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master title heading A visit to the the largest slum in Ahmedabad, Ramapir-No-Tekro, (Near Vaadaj Bus Station) also known as the Tekro, home to a population of 1.5 lakh. This huge slum is not a new settlement, it has been around for around fifty years. However, it has been growing at an alarming rate with migrants coming in great numbers. Most of these consist of people from Gujarat and Rajasthan. People of many religions live together here and surprisingly they do not have clashes. Hindus

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URBAN POOR WOMEN & HEALTH RELATED ISSUES

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STUDIO O1

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SEMESTER 02 SIX WEEKS //

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GRAPHIC DESIGN //

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TARUN DEEP GIRDHER //

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INDEX one three four

PROPOSAL STARTING OUT PHASE ONE INFORMATION COLLECTION • Visiting the Site

seven

• Interviews

eight

• Case Studies & Reports

nine

• Talking to Experts

ten

PHASE TWO ANALYSIS + SYNTHESIS

eleven seventeen twenty three twenty four twenty nine

thirty

• Analysis Sorting the Data • Analysis Case Studies • Analysis Inferences

• Synthesis Scenario Building

• Synthesis Redefined Design Brief

PHASE THREE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

thirty one

• Visit to the Dispensary

thirty two

• Dimensions

thirty three thirty four thirty six forty

• Topics for Content • Visual Language & Style Approach One • Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two

forty four forty seven

forty eight forty nine

• System of Dissemination of Tablets • Focus on the Home

PHASE FOUR EXECUTION OF SOLUTION • Material for Outer Packaging

fifty one

• Setting Sizes

fifty two

• Preparing Imagery

fifty four

• Print Ready Artworks

fifty seven fifty nine

sixty one sixty two sixty three sixty four

• Paper & Printing Estimation • Final Product

CONCLUSION • Learnings • Bibliography • Acknowledgments


proposal STARTING OUT


starting out PROPOSAL

BACKGROUND

PHASE ONE /

Over 80 million poor people live in the cities and towns of India (p.1, National

INFORMATION COLLECTION

Sample Survey Office, India: Urban Poverty Report, 2009). A large number of

PHASE TWO /

states report poverty figures in urban areas much above that in rural areas. This

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

is because migrants from rural areas facing poverty, come to urban areas in the

PHASE THREE /

hope of a better life. Instead, they are then presented with basic problems of a

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

more severe nature: insufficient housing and shelter, water, sanitation, education,

PHASE FOUR /

poor health and a host of other issues. This especially takes a toll on the women

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

who are already conferred an inferior status in society and are vulnerable. Many of them suffer from grave health problems and being the child-bearers, they are then likely to pass the same problems down to their children and continue the cycle. They are generally unempowered and unaware their health problems can be solved due to their ignorance. They are either expected to, or believe they are supposed to bear the pain and suffering as part of their experience of being a woman.

TARGET AUDIENCE Poor urban women.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE To identify where graphic design can help these women and design material so that: • Awareness is generated amongst women that these health issues exist and affect them. • They feel empowered to take action and control of their health. • They are given the basic know-how to deal with the health issues that commonly affect them.

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phase one

INFORMATION COLLECTION


visiting the site and audience Visit one

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE /

INFORMATION COLLECTION • Visiting the Site • Interviews • Case Studies & Reports • Talking to Experts PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

A visit to the largest slum in Ahmedabad, Ramapir-No-Tekro, (Near Vaadaj Bus Station) also known as the Tekro, home to a population of 1.5 lakh. This huge slum is not a new settlement, it has been around for around fifty years. However, it has been growing at an alarming rate with migrants coming in great numbers. Most of these consist of people from Gujarat and Rajasthan. People of many religions live together here and surprisingly they do not have clashes. Hindus are in the majority but I also had a chance to see Christians. Muslims are a minority but have a presence in the Tekro. Initially the slum lacked basic amenities, but the government has now provided most of the basic necessities like electricity, water and sanitation etc. However, due to the ignorance of the people, much of their problems remained to be solved. On the visit, I observed each woman having an average of 5-7 children. I also spotted some of their small industries, a rag-picking ‘kaarkhaana’ as they called it, firewood sheds, houses of potters, etc. I also spoke to social workers around the area and doctors who had set up small clinics. The nearest government hospital, clinic and pharmacy is quite far off at Usmanpura. An organization called Manav Sadhna is trying to reform the area. More can be read on this here: Manav Sadhna / Ramapir-No-Tekro. I also visited the Manav Sadhna community centre and one of the Anganwadis, where I interacted with a few women and children.

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Visit two At a later phase of my project I zeroed in on Anaemia being a problem I recognised that needed focus. I had the opportunity to meet slum-dwelling women (Bombay Hotel, Behrampura) through an organization called Sanchetana set up by Dr. Hanif Lakdawala. A few days were spent with a number of CHWs (Community Health Workers) and women from the slums who came to speak with me and this was far more rewarding as a certain comfort level was already achieved. On the first day I spoke to members of a Muslim community and the next day member of a Hindu community. We talked at length about their pregnancies, experience with IFA (Iron & Folic acid tablets) and the improvements they’ve seen. They also briefed me about the foods they ate, and how they tried to incorporate iron into their diet. Most of them were unaware about Anaemia until Sanchetana came into the picture. I was well-informed by the CHWs about their iron intake, why it is so low in women, what side-effects are seen with tablets, why the government’s IFA distribution programme is not efficient enough and what foods aid/ hamper the absorption of iron in the body.

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interviews Interview with medical practitioners

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE /

INFORMATION COLLECTION • Visiting the Site • Interviews • Case Studies & Reports • Talking to Experts PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

and social workers I had the good fortune of being able to spend a good half hour or forty five minutes with two doctors who owned private clinics in the slums who were giving medicines at a very low cost. They spoke to me at length about the nature of the slum-dwellers. I gleaned a lot of information about the women here. They told me that almost all the women work, and 80% are anaemic. Despite being the ones who cook they are often fed leftovers and hence are very weak. Their children are often born with low-birth weight and have a high mortality rate. Most women have 5-7 children each and the families are unplanned. They do not realise until space runs out in their homes that reproducing at this rate is

PHASE FOUR /

not healthy. While I myself saw the great care the women took in the cleaning of

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

their homes, utensils etc., and how the slums are generally clean (No lack of good

CONCLUSION

toilets, no open drains) it became apparent that they had low personal hygiene and that they were therefore victims to infections. Doctors complained that the people here did not like to take medicines and bought medicines but usually forgot to consume them. I also spoke to some social workers who worked in Gramshree a sister concern of Manav Sadhna. She told me that most women in the area were ignorant of health issues and bore the pain, as part of being a woman. She spoke at length about the many problems of these women she encountered as a social worker. From the general consensus I could see women had a lot of issues with reproduction, sex and nutrition. I also understood a great deal of what the NGO does here, to educate these women, street plays, charts, small booklets/brochures, teaching etc. As well as providing food for to-be mothers and schooling for children at the Anganwadis.

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case studies & reports I selectively compiled a list of relevant resources in the form of reports, either

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE /

from the web or from organizations like Sanchetana. I also purchased a few from

INFORMATION COLLECTION

some NGOs. I have gone through most of them. Below is a list.

• Visiting the Site

print

• Interviews • Case Studies & Reports

Angst: Theirs and Ours; Domestic Violence: an epidemic on the upsurge.

• Talking to Experts

Research report published by Sanchetana. January 2001.

PHASE TWO /

Why Some Men Beat their Wives? Research Report on perpetrators of

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

Domestic Violence published by Sanchetana. 2003.

PHASE THREE /

At a New Threshold Annual Review published by Sanchetana. 2003.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

Reproductive Health Program Review published by Sanchetana. 2005-2007. Surakshit Prasav Set of two instructional manuals published by Chetna. Date of publishing not mentioned. Language: Hindi. Swaasthay Dekhbhaal aur Sevaaen Praapt Karna.... Instructional booklet published by Chetna. October 2008. Language: Hindi. Gender & Women’s Health, Anaemia, Health of Women in Indian Families, Women & HIV/AIDS, Violence and Health, Breast Cancer, Training for Women’s Health & Empowerment, Panchayati Raj and Women’s Health, Indigenous Health & Healing practices, Mahilaon ka Manasik evam Bhavnatmak Swaasthay (Hindi). Set of brochures published by Chetna. October 2008 [Analyses of some of the relevant case studies are presented later]

Web VikalpDesign: www.vikalpdesign.com Guidelines for the Use of Iron Supplements to Prevent and Treat Iron Deficiency Anemia by Rebecca J. Stoltzfus & Michele L. Dreyfuss (International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group or INACG): PDF Prevention & Control of Nutritional Anaemia, (UNICEF): PDF National Family Health Survey, India: www.nfhsindia.org

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talking to experts Visit with Lakshmi Murthy of Vikalp Design

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE /

INFORMATION COLLECTION • Visiting the Site • Interviews • Case Studies & Reports • Talking to Experts PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

I traveled to Udaipur to meet with Lakshmi, an expert in Social Communication after hearing about her from my guide. She was a great hostess and an even better designer. Her work in the field was extraordinary, one of the very few who has devoted her life to educating rural populaces about health issues. Her insights on how they interpret visuals is groundbreaking and especially for urban designers who deal with a different vocabulary. It is not as if these communities don’t read images, it’s just that they read them differently. We had a look at several of her pieces that made use of flaps and pockets so that pictures on sensitive topics like sex can be viewed in a glimpse and covered again, and how she develops her material from a visual vocabulary developed by the very audience it

PHASE FOUR /

communicates to. The language is simple and easy to understand. She then field

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

tests her visual matter over and over again so that it is made perfect.

CONCLUSION

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phase two

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS


analysis: sorting the data • Content Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE / INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO /

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

• Analysis: Sorting the Data • Analysis: Case Studies • Analysis: Inferences • Synthesis: Scenario Building • Synthesis: Redefined Design Brief PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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• End-User Poor Urban Women

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• Medium Social Communication

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analysis: CASE STUDIES a closer look at the case studies

PROPOSAL PHASE ONE / INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO /

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

• Analysis: Sorting the Data • Analysis: Case Studies • Analysis: Inferences • Synthesis: Scenario Building • Synthesis: Redefined Design Brief PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

CASE STUDY ONE: Pamphlet for Anaemia (Sanchetana), Gujarati

• The colour red is consistent with the association of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia and blood. However it could have been used more efficiently. Perhaps a comparison of an anaemia sufferer and a normal person could have been brought

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out with the colour red (redness of lips and tongue, inner eye, nails, etc.). Instead the colour has been used for everything but that. • The images are very small, few and not very descriptive. They could have been labeled and linked back with the text. However, the line drawings are the best representation for this type of audience. • The text is too much, in my opinion, for an audience that is not fully literate. Though I do feel that the size of the text is appropriately large. • The images could have been larger and supported by large, minimal text so that it is easy to follow. • Contentwise, this contains almost all the information that is necessary: What Anaemia is, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, How to have the tablets properly

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to aid their absorption, Side-effects. During my research I looked at another simple method of fortifying food with iron: by using iron utensils in cooking, but this is not mentioned in any literature I have come across. It is not interactive in nature. CASE STUDY TWO: Chart to detect Anaemia (Sanchetana), Gujarati

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I had first spotted this chart at a Manav Sadhana Anganwadi, and then later on found it at the Sanchetana clinic/centre, where I was informed that it was a chart Sanchetana had made several years ago. • The interactive nature of this chart drew me to it. Looking at one’s own face cannot be done, except in a mirror. The easiest way to detect anaemia by oneself is looking at the colour of the tongue or lips. The mirror offers a direct way of comparing the viewer’s tongue to those pictured alongside. • The pictures alongside offer a variety of stages of anaemia from normal (without anaemia), to mild, to severe, showing the viewer that its not a black or white situation (or should I say red and white?) • This is a great way to detect Anaemia and raise awareness. The colour gradation and accompanying text help in diagnosis. The text at the bottom then immediately gives an overview of Anaemia and what can be done for it. • The images are real photographs, so they are better for comparison. • The format of a chart that can be hung like a calendar is one that is well accepted by this audience.

CASE STUDY THREE: Surakshit Prasav, (Chetana), Hindi

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This manual by Chetna shows symptoms of Anaemia as it commonly affects women who are pregnant. • Anaemia is not even mentioned, though its symptoms are shown, and though red ink is used in the book, it is not used in the pages of the book to offer a comparison between a normal and anaemic person. • Pictures are not labeled, and the only text is that of the heading. • The images are line drawings and are large which makes them easy to understand.

CASE STUDY FOUR: Posters on Anaemia, (Sanchetana), Gujarati

These are two posters from a set of four on Anaemia, that were put up at Sanchetana’s site, at Bombay Hotel, Behrampura. Yashodaben explained to me how the information was segregated and laid out on different posters. • Most of the posters were only heavy text, though some were pleasantly broken up with largish images. I doubt how much low-literate people liked to read them. I myself have some difficulty reading Gujarati and did not feel like reading that much text on a poster. • Some of the posters were in rather dull colours and could have been made far more dramatic and eye-catching for something that is such a serious issue. For

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e.g. if the poster had a red background with white text. • In some posters, images were not consistent in visual style and seemed scattered. Also they were not in the right proportions to each other. Text keeps changing colour and the reader’s eye is going all over the page. Visually there is a lot of scope for improvement.

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analysis: INFERENCES PROPOSAL

My decision to take the health issue of Anaemia

PHASE ONE /

After all the data had been collected I realised the major issues affecting this

INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO /

population of women were: menstrual hygiene, reproductive health, anaemia and sexual health.

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

• Analysis: Sorting the Data • Analysis: Case Studies • Analysis: Inferences

Having looked at a fair amount of case studies that were designed directly for this target audience, this seemed to be the most ignored issue (see below), and yet its repercussions were felt on basic well-being and reproductive health. Small simple

• Synthesis: Scenario Building

changes in lifestyle to get rid of anaemia could bring an allover positive outcome

• Synthesis: Redefined Design Brief

on a slum-dwelling woman’s life.

PHASE THREE /

Inferences from data collected

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

• Anaemia, in most of the case studies collected that deal directly with the target audience, is most often clubbed with another health concern like pregnancy, menarche or nutrition (except in the case of Sanchetana). It does not stand out enough as a singular issue for women even though it affects them for a major portion of their lives, because they suffer blood loss throughout their reproductive life: during menarche, pregnancy and menopause. • Since symptoms of Anaemia are very generic and can often be misconstrued for general weakness, most women in this income bracket do the same and have practically no awareness on the issue (ignorance about Anaemia). • The government has no means as yet, of promoting the free IFA tablets they provide to curb anaemia to those who cannot afford to pay for them. • The government gives no information on side-effects, or on what foods aid/ hamper absorption of iron so that the tablets work efficiently. • Once the woman procures the free IFA tabs, she can forget to take them, or to take them properly and does not know how to check on her progress with them as she is unaware of her symptoms.

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synthesis: Scenario Building PROPOSAL

I read a lot of reports on Iron supplementation programmes and to my surprise,

PHASE ONE /

despite their introduction on a large scale, Anaemia is still very much widespread

INFORMATION COLLECTION

and the statistics haven’t changed. At the NGO community centre I had a long

PHASE TWO /

discussion with the NGO CHWs and the slum-dwellers about the inherent flaws

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

• Analysis: Sorting the Data • Analysis: Case Studies • Analysis: Inferences • Synthesis: Scenario Building • Synthesis: Redefined Design Brief PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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of the system and why the government schemes often don’t work. Dispensing of tablets is quite a different matter from taking them. Getting people to take them properly, so that they work, and informing them of side-effects is just as vital but is missed out here. It is a huge waste of money when these free tablets are not taken properly. Also when they produce side-effects and people discontinue them, people lose faith in the tablets and the government scheme. Later on, during my visit with Lakshmi Murthy we discussed this briefly and we both thought it was a good idea to focus on. I found this a great design opportunity so I outlined the problem and put down where I thought graphic design interventions could work.


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Redefined Design Brief PROPOSAL

To develop a set of printed materials that is standalone and primarily

PHASE ONE /

informational on the subject of Anaemia and specifically on the correct

INFORMATION COLLECTION

procedure of taking IFA (Iron and Folic Acid) tablets. This material can be

PHASE TWO /

used by either NGOs or the government while dispensing such tablets, as part of

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

• Analysis: Sorting the Data • Analysis: Case Studies • Analysis: Inferences • Synthesis: Scenario Building • Synthesis: Redefined Design Brief PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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their Iron-supplementation schemes to avert the problem of incorrect usage and increase efficacy of the scheme.


phase three

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


VisitING the Dispensary PROPOSAL

THE GOVERNMENT DISPENSARY

PHASE ONE /

Since I had narrowed down the focus of my project, I decided to go to the

INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions • Topics for Content

government dispensary to have a look at the IFA tablets they were distributing. When we got there, I was asked to hand over a prescription from a doctor to avail of the free tabs. When I explained where I was from, they showed me the tablets, around the same size as a Cadbury’s Gems candy, half an inch in diameter, round and disc-like. They were a magenta-red colour. When asked for how it was packaged, she showed me a stack of crisp printed waste paper, in which they wrapped the medicine.

• Visual Language and Style

My observations:

Approach One:

• The pinkish colour of the tabs made it look like a sweet or candy.

• Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two:

• The nature of the packaging was hardly durable, once opened the tabs could easily be lost or fall out.

• System of Dissemination of Tablets

• Children about the house could easily misconstrue the tablets for candy, get a

• Focus on the Home

hold of them because of the inefficient packaging and consume them, and hence

PHASE FOUR /

the risk for iron-poisoning in children is high.

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

• The paper was fresh, printed, arbitrary waste paper that could instead be used

CONCLUSION

to communicate.

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dimensions PROPOSAL

I now had my job cut out for me. I decided to use Gems, since I didn’t have the

PHASE ONE /

tablets with me, as the ‘dummy’ tablets. I purchased a pack of Cadbury’s Gems

INFORMATION COLLECTION

and counted the no. of candies in it. (33) I then ate 3 and calculated the amount

PHASE TWO /

of space they took when laid flat. I also measured the plastic packet within. Since

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE /

the government provides one month’s dosage (30 tabs, one per day) at a time, it would more or less fit the same amount of IFA tabs.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions • Topics for Content • Visual Language and Style Approach One: • Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two: • System of Dissemination of Tablets • Focus on the Home PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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When laid flat (3.5” x 3” approx.) & Dimensions of pouch (4” x 2.5” approx.)


Topics for Content PROPOSAL

At the Dispensary:

PHASE ONE /

• Symptoms

INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions • Topics for Content

• Nutrition The above can be iterated in large visuals, and both are not directly relevant to the correct usage of medication so are inappropriate for packaging of the medicine. Take Home Media: • Side Effects

• Visual Language and Style

• Keep out of reach of Children

Approach One:

• Calendar (grid for 30 days/30 tabs)

• Concept One • Concept Two

• Foods to take/avoid

Approach Two:

The above pertain to correct usage of medication and so are directly relevant to

• System of Dissemination of Tablets

the packaging.

• Focus on the Home PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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VISUAL LANGUAGE & STYLE PROPOSAL

The visual language and style, the form that they should assume for an audience

PHASE ONE /

like this was already touched upon in an earlier post in my data collection phase.

INFORMATION COLLECTION

However, what follows is specific to the concepts discussed before.

PHASE TWO /

images & pictures

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions • Topics for Content • Visual Language and Style Approach One: • Concept One

For imagery I need simple visuals, that communicate nothing more than their primary meaning. Line drawings can be drawn by hand or vectored with clean line work. The only idea of dimension should come from varying thickness of lines, rather than shading, gradients or other techniques to employ illusions of depth. I am omitting people and animals from the drawings as I feel they are not necessary and I would like to avoid undue confusion considering the weightage that this audience places on postures, costume and gender. This audience likes to create narratives so I’d rather not give them characters!

• Concept Two

typeface

Approach Two:

The type or font I use cannot be decorative, in the least and must be easy to

• System of Dissemination of Tablets

follow and understand especially at a small size (considering the size of the

• Focus on the Home

media). As of now I am using Gotham, and designing in English and will later

PHASE FOUR /

have it translated into Gujarati or Hindi.

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

colour palette

CONCLUSION

The colour palette, as mentioned before, should include red and perhaps an additional generic colour. The reason red is such an important colour is that it communicates the colour of blood. Anaemia, in the slums is often referred to as ‘rakth ki kami’ or literally ‘less blood’. The number of colours is limited because of the cost factor here. In fact, dropping even black, is possible. layout & information hierarchy The visuals MUST be supplemented with words, though words are to be used as sparingly as possible. In the first approach, info is grouped together by few boxes (thickly outlined, like rooms in a blueprint) and no complex grid is followed as such, though there is an alignment that prevails and keeps the layout looking neat. I avoided putting text in columns or arranging my elements in the way I’d otherwise find most natural for modern media. The eye does not necessarily follow a right-toleft direction while purveying the material (except where text shows up and is

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impossible to avoid), reason being that this audience is not used to reading, and will probably, if at all, follow an up-to-down direction.

Above, an example of what I’d like to avoid

A set pattern of reading up to down, or left and right is not required in the above, the eye can wander across the page and no specific direction or pattern is page thirty five


APPROACH ONE: CONCEPT ONE PROPOSAL

Some concepts for the Take Home Media

PHASE ONE /

All these concepts have to take into account the portability of the tablets. It must

INFORMATION COLLECTION

be small and compact so that women (and/or men) should be able to carry it

PHASE TWO /

around in their pockets, or saree blouses with ease. As many of the T.A. work,

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

this is very important.

PHASE THREE /

Also some sort of small barrier is required while opening, which requires a

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions • Topics for Content

certain amount of dexterity, so that a child cannot open it (to prevent from iron poisoning as rates have risen because of iron supplementation schemes), because here there is no advantage of a blister pack.

• Visual Language and Style Approach One: • Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two:

1. FOLDED PAPER PACKET I was inspired by the paper packet that I had seen as packaging for bookbinder needles.

• System of Dissemination of Tablets

A simple piece of paper, it is folded in thirds asymmetrically, housing the contents

• Focus on the Home

towards its middle. It can be closed and locked quite easily by inserting the small

PHASE FOUR /

end into the bigger one.

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

I propose to use a piece of slightly thicker paper, offset printed on both sides (one

CONCLUSION

or two colour on a baby offset machine). The outer, front segment, directly visible to the viewer, will state what the tablets are, and what they are used for (IFA tablets for Anaemia). The back will bear a grid with 30 slots which can be ticked, marked or pricked for each day the tablet is taken; and a warning for children. The opened packet can show visuals of the other content, namely; foods to avoid/ consume, and side-effects. A paper with foil backing inside this package can house the tablets, so that the outer paper can be removed and read easily. They can be packed at the dispensary counter, rather than beforehand, so that while transporting/storing it takes up minimum space as they are flat.

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CONCEPT ONE - Dummy A snapshot of the first concept as a dummy.

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APPROACH ONE: CONCEPT TWO PROPOSAL

2. PURSE & BINDI BOOKLET

PHASE ONE /

This small purse can be made out of canvas or some other cheaper cloth material;

INFORMATION COLLECTION

or can be bought in large stock and screen printed on. Inside, besides the tablets

PHASE TWO /

wrapped in paper, a small booklet can be made in which the information can be

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

printed. As an added incentive, in the booklet, I can include one sheet of firm

PHASE THREE /

plastic with bindis on it, as a freebie. Underneath the plastic, a grid of 30 slots is

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

printed. Each day when the woman takes a tablet, she can wear a bindi.

• Visit to the Dispensary

The advantage of using the bindi could be extended to more than just a freebie or

• Dimensions • Topics for Content • Visual Language and Style Approach One: • Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two: • System of Dissemination of Tablets • Focus on the Home PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

page forty

a reminder. The bindi which looks like the tablet (small, round, red) can become a symbol for consuming the IFA tablet on a daily basis. Like the voter’s mark or the thumbs up for angoothachaap the bindi can become synonymous with antianaemia, a sort of graphic representation of the campaign against anaemia.


CONCEPT TWO A snapshot of the second concept as a dummy (only inner booklet)

page forty one


page forty two


APPROACH TWO PROPOSAL

IMPORTANT MEETING WITH MY GUIDE

PHASE ONE /

I received the following comments during the discussion with my guide, on my

INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary

first approach which helped me work out the second one better. • Health is not something you tamper or take a risk with. Hence the existing packaging does not fit these requirements. Tablets should be provided in the safest possible packaging, i.e. a blister pack. Money is no object in regards to health matters.

• Dimensions

• Formulate a system of graphic design interventions showing possibilities

• Topics for Content

whether it is for an NGO or the government for the tablets’ dissemination.

• Visual Language and Style

Concentrate on a few of these and execute.

Approach One:

• Provide more motivation to the end user for taking the tablets. Give them

• Concept One

incentive.

• Concept Two Approach Two: • System of Dissemination of Tablets • Focus on the Home PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

• Take into account the objects and habits of their day to day lives as media for intervention. After this conversation I realised that I had gotten confused with what approaches were and concepts were. I had just come up with concepts and forgotten to fill in the blanks with an approach. This obviously means, I have to take a few steps back. Not all the work I did will be wasted at all, but I am seeing it from a different perspective. My next step is to take a detailed look at my enduser’s life, her schedule and routine, the objects in her home and what she carries with her. From these understandings, a system is to be devised of how to target her through graphic design. Using this context, some of these design solutions will be worked on by me which will now include concepts.

page forty three


system of dissemination PROPOSAL

system of dissemination of tablets

PHASE ONE /

After having visited the slums and interviewing the women and medical

INFORMATION COLLECTION

practitioners there I had collected information on their daily lives. The

PHASE TWO /

places they frequent, and the people they come in contact with help greatly

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

in propagating the message of an anaemia-free life. A look at the places they

PHASE THREE /

frequent:

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary

LOCALITY

• Dimensions

Home Always, and sometimes work is performed at home besides other

• Topics for Content

household duties like cooking, cleaning. Grooming, feeding children and

• Visual Language and Style

communing with family members also happens here. In Muslim communities,

Approach One:

it is more common that the daughters or women in the house are not allowed

• Concept One

outside often.

• Concept Two

Toilet (Public /Common) A few times everyday.

Approach Two:

Market OR Other Public Spaces Few times in a week to purchase foodstuff and

• System of Dissemination of Tablets • Focus on the Home

other necessities.

PHASE FOUR /

OTHERS

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

The following places may or may not be in the locality:

CONCLUSION

Workplaces They may work a few jobs at a time or work from home, as mentioned earlier. Dispensary or Govt. Hospital When they visit for medicines or check-ups NGO When they visit for medicines, check-ups, meetings or necessities that the NGO provides. Places of Worship Temples, mosques, churches or places of religious gathering. We must also not forget if that there is something she can have on her person almost throughout the day, that could be viable and highly instrumental in serving our purpose.

page forty four


This chart shows places they frequent and the power of placing media there. (Frequency and duration). Types of media can be strategically placed/ dispensed at each place to remind to take pills, or reinforce information on anaemia.

page forty five


page forty six


focus on the home PROPOSAL

Since the home is the most important especially since, as opposed to men,

PHASE ONE /

women are generally more participative in domestic and household activities,

INFORMATION COLLECTION

I decided to focus on this area. The remnant media will all tie-in with the same

PHASE TWO /

concepts.

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

Reminders and Take-Home Media

PHASE THREE /

As detailed before, I had several issues with my media which came up in my

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT • Visit to the Dispensary • Dimensions

discussion with my guide. I decided to rectify them with redesigning the media I had come up with while still keeping some things the same and intact.

• Topics for Content

The idea of the purse to take home tablets in remained constant and is the

• Visual Language and Style

selected approach.

Approach One:

Each purse will contain:

• Concept One • Concept Two Approach Two:

• 30 Iron Tablets • An accordion booklet. (One piece of paper fits all)

• System of Dissemination of Tablets

• Stickers that can be stuck on mirrors or anywhere around the house that serve

• Focus on the Home

as reminders.

PHASE FOUR /

Actual blister packs were to be procured, and a purse they could fit in,

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION

considering the budget. The booklet will feature a woman on one side when unfolded, vertically. She will have a name and there is a small write up about her: She is healthy, not lethargic, her eyes are pink underneath, and she can work well, her extremities do not experience numbness. This is the incentive, the dream I am giving the woman. On the back is how achieve it, how to take the tablets properly. The stickers sit inside the purse and function as reminders, re-enforcing the information.

page forty seven


phase four

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION


Material for outer packaging PROPOSAL

blister pack

PHASE ONE /

I was looking at a blister pack of 30 tabs of coated pinkish red flattish (tapering

INFORMATION COLLECTION

at the circumference) tablets, that resemble Cadbury’s Gems candy. Fitting 30

PHASE TWO /

tablets in a blister pack of 30 would come up to be too large for the purse to carry,

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

so initially I wanted to go with, say 3 packs of 10 tablets, 2 packs of 15 tablets.

PHASE THREE /

I saw a blister pack of Brufen that looked exactly like the iron tablets I saw at

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

the dispensary. What was better was that it was a pack of 30 tablets 15 in each

PHASE FOUR /

segment united by a foil so it can be folded into half. This was the right size to fit

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION • Material for Outer Packaging • Setting Sizes • Preparing Imagery • Print Ready Artworks • Paper Considerations • Final Product CONCLUSION

page forty nine

inside a purse.


purse I then went to Old City to procure a cheap purse that would accommodate it. I found a beautiful, simple purse made with a combination of a light plastic-like fabric in red, with a printed fabric, exactly what I had envisioned. The purse was charming enough for a woman to carry. The colour scheme was perfect for my purpose and the printed fabric made it much less boring than a single colour for the women. The purse had three sections, two with zippers and one main pocket. The pockets were all lined with a plastic, so it is lightweight, durable, and washable. The cost was Rs. 8/- so if it were bought in bulk it could be procured for much less.

page fifty


SETTING SIZES PROPOSAL

ACCORDION BOOKLET

PHASE ONE /

After a great deal of testing out what would fit, both inside the purse and on

INFORMATION COLLECTION

the stock, I settled on sizes. On one sheet of 36” x 23” stock I managed to allow

PHASE TWO /

eighteen 29 x 8.6 cm accordion booklets (front and back). The size had to be

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

optimum to fill up a purse, but not so small that the diagrams would have no

PHASE THREE /

impact. The booklet would have 5 faces when open and was 5.8 x 8.6 cm when

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

folded.

PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION • Material for Outer Packaging

STICKERS

• Setting Sizes

I managed to fit seventy 5 x 5 cm stickers on one sheet of 18” x 23” sticker coated

• Preparing Imagery

stock. The stickers had to be simple and large, but fit inside the purse.

• Print Ready Artworks • Paper Considerations • Final Product CONCLUSION

page fifty one


PREPARING IMAGERY PROPOSAL

As outlined before, the images are plain line drawings, using varying thicknesses

PHASE ONE /

to indicate depth. Simple easy to understand and not shaded, flat, so that the

INFORMATION COLLECTION

viewers do not perceive them as ‘dirty’.

PHASE TWO /

Some of the illustrations:

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION • Material for Outer Packaging • Setting Sizes • Preparing Imagery • Print Ready Artworks • Paper Considerations • Final Product CONCLUSION

The woman I drew I tried to make as generic as possible, wearing a salwar kameez would not alienate both the largest communities (Hindu/Muslim) or even the small ones.

page fifty two


page fifty three


PRINT-READY ARTWORKS PROPOSAL

Please note that these artworks, for the sake of this project, are currently in the

PHASE ONE /

English language. For actual use, this can be translated to Hindi / Gujarati, or the

INFORMATION COLLECTION

local dialect/language. The translation should ideally use colloquial terms and

PHASE TWO /

small, easy-to-understand words.

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

stickers A simple visual of a woman with a glass of water in one hand and the IFA tablet in the other. Above it a line reads, “One tablet everyday”.

• Material for Outer Packaging • Setting Sizes

accordion booklet

• Preparing Imagery • Print Ready Artworks

A detailed, informative but easy-to-read guide on the foods to eat and side-effects

• Paper Considerations

to while taking the tablets. Each face takes on a different topic, on one side. On

• Final Product (with scale)

the other the accordion book folds out to reveal the woman, with a description of

CONCLUSION

her good health and the reason for it. Turn page over to see artworks.

page fifty four


one IFA tablet today

JOB DESC: IFA Sticker SIZE: 5CM X 5CM Square

page fifty five

one IFA tablet today

JOB DESC: IFA Sticker SIZE: 5CM X 5CM Square

one IFA tablet today

JOB DESC: IFA Sticker SIZE: 5CM X 5CM Square


page fifty six JOB DESC: IFA Accordion Booklet SIZE: 5.8 cm x 8.6cm (closed), 29cm x 8.6cm (open) INNER FACE 8.6 CM FOLD

5.8 CM

5.8 CM

One tablet, everyday One tablet everyday alone cannot guarantee to solve anaemia. These are a set of instructions to make sure your body benefits from the iron.

FOLD

JOB DESC: IFA Accordion Booklet SIZE: 5.8 cm x 8.6cm (closed), 29cm x 8.6cm (open) OUTER FACE 8.6 CM 30 tablets per month for 3 months

Solving Anaemia FOLD

FOLD She is anaemia-free because she takes one iron tablet everyday.

Side Effects In the first few days of taking tablets, you may experience these side effects. This is normal, do not discontinue the use of the tablets.

her extremities.

discoloration of teeth

constipation, black stool, diarrhoea FOLD

FOLD

She experiences no numbness in

FOLD

FOLD

Foods To Take These foods help the body to absorb all the iron in your tablets.

period. She has a normal

amla preparation

nimbu preparation FOLD

FOLD

FOLD

FOLD

Foods To Avoid These foods must not be had 2 hours before or after having the tablets as they hamper iron absorption.

feel tired. hours of work she does not

lips are a rosy pink.

Even after

milk or milk products

tea or coffee FOLD

FOLD

Her under eye, tongue and

FOLD

FOLD

Keep out of reach of children Make sure the tablets are out of reach of children as the dosage is too strong for children. Iron poisoning may lead to death. In the case of swallowing, please see a doctor

Savita is healthy and fit.

immediately. Meet Savita.


paper & printing estimation PROPOSAL

Last but not least of all the considerations I need to take is on the paper. For this I

PHASE ONE /

consulted Mr. Bharat Suthar from the Printing Labs in NID for his advice.

INFORMATION COLLECTION

BOOKLET

PHASE TWO /

For the booklet, explaining I needed something durable, that wouldn’t tear easily,

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

get dog-eared or stained, he suggested Art Paper in a light weight. However, I thought that Art Paper was too expensive for my project, though I decided to a rough estimation for the same despite that. Consulting again for the same, he

PHASE FOUR /

suggested I take Super Sunshine Paper, also from Bilt (www.bilt.com). This was

EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

much cheaper. Let’s compare the costs:

• Material for Outer Packaging • Setting Sizes

• Royal Art Paper (Gloss) 90 gsm Rs.1200 for 100 sheets of 23” x 36” stock.

• Preparing Imagery

• Super Sunshine Printing HB (Matt) 80 gsm Rs.1150 for 500 sheets (ream) of

• Print Ready Artworks

23” x 36” stock.

• Paper & Printing Estimation • Final product (with scale) CONCLUSION

What a difference. The Art Paper is ideal, not only for its durability, but also the gloss factor, which creates a good impression for the average slumdweller, as in my research phase I found out that they prefer glossy over matt. But seeing that 18 booklets will be printed from one sheet of Art paper, it follows that: Per 100 sheets there will be 1800 copies for Rs. 1200. Each booklet therefore is 1200/1800 = Rs. 0.66 With SS paper, Per 500 sheets there will be 18 x 500 = 9000 copies for Rs. 1150. Each booklet therefore is 1150/9000 = Rs. 0.12 STICKERS For the stickers, I needed a glossy paper for sure so I decided to go for a durable Art Paper, chromo coated on one side. Inclusive of adhesive backing, the cost would be: Royal Art Paper C15 (Chromo) 90 gsm: Rs. 1600 for 100 sheets of 23” x 36” sheets. (Sheets would have to be pre-cut to half its size- 23” x 18”) After cutting this would be 200 sheets. Since 70 stickers fit on one sheet, hence for Rs. 1600 you can get 70 x 200 stickers = 14000. Each sticker therefore is 1600/14000 = Rs. 0.11

page fifty seven


PRINTING COST For printing, a pre-mixed colour was required for one colour printing in an offset machine that could take 23” x 36” stock for the booklet, and 23” x 18” stock for stickers. I settled on a Bright Red (CF1624). An average cost of Rs. 900 is applied per ream for one side of the paper in one colour. • For the booklet both sides will be printed on. Therefore, Rs. 900 x 2 = Rs. 1800 is the cost for printing 500 sheets. 500 sheets consist of 18 x 500 copies = 9000 copies. Therefore the cost of printing one booklet is 1800/9000 = Rs. 0.2 • For the stickers one side will be printed on. Each 23” x 36” stock is cut into 2, so 140 stickers sit on one sheet. 500 sheets consist of 140 x 500 copies = 70,000 copies. Therefore the cost of printing one sticker is 900/70000 = Rs. 0.012 TOTAL COST Adding up the costs, Each booklet would cost 1200/1800 (art paper) + 1800/9000 (printing) = Rs. 0.86 Each booklet would cost 1150/9000 (ss paper) + 1800/9000 (printing) = Rs. 0.33 Each sticker would cost 1600/14000 (chromo art paper) + 900/70000 = Rs. 0.13 Per user, however there are three stickers given, which means that for the cost of printed material of one purse/one user: Booklet cost with Art Paper (.86) + 3 Sticker Cost (.13) = Rs. 1.25 Booklet cost with SS Paper (.33) + 3 Sticker Cost (.13) = Rs. 0.72

N.B. These rates are applicable to papers from the NID store only. Outside of NID, these rates would have Rs. 200 additional applied to them. This makes a minor difference to the costing.

page fifty eight


final product (with scale) PROPOSAL PHASE ONE / INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION • Material for Outer Packaging • Setting Sizes • Preparing Imagery • Print Ready Artworks • Paper & Printing Estimation • Final product (with scale)

Collapsed form

CONCLUSION

Booklet opened out, Tablets opened out page fifty nine


Booklet is placed within the tablets when a fresh piece is issued and placed within the main pocket of the tablets, these can be reorganised into different sections by the user later on.

page sixty


conclusion


learnings PROPOSAL

• Understanding the scope of a subject and its suitability for undertaking it as a

PHASE ONE /

graphic design project.

INFORMATION COLLECTION

• Planning a mode of action to complement the chosen topic.

PHASE TWO /

• The value of perceptive differences in different kinds of people who come from

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION • Learnings • Bibliography • Acknowledgments

backgrounds other than my own. • Different ways an image can be interpreted, and how this kind of audience would view these. • Understanding how important research is to find the right problem to address when designing. Understanding the benefits of talking to people face to face and probing, learning how to frame questions to get the right answer. • How to prepare an artwork for print and set sizes. • Taking initiative and being you own boss. • How to take criticism, and when and how to listen to it and turn it down.

page sixty two


bibliography / references PROPOSAL

bibliography

PHASE ONE /

Chetna. “Gender & Women’s Health”, “Anaemia, Health of Women in Indian Families”, “Women & HIV/AIDS”, “Violence and Health”, “Breast Cancer”, “Training for Women’s Health & Empowerment”, “Panchayati Raj and Women’s Health”, “Indigenous Health & Healing practices”, “Mahilaon ka Manasik evam Bhavnatmak Swaasthay” Ahmedabad. October 2008. A set of brochures. Language: Hindi.

INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE TWO / ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION CONCLUSION • Learnings • Bibliography • Acknowledgments

Chetna. “Surakshit Prasav” Ahmedabad. Language: Hindi. Chetna. “Swaasthay Dekhbhaal aur Sevaaen Praapt Karna....” Ahmedabad. October 2008. Language: Hindi. “India: Urban Poverty Report”. United Nations Development Programme. Web. <http:// data.undp.org.in/poverty_reduction/IUPR_Summary.pdf>. 2009. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. 2008. “National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005-06: Gujarat”. Mumbai: IIPS. Murthy L., Kagal A., Chatterjee A. “Learning from the Field, Experiences in Communication”, UNFPA, NID (National Institute of Design), July 2000. Murthy Lakshmi. Vikalp Design. Web. 17 Mar. 2010. <http://www.vikalpdesign.com/> Sanchetana. “Angst: Theirs and Ours; Domestic Violence: an epidemic on the upsurge”. Ahmedabad. January 2001. Sanchetana. “At a New Threshold” Annual Review. Ahmedabad. 2003. Sanchetana. “Reproductive Health Program” Ahmedabad. 2005-2007. Sanchetana. “Why Some Men Beat their Wives?” Ahmedabad. 2003. Stoltzfus, Rebecca J., and Michele L. Dreyfus. “Guidelines for the Use of Iron Supplements to Prevent and Treat Iron Deficiency Anemia.” World Health Organization (WHO), International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG), 1998. Web. 01 Apr. 2010. <http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/anaemia_iron_ deficiency/1-57881-020-5/en/index.html> WHO Regional Office for the South-East Asia. “Adolescent Nutrition: a Review of the Situation in Selected South-East Asian Countries.” World Health Organization (WHO), 2006. Web. 01 Apr. 2010. <http://www.who.int/entity/nutrition/publications/ schoolagechildren/SEA_NUT_163/en/index.html>.

references IUPR (India: Urban Poverty Report) Published by United Nations Development Programme, 2009, www.undp.org

page sixty three


acknowledgments PROPOSAL

First off, I would like to thank my guide, Mr. Tarun Deep Girdher for being the

PHASE ONE /

driving force behind this project and for helping me select this topic, which is so

INFORMATION COLLECTION

close to my heart: women’s issues. I would also like to express my gratitude to

PHASE TWO /

Mrs. Lakshmi Murthy for her hospitality and time and for showing me her work.

ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS PHASE THREE / DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE FOUR / EXECUTION OF SOLUTION

She is truly passionate about her work and it shows with the level of expertise she has acquired in the field of social communication. I would also like to thank my dear classmate Mudra, who had accompanied me to several of the meetings I had with the NGOs, their community health workers and of course the women residing in the slums. Throughout the project, Mudra let me bounce ideas off her and we had discussions on the same. Her sensitivity, concern and expertise in

CONCLUSION

handling a subject like this is extraordinary for her age. Without her invaluable

• Learnings

help, this project would not have culminated into even a fraction of what it is.

• Bibliography

I would also like to thank my seniors Armeen Kapadia for her encouragement,

• Acknowledgments

Sanjay Basavaraju for his valuable feedback and all the others. I am very lucky to have a supportive family and friends who have goaded me on all throughout my education. Thanks so much, Papa, Mummy, Yorick Pinto, Deepti Thomas and Anisha Crasto. Lastly, but certainly not the least, a big thank you to Dr. Hanif Lakdawala, his team and all the Community Health Workers (CHWs) at Sanchetana. Without them, this project would not have been possible.

page sixty four


The Anaemia Project | Process Documentation  

This is the process document of my Studio I, Semester II project on increasing efficacy of the Government of India's Iron supplementation sc...

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