Issuu on Google+

Architecture and Global Warming

How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming


Architecture and Global Warming How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

Thesis presented to the faculty of NewSchool of Architecture + Design

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architecture

By: Mir Kohyar Gaskari Edited By: Nicole Gaskari


Abstract The rising temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and oceans is called global warming. The climate system is warming without any doubt. Scientists believe increasing concentration of greenhouse gases from consumption of fossil fuels and deforestation by human activities mainly causes this warming. The building sector is responsible for 40% of all energy consumption and 30% of global annual greenhouse gases emission. This includes building energy consumption and building construction method, materials and technique. The building sector, including construction and design plays an important role in mitigating the greenhouse gases emission. These gases essentially emit due to fossil fuel consumption during building’s operational phase. Most experts believe there will be potentially dangerous climate changes over the next few decades, which will effect our environments, economies and society significantly. Nowadays, by the improvements of building industry and architectural software, designing zero energy structure can be achievable. However, further research and investigation of new materials, construction techniques and the use of novel technology, such as nanotechnology are essential for the future market. Nanotechnology has the potential to produce a new generation of innovative smart building materials. As a result of this research, building design has the potential to not only be zero energy building but also be energy plus and carbon neutral through utilization of nanotechnology by architects, or in other word Nanoarchitecture. This is a logical and realistic expectation as the cost of energy plus implementation will decrease with time and the return on the investment will be more than enough to make up for the costs associated with its design.

ii


Table of Content Introduction Part One: Architecture and Global Warming 1.1 – What is Global Warming 1.2 – What are the causes of global warming 1.3 – What are the effects of global warming and its ramifications 1.4 – Architecture and global warming 1.4.1 – What is the role of traditional architecture and construction regarding global warming 1.4.2 – How new technologies, materials and methods can help architects to mitigate global warming 1.5 – Nanoarchitecture towards the mitigation of global warming 1.5.1 – What is nanoarchitecture 1.5.2 – What is nanotechnology 1.5.3 – What can nanotechnology do for architecture 1.5.4 – What are nanomaterials & applications 1.5.4.a – Insulation 1.5.4.b – Coating 1.5.4.c – Solar energy 1.5.4.d – Lighting 1.5.4.e – Structural materials 1.5.4.f – Nanosensors and smart environments 1.5.4.g – Multifunctional properties 1.5.4.h – Other nanomaterials & applications for green building 1.6 – Standards and policies allocated for mitigation of global warming as it relates to building industry and sector Part Two: Design Proposal 2.1 – Choice of Typology – Energy & Nanotechnology Research Center 2.2 – Case Studies 2.2.1 – King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC) / Zaha Hadid Architects 2.2.2 – University of Waterloo Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum Nano Centre / Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects 2.2.3 – RMIT Design Hub/ Peddle Thorp Architects iii

1 2 2 3 5 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 25 27 28 30 31 31 32 32 35 38


2.2.4 – J. Craig Venter Institute / McCarthy Building Companies, Inc. 2.3 – Tentative Sites 2.4 – Chosen site analysis 2.5 – Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego (NERCSD) – Building Program 2.6 – Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego (NERCSD) – Design Proposal Conclusion Bibliography

iv

40 42 48 62 63 85 86


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

Introduction

1

The rising temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and oceans is called global warming. The climate system is warming without any doubt. Scientists believe the causes of this warming are increasing concentration of greenhouse gases from consumption of fossil fuels and deforestation by human activities. Global warming will affect the whole world but the effect will vary from region to region. Possible effects include, but are not limited to, sea levels rising, changes in the pattern and amount of precipitation, increased probability of subtropical desert expansion, heat wave, oceans acidification, droughts and heavy rainfall. Greenhouse gas emission is one of the main causes of global warming. The building sector is responsible for 40% of all energy consumption and 30% of global annual greenhouse gas emissions. The energy consumed by the building sector is related to the construnction method, materials and technique utilized during a buildings construction. The building sector therefore has the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emission by modifying its procedures and technique.. Most experts believe there will be potentially dangerous climate changes over the next few decades that will significantly affect our environment, economy and society. Architects, as building designers, can mitigate global warming by reducing the emission of greenhouse gases from buildings. as well by untaught full design architects are going to increase the greenhouse gas emissions from buildings. Nowadays, as a result of the improvements by the building industry and the advancements in architectural software, the notion of designing a zero energy house is not out of the ordinary. Further research and investigation of new materials, construction techniques and the use of novel technology, such as nanotechnology, has the potential to produce a new generation of sustainable smart building materials. As a result of these advancements, building design has the potential to not only be zero building but energy plus. This is a logical and realistic expectation as the cost of the energy plus implementation will decrease with time and the return on the investment will more than make up for the costs associated with its initial design.


2

Part One: Architecture and Global Warming

Architecture and Global Warming

1.1 – What is Global Warming Compared to several years ago, there has been some change in the climate and precipitation pattern around the world. This change is a result of the rise in temperature of the earth’s surface. However, this is not something new. The earth has warmed and cooled throughout its long history due to a variety of natural causes such as subtle shifts in its orbit, changes in its atmosphere and surface and the variation of the sun’s energy. What makes the recent warming over the past century unique is that it is happening much more rapidly than the warming patterns in the past. The present warming is also different from the rest in that it is caused by humans.

Figure 1: Global average surface temperature rising beside ups and downs yearly. (Figure adapted from Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis by NASA.)

“Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels.”(Riebeek, 2010) Figure one shows how the average surface temperature of earth has changed over the past century:

As the rocks, the air, and the seas warm, they radiate “heat” energy (thermal infrared radiation). From the surface, this energy travels into the atmosphere where much of it is absorbed by water vapor and long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.”(Riebeek, 2010)

“Earth’s temperature begins with the Sun. Roughly 30 percent of incoming sunlight is reflected back into space by bright surfaces like clouds and ice. Of the remaining 70 percent, most is absorbed by the land and ocean, and the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere. The absorbed solar energy heats our planet.

The natural green house effect, which is the absorption and radiation of heat by the atmosphere, is essential for our planet because if there were no green house effect the Earth’s average temperature would not be as comfortable as it is today. Nature was doing well by itself until humans came into the scene 250 years ago and artificially raised the concentration of greenhouse gases. This increase was largely the result of the human’s consumption of fossil fuels and the deforestation. Figure two indicate that how carbon dioxide and methane


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.2 – What are the causes of global warming

3

The history of the Earth shows that before the industrial revolution, the climate of the planet changed because of natural causes, whereas after the industrial revolution human activity, mostly the burning of fossil fuels and deforestations caused thiswarming. Thus the causes of global warming can be broken down into main groups, natural and artificial.

Figure 2: Increase of carbon dioxide (top) and methane (bottom) concentration since industrial revolution in1750. Combination of measurements from Antarctic ice cores (green lines) and direct atmospheric measurements (blue lines) indicate the increase of both gases over time. (NASA graphs by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NOAA Paleoclimatology and Earth System Research Laboratory.)

levels have increased after industrial the revolution in 1750. revolution in 1750.

Natural causes of global warming change the climate, most often because of variations in sunlight. The amount of sunlight, or solar energy, reaching Earth varies as a result of Sun activity by itself, slight shifts in the Earth’s orbit and/or volcanic eruptions that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate by generated particles. These natural causes are still in action today, but their impacts are too small and are happening too slow to describe the current rapid warming. Artificial causes are the contributing factors to global warming that are the result of human activity. These man made factors, mainly the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, have increased the concentration of green house gases rapidly in current century. According to studies and research by scientists the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gas caused by people since the industrial revolution in 1750 has had the largest impact on recent warming events compared to natural causes. Figure three describes this fact in graphical form for a recent century.


4

Architecture and Global Warming

Image of sun by NASA

Figure 3: “Although Earth’s temperature fluctuates naturally, human influence on climate has eclipsed the magnitude of natural temperature changes over the past 120 years. Natural influences on temperature—El Niño, solar variability, and volcanic aerosols—have varied approximately plus and minus 0.2° C (0.4° F), (averaging to about zero), while human influences have contributed roughly 0.8° C (1° F) of warming since 1889. (Graphs adapted from Lean et al., 2008 by.)” (Riebeek, 2010) Eruption column from Chaitén Volcano, Chile, photographed on May 26, 2008 courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey photograph by J.N. Marso


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.3 – What are the effects of global warming and its ramifications Scientists build climate models, computer simulation of the climate system, to predict the future climate and to understand the Earth’s current climate. “The models predict that as the world consumes ever more fossil fuel, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise, and Earth’s average surface temperature will rise with them. Based on a range of plausible emission scenarios, average surface temperatures could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century. “(Riebeek, 2010) Whereas greenhouse gases are just part of the tale when it comes to global warming, change in one part of climate

5 system can additionally alter the way planet absorbs or reflects energy. These alternations are called Climate Feedback, “and they could more than double the amount of warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. The primary feedbacks are due to snow and ice, water vapor, clouds, and the carbon cycle.”(Riebeek, 2010) Melting snow and ice in the northern hemisphere are “the most well known feedback”. When the snow and ice melt, bright surface of areas that reflect sunlight become dark and absorb the sunlight, which cause more warming instead cooling. “Warming temperatures are already melting a growing percentage of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during the perpetual sunlight of summer.”(Riebeek, 2010)

Figure 4: Red line provide the worst case scenario that people will emit more and more greenhouse gases and the orange line shows the estimation based on greenhouse gases concentration that stayed at year 2000 level. (©2007 IPCC WG1 AR-4.) Image credit: Eric Rignot, NASA JPL


6 Water vapor is the largest feedback that global warming is in effect. Water vapor causes two-thirds of greenhouse warming as a result of its profusion in the atmosphere. In fact, water vapor serves the planet by keeping earth’s temperature in the habitant range. However, as rise in the earth’s temperature increases the evaporation of water vapor from the earth’s surfaces, this increase in water vapor concentration will lead to an additional rise in the earth’s temperature. The amount of further warming due to water vapor is determined by the amount of water released into the atmosphere. The respond of atmosphere is rapid to the water vapor feedback. “So far, most of the atmosphere has maintained a near constant balance between temperature and water vapor concentration as temperatures have gone up in recent decades. If this trend continues, and many models say that it will, water vapor has the capacity to double the warming caused by carbon dioxide alone.“(Riebeek, 2010)

Architecture and Global Warming

Image credit: Eric Rignot, NASA JPL

Clouds and water vapor are the close feedback of global warming. Clouds cause warming and cooling at the same time. On one hand clouds reflect sunlight and solar energy thereby cooling the earth. On the other hand, clouds generate heat by absorbing infrared energy from the Earth’s surface, which are warmer than they are, when they are over them. “In our current climate, clouds have a cooling effect overall, but that could change in a warmer environment.”(Riebeek, 2010) Altering the Earth’s natural carbon cycle can also cause feedback on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, due to the increase of carbon dioxide concentration and the rising temperatures of the Earth’s atmosphere. “For now, primarily

Carbon Cycle (Diagram from U.S. DOE, Biological and Environmental Research Information System.)


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming ocean water, and to some extent ecosystems on land, are taking up about half of our fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions.” (Riebeek, 2010)This cycle decreases the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration rise that protracted the global warming. More carbon dioxide will leave and less will dissolve in the atmosphere if ocean waters get warmer. “The impact of climate change on the land carbon cycle is extremely complex, but on balance, land carbon sinks will become less efficient as plants reach saturation, where they can no longer take up additional carbon dioxide, and other limitations on growth occur, and as land starts to add more carbon to the atmosphere from warming soil, fires, and insect infestations. This will result in a faster increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and more rapid global warming. In some climate models, carbon cycle feedbacks from both land and ocean add more than a degree Celsius to global temperatures by 2100.’’(Riebeek, 2010) Scientists predict the range of climate models that come from imperfect knowledge of climate feedback, the undefined reaction/action of humans against global warming is the most substantial reason of scientists uncertain predictions, whereas there is no doubt that global warming happening with all of its significant impacts. Scientists predict a range of climate models that come from imperfect knowledge of climate feedback. While there is no doubt that global warming is happening with all of its significant impacts, scientists have been rendered uncertain effects of global warming in their predictions. The undefined reac-

tion/action of humans against global warming is the most substantial reason scientists cannot be certain about their predictions.

7

The impact of global warming is coupled with the impact of the rising temperature of the Earth’s surface. This rise in temperature has significant consequences of its own. “Warming modifies rainfall patterns, amplifies coastal erosion, lengthens the growing season in some regions, melts ice caps and glaciers, and alters the ranges of some infectious diseases. Some of these changes are already occurring.”(Riebeek, 2010) Weather change due to global warming will cause more continual hot days and less cool days, with the supreme warming happening over places. “Longer, more intense heat waves will become more common. Storms, floods, and droughts will generally be more severe as precipitation patterns change. Hurricanes may increase in intensity due to warmer ocean surface temperatures.”(Riebeek, 2010) One of the other things that global warming will affect is sea levels. The rising sea levels due to global warming “will erode coasts and cause more frequent coastal flooding. Some island nations will disappear. The problem is serious because up to

Figure 5: Sea level changes over the past century. (Graph ©2007 Robert Rohde.) ttvv


8 10 percent of the world’s population lives in vulnerable areas less than 10 meters (about 30 feet) above sea level.”(Riebeek, 2010)

Architecture and Global Warming

The ecosystem is also not immune to the effects of global warming. This warming affects both the plant and animal populations irrespective of whether they live in the ocean or on land. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimation shows that 20-30 percent of plant and animal species will be at danger of extermination if temperatures rise more than 1.5° to 2.5°C. As the weather and ecosystem change because of global warming, people are similarly affected by its impacts as well. “Hardest hit will be those living in low-lying coastal areas, and residents of poorer countries who do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature extremes and water resources. As tropical temperature zones expand, the reach of some infectious diseases, such as malaria, will change. More intense rains and hurricanes and rising sea levels will lead to more severe flooding and potential loss of property and life.” (Riebeek, 2010)

Hurricane Sandy: Photo from Hoboken, New Jersey 2012 by Eduardo Munoz/Reuters.

Heat stroke and death cases will increase due to warmer summers and more frequent fires, and there will be more ‘code red’ air quality days due to the increased levels of near-surface ozone and smoke. Additionally, severe drought will increase the level of malnutrition. Over time particularly during summer, mountain glaciers will begin to vanish which will lead to a scarcity of water. . Photo from http://www.inhabitat.com


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming Eventually, all creatures on the planet both on the land and in the ocean, including humans, will be affected by global warming. However the size of the alteration is fundamentally dependent upon our future decisions. “Scientists have shown that human emissions of greenhouse gases are pushing global temperatures up, and many aspects of climate are responding to the warming in the way that scientists predicted they would. This offers hope. Since people are causing global warming, people can mitigate global warming, if they act in time.� (Riebeek, 2010) Thus our further actions and decisions will determine how much global warming will influence our planet and the life of its creatures including us.

9

1.4 - Architecture and global warming

Nowadays, over 40 percent of global energy consumption is consumed by buildings. In both developed and developing countries, buildings emit around 30 percent of global annual greenhouse gas emission. In the next two decades greenhouse gas emissions from buildings will double unless something is done in the building sector. Compared to other main greenhouse gas emitting sectors, the building sector has the major prospective for notably decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Most of the greenhouse gas emissions from buildings are due to the consumption of fossil fuel based energy, including the direct use of fossil fuels and the use of electricity that has been generated from fossil fuels. “Significant greenhouse gas emissions are also generated through construction materials, in particular insulation materials, and refrigeration and


10 cooling systems.� (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009) Architects as building designers play a significant role in controlling the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings. Because the architect designs the buildings and also manages the construction, he is in a position to make choices and implement change by selecting building materials and construction techniques that are more environmentally friendly. The architects influence on greenhouse gases emitting goes beyond a building’s design and landscape, it is include both urban design (macro scale) and building design (micro scale). The zoning of cities and how different functions should be distributed trough the urban planning will define the further transportation and transition within the city. This planning is directly related to the burning of fossil fuel by both public and private transportation. Additionally, the location of green areas/zones and their relation to the surrounding structures will define the air movement and flow through the city and its buildings thereby, green house gases can be directed to the carbon dioxide (one of the main greenhouse gases) dissolving spaces.

Architecture and Global Warming

1.4.1 - What is the role of traditional architecture and construction regarding global warming

View over Yazd, Iran (by MalenaN). Photo indicates the Badgirs (Wind Towers) that provide cooling for inner spaces of building.

Throughout its history, architecture has aimed to provide comfort and protection for the residences and users of buildings. Architects have historically been limited in their design and construction operations by the availability of materials, material transportation, construction and construction techniques, energy sources and storing. Thus, they have to design buildings in the way that was more adaptable to the climate of its specific region in one hand, and was built based on traditional materials and technique in other hand. There are numerous examples of passive energy design, which were designed according to climatic factors such as solar path, winds and the seasonal variation of the building site. Thus regarding passive solar and wind energy system by the mean of sustainability for heating and cooling of building’s


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming spaces maybe innovation is not that necessary compare to the active energy system. The other important thing that traditional architects thought about in regards to sustainability is the space organizations and distribution of functions through the building based on site location and orientation. However as a result of the improvements made in the cooling and heating systems, insulation materials and energy supplies the organization of spaces is no longer thought of as a significant issue regarding climate condition and site direction.

1.4.2 - How new technologies, materials and methods can help architects to mitigate global warming

11

1. The Pearl River Tower 2. Solar roof panels 3. Power-generating wind turbines 4. Capturing heat from the sun

Sustainability in the current trend of architecture needs more investigation, innovation, improvements and advertising to achieve its long term objectives. Architects are not the only ones who are responsible for providing energy efficiency and mitigating the overflow of greenhouse gases from buildings. There are others significant factors, including energy consumption culture/tradition, building materials manufacturing, transportation of building’s materials, building’s appliances and energy price, that are responsible for greenhouse gases emitting from building sector. All of these factors play an important role in establishing a zero-energy or an energy-plus structure. As the designer


12 architects should have general knowledge in all of the related fields of the building industry. The architect must also communicate with clients and inform them about the cost and benefits of such buildings (energy efficient). The most influential and important contribution of architectures comes through their design. The carbon neutral and energy plus buildings are achievable through a well-planned design. The role of governmental organizations and agencies that publish regulations and codes for building sector are significant as well. The study and investigation of new technologies, methods of construction, materials and ideas like adaptability, dynamics, sustainability and nanotechnology in architecture could move the building industry further towards the mitigation of global warming. These efforts could also be enhanced with the use of information technology both in the design and operational phase. However, this fact doesn’t eliminate things discovered and founded by traditional architecture.

Architecture and Global Warming

1.5 – Nanoarchitecture towards the mitigation of global warming

Indigo Tower: Air purifying Tower clad with Nano Coating TiO2. Courtesy of 10Design.

Last decade was the era of micro technology that revolutionized communication through smart devices and technology such as the smart phone and tablet. Similarly, the recent founding and research in nano scale, will lead our world through the next technological revolution. Nanotechnology has the ability to change our world into a better place for living. This technology deals with materials and their characteristics in nano scales, which provide the opportunity to alter materials and applications in the way that it is needed. Thus architecture can also create revolutionary change and improvements towards the better and greener world.


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.5.1 – What is nanoarchitecture

Indigo Tower: Air purifying Tower clad with Nano Coating TiO2. Courtesy of 10Design.

When architecture and nanotechnology are melted and combined in a pot the result will be Nano Architecture. This technology has the potential to change the character of materials in the way needed. Numerous products of the nanotechnology have already been generated and are available at markets. These materials have smart nature and are dynamic “specially the coating of surfaces to lend them functional characteristics such as increased tensile strength, self cleaning capacity, fire resistance, and others. Additives based on nano materials make common materials lighter, more permeable, and more resistant to wear.” (Lalbakhsh & Shirazpour, 2011)(More information at section 1.5.4) Architectural products have to be feasible or they won’t be built. The feasibility is defined by a number of factors through

13 the feasibility study. Building materials are one of the essential factors of the feasibility study under which every architectural project is considered. Thus revolution in building materials is equal to revolution in building sector and architecture. Nanotechnology is a novel technology of the twenty first century and it is one of the key technologies to providing a better future; thus nanoarchitecture is the future of sustainability in the building sector. Nano architecture has a potential to lead our built environments to a healthier place both physically and mentally throughout the wide range of building elements and materials, which is the product of nanotechnology.


14

1.5.2 – What is nanotechnology

Source: Peter Eggermann - Fotolia.com

The phrase nanotechnology was expressed for the first time in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi (University of Tokyo) to describe the ability of engineering materials in nano scale (nanometer). “This is in fact its current meaning; ‘engineer materials’ is usually taken to comprise the design, characterization, production and application of materials, and the scope has nowadays been widened to include devices and systems rather than just materials. Nanotechnology is thus defined as the design and fabrication of materials, devices and systems with control at nanometer dimensions.” (Ramsden, 2005) The nanometer is one billionth of a meter and one millionth of a millimeter, which is the characteristic dimension of

Architecture and Global Warming molecules that are generated by bounding groups of atoms together, covalently. The size of an atom is one tenth of a nanometer; therefore in order to have a nano object in the necessary size, tens or hundreds of atoms have to be combined. For a better understanding of the nano scale (nanometer), note that human hair grows a few nanometers a second. Nanotechnology and nanoscience have close ties. Nanoscience is the observation and study of phenomena and ways of manipulating matter at the nano scale. Many properties of matter, that on a larger scale appear to be similar, are actually revealed to be quite different when observed under the scope of a nano scale. . The studies and observations being undertaken by nanoscientists have formed the basis of nanotechnology and are the leading way towards the invention of new nano materials that have the potential to create a better built environment for generations to come. Research and development in nanotechnology are essential for future economic and environmental development. In fact, the European Commission study has planned a program for research and development in the European Union based on nanotechnology. This program was commissioned based on the potential economic value that nanotechnology inventions would bring in new industries and markets.


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.5.3 – What can nanotechnology do for architecture Here we move towards the question of how nanotechnology will revolutionize architecture/nanoarchitecture. Figure 6 describes nanotechnology within three aspects, which are indirect, direct and conceptual. Indirect is the developing and miniaturization of existing technologies, that provide new fields of application for the current technologies. Direct presents the novel application, nanoengineered artifacts, both in enhancing the performance of current processes and materials, or for entirely new purposes. The last aspect of nanotechnology is conceptual, where the materials and processes as a whole are considered from a molecular or even atomic perspective, “as in living systems, in which complicated mol-

15 ecules (like proteins) are broken down into their constituent amino acids, which are then used for the templated synthesis of new proteins.� (Ramsden, 2005) Indirect nanotechnology is also called enabling technology. Miniaturization throughout the quantitative improvements of performance can improve both the qualitative and quantitative features if the adjustment is large enough. The cellular telephone is a fine example of how these improvements have taken place over the course of history. Nanotechnology can be used to produce smart devices that are smaller and more efficient than they were 10 years ago. Additionally, the miniaturization of these devices often makes them cheaper because fewer raw materials are being used. This concept and application can be used in the production of smart building materials

Figure 6: From left to right, the indirect, direct and conceptual branches of nanotechnology, with examples. Figure is a courtesy of Jeremy J. Ramsden.


16 and elements. This technology will be especially important where there is a need for sensors to observe the environmental conditions in order to achieve elegant sustainability in buildings. Direct nanotechnology is the novel forms of matter, such as nanoparticles, or the still-to-be-identified portions such as nanosized robots (nanobots). There are various advances in this area whose theme of application is such that the nanocomponent is hidden. One of the good examples is nanofoils, which is the product of combining thousands of alternating nanometer-thick layers of two different metals. “In the direct realm, nanoparticles are already widely used in skin cosmetic formulations. Active ingredients in the form of nanoparticles retain the functionality of microparticles (e.g. the ability to adsorb ultraviolet light), but do not scatter light, hence can be applied without influencing the appearance of the skin. The drawback of minuteness is that the particles can penetrate through the skin into the body almost without let or hindrance, with effects as yet largely unknown. Nanostructured “superhydrophobic” surfaces, directly inspired by nanoscopic studies of the surfaces of “self-cleaning” leaves such as those of the lotus, can be applied to textiles, window glass etc. with similar effect. Merely rinsing with water scavenges dust and dirt particles from the surface, without, as yet, perceptible effects even among the ranks of cravat and window cleaners. This niche application may however prolong the popularity of the glass cube or parallelepiped among contemporary architects: hence indirectly, nanotechnology even affects the built environment at large scales.”(Ramsden, 2005)

Architecture and Global Warming

1.5.4 – What are nanomaterials & applications Nanotechnology, described as both a technology for fabrication of ultra-small materials and devices, and as an idea in which everything in the world is measured from the perspective of atomic or molecular structure blocks, is already influencing a wide range of the world technological movement. “What are the implications of nanotechnology for materials, devices and systems? The most immediate consequence of miniaturization of materials is the huge increase in surface area. Hence for any material whose performance depends on specific surface area, nanoparticles offer an immediate and automatic advantage,”(Ramsden, 2005) which can provide various improvements and developments in architectural fields, as surfaces and cladding are the essential elements of an architectural product. In conclusion, material miniaturization has a capability to allow varied properties to be efficiently combined into a single composite material, which may be unachievable at the macro scale. The most extensive present form of nanomaterials is most likely presented by nanoparticles. The wide range of distinctive types of nanoparticles already exist, ranging from uncomplicated ultraviolet absorbers in production of sunscreens to extremely complicated and multifunctional particles used in solar panels to produce electricity from sunlight. Nanodevices, the smallest of the devices, mainly process controlling sensors as they have the benefit of being functional in very restricted spaces. Additionally these sensors are extremely sensitive and are usually cheaper than bigger devic-


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming es. Moreover, as they are small, novel polyfunctionality can be obtained through the combination of various devices with distinctive functions in a single chip. Reaching energy plus and environmentally friendly buildings for a reasonable coast is now feasible with the benefit of nanotechnology devices. These devices will provide smart building elements that will collect information from building’s users and the surrounding environments in order to provide the comfort condition for the users of building.

17

1.5.4.a – Insulation

Nanogel panels provide translucency and insulation High-insulating Nanogel panels are available with up to 75 percent translucency. Source: Kalwall

There will be major developments in the insulation sector in the near future as a result of the public and private enterprise demand for more energy efficient buildings. “Building insulation reduces the amount of energy required to maintain a comfortable environment. Reduced energy consumption, in turn, means reduced carbon emissions from energy production. Insulation is, in fact, the most cost-effective means of reducing carbon emissions available today. Nanotechnology promises to make insulation more efficient, less reliant on non- renewable resources, and less toxic, and it is delivering on many of those promises today. Manufacturers estimate that insulating materials derived from nanotechnology are roughly 30 percent more efficient than conventional


18 materials. Nanoscale materials hold great promise as insulators because of their extremely high surface-to-volume ratio. This gives them the ability to trap still air within a material layer of minimal thickness (conventional insulating materials like fiberglass and polystyrene get their high insulating value less from the conductive properties of the materials themselves than from their ability to trap still air.) Insulating nanomaterials may be sandwiched between rigid panels, applied as thin films, or painted on as coatings.”(Elvin, 2007)

Architecture and Global Warming

1.5.4.b – Coating The use of chemical vapor deposition, dip, meniscus, spray, and plasma coating can be eliminated by the use of insulation nanoparticles in the production of a layer bound to the base material. An extensive range of other performance enhancing characteristics can also be achieved by applying other types of nanoparticle coatings to methods such as these: Self-cleaning Depolluting Scratch-resistant Anti-icing and anti-fogging Antimicrobial UV protection Corrosion-resistant Waterproofing The surfaces, which are often a product of nanotechnology, show more than one of these properties because of the flexibility of various nanoparticles that can also be defined as a multifunctional panel/surface. “On this versatility and the environmental improvements possible through the use of nanocoatings, the European Parliament’s Scientific Technology Options Assessment concluded: “At present, nanotechnologies and nanotechnological concepts deliver a variety of mostly incremental improvements of existing bulk materials, coatings or products. These improvements point in several directions and often are aimed at improving several properties at the same time. With respect to substitution this means that nanotechnological approaches of-


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming ten cannot lead to direct substitution of a hazardous substance, but may lead in general to a more environmentally friendly product or process.””(Elvin, 2007)

TiO2’s super hydrophilicity or water sheeting quality promotes the self cleaning benefit Water sheets instead of beading as shown below (The TiO2 coated surface is on the left ) Source: http://thegreenconcept.com/titanium_dioxide_benefits.html

19

1.5.4.c – Solar energy The most significant source of renewable energy is the sun. The sun is able to meet the world’s energy needs by converting solar radiation to electrical energy. However, the challenge remains to make this process efficient and reasonably priced. “Current silicon-based solar cell technologies, however, have only achieved modest conversion efficiencies at relatively high costs. But conversion technologies are improving, and the market for solar energy is expected to grow from $15.6 billion in 2006 to $69.3 billion by 2016. And while solar represents less than .5 percent of today’s total energy market, it is growing rapidly at 30 percent annually.”(Elvin, 2007) Thus the replacement of this silicon solar cell with the enhanced silicon solar and the thin-film solar, which are products of nanotechnology, can provide our energy needs from the Sun while also maintaining a reasonable price point. Enhanced Silicon Solar Panel: This solar panel is the product of the Direct aspect of nanotechnology, which is the process of enhancing the performance of current materials. “Spire Solar produces nanostructured materials, fabricating solar cells with greater efficiency than conventional devices while providing color options for improved aesthetics when integrated into building designs. Their Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) solutions include curtain wall systems in which panels can be mounted vertically on an exterior wall. These transparent and semitransparent panels can also be mounted on a roof, acting as a power-generating skylight. This allows the panel to be visible from indoors, providing


20 partial shade. Their BIPV awnings can provide shade from the sun’s heat, saving energy while also producing electricity. These can be mounted over windows, integrated into louvers and shutters, and built into carports and patios. Their rooftop installation helps power the Chicago Center for Green Technology, a LEED platinum certified building.”(Elvin, 2007)

Architecture and Global Warming the aesthetic concerns some architects hold against rigid flat panels, which can hardly be integrated into building facades. Thanks to their flexibility and thinness, thin films could be integrated into windows, roofs, and facades, potentially making almost the entire building envelope a solar collector.” (Elvin, 2007)

The Chicago Solar Partnership, Chicago, IL. Image from www.spiresolarsystem.com

Thin-film solar Panel: “Organic thin-film, or plastic solar cells, use low-cost materials primarily based on nanoparticles and polymers. They are formed on inexpensive polymer substrates which can take advantage of the relatively inexpensive “roll-to-roll” production methods used in newspaper presses. The other dramatic advantage of organic thin films is their flexibility, which will enable their integration into far more building applications than conventional flat glass panels. This will open new architectural possibilities and overcome

Flexible solar panels Flexible, lightweight “power plastic” from Konarka brings power- generating capabilities to awnings, roofs, and windows. (Source: Konarka Technologies, Inc.)


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.5.4.d – Lighting “Lighting and appliances consume approximately one third of the energy used in building operation. Not only do lighting fixtures consume electricity, but most produce heat that can add to building cooling costs. Incandescent lights, for example, waste as much as 95 percent of their energy as heat. Fluorescent lights use less energy and produces less heat, but contain trace amounts of mercury. Because of the heat generated by lighting, most office buildings run air conditioning when the outside air temperature is above 12°C (55°F). In fact, the cores of most buildings over 20,000 square feet require cooling even during the winter heating season. Because of this effect, every three watts of lighting energy conserved saves about one additional watt of air cooling energy. The energy-saving potential in more efficient lighting is therefore tremendous.”(Elvin, 2007)Thus the nanotechnology lighting products are capable of reducing the building’s total energy consumption. These products will therefore decrease the green house gas emission from buildings. Some examples of these products include:

21 tricity is run through the strata of organic materials that make up an OLED, atoms within them become excited and emit photons. OLEDs are highly efficient, long-lived natural light sources that can be integrated into extremely thin, flexible panels. Their introduction in the marketplace has so far been limited to small electronic components like cellphone displays, but their applications continue to grow in scale. OLEDs offer unique features like extreme flexibility, transparency when turned off, and tunability to produce variable colored light.”(Elvin, 2007)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs): LEDs are the most wellknown product of this novel technology and they are available and used in a wide ranges of places. They are 10 times more efficient than conventional incandescent and fluorescent lights with a significantly higher life cycle. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): “Among the most promising nanotechnologies for energy conservation in lighting are organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When elec-

Source: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com


22 The transparent aspect of the OLEDs design will introduce a new definition to transparent surfaces. For example, with the advance of OLEDs, in the design of skylight and transparent curtain walls during the day the transparency aspect of the curtains will let light in, aside from providing the visual connection, whereas during the night the same skylight or curtain wall will grant the lighting.

Architecture and Global Warming

Quantum dot lighting: “Quantum dots are nanoscale semiconductor particles that can be tuned to brightly fluoresce at virtually any wavelength in the visible and infrared portions of the spectrum. They can be used to convert the wavelength, and therefore the color, of light emitted by LEDs.�(Elvin, 2007)

Source: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com The prototypical type-II quantum dot lighting, structure with a monolayer of quantum dots. Source: http://www.nature.com tt


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

23

1.5.4.e – Structural materials “Material strength is critical in a building, defining its structure, longevity, and resistance to gravity, wind, earthquake and other loads that act to tear it down. Strength is equally important in non-structural components like windows and doors for security and durability. A load-bearing structural material’s strength/weight ratio is particularly important because stronger, lighter materials can carry greater loads per unit of material. A higher strength/weight ratio means fewer materials, which in turn means fewer resources and energy consumed in production. Nanotechnology promises significant improvements in structural materials in two ways. First, nano-reinforcement of existing materials like concrete and steel will lead to nanocomposites, materials produced by adding nanoparticles to a bulk material in order to improve the bulk material’s properties. Eventually, when cost and technical know-how permit, we will see structures made from altogether new materials like carbon nanotubes.”(Elvin, 2007)

Translucent concrete. Source: http://kishaniperera.com

Concrete Composite: Concrete is a widely used material in the building industry and its use has serious ramifications as a result of the carbon emitted during construction. Therefore, using nanotechnology to enhance the production of concrete can be beneficial in mitigating GHG. There are various types of concrete composite that were enhanced with nano-particles on the market. One of the most interesting types is translucent concrete. Architect Andea

Translucent concrete. Source: http://kishaniperera.com


24 Bittis in “his unique design spin on the traditional concrete wall captures beautiful silhouettes and shadows when light is emitted. This has been made possible by embedding an array of tiny glass fibers with concrete blocks. Not only does this product eliminate the heaviness conventional concrete is known for but it claims to be just as durable. Available in white, grey and black.” (Kishaniperera, 2013) Steel Composite: One of the other enhanced products of direct aspect of nanotechnology is steel composite. These materials are considered to be both the primary construction materials and the reinforcing component in concrete. MMFX steel is an example of this type of materials that “according to its manufacturer, five times more corrosion-resistant and up to three times stronger than conventional steel. MMFX steel products are used in structures across North America including bridges, highways, parking structures, and residential and commercial buildings. The added strength of MMFX steel results in a decrease in the amount of conventional steel necessary to accomplish the same task.”(Elvin, 2007) Wood Composite: “While concrete is the most consumed construction material by weight, on a volume basis, wood is the most-used construction material in the United States. Over 1.7 million housing units were constructed of wood in the U.S. in 2004 alone. Wood- frame construction is relatively inexpensive, easy to build with, and flexible in its structural and stylistic applications. Today, half of the wood products used in housing are engineered wood such as “gluelams” and I-joists. Wood is attractive from an environmental standpoint because it is renewable and can be readily recycled and reused. Nanotechnology promises to improve the structural perform-

Architecture and Global Warming ance and serviceability of wood by giving scientists control over fiber-to-fiber bonding at a microscopic level and nanofibrillar bonding at the nanoscale. It could also reduce or eliminate the formation of the random defects that limit the performance of wood today.”(Elvin, 2007) Carbon nanotube: Carbon nanotube is the product of the conceptual aspect of nanotechnology. “A carbon nanotube is a one-atom thick sheet of graphite rolled into a seamless cylinder with a diameter of approximately one nanometer. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been tested to have a tensile strength of 63 GPa as compared to high- carbon steel with a tensile strength of approximately 1.2 GPa. While this strength may not be maintained when nanotubes are combined to form macroscale structural components, it nonetheless suggests that exponential improvements in strength may be possible.” (Elvin, 2007)

New structural potential with carbon nanotubes Source: Andy Naunheimer/George Elvin, nanoSTUDIO.com


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.5.4.f – Nanosensors and smart environments Arguably the most dramatic influence of nanotechnology will appear in the field of nanosensors. Data on the environment, building users, and material performance will be collected by the implanted Nanosensors in building materials and elements. These nanosensors will interact with the building users and other sensors eventually turning these buildings into networks of smart interacting mechanisms. Building elements will be the primary piece turned into smarter components. The building elements will have the capacity to collect data on temperature, humidity, vibration, stress, decay, and a host of other factors. This collection of data will be very useful in monitoring and advancing the maintenance and safety of buildings. Impressive improvements are also expected to be made in energy preservation “as well, as, for instance, environmental control systems recognize patterns of building occupancy and adjust heating and cooling accordingly. Similarly, windows will self-adjust to reflect or let pass solar radiation. Eventually, networks of embedded sensors will interact with those worn or implanted in building users, resulting in “smart environments” that selfadjust to individual needs and preferences. Everything from room temperature to wall color could be determined based on invisible, passive correspondence between sensors. Work on smart environments is already underway. Leeds NanoManufacturing Institute (NMI), for example, is part of a €9.5 million European Union-funded project to develop a house with special walls that will contain wireless, battery-

25 less sensors and radio frequency identity tags to collect data on stresses, vibrations, temperature, humidity and gas levels. “If there are any problems, the intelligent sensor network will alert residents straightaway so they have time to escape,” said NMI chief executive Professor Terry Wilkins. The self-healing house walls will be built from novel load bearing steel frames and high-strength gypsum board, and will contain nano polymer particles that will turn into a liquid when squeezed under pressure, flow into the cracks to harden and form a solid material.”(Elvin, 2007) Based on this intelligence and the potential environmental improvements possible through the use of nanosensors, the European Commission for 2013 concluded:

Source: http://topnews.in


26

Architecture and Global Warming Technical content/scope: Progress in nanosciences has led to a range of new technologies that allows us to drastically improve, and even rethink and create totally new industrial processes and products, offering new functionalities. Sensors are core elements in any intelligent system for monitoring and controlling natural and industrial environments, and nanotechnology is offering new functionalities opening for totally new sensors, sensing based systems and applications. For example high sensitivity allowing for new or lower levels of detection, long term stability for reliability in use and a much reduced size and affordable cost, enabling the integration of nanosensors, including networks of nanosensors into many other devices and systems. The specific objective of this topic is to exploit progress in nanosciences to deploy nanotechnology in affordable, mass-produced sensors, and to integrate these into components and systems (including portable ones) for mass market applications in environmental monitoring. Sensing may include chemical, micro-biological and radiological parameters. Deliverables are expected to include the sensor design and fabrication considerations (including the use or development of modelling tools), a technology demonstrator and a positive production capacity feasibility study (including economic assessment) and plans for their commercial implementation. Systems integration aspects to consider includes easy and fast (multi-)sensor interrogation and interfacing with monitoring and control functions. Reliability is required within the foreseen operating environment, considering temperature, humidity, and other parameters affecting stability. Initiation (re-setting) and calibration requires special attention. The functionality should be demonstrated by integrating the developed sensor element into an existing or prototype system for validating its industrial relevance in a relevant environment. Biosensors for monitoring the marine environment are not covered by this topic, but by the topic Ocean 2013.1 (section II.4.2). Funding Scheme: Small or medium-sized collaborative projects Expected impact: The projects are expected to: (i) demonstrate that nanosensors provide a technically superior, cost effective alternative to conventional sensors; (ii) contribute to the realisation of the market potential of the existing research results; (iii) to enable improved performance of applications in the fields of environmental monitoring, providing significant benefits to the citizens, environment and the European economy.


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

1.5.4.g – Multifunctional properties

27 cleaning and depolluting. New nanocompisites could easily be made fireproof, electrically conductive, and super-strong. The ability to design multifunctional materials from the bottom up will undoubtedly save energy and costs in tomorrow’s buildings. As nanoscientists have said, we will no longer have to make due with materials that meet some performance criteria and fall short of others. In the long run, we will design materials to meet multiple criteria. Nanoscale design for versatility is already occurring. Carbon nanotubes, as we have seen, are amazingly versatile—strong, flexible, and electrically and thermally conductive. Nanocoatings also take advantage of the diverse properties of titanium dioxide and other nanoparticles to create self-cleaning, depolluting, antimicrobial surfaces.” (Elvin, 2007)

Flexible heat-activated displays This light-emitting display combines flexibility, conductivity, and heat dissipation to create devices that reduce energy use. (Source: Weijia Wen/Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)

The design and production of polyfunctional materials with various properties is one of the most significant approaches of nanotechnology. Polyfunctional materials enables a single nanomaterial, which is versatile, to complete the task of a variety of traditional materials. “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles incorporated into a facade, for instance, can make it both self-


28

1.5.4.h – Other nanomaterials & applications for green building There are a variety of nanomaterials and applications, which were not included in the categories mentioned earlier. These materials have also been manipulated with nanotechnology, and advanced or enhanced characteristics that will improve the building’s total energy consumption and increased the building life cycle. Some examples of these materials and applications are: 1- Adhesives 2- Energy storage 3- Air purification 4- Water purification 5- Non-structural materials; a. Glass b. Plastic and polymers c. Drywall d. Roofing Aside from the categories mentioned above, there are an amazing number of novel nano-materials, such as Carbon Nanotube, Graphene and Boron Nitride, that can be included in more than one category. The physical properties and behavior of these materials are unique; Carbon Nanotube can be made into the thickness of a single atom, , whereas Graphene and Boron Nitride are just a single atom layer, which are identified as two dimensional materials due to their thickness. Materials such as Graphene, Boron Nitride and Carbon Nanotube or their composites, can perform a range of functions as building materials. They also can be used to produce innova-

Architecture and Global Warming tive building applications and devices; one of the productions of Carbon Nanotube is Carbon Nano-Muscles, these muscles can take the place of mechanical arms in the mechanical shading and blind systems. There are currently numerous studies and investigations being done at the best universities and institutes around the world on these types of nano-materials. One of the most interesting studies was led by Dr. Tomas Palacios at MIT (The Massachusetts Institute of Technology) on Graphene. In 2009 Dr. Palacios team at MIT, along with colleagues at Harvard and Boston University, received a major grant from U.S. Department of Defense for research on graphene. Through these studies Palacios says “the use of graphene in solar cells, displays and so on is probably going to be in the marketplace in a couple of years. More complex applications such as computers or cell phones will probably take longer, maybe within five and ten years.” (Macguire and Knight, CNN, 2013) Today a wide range of these types of Nano-Materials are already available. The Boron Nitride products by ESK Ceramics GmbH & Co. are one of them. Their Boron Nitride products are available in a wide range of applications. Lastly, Nanotechnology, which has already influenced and improved our life, has the potential to enhance existing technology and produce innovative materials to meet our current needs. . More efficient solar cells, better insulation materials, transparent lighting and display, stronger and lighter structural materials, smaller sensors and processors, are some examples of the advancements that have been made and can be en-


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming 29 hanced. These innovations are more efficient and economical and will lead and ease the design and construction of sustainable, energy plus and carbon neutral buildings.

Boron Nitride products Image courtesy of ESK Ceramics GmbH& Co.


30

Architecture and Global Warming

1.6 – Standards and policies allocated for mitigation of global warming as it relates to building industry and sector Some governmental and private agencies have already acknowledged the threat of global warming, and have allocated or improved their regulations in order to mitigate the green house gas emissions from buildings. USGBC (United Stated Green Building Council) is one of the governmental pioneer agencies in the United Stated, which also providing LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certifications. Building codes and regulations differ from region to region. In Europe, the European Commission, prepared special programs aimed at the mitigation of global warming. The Commission also prepared programs for the advancement of studies and developments on nanotechnology. This is just one example but in other parts of the world different countries have their own codes, regulations and programs. However, global warming is a universal issue, and action should be taken around the world and region to region to mitigate the harmful effects of global warming and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from buildings. To The best agency or organization for establishing new codes and regulations towards the mitigation of global warming is the United Nations, where all of the counties are collectively represented and joined to address issues such as this. Alternatively, the ICC (International Building Council) who establishes the IBC (International Building Code) is an agency that can play a large role in collective action against global warming.


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

Part Two: Design Proposal

31

2.1 – Choice of Typology – Energy & Nanotechnology Research Center The Energy and Nanotechnology Research Center is an establishment, organized to investigate and develop the idea of energy efficient buildings and building related applications in order to mitigate the green house gas emission from built environments based on nanotechnology. At this center, groups of professional Architects, Energy experts, Nanoscientists, Nanoengineers and student cooperate with eachothers as well communicate their findings with public. The center is aimed at discovering, developing, inventing and enhancing the current technology in order to mitigate the effects of global warming by decreasing greenhouse gas emission from buildings.. However, further action is required by the public in order to mitigate global warming,. Communication and interaction with the public in order to increase public knowledge and awareness on this issue is the other major focus of the Energy and Nanotechnology Research Center. In order to achieve its targets and goals, the building of the Energy and Nanotechnology Research Center was designed to include a range of functions including: 1. Laboratories 2. Temporary exhibition area 3. Convention center & Auditorium 4. Library 5. Research Center 6. Administration offices 7. Recreation & Restaurant facilities 8. Lecture Hall Lastly, all of the functions and interactions with people will happen under the fundamental structure, which is to be designed and formed by nanomaterials and its applications. The center will be the best example of the nanoarchitecture design. It should represent both Energy Research Center and Nanotechnology Research Center in one unique structure. Building this structure by itself is a big challenge, as it has to represent an energy plus building in order to illustrate the result and benefits of the Energy and Nanotechnology Research Center.


32

Architecture and Global Warming

2.2 – Case Studies In this section for a better understanding of this specific type of building or typology that were describe in section 2.1 (Choice of Typology – Energy & Nanotechnology Research Center) and a carbon neutral building, four projects will be studied; the first two examples are The Nanotechnology Center and the Energy Research Center, and last two are carbon neutral research center examples.

2.2.1 – King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC) / Zaha Hadid Architects The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC) is a future-oriented research center that is a center for political studies as well. The center was designed by Zaha Hadid Architects and is now under construction. The KAPSARC building is located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia’s capital city, and has an area of 66,000 square meters and a total site area of 530,000 square meters.

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

The architectural idea and design of the Zaha Hadid Architects for the KAPSARC was rooted in practical and environmental objectives while at the same time striving to move ahead of functional boundaries to form a “living, organic structure”. “The center is inherently forward-looking; its architecture also looks to the future, embracing a formal language capable of continual expansions or transformation with no compromise in visual integrity. The center emerges from the desert landscape as a cellular structure of crystalline forms, shifting and evolving in response to environmental conditions and functional require-

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming ments. Consistent organizational, spatial strategies drive an adaptive approach, with each component, each individual building, fitted to the purpose it serves.

33

Protective from without, porous within, the structure’s strong, hard shell conceals a softer environment – sheltered courtyards, bringing natural daylight into all spaces; buffer zones creating smooth transitions from a hot, glaring exterior to a cool, filtered interior.” (Zaha Hadid Architects, 2012) The building was constructed with the use of various sustainable techniques and advanced technology by Drake & Scull Construction. All the of the environmental factors were considered including: tempering the light and heat of the desert, utilizing wind to cool façades and outdoors and carefully controlling the design of the interiors to provide soft light for interior spaces. Additionally considered was the combination of the building and landscape with the dry land ecosystem in order to take advantage of the seasonal breeze to offer comfort condition for pedestrians.

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

One of other significant aspects of the buildings is the use of LEDs energy efficient lighting that is powered by photovoltaic elements outside the grid, which gives a special identity to the landmark at night. Because all of these factors were consideration in the design, the building was rated as LEED Platinum. Lastly the KAPSARC center forms a cellular structure of crystalline figures. The building design is based on connectivity that is achieved throughout the collection of 3Dimensional – six sided cells with numerous links and ties. The adaptable

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects


34 modular building is shaped by a series of various spaces such as: shaded outdoor spaces, courtyards, entrances, meeting areas, indoor gardens, corridors, under ground tunnels and roof terraces. The building program is defined by 8 main areas: 1. Basement 2. Research center 3. Library 4. Conference center 5. Musalla 6. IT center and backup 7. Ancillary building 8. Canopy

Architecture and Global Warming

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects

Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

35

2.2.2 – University of Waterloo Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum Nano Centre / Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects The Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum Nano Centre at the University of Waterloo, forms a sophisticated stage for research and innovation in the relevant fields of quantum computing and nanotechnology by its excellent design. “Just as the intricate study of multi-layer nanoscale patterns and quantum physics reveal previously unimagined solutions and insights to the world and universe, the architects engaged the researchers – both theorists and experimentalists – in deep discussions to understand the ways and patterns of their work.”(Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects, 2012) The project was completed in 2011 and the building is located in Waterloo, Ontario with a total area of 260,000 square feet

Source: http://math.uwaterloo.ca

The architectural proposal for the Waterloo Campus was well manipulated to meet the requirements of relative scientific practice of quantum computing and nanotechnology. The IQC and the department of Nanotechnology Engineering is located in two separated buildings above the shared podium which houses the Metrology Suite and Cleanroom.. The podium cladding was done with burnished concrete that was manipulated with in relationship to the primarily masonry structure of campus. The linear central atrium joined The IQC and the department of Nanotechnology Engineering together. This joining also provides an indoor pedestrian route linking the Ring Road to the campus and offering a casual space to catalyze exchange among scientists, faculty, students and visitors. Labs are pur

Image courtesy of Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects


36 posefully hidden below ground in order to minimize interference from EMI and vibration. The series of new courtyards are the result of an overall massing configuration. The podium green roofs appear as an expansion of the landscape and strengthen the green space network, which is a distinguishing mark of the University of Waterloo’s campus.

Architecture and Global Warming

Each of the building components were designed and organized according to its functions, characteristics, users’ needs and the site context in relation to the campus and its surrounding area in order to achieve a high excellent design, as KPMB Architects says (2012): The Institute of Quantum Computing (IQC), housed in a ‘bar’ building with an east-west orientation, faces out to the Ring Road to communicate the IQC’s commitment to scientific advancement and innovation through collaboration with public and private sectors. The IQC façade explores the abstract notion of ‘superposition’ with varied readings generated through degrees of transparency and the play of light on its surfaces. The heart of the IQC is the six-storey atrium with its network of floating stairs. ‘Mind spaces’ – simultaneously lounge, office and meeting rooms – are organized around the atrium and a cafeteria/kitchen on the second floor reinforces the theory that food and drink are essential catalysts for interdisciplinary interaction. A series of back-painted glass white boards reflect

Source: http://www.theverge.com

Source: http://www.theverge.com


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming light and provide the scientists with writing surfaces for capturing spontaneous ideas. A highly flexible multipurpose space is located on the ground floor to accommodate a range of internal and external events and conferences.

37

Source: http://www.theverge.com


38

Architecture and Global Warming

2.2.3 – RMIT Design Hub/ Peddle Thorp Architects The RMIT Design Hub is located in Melbourne, Australia. The project construction was finished in 2012. It serves as place for a range of design research and postgraduate study. The research center and its related workshops were arranged and planed in order to provide the adaptability and flexibility for the wide range of researchers who would be using the Hub in various time schedules. “The plan of the Hub acknowledges the desire for incidental cross pollination where researchers from one field encounter those from completely unrelated other fields as part of their day to day use of the building. An exhibition space and design archive provide a public interface with both industry and research outcomes. These spaces combined with a variety of lecture, seminar and multi purpose rooms facilitate high level exchanges in a number of forums. The Hub has a large number of ESD features and incorporates strategies of water, waste and recycling management that are the equal of any ESD focussed building on the planet. In particular the outer skin of the Hub incorporates automated sunshading that includes photovoltaic cells, evaporative cooling and fresh air intakes that improve the internal air quality and reduce running costs. The cells have been designed so that they can be easily replaced as research into solar energy results in improved technology and part of the northern façade is actually dedicated to ongoing research into solar cells to be conducted jointly by industry and RMIT. The entire building façade, in other words, has the capacity to be upgraded as

http://www.archdaily.com


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming solar technology evolves and may one day generate enough electricity to run the whole building.� (Archilovers, 2012)

http://www.archdaily.com

39

http://www.archdaily.com


40

Architecture and Global Warming

2.2.4 – J. Craig Venter Institute / McCarthy Building Companies, Inc. The J. Craig Venture institute is located in UCSD, San Diego campus and is currently under construction. The fields being worked on at this research center have the potential to improve the environment by addressing the two main issues of this century, which are the global warming and hydrocarbons. This building program and its aim are similar to the mission of the Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego (NERCSD). The only difference between the two is in field of study and research. Given the close geographical proximity of the two centers and the similarity of mission between them, there are more opportunities for researchers in both facilities to collaborate. In order to achieve high excellence in environmentally friendly design of carbon neutral buildings “According to Ted Hyman, FAIA, a partner with Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects, LLP, and principal architect for the new J. Craig Venture Institute, La Jolla, the new research facility will incorporate high performance architecture, low-energy-use systems, water conservation strategies and onsite renewable power generation. The building massing and envelope have been designed to maximize the use of daylight to improve indoor comfort while further reducing overall building energy use. The building is proposed to be “net-zero” for electrical energy, intended to produce as much electricity on- site as it consumes annually. This will be made possible by integrating numerous energy efficiency measures throughout the building systems, incorporating operable windows and efficient lighting, and by

Image is a courtesy of J. Craig Venter Institute

Image is a courtesy of J. Craig Venter Institute


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming reducing internal plug loads wherever possible. On-site renewable energy will be generated through the sizeable photovoltaic roof. The project team has also pursued a “zero discharge” philosophy for the site design based on the combined strategies of infiltration, on-site wastewater treatment, and water reuse. Rainwater will be collected and stored in a cistern, filtered, then reused for toilet flushing and site irrigation. Other sustainable design features include recycled content; natural ventilation and passive cooling; use of regional materials; green roofs; native, low-water landscaping; high-efficiency plumbing to further reduce water use; and sustainably harvested wood. The project team is targeting LEED Platinum Certification from the U.S. Green Building Council.” (McCarthy, 2012)

Image is a courtesy of J. Craig Venter Institute

41

Image is a courtesy of J. Craig Venter Institute

Image is a courtesy of J. Craig Venter Institute


42

Architecture and Global Warming

2.3 – Tentative Sites Three sites were chosen for the establishment of the new energy and nanotechnology research center, .Two of these sites are located in Iran and one is located in California, USA. Of the two sites in Iran, one is in the southern Island of Iran, which is located in the Persian Golf and known as Kish. Kish is nice place that attracts tourists and businesses and in the last decade it has undergone major developments. Kish has the potential to host international events, activities and conventions because of its beautiful nature and the open minded community, culture, tradition and people. Among the developments in Kish are hotels, residential high rises, , shopping centers, trade centers, and marine and costal recreation centers. Additionally, there have been developments in the fields of education, academia and technology. The Kish University and The Sharif University of Technology Kish Branch are the two major developments related to the science, technology and education fields.

Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop

The site is also located close to the universities and has good accessibility to hotels, and the central and business part of the town. Additionally, the site has a direct connection to the airport. However, the airport is not equipped for a range of international flights as its international flight zone is limited to Dubai, UAE. The Other site in Iran located in north part of Tehran, the capital city of country and one of the most crowded cities in the world. Tehran is a metropolitan city that is located in

Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming northern Iran and south of Damavand peak, the second highest peak in the world. The best hospitals, universities, schools, firms, markets, recreation centers, restaurants, coffee shops and etc, in Iran are located in Tehran. Tehran is also one of the most polluted cities in the world. It is also a developing city and with limited space. Tehran can be separated into three parts or levels according to the residences of the city zones, rich people live in the northern part of the city, middle class people reside in the middle of Tehran and poor people live in the southern part of the city. The project site located is in northern Tehran, which is one of the best areas in the city. It located close to the University of Shahid Beheshti. This university is a one of the top three universities in Iran and has various departments including the de

43

Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop

Right image indicate the Kish location to Iran and left image shows the whole island of Kish. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)


44

Site in Kish, Iran. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)

Architecture and Global Warming


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming partment of architecture. In this part of the city, the developments are located along a mountain going up so the resulting infrastructure has nice views of the rest of Tehran. However, the winter weather in this area is very cold and there is a lot of snow and precipitation during the winter season, making the accessibility of this area a challenge during this time. The last site is in the most relaxing part of United Stated of America, San Diego. In the southwest of California, USA, there is beautiful county and city that known as San Diego. San Diego has amazing weather, beautiful nature and kind people. The project site is located in one of best part of San Diego; it is located in the northern part of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) campus and south of Carmel Valley.

45

Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop

Right: Is the city of Tehran and red circle indicate project site area within the city. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop) Left: View of Tehran and Damavand peak


46

Red circle indicate the site area within the Shemiranat, Tehran, Iran. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)

Site in Tehran, Iran. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)

Architecture and Global Warming


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

47

Red circle shows the site area in San Diego, CA, USA. (Images from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)

This site has great potential for the project; it is located in a district surrounded by a number of various research centers. Additionally from the south, the site would face UCSD; one of the best universities in California, that has faculties members who specialize in nanotechnology and nanoengineering in addition to a wide range of other fields. San Diego airport is also not located far from the site and it has good access to the central highway I-5. The safety of the sites area and surrounding neighborhoods is another positive factor of this site.

Site, Science Center Dr., San Diego. (Images from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)


48

Architecture and Global Warming

2.4 – Chosen site analysis Among the three tentative sites, the site in San Diego has the highest potential for the mission of such a building like Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego. It has good access to interstate highway 5 and thus to the San Diego airport. The UCSD campus is located just south of the site and the whole district consists of several of research institutes and centers. An additional upside to this site is that the J. Craig Venter institute is located within the UCSD campus, and has a similar mission as the Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego. Collaboration of these two-research facilities will lead to numerous innovations in the fields of sustainability and energy conservation. The site topography will play an important role in the design process. As the site is located between interstate highway 5 and Genesee Ave. and through its topography, the building will have the opportunity to display itself to the large number of people who pass the site on a daily basis. And in other hand the best and only open view from site for the building with the height below 60 feet is view to the east. As a result of the buildings mission, sun path and shadow range are other important factors that will influence the building massing and form significantly. The most important mission of the building is the mitigation of greenhouse gas emitting from the building sector and its related fields throughout the innovation of novel Nano materials and applications beside the interaction and communication with public and professionals regarding the global warming. This analysis

Red circle indicate the site. (Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop)


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

49

along with the wind analysis will be studied with the advanced use of Eco-Tec Autodesk software. Using the building information modeling and analytical software for analysis and building design, from the earliest stage of design, is significantly beneficial in designing the Net-Zero Energy or CarbonNeutral buildings.

Vicinity Map

Image from Google Earth edited by Photoshop


50

Architecture and Global Warming

3DSection through Genesee Ave.

1 meter Topo Line

3DSection through I5


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

51

Zoning Map of Area

Official Zoning Map TR

RS-1-1 AR-1-1 TORREY  PI

RM-2-5

IP-2-1

EDA

 LUZ

D DA LE SO

ARK  R

CA

D  

OR-1-1 RM-2-5

OCE

OP-2-1

AR-1-1

NY ON

RM-3-8

RS-1-14

SO

RS-1-14

PA

AR-1-1

EL  ON

OP-2-1

OR-1-1

LLE TO  VA RR EN GLE

OP-2-1

LOS PEÑASQUITOS CANYON

IP-2-1

RS-1-1

 DEL  SOL  

RM-1-1

TORREY HILLS

NES  P

IP-1-1

VER

IL-3-1

AR-1-1

CT   P  

WEST  OCEAN  AIR   DR  

OP-1-1

IP

OF-1-1

SE

A  

MIS

PAN

SS

ER

TONO

IN

E  W

FAL LEN ONE  W

VI

EW

ID  R

GE  

WOO

 

SH

D  LN

AW

 LO

PE

Legend

 

LN

SE

Y  B L  

NST

AN

AC

RE

ST

 VIE

W  

City of San Diego Boundary Community Plan Areas Parcels

 

RD

OC-1-1 Z  RD

 

Y  

Zoning

Y  

ZONE_NAME

 

 WY

AR-­1-­1 CC-­1-­3 CC-­4-­5 CN-­1-­2 CO-­1-­2 CR-­1-­1 CV-­1-­1 CV-­1-­2 IH-­2-­1 IL-­2-­1 IL-­3-­1 IP-­1-­1 IP-­2-­1 OC-­1-­1 OF-­1-­1 OP-­1-­1 OP-­2-­1 OR-­1-­1 RM-­1-­1 RM-­2-­5 RM-­3-­7 RM-­3-­8 RM-­3-­9 RS-­1-­1 RS-­1-­14 RS-­1-­2 RS-­1-­4 RS-­1-­7 RS-­1-­8  

LN   ORA MIC  

IH-2-1

CT   T  

IP-1-1

VIST EN RR

OP-1-1

AR-1-1

 PY  

TORR

TO

RS-1-1

N  RD  

TORREY PINES

A  RD   EYAN TORR

PACIFIC CENTER BL

AR-1-1 MC  

KE

LL AR

 C

IL-3-1 T  

IL-3-1

RS-1-1

IL-3-1

SCIENCE PARK RD

RS-1-8

RS-1-7 VIS TA

RS-1-14

IP-2-1

 S O

IL-2-1

EN RR

RS-1-14

 P

NIA

 S

IL-2-1

Y  

GO

AR-1-1

MIRA MESA

LUSK  BL  

TO

CRAY  CT  

BE

T  

PACIFIC MESA CT

AR-1-1

BARN

ES  CANYO

IL-3-1 PACIFIC

IGH

TS  BL  

N  RD  

 

ST

WATE

OC-1-1

RIDGE

 CR  

CV-1-2 CV-1-1

 

A  B ES A  M MIR

CORNERSTONE  CT  

E   RE

 

L  

  ST

NT O  P

E  

 

LL SE

 DR

RO

RL OBE

IL-3-1

IN

 D

R  

CARR OL L  R D  

AR-1-1

UN

IP-1-1

YO

SCIEN

IP-1-1

MIR

CE

A  S

 CE

OR

RE

NTER

IL-2-1

AR-1-1

 PL

SCRANTON  RD  

D  

JOHN  JAY  HOPKINS  DR  

1-1-1 IP IPIP-IIIIP1-P1---1---111---111-1-11 PPIP1IIII PP 1--11 PP PI--11 1-1-1---11--1-11 I-P-1II-PP I-P11 IP-1I-P1-1-11III-P PP--I1P-1 1--1IP-1111-111 IPI-P-1---11-1

RS

MO

Y  R

RS-1-14

TO

DR

 

LE

5

EC

HO

AL

( ' & %

DIR

IL-3-1

CV-1-1

IP-2-1

IL-2-1

US

RS-1-8

 V

T   Y  S

O NT

NS

CC-1-3

IP-1-1

E RR

TA

  GENERAL  ATOMICS  CT

SCRANTON  RD  

ERID WAT

SO

IP-1-1

S  BL

RS-1-8

IGHT

S  

 DR  

TU

ISTA

BU

GE  V

AR

GS

Pacific Ocean

IL-3-1  HE

C  HE

CV-1-1

AR-1-1 PACIFIC  MESA  BL  

A  

CIFI

F  R  OF

PA

 NB

LOS PENASQUITOS

TELESIS  CT  

INE

RS-1-1

V   TE  A

Y  P

IL-2-1

Y  

TKO

RE

W Y  

L  

  OR

AR

FLIN

 PARK  RD

CALLA

N  T

TU

PACIFIC CENTER CT  

EY  P INES

ES

CV-1-2

OP-1-1

RS-1-8

A  SO

RS-1-14

RS-1-14

TO WN Y  

RS-1-8

 W

RS-1-1

SCR ANT

RS-1-14

ANYO OL L  C CARR

  ON  RD

RS-1-7

N  R D  

CV-1-1 REY

 PIN

ES  S

CEN

IC  D

R  

 

CAM

 PO PUS

INT  CT

IL-2-1

INT

CR

ES

T  LN

 

IDL

E  H

OU

HAMBURG  SQ  

R  L

IP-1-1

AR-1-1

EAS TGA

N  

NORTH  TORREY  PINES  RD  

N  

 

OW

IL-2-1

 DR

CR

RS-1-2

IL-2-1

AR-1-1

RS-1-7

 PO US

CO-1-2

NANCY  RIDGE  DR  

IP-1-1

MP CA

UNIVERSITY

RS-1-7

Index Map

OLSON DR

TOR

TE  D R  

THIS MAP/DATA IS PROVIDED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Note: This product may contain information from the SANDAG Regional Information System which cannot be reproduced without the written permission of SANDAG. This product may contain information reproduced with permission granted by RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY® to SanGIS. This map is copyrighted by RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY®. It is unlawful to copy or reproduce all or any part thereof, whether for personal use or resale, without the prior, written permission of RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY®. Copyright SanGIS 2009 - All Rights Reserved. Full text of this legal notice can be found at: http://www.sangis.org/Legal_Notice.htm

A  VILLAG

E  DR  

CO-1-2

37  

38  

32  

33  

34  

26  

27  

28  

29  

30  

21  

22  

23  

24  

25  

18  

19  

20  

CR-1-1 RS-1-14

14  

15  

16  

17  

10  

11  

12  

13

5  

6

7

8

1  

2

3

4

AR-1-1

MIRAMAR

CV-1-2   ILLAGE  DR

MILITARY FACILITIES

CO-1-2 RM-3-9

IP-1-1

9  

¨

City of San Diego Development Services Department

 RD  

EL

GILMAN  DR  

CN-1-2

LA  JOLL

41  

36  

31  

RS-1-14

IP-1-1

LA  JOLLA  V

CC-1-3

IP-1-1

NO B

CO-1-2

EXECUTIVE  WY  

GENESEE  AV  

   DR

This assessment assumes utilization of the data on a citywide basis. Localized   data may exceed or fail to meet this accuracy with errors in excess of 100’ possible.  

TOWNE  CENTRE  DR  

E  L N   RE EE NT GR

OP-2-1

POOLE ST  

 SHOR ES

This data meets the ASPRS Standard for Class 1 Map Accuracy at a scale of   1:12,000 (1”=1,000’).  

LA  JO

LLA

SanGIS Land (Lot) basemap data for the City of San Diego tested 20.7’   horizontal accuracy at the 95% confidence level.  

RM-2-5

EXECUTIVE DR  

RS-1-7

RS-1-14 EXECUTIVE  DR  

OP-1-1

RS-1-7

40  

35  

NEXUS  CENTRE  DR  

RS-1-14

TOWNE  CENTRE  DR  

SanGIS Basemap Accuracy  

 

 RD

39  

 

ST

 D R  

Z  

 ML  

JUDICIAL  DR  

REGENTS  RD  

VOIGT DR  

R  

ATE

IL-3-1

WN

43  

   WY

EASTG

TO

42  

TER

FE

CC-4-5

EN ELL

47

45  

IH-2-1

EAS

MEDICAL  CENTER  DR  

RS-1-1

RS-1-4

49

46  

44  

E  D

 

LD  RD

LA JOLLA

 

N  DR

RM-3-7

RM-3-7

RS-1-14

NTR NE  CE

CK  GO

VISIO

LA  JOLLA  FARMS  RD  

INYAHA  LN  

48  

TOW

BLA CL ALMAHURST  RW   AI BO RN E  SQ  

0  

800  

GRID TILE: 31 1,600  

Feet

2,400

GRID SCALE: 800 DATE: 9/15/2011 12:05:41 PM


52

Fault Line in Area

Architecture and Global Warming


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

Views

53

1

2

3

4


54

Architecture and Global Warming

Stereographic Diagram

N

345°

Location: Climate Zone 7, USA Sun Position: -176.2°, 61.3° HSA: -176.2°, VSA: 118.6°

15°

330°

© Weather Tool

30° 10°

315°

45°

20° 30°

300°

60° 40°

1st Jun

1st May 285°

1st Jul

50°

1st Aug

60°

75°

70°

1st Sep

80°

1st Apr 270°

90° 1st Oct

1st Mar 255°

1st105° Nov

1st Feb 1st Dec

1st Jan 16

Solar Analysis

240°

15

14

13

12

11

10

8

9

225°

135°

210°

Time: 12:00 Date: 1st April Dotted lines: July-December.

7

150° 195°

180°

165°

120°


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming Location:  Climate  Zone  7,  USA   Orientation  based  on  average  daily  incident radiation  on  a  vertical  surface. Underheated  Stress:  75.4 Overheated  Stress:  13.6 Compromise:  142.5° ©  Weather  Tool

345° 330°

N kWh/m²  

Optimum Orientation

Optimum  Orientation

55 15° Best 30°

3.60  

Worst

3.20  

315°

45°

2.80  

 52.5°  

2.40   300°

60°

2.00   1.60   1.20  

285°

75°

0.80   0.40   270°

90°

255°

105°

240°

120°

225°

135° Compromise:  142.5°  

Avg.  Daily  Radiation  at  142.0° Entire  Year:  1.89  kWh/m² Underheated:  2.56  kWh/m² Overheated:  1.35  kWh/m²

210°

150° 195°

180°

165°

Annual  Average Underheated  Period Overheated  Period


Shadow Range: Red area will receive solar radiation in whole year.

Shadow Range 56 Architecture and Global Warming


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

57

Weekly  Summary Average  Temperature  (°C)

45+ 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 <0

40

Location:  Climate  Zone  7,  USA  (32.7°,  -­117.2°) ©  Weather  Tool

30

20

10

28 32 36 40 44 48 52 Wk

24

20

16

12

8

4

0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Hr

Average Temperature

°C


58

Architecture and Global Warming Prevailing  Winds Wind  Frequency  (Hrs)

Location:  Climate  Zone  7,  USA  (32.7°,  -­117.2°)

Date:  1st  January  -­  31st  December 50  km/h Time:  00:00  -­  24:00

©  Weather  Tool

40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

hrs 51+ 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 <5

January

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h

Annual Winds Analysis

10  km/h

40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

September

40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

hrs 49+ 44 39 34 29 24 19 14 9 <4

February

hrs 42+ 37 33 29 25 21 16 12 8 <4

May

50  km/h

50  km/h

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

October

40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

hrs 47+ 42 37 32 28 23 18 14 9 <4

March

hrs 64+ 57 51 44 38 32 25 19 12 <6

June

hrs 44+ 39 35 30 26 22 17 13 8 <4

50  km/h

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

November

40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

hrs 41+ 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 <4

April

hrs 154+ 138 123 107 92 77 61 46 30 <15

July

hrs 59+ 53 47 41 35 29 23 17 11 <5

50  km/h

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

hrs 63+ 56 50 44 37 31 25 18 12 <6

August

hrs 55+ 49 44 38 33 27 22 16 11 <5

50  km/h 40  km/h 30  km/h 20  km/h 10  km/h

December

hrs 47+ 42 37 32 28 23 18 14 9 <4


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming 50 km/h

Wind Frequency (Hrs)

40 km/h Location: Climate Zone 7, USA (32.7°, -117.2°) Date: 1st June - 31st August Time: 00:00 - 24:00 30 km/h © Weather Tool 20 km/h

hrs 261+ 234 208 182 156 130 104 78 52 <26

50 km/h 40 km/h 30 km/h 20 km/h

10 km/h

10 km/h

Wind Frequency (Hrs)

Average Wind Temperatures

50 km/h 40 km/h 30 km/h 20 km/h

% 95+ 85 75 65 55 45 35 25 15 <5

50 km/h 40 km/h 30 km/h 20 km/h

10 km/h

10 km/h

Average Relative Humidity

Average Rainfall (mm)

°C 45+ 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 <0

mm 1.0+ 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 <0.1

Summer Winds Analysis

Prevailing Winds

59


60

Architecture and Global Warming

Prevailing Winds

50 km/h

Wind Frequency (Hrs)

40 km/h Location: Climate Zone 7, USA (32.7°, -117.2°) Date: 1st December - 28th February Time: 00:00 - 24:00 30 km/h © Weather Tool 20 km/h

50 km/h 40 km/h 30 km/h 20 km/h

10 km/h

10 km/h

Wind Frequency (Hrs)

Average Wind Temperatures

50 km/h 40 km/h

Winter Winds Analysis

hrs 120+ 107 96 83 72 60 48 36 24 <12

30 km/h 20 km/h

% 95+ 85 75 65 55 45 35 25 15 <5

50 km/h 40 km/h 30 km/h 20 km/h

10 km/h

10 km/h

Average Relative Humidity

Average Rainfall (mm)

°C 45+ 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 <0

mm 1.0+ 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 <0.1


61 How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

DataScape Layers included: 1. Optimum Orientation 2. Winds Direction 3. Open Views 4. Access 5. Shadow Range


62

Architecture and Global Warming

2.5 – Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego (NERCSD) – Building Program The nanotechnology and energy research center of San Diego will be one of the pioneer institutes aiming to mitigate the greenhouse gases emitted from the building industry through the use of advanced nanotechnology products. In addition to the laboratories and all other sections of a routine research center, NERCSD will provide for the interaction between the center and the public as an additional means to achieving its goal. This interaction is an essential piece needed to succeed in the long term goal because if there is advanced technology, but nobody uses or knows about it, then there is no societal benefit of that technology. NERCSD functions needed to meet the requirements of its mission are listed below: Function: 1.0 – Research Center 1.7.0 – Recreation & Restaurant Facilities 1.1.0 – Research Labs 1.7.1.0 – Restaurant Area for 100 People 1.1.1.0 – Nanotechnology Labs 1.7.2.0 – Coffee shop for 50 People 1.1.2.0 – Energy Analysis Labs 1.7.3.0 – Lounge 1.1.3.0 – Material Storages 1.7.4.0 – Open Space Lounge 1.2.0 – Research Offices 1.8.0 – Temporary Exhibition Space & Entrance 1.2.1.0 – Researchers Individual Offices 1.8.1.0 – Info Desk 1.2.2.0 – Researchers Shared Offices 1.8.2.0 – Security Check Point 1.2.3.0 – Document Storage 1.8.3.0 – Temporary Exhibition Area 1.3.0 – Library 1.9.0 – Ancillary 1.3.1.0 – Bookshelf Area 1.10.0 – Basement 1.3.2.0 – Reading Area 1.11.0 – Parking 1.3.3.0 – Printing Office/Area Function Area (Square Foot) Volume (Cubic Foot) Research Laboratories 15,000 150,000 1.4.0 – Convention Center Research Offices 10,000 100,000 1.4.1.0 – Speech Auditorium for 200 People Library 5,000 75,000 Congress Center 7,000 210,000 1.4.2.0 – Foyer Lecture Halls 5,000 100,000 1.5.0 – Lecture Hall Administration & Manage- 3,000 30,000 1.5.1.0 – 2 X Lecture Hall for 50 people ment Restaurant & Recreation 4,000 60,000 1.5.2.0 – Lounge Temporary Exhibition & 5,000 100,000 1.6.0 – Administration & Management Entrance Ancillary 2,000 20,000 1.6.1.0 – Building Management Offices Basement 4,000 40,000 1.6.2.0 – Security Offices Total 60,000 885,000 Building Program with Approximate Area & Volume 1.6.3.0 – Lounge


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

63

2.6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego (NERCSD) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Design Proposal

3D View of NERCSD from Southwest

Nanotechnology and Energy Research Center of San Diego is a carbon-neutral and energy plus building. The overall form of NERCSD was designed in a manner to respond to its site context and program in every aspect. Utilization of the nanotechnology products and materials were essential factors in achieving the high excellence of environmentally friendly design and at the same time meeting the requirements of the elegant architectural product. Spaces and functions were organized in an L-shape to meet the requirements of user groups and site context. The use of BIM software both in form generation and analytical study, improved and exceeded the schematic design process, such that the use of such advance software became essential. The use of Autodesk Revit Energy Analysis and

other types of analytical software played an import role in the design to maximize the use of daylight in order to achieve inside physical comfort conditions and electricity generation. The NERCSD Multifunctional Nanopanels, were designed according to the findings from the Autodesk Revit Energy Analysis. The nanotechnology is one of the most important factors, as it influences the whole design idea, form and massing of the structure from the earliest steps of design. Nanotechnology pushed the limit of design and provided more creativity and innovation in design. The design of NERCSD was inspired by the part of nanotechnology that will provide efficient renewable energy through the mitigation of carbon emission (GHG emission) from the building.


64

Architecture and Global Warming

3D View of NERCSD from Northwest

0

Site Section through Highway I5

50

100

150 ft


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

3D View of NERCSD from Northeast

0

50

100

150 ft

Site Section through Genesee Ave.

65


Research Area - During the Day

Rendering 66 Architecture and Global Warming


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

67

Rendering

Research Area - During the Night


View from Southwest - During the Day

Rendering 68 Architecture and Global Warming


Rendering

69

View from Southwest - During the Night

How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming


Rendering

Library - During the Day

70

Architecture and Global Warming


Rendering

Entrance & Exhibition View from Congress foyer - During the Day

71 How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming


72

Architecture and Global Warming

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

ic bl PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Form & Massing Process

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

e

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

at

Research Laboratories Research Offices Library Congress Center Administration & Management Restaurant & Recreation Temporary Exhibition & Entrance

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

iv

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Pr Pu

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

73

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT


Architecture and Global Warming

Enegry Consumption Renewable Energy Potential Carbon Emissions

74

0% Skylight & 25% Opening

0% Skylight & 50% Opening

Energy Analysis

0% Skylight & 0% Opening

25% Skylight & 50% Opening

50% Skylight & 50% Opening


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

75

Summer Sun Winter Sun

Diffuse Light

Form response to natural light.

Multifunctional properties, which could perform a wide range of functions, were key elements in the NERCSD design. NERCSD Multifunctional Nanopanels shaped the skin of building and for that it defined the smart environment for the building. NERCSD Nanopanels were designed in accordance to the comparison study of the Revit Energy Analysis for the south faรงade of the building. These panels generate electricity from sunlight, provide natural light, high performance insulation, high tensile strength (wider span than normal panels), OLED lighting (less GHG emitting lighting system) and smart environments. Nanosensors in the panels are responsive to the physical conditions of both inside and outside environments in order to provide the optimal conditions with the minimum amount of energy. The annual Energy Consumption of NERCSD is 1,200,000

NERCSD Multifunctional Nanopanels


Buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Skin as Electricity Generator and Lighting

76

Architecture and Global Warming kWh and Renewable Energy Potential is 1,002,599 kWh per year with the use of high efficiency photovoltaic system. The design of NERCSD Nanopanels just by increasing the surface area of PV system through the use of Transparent Graphene Solar Cells, increased the annual Renewable Energy Potential by Âź to 1,253,249 kWh. This increased by itself as compared to the total energy consumption of the building per year that is 1,200,000 kWh, demonstrates that NERCSD is Carbon Neutral and Energy Plus. (This calculation and analysis are based on Autodesk Revit Energy Analysis) In addition, if nanotechnology as its promised can improve and enhance the efficiency of solar cells, NRECSD also can provide the electricity for the neighbor buildings. In 30 years owner/owners of NERCSD will save 2 million dollars just by meeting their own need of energy consumption. Other considerable factors are that the type of solar cells used in the building are cheaper than silicon based solar cells and are more efficient.


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

77

Upper; Graphene Solar cell, Middle; NanoCarbon Frame, Below; Sun Reflector Upper; A atom thick layer Transparent Graphene Solar cell, Below; Boron Nitride Glass

Railling and Sensors Adjustable Graphene Solar Cell with attached sun reflector at bottom Nano Carbon Muscles

Nano Carbon Frame

Upper; Boron Nitride Glass, Below; Transparent OLED

NERCSD Multifunctional Nanopanel Scale: 1/4” = 1’-0”


Architecture and Global Warming Dr ive

78

Sc

ien

ce

Ce

nte r

Research Center

NERCSD Under Ground Parking

Drawings

eBioscience, Inc.

0

Site Plan

40

80

120 ft


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

79

C A Nano R. Sharing Office

WC

Energy R. Sharing Office

Library WC

Temporary Exhibition & Entrance

A13

WC

Restaurant Kitchen

B6

Restaurant

A12

B5

Info Desk & Security

A11 A10

Foyer

B4

C.R.

A9

C.R.

B3

A8 A7

B2 A6 A5

Congress Hall

B1

A4 A3

Ground Floor - Plan

A2

B

0

A1

30

60

90 ft


80

Architecture and Global Warming C A Head Of NanoS. R.D. O.

WC Finacial Office Head Of Energy R>D> S. O. S. O. NERCSD President Libaray WC

WC

Cafe

Foyer

Light Projection Sound

0

First Floor - Plan

B

30

60

90 ft


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

81 C

A Nano R. Labs

WC Security & Camera Room

Energy R. Lab

IT Center

Basement

A0 A1

A2

5

A3

Ancillary Lockers & Changing

4

A4 A5

3 A6

2

A7 A8

A9

1

Lecture Hall Lecture Hall

Basement - Plan

B

0

30

60

90 ft


82 0

Architecture and Global Warming 30

60

90 ft

West Elevation 0

30

60

90 ft

South Elevation 0

30

60

90 ft

East Elevation 0

30

60

North Elevation

90 ft


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming 0

30

60

83

Section A-A

90 ft

First Floor 15' - 0" Ground Floor 0' - 0" Basment -15' - 0"

First Floor 15' - 0" Ground Floor 0' - 0" Basment -15' - 0"

0

30

60

90 ft

Section B-B

Level +1 10' - 0" Ground 0' - 0"

0

30

60

90 ft

Level -1 -15' - 0" Level -2 -25' - 0" Level -3 -35' - 0" Level -4 -45' - 0" Level -5 -55' - 0"

First Floor 15' - 0" Ground Floor 0' - 0" Basment -15' - 0"

Section C-C


84

Architecture and Global Warming Boron Niride Semi-Flexible Covering

Metal Composite Beam

Metal Composite Adjusting Plate

Boron Niride Semi-Flexible Covering

Concrete Composite Beam 12”x24”

Concrete Composite Column 12”x12”

Drainage Air Supply Duct Air Return Duct

Concrete Composite Fundation wall 12”

Concrete Composite Fundation

Wall to Wall Section Scale: 3/32” = 1’- 0”


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming

Conclusion

85

The investigation of the utilization of Nanotechnology by Architecture or Nanoarchitecture in part 2.6, clarifies the benefits of applying Nanomaterials and applications to the mitigation of GHG emission from the building and thus the mitigation of global warming. These benefits are not just limited to the mitigation of GHG emission from the building, they are also are financially reasonable and feasible alternatives. The Graphene solar cells are cheaper and more efficient than the silicon based solar cells and also their installation is easier and less costly. Nanotechnology scientists and researchers promised that these technologies in the field of solar panels will be available in the next few years, whereas the advancement of nanotechnology in structural related fields will take more time before it is available in the market. Aside from the availability of such advanced materials and applications in the markets, the knowledge of professionals in businesses and the public awareness of nanotechnology novel products are essential to the mitigation of the greenhouse gases emission from buildings and thus the mitigation of global warming.


86

Bibliography

Architecture and Global Warming

Archilover (2012). RMIT Design Hub. Retrieved January 21, 2012, from http://www.archilovers.com/p71117/rmit-design-hub BANG, C. (n.d.). Integration of Nanotechnology Materials for Green Building. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from http://www.cbparch.com/NanoTech%20Materials%20for%20Green%20Building_CATHRYN%20BANG%20 PARTNERS.pdf Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R., Sokona, Y., Seyboth, K., Matschoss, P., Kadner, S., Zwickel, T., Eickemeier, P., Hansen, G., Schlรถmer, S., & Von Stechow, C. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Full_Report.pdf ESK Ceramics GmbH & Co. KG (2013). Boron Nitride. Retrieved may 18, 2013 from http://www.esk.com/fileadmin/esk/medien/pdf/PB_Boron_Nitride_e.pdf Chandler D. L.(2009). A material for all seasons. Retrieved May 15, 2013, from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2009/graphene-feature 0504.html?tmpl=component&print=1 Grace T. (2003). An Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.stanford.edu/group/cpima/education/nanotube_lesson.pdf Macguire E., & Knight M. (2013). Graphene: the nano-sized materials with a massive future. Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/29/tech/graphene-miracle-material/index.html?hpt=hp_c3 Elvin, G. (2007). Nanotechnology for Green Building. Retrieved December 13, 2012, from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Nanotechnology+Green+Building#1 European Commission. (July 9, 2012). Work Programme 2013.Cooperation Theme 4 .Nanosciences,Nanotechnologies, Materials and New Production Technologies - NMP. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portalplus/static/docs/calls/fp7/common/32819-annex_7_to_the_decision_ nmp_for_cap_en.pdf Harper, T. (2003). What is Nanotechnology? Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/14/1/001 Hemieda, F. (2010). Green Nanoarchitecture, (January). Retrieved October 27, 2012, from http://www.nanoarchive.org/8172/ J. Craig Venter Institute (2013). JCVI La Jolla: Sustainable laboratory Facility. Retrived January 26, 2013 from http://www.jcvi.org/cms/sustainable-lab/overview/


How Nanoarchitecture Can Mitigate Global Warming 87 Kishani Perera (2013). Translucent concrete. Retrieved March 23, 2013 from http://kishaniperera.com/2012/04/translucent-concrete/ Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects (n.d.). University of Waterloo Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum Nano Centre. Retrived December 3, 2012 from http://www.kpmbarchitects.com/index.asp?navid=30&fid1=&fid2=40&fid3=13&minyearx=2011&maxyearx=2012#de sc Lalbakhsh, E., & Shirazpour, P. (2011). Nanomaterial for Smart Future Buildings. Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://www.ipcbee.com/vol25/17-ICNB2011_Q20005.pdf Macguire E., & Knight M. (2013). Graphene: the nano-sized materials with a massive future. Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/29/tech/graphene-miracle-material/index.html?hpt=hp_c3 McCarthy Building Companies, Inc. (2013). McCarthy Begins Construction of First Carbon-Neutral Lab in the World, McCarthy news. Retrieved January 25, 2013, from http://www.mccarthy.com/news/2011/09/27/mccarthy-begins-construction-on-first-carbon-neutral-lab-in-the-world/ Omar, O. (2012). Nanoarchitecture and Global Warming. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230728753_Paper__Nanoarchitecture_and_Global_Warming__in_AEJ_ Journal/file/79e41503924803ceba.pdf Ramsden, J. (2005). What is nanotechnology? Retrieved December 3, 2012, from http://pages.unibas.ch/colbas/ntp/N03RA05.pdf Riebeek, H. (2010). Global Warming. Retrieved October 17, 2012, from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/printall.php Simmon, R. (2007). Global Warming _ Feature Articles. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/global_warming_2007.pdf Steinfeldt, M., Petschow, U., Haum, R., & Gleich, A. von. (2004). Nanotechnology and sustainability. Schriftenreihe des IĂ&#x2013;W. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from http://www.ioew.de/uploads/tx_ukioewdb/IOEW-SR_167_Nanotechnology_and_sustainability.pdf United Nation Environmental Programme. (2009). B UILDINGS AND Summary for Decision-Makers. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/SBCI-BCCSummary.pdf Zaha Hadid Architects (2012). The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/king-abdullah-petroleum-studies-and-research-centre/



Architecture and global warming