objectives

Raising the awareness of the people in Wekalet el balah Improve the local's life style Take maximum advantage of potentials and materials available in Wekalet el balah.

91


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Concept I

Digestive System Back to nature recycling process is almost like the digestive system.

In digestion food is changed by the origins into liquid form to be absorbed by the body so the benefits of the food will be able to reach to all the body, as well as the recycling process which has a great impact: • • • • • •

Saves natural assets Saves Money Energy Conversation Saves landfill space Gives jobs opportunities Provides alternate materials

The Digestive system First we separate the food what we will eat which is good and not good, healthy and not healthy.

2

2 - Second stage at the Mouth where teeth start grinding and cutting the food to be able to go to the third stage.

3

3 - Third stage which is Esophagus which is a passage for the food from the mouth to the stomach. 4 - Fourth stage is the Stomach the unique muscular structure of the stomach breaks up the food into small pieces. 5 - Fifth stage is the Small intestine where the major portion of the absorption and digestion occurs in the small intestine .

4

6 5

6 - Sixth stage is the transfer of all of the benefits to all the body cells through the blood. 7 - Seventh stage is the Rectum where the undigested food goes to it.

7 Human’s Digestive system 92


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Concept I

Recycling Process Recycling process almost the same as the digestive system process. Let us take an example like paper recycling.

To start recycling process paper is collected, sorted and graded. Second stage is putting it in a tank containing chemicals and water called ―paper mill‖ which separates the fiber. Third stage is being spun by a cone shaped container to be cleaned and screened to filter out paperclip, cds and other debris. Fourth stage is passing over vibrating machine to remove most of the water. Fifth stage is the paper rolls.

Different zones for recycling Every zone has its own effect and it’s a main stage in recycling. As in digestive system every part has its own effect in the digestion process. 93


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Concept II

Heritage Preservation Wekalet el balah is a well known old place in Cairo, its known also with it’s heritage and old buildings. Starting with the history of wekalet el balah it was at first a market for trading dates at the second stage of the history ships started arriving with huge amount of used clothes from all over the world.

So wekalet el balah is the best example for the importance of REUSE materials. Therefore, we will start to reuse the old buildings at wekalet el balah to be suitable for our project.

Old building, wekalet el balah

So we will start by the maintenance of the old deteriorated buildings and reshape it to be suitable for our project. The impact of reusing the old buildings on environment is there is no output waste.

SI Ali cemetery, 2016

Residential building, 2016

Residential building, 2016

Workshop, Wekalt el balah 2016

94


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Concept III

The Five “R’s” Since the project the is recycling, we have to focus on the recycling of the mind as well as recycling of the materials. In order to have a sustainable project, living by the hands of the local residence. The sustainable life cycle of any material insists of the 5 R’s

• Reduce

By reducing the amount of the waste

• Recycle

To apply reducing of the waste we have to recycle it.

• Reuse

To use the old buildings again, or the materials used in it.

• Refuse

Items or material discarded or rejected as useless or worthless

• Renovate

Is To restore to an earlier condition, as by repairing or remodeling.

Reduce

Through this chart we have a main node which is materials, and all the process surrounds it. This may help us to define the form in which we have a middle node and all other facilities are around it, in which it makes an easier accessibility and makes the project friendly to the visitors

Refuse

Reuse

Materials

Recycle

Renovate

95


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Concept III

The conversion materials Converting materials into building materials. For example trees, where the branches are taken as a abstract shape to form bracing-branches shape like outer and inner walls. Where it’s linked to the project objective and the project itself in recycling and sustainability approach.

 Natural trees

 Abstract branch shape

 Building concept

96


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Sustainability

Waste into Bricks & Tiles Producing paving stones from plastic waste is portrayed by the way that it doesn't require a high venture and it essentially uses plastic bundling specifically sacks and transparent films made of PP and PE. It is additionally conceivable to relate different sorts of plastic waste, with low extents, in the mixture

The manufacturing process: Phase 1 – Mixture preparation Plastic sacks, unwashed, are sorted and their debasements are generally expelled They are measured like sand. Plastic/sand proportion is variable. It must be characterized in advance, similarly as we would do with solid sand. Phase 2 – Heating the mixture The blend is step by step warmed in a recuperation drum, while experiencing vigorous mixing. The vitality utilized originates from natural waste (paper, cardboard, plant flotsam and jetsam, sawdust … ) and reconditioned compacted bundles. and reconditioned compacted bundles. The pipe gasses coming about because of this operation, because of the synthesis of the plastics used. are made just out of water and carbon dioxide. In any case, it is prescribed to outfit the work force with smoke veils. Phase 3 – Molding The pieces and the metal plate on which they rest are set in a cold water plate. Phase 4 – Remolding The discharge is prompt and happens without any issues, by carefully evacuating the mold. Phase 5 – Cooling The blocks and the metal plate on which they rest are putted in a cold water plate.

Plastic waste

Making Pavement bricks from plastic waste

Pavement bricks


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Sustainability

Bricks from bottles Plastic accounts for a noteworthy bit of the total waste we create. More than 90% of all waste coasting on the world’s oceans is plastic. Consistently, huge amounts of plastic waste is aggregated, which negatively influences nature and takes several years to decay. In spite of the fact that the utilization of plastic reused materials has extraordinarily extended as a result of taking after the following reasons:

Waste bottles

• The heat insulation properties of blocks made with plastic bottles are 5 times more noteworthy than ordinary blocks. • Blocks made with plastic bottles are more slender and lighter, but just as strong as ordinary bricks.

Plastic waste

• Instead of using fertile soil and harming the environment each natural block utilizes 20 plastic bottles. • Sustainable bricks take care of the plastic waste issue by evading the energy-intensive process of plastic recycling.

Plastic bricks

Plastic bricks


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.3 Islam Amr| Technical Studies

Energy from waste Is the way toward producing energy as power and additionally warm from the burning of waste.

First step is collecting waste then materials go through fire place turning into ashes this ashes can be recycled, as its cremated there is Steam and Flue gases. Steam is used to generate Electricity & Heat through ―Steam Turbine Generators‖. While Flue Gases passes through filter system and air quality control to produce Water Vapour and cleaned Flue gases for heating

Technologies •

Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

Is the way toward expelling the recyclable and noncombustible from the municipal solid waste Refuse Derived Fuel Machine

Conventional Gasification

As the thermal conversion of natural materials at temperature of 1,000 °F 2,800 °F (540 °C – 1,540 °C), with a constrained supply of air or oxygen.

100MW electricity from two plants Conventional Gasification 99


MSA University

MIRNA KHALIFA

A

― rchitecture is from people, and to people. Wekala is one of the most vital areas in Cairo. It helps frame the whole image through the layers of rich history that defines each and every alley. As architects, our job is to seek precision through chaos, and do whatever it takes to help achieve self-sufficient, developing communities. Finally, success comes when sustaining the good change, not just achieving it.‖

Mission I have chosen this topic; Recycling and research, in that particular site as I see a great future ahead of El-Wekala area when compiled there. Wekala has earned its reputation throughout the years for providing high quality Egyptian products and crafts. However, it has earned its reputation for the desperate need for new interventions to improve its current status too.

Objectives

 Improve locals’ quality of life  Enhance the interaction between different society levels and decrease the current gap  Raise awareness to new techniques that will help locals achieve their absolute comfort by their own hands  Take maximum advantage of potentials and materials available in Wekala. 100


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.4 Mirna Khalifa| Concept I

The 5 elements and Architecture “ The concept is based on creating an architectural form that evolves from the 5 elements of nature compiled with the geometric shapes of platonic solids as architecture always deals with culture and in our case, it’s the Islamic culture� Nature consists of 4 elements, Earth, Water, Air and Fire. However, according to the Japanese theory, there are 5 elements not 4. The fifth element is Void, which is either of the other elements. Void is technically nothing, but without it, nothing else can exist as it is the one element that connects all the other 4. Consequently, it cannot be neglected. The Void is one of the elements that lack in the site. The 5 elements are resembled by Platonic solids. Platonic solids are geometric shapes that are part of Islamic architecture patterns.

The elements relate us to nature as a physical phenomenon that can be experienced with the senses and is therefore directly connected with architecture, which, as we know, addresses the real construction of the world. These elements are Earth, Water, Fire and Air.

Analogy of architectural forms with the 5 elements

101


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.4 Mirna Khalifa| Concept II

Point of order “The concept aims here to create a point of order and discipline, where it starts to tame the informality that’s existing all over the site, where as it starts to propagate spreading waves of formality(like throwing a stone into water)”

Zamalek’s urban fabric

Wekala’s informal urban fabric, relatively speaking to its surroundings; Zamalek district and Downtown. It is like dissonance within a music harmony. As the project site lies in the heart of ElWekala, That would be achieved through creating nodes and paths that are on traces of existing urban constrains.

Wekala’s urban fabric

Waves propagating as a stone is dropped into water

102


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.4 Mirna Khalifa| Concept III

Integration of Architecture and History

103


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.4 Mirna Khalifa| Sustainability

Living Walls Living green walls are an iconic element that proves sustainability, that would be an important addition to the recycling hub project, especially in Boulaq Abo El Eila district. Boulaq suffers serious landfill issues, and almost no green areas. Vertical green walls would benefit the whole area by reintroducing an element that the area lacked for the former years. Living walls are a vertical element which means that no land is needed; as Boulaq enjoys a location of a very high asset value.

Benefits of Living walls Improved air quality Energy cost reduction Noise level reduction Pollution level reduction on the whole area.

Installing living green walls in the recycling hub would help the project earn the LEED points, which consequently would increase the project’s value by creating a structure with low carbon footprint. 104


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.4 Mirna Khalifa| Technical Studies

Ventilated Facade The outside skin of a building has several influential functions, from attraction to protection. Creating a functional ventilated façade would allow the application of a unique architectural identity to the project.

Sustainable Benefits • Durability; as it needs low maintenance • Reliability; as it is safe to work with and guarantees good thermal insulation • Economy; as it reduces energy cost

Designing with Sunlight

Various effects of shadow and light can be created.

Advantages Humidity Protection

Thermal Insulation Heat

Thermal Insulation Cold 105


MSA University

MOHAMED EZZO

Problem

Beyond the problems we’ve stated before, the biggest threat is not the health care or the educational facilities only, but it is the pressure formed by the entire system, the lack of the basic needs and the very low quality of life. This unfortunately pushes the locals to move from their place, and by time their sense of belonging fades away.

Vision Restore the glory of Boulak Abo El-Eila and reattach the people to their land. Mission Reattach the locals to their land by raising their awareness, increasing their income and develop their quality of life. While working on the other hand on the place itself, to restore the glory of Boulak, by managing the solid waste, and renovate the facilities.

106


MSA University

CHAPTER IX

How can our Recycle Hub help in this?

Objectives

- Offer job opportunities. - Create a women employment program. (Paper and Textile recycling) - Kids learning classes and summer school activities. (Related to recycling) - Raising the awareness of the locals. - Buy the waste from the workshops. - Help the workshops and the commercial facilities to be known and sell more products (Exhibit their products in small outlets) - Raising the income of the locals. - Locals managerial board. - Collect the solid waste of Boulak as a first step, then the areas surrounding. - Building a sustainable recycling hub prototype to be an inspirational one. - Go above and beyond the normal sustainability building requirements. - Follow the ―Human Centered Design‖ concepts. (Involve the locals in each and every step in the project beginning with the planning phase till the working phase) Following these objectives is the only way to develop the social, economic and environmental aspects in the area, which will lead the locals to get back the sense of belonging to the place. And the benefits that the recycling hub will give to the people, will return back on the place and the environment. Then this will help us to restore the glory of the place and its people.

Principles

(Aspects and criteria to be considered in any concept)

- Belonging - Human Centered Design - Sustainability

107


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept I

BELONG (Inspired by the urban pattern)

Boulak Abo El-Ela is a huge area with complex urban pattern.

Resilience

Complexity

But the complexity is not the only aspect that created this urban pattern. Recent studies showed that this pattern was created due to three aspects; Complexity, Resilience, and Socio-Cultural rules.

Socio-Cultural Rules

Concept Statement: Inspired by the existing pattern, the project will follow these three aspects to meet the pattern of Boulak, where the locals used to live in.

108


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept I

Concept Application: Streets  Corridors As we can see in (Figure-xx), the black covered areas are the void areas and the streets. Huge diversity exists between the width of every and each one of them. It is kind of complex vernacular planning, the width of the street depends on the need and the nature of the facilities existing on it. This concept can be used in the project’s outdoor and indoor corridors. Instead of the one width corridors which can be bored to the user and not efficient in many cases.

Building forms  Shapes and areas Huge diversity also exists in the building shapes and areas. Shapes and areas of the buildings are created due to the resilience and the adaptation on the existing conditions.

This concept can be used in designing shapes and areas depending on the function and the needs of each one.

109


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept I

Pedestrian nodes  Pockets Pedestrian nodes are naturally formed, they are usually used to store any workshop materials or as open areas with seats for a café or street food cart. Inspired by those nodes, pockets will be formed in the project site to give the same impression of nodes and to enhance the integration between the project and the local neighbors,

Land Use  Zoning Mixed use (Due to the existing of commercial facilities or workshops in the ground floor of every building, specially the ones near the main streets) Workshops (Workshops do not have to be on the main streets directly) This land use will draw us guidelines for the zoning. Same principles can be followed, example; - Outlet facilities to sell recycled products to be on the site borders. - Workshops don’t have to be exposed to the streets.

110


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept I

Concept Principles Resilience Resilience is ―The ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape‖, it is kind of elasticity or flexibility. The resilience always exists in the complex patterns due to the need of the locals to adapt on the existing situation and the continuous updates. Resilience will be followed in the project in two ways, the first is to build flexible multifunction areas and the second is to adapt on the current situation and the existing structure problems such as the ground water. Complexity The complex urban pattern is where the locals live now, so it is not applicable to introduce them suddenly a new pattern and expect them to integrate with it. Following the complex urban pattern in ordered way will give the locals the same impression and feeling, instead of making them feel that they don’t belong to the building. Socio-Cultural rules The socio-cultural rules are not written rules, but they are implicitly known. It’s the known rules that a society or a group of people uses so that they can determine the if an issue is appropriate or not, regarding the behavior, expression, and values And here is the real challenge, to learn what is valuable in the tradition, cultural and local experience of locals and find out the best ways in which improvement can be made.

Conclusion Re-implant the social and cultural values in the place and reattach its people back to their land, through designing the project following the three principles, and get them back the sense of belonging.

111


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept II

THE CYCLE

(Inspired by the Biogeography)

Introduction In everything we interact with, there are three states: We take from the earth, utilize it in our framework, then give it out once more. At the point when interfacing with anything, the main state is the point at which it is available in our surroundings, the second when it is inside our framework and the third when it goes out again to the earth. These are three distinct states in any type of energy.

Raw Materials

Usage

Waste

On the physically side, this really happens, when raw materials exists in the environment, then we take it to use it in our system, then return it back to the environment in form of waste.

Recycled Products

Recycling

Waste

The turn of the recycling hub is to reflect this concept on the three states but with a positive way,; To take the waste from the environment, recycle it in our system, and then return it back to the environment in the form of products.

―All forms of life (animate and inanimate) including human being are 'Open Energy Systems' on all levels of energy. There are many levels of energy involved in a living energy system: Physical matter, vitality, emotional, mental, and other more subtle levels‖. ("BioGeometry® Energy Balancing: Nature's Own Design Language", 2017)

112


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept II

―According to the laws of harmonics this concept of 'Open Energy System' should apply to all the energy levels in us as well as in the different planes of nature outside us. There are abstract collective types of energy in the space around us on the vitality, emotional, and mental levels. We use vital energy from the space around us to fuel our life processes, emotional energy as a fuel for feelings, and mental energy as a fuel to think‖. ―We are therefore constantly influenced by the quality of energy on all those levels in the space around us, and in turn influence the quality of space around us on all those levels‖. ("BioGeometry® Energy Balancing: Nature's Own Design Language", 2017)

Positive Energy

Space

Negative Energy

This is why the space (Our system) have a huge impact on how we perceive the energy. The space can also transform the negative energy into positive or vice versa.

Positive Energy

Space

Negative Energy

Resemblance The recycling hub is applying the three states concept by transforming the waste into products after passing by the system, exactly like the spaces that transform the negative energy into positive.

Concept Statement: Inspired by and applying the “Biogeometry”, the project will be treated as a system, where everything is passing through those three states, and finishes the last on a positive way. (To be applied on everything, beginning from physical things like the waste to the energy quality)

113


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.5 Mohamed Ezzo| Concept II

BioGeometry uses the energy principles of geometrical shapes to balance biological energy systems within the overall framework of environmental energy interactions. ("BioGeometryÂŽ Energy Balancing: Nature's Own Design Language", 2017)

114


MSA University

OLVYA BAKRY

―Design is not making beauty, beauty emerges from selection, affinities, integration, love.‖ –Louis Kahn Mission

Promoting the awareness of individuals, starting with the locals towards a better understanding of waste reduction and resources management, by challenging themselves through self-development.

Vision

A state of the art Recycling Hub that transforms our materials’ daily needs to a much needed recycled products that opens new alternatives for our environment and vision towards problem solving by creative thinking.

Objectives

Combining between the three sustainability dimensions.  Social: Raise the awareness of the locals and their abilities  Environmental: working towards the goal of zero waste area.  Economic: Generating more income through the recycling for more families 115


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Concept I

Interaction “The main concept uses design response to the urban fabric of simple and complex approaches, integrating the people with the environmental context.� -Concept Statement

Conceptual Form 116


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Concept I

Interaction

Inspired by Siemens Headquarters

Conceptual Form 117


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Concept II

Mystery “The main concept brings excitement and challenges to locals by being able to embrace the unexpected.� -Concept Statement

Inspirations

The concept aims to fully utilize recycling materials and products in building and design to persuade the users with the idea of recycling as a principle and a major daily decision. It is divided into two major aspects that fulfills the vision, which are: Excitement: As every single detail will use recycling materials or approach, as if it is a world made of lego. The curiosity of observing an untraditional recycling approach. Challenge: As users will explore and seek self-development within the field of recycling affecting their personal skills and putting them through new challenges that enhances their lives.

118


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Concept III

Environmental Space “The Main concept uses the site’s immense potential combined with the environmental responses to the context. “-Concept Statement

1-Entrance 3-Sun Path

Creating a dynamic axis that breaks the mass to create a fluid movement through the site and a massive screen that gives a great visual landmark to the area and as an environmental

solution.

2-circulation

4-Solving environmental aspects / Using a Landmark

119


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Concept III

Environmental Space

Inspirations

120


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Sustainability

Waste management

Sustainable architecture concentrates on the on-site use of waste management, including things such as composting toilets to decrease sewage, grey water systems for use on garden beds, and. These methods, when merged with on-site food waste composting and off-site recycling, can a house's waste to a lower small volume of packaging waste.This is the latest techniques of sustainable architecture .

121


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Chapter X

X. Individual Tasks

X.6 Olvya Bakry | Technical Studies

Colt Solar fin Colt Solar fin is a permanent or portable exterior solar darkening technique made by aluminum extrusions created to lower heat profits and shine in summer and decrease the heat loss in winter. Solar fin could fixed either horizontally or vertical a head of the elevation or on the roof. It can be both moveable or fixed.

Features and benefits Great performance - Perfect heat reflection with handy spread of the light to the building. Many range of louvres – Solar fin louvres are possible in many configurations colors and configurations so it can meet certain design requirements. Adaptable controls - Solar fin shading technique can be fixed by linear actuators that have the ability to organize complete elevations. Either the series of the louvres are enclosed to the system of levers and impulse rods which connect them to a handle system, or they are exchange using gearboxes. The louvres can be flipped round 90 degrees below motorized control with the levers technique and flipped 360 degrees with the gearbox technique. Potential to decrease installation time period – Solar fin can be offered in modular preassembled form. 122


MSA University

Bibliography


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

Tour Egypt :: Wekalet El Balah - The Dates Market. (2016). Touregypt.net. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/wekaletelbalah.htm Wekalet El-Balah. (2016). SaharaSafaris.org. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.saharasafaris.org/wekalet-el-balah profile, V. (2007). Wekalat Al-Balah – Fabric Market. Living-in-egyptmanisha.blogspot.com.eg. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://living-inegypt-manisha.blogspot.com.eg/2007/05/wekalat-al-balah-fabric-market.html . (2016). Rahalat.net. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.rahalat.net/cairo.php?v=010410 Urban Regeneration Project for Historic Cairo Report by URHC Team (2010-2012) Retrieved 5 November 2016, from http://www.studiobasel.com/assets/files/files/05_Downtown_web.pdf


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter II. Site Analysis

‫تكية الرفاعية مصر‬- ‫بحث‬Google‫‏‬. (2016). Google.com.eg. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from https://www.google.com.eg/search?q=%D8%AA%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A9+%D8 %A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A9 Masjid Sinan Basha | Interior view showing mihrab | Archnet. (2016). Archnet.org. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from http://archnet.org/sites/1546/media_contents/33338 ..'‫ وأضرحة الصالحين تتحول لـ'ح ّمامات‬..‫ 'تكية الرفاعية' ببوالق أبوالعال تحت أقدام اإلهمال‬..‫العربية نيوز| بالصور‬ .‫ العربية نيوز‬.(2016) .‫و'اآلثار' و'الطرق الصوفية' نائمون في العسل‬Retrieved 10 November 2016, from http://www.alarabyanews.com/136716 Swelim, M. (2016). AN INTERPRETATION OF THE MOSQUE OF SINAN PASHA IN CAIRO. Booksandjournals.brillonline.com. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/2211899390000299

‫جامع مصطفي الشوربجي ميرزا‬- ‫بحث‬Google‫‏‬. (2016). Google.com.eg. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from https://www.google.com.eg/search?q=%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B9+%D9 %85%D8%B5%D8%B7%D9%81%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%88%D8%B1 %D8%A8%D8%AC%D9%8A+%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%B2%D8%A7&client=saf ari&rls=en&biw=1123&bih=596&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahU KEwjJxOrXuY_QAhXIFiwKHdgKAisQsAQIGA#tbm=isch&q=%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9 %85%D8%B9+%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B7%D9%81%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B 4%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%AC%D9%8A+%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%B2% D8%A7+%D9%81%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%87%D8%B1%D8 %A9&imgrc=_ Masjid Sinan Pasha, 1571. (2016). Cairobserver. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from http://cairobserver.com/post/26719606691/masjid-sinan-pasha1571#.WCSurKNh2CS

‫ «باتت موط ًنا‬:‫ األهالى‬..»‫ أضرحة الصالحين تتحول لـ«ح ّمامات‬..‫اإلهمال يضرب «تكية الرفاعية» ببوالق أبو العال‬ .‫ المواطن‬.(2016) .‫ و«الطرق الصوفية» خارج نظاق الخدمة‬..»‫للبلطجية‬Retrieved 10 November 2016, from http://www.elmwatin.com/90624


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter IV. Theories & Literature Review

(2016). Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.cairoscene.com/BusinessAndPolitics/Egypt-Launches-its-FirstRecycling-Power-Plant (2016). Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/seam/Manuals/DakahSolidWaste/Chapter2.pdf Ministry of Environment - EEAA > About Us > About Ministry > Policies. (2016). Eeaa.gov.eg. Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/enus/aboutus/aboutministry/policies.aspx Effects of poor waste disposal. (2016). Eschooltoday.com. Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.eschooltoday.com/waste-recycling/effects-of-poorwaste-management.html The Problems with Waste | Toxics Action Center. (2016). Toxicsaction.org. Retrieved 30 October 2016, from http://www.toxicsaction.org/problems-andsolutions/waste Environmental impacts of waste disposal. (2016). Green Choices. Retrieved 30 October 2016, from https://www.greenchoices.org/green-living/wasterecycling/environmental-impacts (2016). Retrieved 5 November 2016, from http://www.urhcproject.org/Content/studies/6_debout_SWM.pdf


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter V. Design Issues

Architecture for the Senses. (2017). Iva.velux.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://iva.velux.com/competitions/international-veluxaward/posts/architecture-for-the-senses Mood | Literary Devices. (2017). Literarydevices.net. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://literarydevices.net/mood/ Revolvy, L. (2017). "Atmosphere (architecture and spatial design)" on Revolvy.com. Revolvy.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Atmosphere%20(architecture%20a nd%20spatial%20design)&item_type=topic Articles on Current Affairs. (2017). Google Books. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://books.google.com.eg/books?id=Vnq6BQAAQBAJ&pg=PT21&lpg=PT21& dq=Legibility+is+a+term+used+to+describe+the+ease+with+which+p Evaluation of a Conceptual Model of Architectural Legibility - Jul 26, 2016. (2017). Journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0013916591233001 "Definition Of FLEXIBLE". Merriam-webster.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 12 Jan. 2017. Carbon, Ralf and Matthias Naab. Architectural Design For Flexibility And Buildability To Facilitate Evolution. 1st ed. Kaiserslautern, Germany: FraunhoferInstitute for Experimental Software Engineering (IESE), 2017. Web. 12 Jan. 2017. "Flexibility In Architecture". the way we live. N.p., 2017. Web. 12 Jan. 2017. "Safety - Definition Of Safety In English | Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. N.p., 2017. Web. 12 Jan. 2017.

Clive Wilkinson Architects | Google Headquarters. (2017). Clivewilkinson.com. Retrieved 13 January 2017, from http://www.clivewilkinson.com/portfolio_page/google-headquarters/ Google’s Dublin Headquarters - Mechanical Dummy. (2017). Mechanical Dummy. Retrieved 13 January 2017, from http://mechanicaldummy.com/2013/06/googles-dublin-headquarters/ Meachem, J. (2004). GOOGLEPLEX: A NEW CAMPUS COMMUNITY (1st ed., pp. 16). California: John Meachem. Retrieved from http://www.clivewilkinson.com/pdfs/CWACaseStudy_GoogleplexANewCampus Community.pdf


MSA University

Bibliography

Chapter V. Design Issues

Dominion Office Building / Zaha Hadid Architects. (2017). ArchDaily. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://www.archdaily.com/774528/dominion-officebuilding-zaha-hadid-architects High Performance Commercial Buildings in India: Adopting Low-cost Alternative Passive Strategies for Energy Saving. (2017). High-performancebuildings.org. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://highperformancebuildings.org/case_study_Tecm1.php image - Dictionary Definition. (2017). Vocabulary.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/image Rodrigue, D. (2017). The Environmental Impacts of Transportation. People.hofstra.edu. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c1en.html Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility / Selldorf Architects. (2017). ArchDaily. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://www.archdaily.com/509387/sunset-parkmaterial-recovery-facility-selldorf-architects


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter VI. Case Studies

Arkitekter, L. (2016). Smestad Recycling Centre / Longva arkitekter. ArchDaily. Retrieved 22 October 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/785900/smestadrecycling-centre-longva-arkitekter Longva Arkitekter - Project - Smestad recycling centre. (2016). Archello.com. Retrieved 22 October 2016, from http://www.archello.com/en/project/smestad-recycling-centre Edesess, H. (2016). A User Friendly Recycling Centre - ArchiExpo e-Magazine. ArchiExpo e-Magazine. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://emag.archiexpo.com/article-long/a-user-friendly-recycling-centre/ Akbar, J. (1992). Technical Review Summary - Cultural Park For Children. Retrieved from http://www.akdn.org/sites/akdn/files/media/documents/AKAA%20press%20kits/ 1992%20AKAA/Park%20of%20Children-%20Egypt.pdf Asfour, Khaled. Abdel Halim's Cairo Garden: An Attempt to Defrost History. In Mimar 36: Architecture in Development, edited by Hasan-Uddin Khan. London: Concept Media Ltd., 1990. Archiprix project: P15-2589. (2016). Archiprix.org. Retrieved 28 October 2016, from http://www.archiprix.org/2017/qview/?id=3352


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Biliography

Bibliography

Chapter VII. Sustainability

"Sustainable Architecture | RAIC | Architecture Canada". Raic.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "The Three Pillars Of Sustainability". Thwink.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "What Is Social Sustainability? Definition And Meaning". BusinessDictionary.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Definition Of Economic Sustainability". Thwink.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017.

"Social Sustainability Defined For Architecture". Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Definition Of Social Sustainability". Thwink.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Social Sustainability In Practice | Sustainable Architecture And Building Magazine". Sabmagazine.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Sustainability Toolkit: Economic Models | Asla.Org". Asla.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Sustainable | WBDG Whole Building Design Guide". Wbdg.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "The Benefits Of Sustainable Building". Design Build. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "Sustainable Design, Planning And Green Building Practices For Residential And Commercial Properties | Carnevale Eustis Architects | Phoenixville, Chester County, Pennsylvania". Cearchitects.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. Casey, Tina. "What Is A Smart Building?". Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "What Is Sustainable Architecture? - Definition & Examples | Study.Com". Study.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. Sustainability, Careers et al. "What Is Sustainability? The Definition Of Sustainability". Sustainabilitydegrees.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017. "What Is Sustainability". Globalfootprints.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Jan. 2017.


MSA University

Appendix


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Appendix

I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

I. 3 Historical Development

Figure I. xx, 1397 Map showing Boulaq Abo El Eila initially as agricultural land, Courtesy of Cairo 1001 Years of the City victorious, Janet L. Abu-Lughod


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Appendix

I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

I. 3 Historical Development

Figure I.xx, 1826 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Geographical Atlas, Bibliotheca of Alexandria

Figure I.xx, 1920 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Geographical Association of Egypt


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Appendix

I. About Boulaq Abo El-Eila

I. 3 Historical Development

Figure I.xx, 1968 Cairo Map, Courtesy of Homilies and mind by mentioning plans and relics, Literature Press


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Appendix

II. Site Analysis

II.1 Social Analysis | Survey

Questionnaire for survey Wekalet El Balah 1. How long have you been here? O less than 5 year O less than 10 years O 15 years+

O less than 15 years

2. Why are you staying here? O Family been here since a lot O I work here (Business) O Other? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. What do you do? (work) O Local Crafts in the area O Outside the area (if local craft ask what is it) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. (Ask only if he works in the area) Are working conditions satisfying? O Yes O No Why? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. If you were offered to leave this area and go work somewhere else, would you go? O Yes O No Why? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. (Ask only if he doesn’t work in the area) Why aren’t you working in the area? O Field of work can’t be found in the area O Not enough Salary O Working conditions are not satisfying O I can’t find somewhere to rent/buy for my workshop (Not enough Area) (You can tick more than one)


MSA University

Recycling Hub | Wekalet El Balah | Appendix

II. Site Analysis

II.1 Social Analysis | Survey

7. What are the facilities in the area? O Health (clinics, pharmacies, doctors, …… ) O Infrastructure (Plumbing, water, sewage, gas, .. ) O Education (enough schools) O Open spaces (Greens, local parks, places where they can enjoy with their families) O ‫فرص عمل‬ O Places to get their everyday needs with variety (food, clothes, house supplies, …) 8. What are your needs? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MSA University

Profile for Mirna Khalifa

Recycling Hub  

Recycling Hub  

Advertisement